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What the Experts Say

Healthy Eating Habits Lauren Hunt, Teri Patrick, Patti Bokony University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences

CONCERN Children’s physical and language skills increase rapidly after infancy. This developmental growth period allows them to take a larger role in feeding themselves and to express their food likes and dislikes. Parents often find their toddler’s or preschooler’s mealtime attitude, food preferences, and eating behavior challenging. Parents may feel anxious about what and how much their child eats. Most parents want to know more about promoting good nutrition as well as how and what to feed their child.1 Early childhood eating habits continue into adulthood; therefore, helping toddlers and preschoolers to develop healthy eating habits is important.1-4

RESEARCH Rapid Development

Feeding self-regulation involves learning when to eat and how much to eat.

Eating patterns change more rapidly from ages 12 months to 24 months than at any other time of life. This corresponds with rapid overall growth in early toddlerhood. The brain reaches 75% of its adult size by the end of the second year. Fine and gross motor skills develop rapidly so toddlers diligently practice picking up, dropping, pulling, pushing, and generally making fun things happen with their hands while practicing selffeeding.5 Rapidly developing language skills allow toddlers to become more vocal and expressive about their eating preferences. From 12 months to 24 months, children’s meal pattern changes from infant-style to a modified, adult diet.

Feeding Self-Regulation Children have significant changes in their growth rates from 1 year to 3 years of age. Young children’s appetites also change. The amount of food children eat depends on their growth rate and developmental stage. At the same time, children learn to control their own eating habits. Feeding (or eating) self-regulation involves learning when and how much to eat. Toddlerhood is a critical time for developing feeding self-regulation. Young children learn critical skills that last their lifetime including meal scheduling, meal size, and food selection.2,4

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Children have an innate ability to regulate the amount of food they eat but not an innate ability to know what types of food are best for them. Parents are responsible for providing appropriate food.6 If given the opportunity to serve themselves, preschoolers are likely to serve themselves what they need rather than too much. However, a child’s natural ability to self-regulate feeding can be compromised if frequently offered large portions of foods with high fat, sugar, and salt content (e.g., fast food or highly processed snacks).7,8 Self-regulation of eating is one of the major developmental tasks of early childhood.6 Meal and snack patterns or habits begin to form as early as seven months of age. Healthy eating habits established during early childhood help ensure proper intake of nutrients needed for optimal development and helps prevent pediatric obesity.2,4

Feeding Responsibilities Young children’s food selection and meal timing pattern are influenced by the family’s eating behaviors, such as the family’s diet, schedule, and mealtime patterns and behaviors. During these formative years, choosing a well-balanced diet for the whole family and modeling healthy eating behavior is important.2,4 The child is responsible for deciding whether to eat and how much to eat. Parents are responsible for deciding what to serve, when to serve it, modeling healthy eating habits, and creating a family mealtime environment.

Successful early childhood feeding divides responsibility between parents and children. The child is responsible for deciding whether to eat and how much to eat.2,4 Feeding self-regulation enables children to make these decisions. Parents are responsible for deciding what is served and when it is served, modeling healthy eating habits, and creating a family mealtime environment that limits distractions and allows social interaction.2,4,9

Deciding What to Serve. Ideally, children meet their nutritional needs by eating a well-balanced diet that includes a variety of healthy foods from all food groups.6 However, a large percentage of Americans do not eat a proper diet that promotes optimal health. Most American adults need to increase the amount of milk, fruit, and vegetables they consume. They also need to increase the variety of vegetables they eat, particularly more dark green, leafy and orange vegetables. Most American adults need to decrease the amount of refined grains, meats, fats, and added sugar they consume.10 Many American children eat only half of the fruits and vegetables they need for well-balanced diet.11 A well-balanced diet includes food from each of the food groups each day. More variety means more nutrients. There are two excellent websites to get information on healthy eating: 

U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) – My Pyramid: ww.mypyramid.gov

Centers for Disease Control (CDC) – Eat a Variety of Fruits and Vegetables Every Day: www.fruitsandveggies.com

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Quick Reference HEALTHY EATING HABITS – PARENT AND CHILD JOBS 01-C3a Parent Messages (see Experts pages 2, 4-5)  Parents and children are responsible for developing healthy eating habits.  Young children have an innate ability to regulate the amount of food they eat to meet their calorie or energy needs.  Children’s ability to self-regulate their food intake is affected by the family’s eating patterns and habits.

Parent Skills     

Provides a variety of health foods in age-appropriate amounts. Models eating health food. Provides meals and snacks at regularly scheduled times. Minimizes distractions and talks with child during family meal times. Allows child to take responsibility for whether or not to eat and how much to eat.

Parent Tip HEALTHY EATING HABITS – PARENT AND CHILD JOBS Parents, Eating habits started in toddlerhood last into adulthood. Children know when they are hungry or full. Both parent and children have important jobs to build healthy eating habits: The parent’s job is to:  Serve a variety of healthy foods.  Eat and talk about enjoying healthy food so your child learns by seeing.  Schedule 3 meals and 2 or 3 snacks each day.  Let mealtime be family time. Turn off the TV and other distractions so your child can focus on the meal. The child’s job is to:  Decide whether to eat something.  Decide how much of it to eat. People naturally like sweet, salty, and fatty foods. If young children have a lot of this type of food, they will have a harder time learning to like healthy food. Serve mostly healthy food. Save treats for special times.

HÁBITOS SALUDABLES DE ALIMENTACIÓN – TRABAJO DE PADRES E HIJOS Padres, Los hábitos de alimentación empiezan desde la infancia hasta cuando se es adulto. Los niños saben cuando tienen hambre o cuando están llenos. Ambos padres e hijos tienen trabajos importantes para crear hábitos saludables de alimentación: El trabajo de los padres es:  Servir una variedad de comida saludable.  Mientras comen, hablar acerca de cómo disfrutar la comida saludable de esta manera su hijo aprende observando.  Realizar 3 comidas y 2 o 3 refrigerios cada día.  Hacer de la hora de comer una hora familiar. Apague la televisión y otras distracciones así su hijo puede concentrarse en la comida.  El trabajo de los hijos es:  Decidir si comen algo.  Decidir cuánto comen. Las personas naturalmente les gusta comer dulce, salado y comida grasosa. Si los niños pequeños comen mucho de este tipo de alimentos, ellos van a tener dificultad en aprender a que les guste la comida sana. Sirvan en su mayoría alimentos sanos. Guarden golosinas para momentos especiales. 8/09

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What the Experts Say

Play Patti Bokony, Teri Patrick, Stacy Fortney University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences

CONCERN For a variety of reasons, play is a major concern of parents, educators, and physicians. Parents of preschoolers often express concern when their child’s classroom activities seem to focus on play rather than academic activities. Educators face the push for a more academic focus in early childhood settings in spite of the research supporting the educational and developmental usefulness of play. The American Academy of Pediatrics, which considers play to be essential to children’s cognitive, physical, social, and emotional development and overall wellbeing, is concerned about fewer opportunities for children to play.1 Time for play has been greatly reduced for many children in the United States. Hurried lifestyles, more single-parent families or two working parents, and an increased focus on academics and enrichment activities at the expense of child-centered play has limited children’s play time, both indoors and outdoors. For optimal physical and mental health and development of children, it is important for families, school systems, and communities to understand the benefits of play and find ways to ensure children have opportunities for play.

RESEARCH The research is clear that young children learn best when they have hands-on experiences. That is to say, more academic learning will occur in early childhood classrooms in which children play and explore.2 Quality early childhood classrooms are those with knowledgeable teachers and quality materials that encourage learning through play. With time to explore, practice, and experience success, children develop cognitive, language, physical, social, and emotional skills. For this reason, children need consistent play times both at home and at day care or school. Montessori described play as the work of children.3 A review of early childhood research concluded play is critical to healthy brain development.4-6 Play is also a powerful motivator for learning − it is self-initiated, enjoyable, engaging, active, and allows children to learn through discovery. Play with others contributes to children’s social and emotional development. Cognitively, play helps children adjust to school and enhances their school readiness, learning behaviors, and problem-solving skills. Failure to learn play skills may lead to challenging behaviors during play and later conduct problems and hyperactivity in the classroom.7,8

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Play Is:

What is Play?

● fun There is no formal definition of play. Instead, play is described by its characteristics.9-11 Play is spontaneous, ● voluntary voluntary, and fun with no other purpose in mind.12 Play is ● spontaneous directed by children. For example, in pretend play, children ● directed by child choose the play theme (house, pirates, familiar story), identify ● engaging the roles (mother/father, pirate/captain ,troll), organize the props (dishes, swords, dress-up clothes)and set and change the rules at their will. Children become completely engaged in the play and end it when it is no longer fun or interesting. Games with pre-set rules, whether competitive or cooperative, do not meet the criteria for play if they require children to follow rules created by adults.13

Play and School Success Children develop many skills during play. As play skills improve, so do children’s cognitive, social, emotional, and communication and language skills.14,15 Piaget viewed play as a learning process where children master new developmental skills.16 Vygotsky viewed play as the time when preschool children are working at their peak, displaying their highest level of development.17 Both views emphasize the skill development that occurs during play. In many ways, play is necessary for young children’s development.18 Play stimulates children’s brains, enhancing the development of creativity, problem-solving, logic, social knowledge, and language. Playing with others builds social competence19 and facilitates problem-solving, perspective-taking, emotional and social skills, and the development of a sense of self.20 Symbolic play (pretending a block is a car) or pretend play (acting as a teacher) promotes young children’s social, emotional, physical, and cognitive development.21 This was seen in the study of an orphanage which found children made significant gains in motor, cognitive, and social skills when a 90-minute play session was added to their daily routine.22 To support children’s play and encourage skill development, adults must understand how play influences development. A skilled teacher understands she may be encouraging a future scientist when she provides opportunities to explore, compare, predict, and look at cause-and-effect through block and construction play or in the science center. Children who learn to communicate, understand others emotions, cooperate, problem-solve or negotiate during pretend play develop the skills to become social workers, teachers, politicians, and much more. Cognitive Skills. Play involves children in many cognitive tasks as they make choices, sort, compare, combine, think, understand cause-and-effect, solve problems, direct the play activity, and use mental trial and error to solve problems. •

When children have a variety of materials available, they choose between what is useful or not useful, what will fit or not fit.

As early as infancy, children understand relationships between objects (baby and blanket), relationships between objects and words (say “ball” to

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children learn to share, take turns, cooperate, negotiate, compromise, try on different roles, take another’s perspective, be empathetic, make friends, be a leader, be a follower, follow rules, and get along with adults and peers. During play with others, children learn that for the play to continue, they must control their impulses and aggression, follow rules, and respond to the others’ behavior. Children who are disruptive or unable to control their emotions during play often have conduct problems and are hyperactive in the classroom.7 Children constantly monitor each other to make sure everyone is following the rules (not moving when someone calls “freeze”). Through play, children learn to distinguish between fantasy and reality and to read and interpret intentions of others.36 As children encounter problems with friends, they figure out strategies that work and those that do not. For example, they learn how to solve problems in ways that maintain friendships (e.g. take turns, share, wait).

Social-Emotional Skills Developed in Play ● sharing ● taking turns ● cooperating ● negotiating ● compromising ● showing empathy ● taking perspectives ● role playing ●making friends ● following rules ●being a leader ● being a follower ● controlling impulses & aggression ● interpreting intentions of others

Play promotes the development of children’s emotional skills because it requires children to think before acting and to understand and respond to the perspective of others.20 Pretend play in a safe place allows children to express their feelings, work out different ways to handle their feelings, and find ways to feel in control. Children under stress often use play to work through issues, complications, fears or anxieties, let off steam and reduce stress, anger, and anxiety, which might lead to aggressive or other acting out behaviors. During play, children can direct the action. This allows them to feel in control and handle feelings of helplessness, anger, and frustration. During play, children often re-enact big events in their lives such as the birth of a brother or sister, moving to a new home, or the loss of a familiar caregiver, trying out different solutions or endings, allowing them to work out their feelings and feel in control.37

Motivation. Mastery motivation is the ability to stay with a task until a problem is solved. Children are born with an internal drive to master a skill, behavior, outcome, or achieve a goal. Mastery motivation is also called persistence or the ability to "stick-to-it.38" Mastery motivation is most easily developed during play when children determinedly and enthusiastically practice a new skill until they can do it easily. Motivated children enjoy completing a task and solving a problem without relying on adult praise or approval. Learning based on one’s interests is enjoyable and eagerly approached, rather than being tiresome or boring. Children who play with a specific interest in mind (e.g. music, planes, fashion, sport) are more likely to be more motivated, play at a deeper level, and acquire more knowledge than children with no particular interests so it is important for adults to notice what interests a child has and encourage the exploration and development of those interests.39 1/09

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Quick Reference PLAY – 10 MINUTES TO GOOD BEHAVIOR 02-A1d Parent Messages (see Experts pages 13-15) Regularly scheduling 10-15 minutes of parent-supported play helps build a positive parent-child relationship and aids in behavior management. Parent-child play helps the child develop mature play skills.

 

Parent Skills • • •

Schedules parent-child play time most days. Supports the child’s play by following the child’s lead, commenting on what the child is doing, and praising appropriately. Provides structure for playtime, by telling the child when special play time starts and then giving the child a one-minute warning when the play time will be over.

Parent Tip PLAY – 10 MINUTES TO GOOD BEHAVIOR Dear Parents, When you play with me, I learn more and you get to see the world through my eyes. I will behave better when you pay attention to me. If we can play together for 10 to 15 minutes, I will cling and whine less. To make us both happier, let’s have a special time each day to play together. Tell me when our play time starts. During our special play time: • • • • •

Follow my lead. Ask what I want to play, join my game or pretend play story. Listen and answer as a playmate. Make comments about what I’m doing. (Don’t ask me educational questions!) Praise my efforts, especially when I am practicing (playing) something new. Give me a one-minute warning when our play time will be over so you can take care of grown-up things.

Love, Your Child Remember… TV and videos don’t count as play time.

JUGAR – 10 MINUTOS DE BUEN COMPORTAMIENTO Queridos Padres, Cuando ustedes juegan conmigo, yo aprendo más y usted puede ver el mundo a través de mis ojos. Yo me comportare mejor cuando usted me pone atención. Si nosotros podemos jugar juntos por 10 o 15 minutos, yo estaré menos apegado y quejón. Para hacernos los dos felices, permitámonos cada día tener un tiempo juntos para jugar. Ustedes me dicen cuando empieza nuestro tiempo de jugar. Durante nuestro tiempo especial de juego: • • • • •

Síganme , pregúntenme que quiero jugar, únanse a mi juego o finjan jugar una historia. Escuchen y contesten como compañeros. Hagan comentarios de lo que estoy haciendo. (No me hagan preguntas de la educación!) Elogien mis esfuerzos, especialmente cuando yo este practicando (jugando) algo nuevo. Recuérdenme con un minuto de anticipación cuando el tiempo de juego se esta terminando, entonces usted puede encargarse de las cosas de adultos. Los Amo, Su Hijo Recuerde… TV y videos no cuentan como tiempo de juego.

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Quick Reference PLAY – ROLE OF FATHERS 02-A1f Parent Messages (see Experts page 14) Fathers’ play with their children differs from mothers’ play and is uniquely important to children’s development.

Parent Skills • • •

Plays often with child. Recognizes that father-child bond is strengthened through playing together. Uses the following play strategies that enhance child development: ◊ Taking turns. ◊ Commenting on or talking about the play. ◊ Following child’s play lead. ◊ Matching play to the child’s developmental level.

Parent Tip PLAY – ROLE OF FATHERS Parents, Fathers and mothers spend time with their children differently. Fathers tend to play more. Mothers tend to do more of the care taking. Fathers do more physical play (rough and tumble, active games) and more variety of play than mothers. For these reasons, fathers are often the favorite playmate in the home. When fathers help toddlers play and explore, toddlers feel more secure. Play develops strong parent-child bonds. Children who have secure bonds with their parents do better in school and in life when they are grown. Father play enhances child growth in language, IQ, and behavior when they: • • • •

Take turns with child. Talk while they play (make comments on what child is doing, seeing). Follow child’s play lead. Match the play to their child’s level (infant, toddler, or preschool).

Playing with Dad is important for happy, healthy, and successful children. Do it often!

JUGAR – EL PAPEL DE LOS PADRES Padres, Papas y mamas gastan tiempo con sus hijos de manera diferente. Los papas tienden a jugar más. Las mamas tienden a hacer más acerca del cuidado. Los papas hacen más juegos físicos (luchar y tumbar, juegos de actividad) y más variedad de juegos que las mamas. Por esta razón, los papas son los compañeros favoritos para jugar en la casa. Cuando los papas le ayudan a los ninos a jugar y a explorar, los ninos se sienten más seguros. Jugar desarrolla una fuerte unión de padres e hijos. Ninos que tienen una unión segura con sus padres se desempeñan mejor en el colegio y en la vida cuando crecen. El juego de los padres mejora el crecimiento de los ninos en lenguaje, coeficiente intelectual y comportamiento, cuando ellos: • • • •

Toman turnos con los niños. Hablan mientras juegan (hacer comentarios sobre lo que el niño esta haciendo, viendo). Siguen al niño cuando este lidera. Se igualan al nivel de juego de los ninos (infantes, pequeños y preescolares).

Jugar con el papa es importante para la felicidad, la salud y el éxito del niño. Haga esto a menudo!

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What the Experts Say

Importance of Fathers Teri Patrick, Patti Bokony University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences

CONCERN Research on fathers and the effects they have on child development has historically lagged behind research on mothers. However, available research consistently finds that the more fathers are involved with their children, the better the developmental outcomes and school functioning for children.1 And the research is clear that the quality of the father-child relationship is what matters the most.1,2 Too often fathers are left out as early childhood programs consult with or invite parents to be involved.3 As we look more closely at child outcomes, it becomes increasingly clear that it is important that schools, teachers, fathers, and mothers have access to new and evolving information on the importance of father involvement.

RESEARCH Fathers impact children in many ways. Father involvement is important in children’s daily life. Father involvement encompasses three primary dimensions4: 

Engagement and interaction. Playing is the most common activity fathers engage in with their child. Engagement in school readiness activities such as reading or playing together increases the father-child bond.

Availability and Accessibility. Being both physically and emotionally present in the child’s life increases child well-being. The amount of time a father is accessible to his child depends on factors such as work schedule and whether they live in the same home. Fathers can be physically present, but not emotionally present. Children need both.

Day-to-Day Care. Social and emotional skills develop during day-to-day care. Fathers can support their children with both direct and indirect care. Direct care involves physical care such as playing, feeding, bathing. Indirect care involves contact with teachers, making appointments, etc.

History of Father Involvement Until the last few decades, very distinct lines existed between the mother’s role and father’s role. Mothers provided care and nurturing; fathers provided authority and discipline. Historically, fathers were thought to be less central to parenting and caregiving because children spent most of their time with mothers. In 300 years of American history, the view of the ideal father has changed. In the 1600s and 1700s, father was seen as a 8/08

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stern patriarch with little involvement with children. From 1830 – 1900, the father was the breadwinner for the family but still a distant figure. At the turn of the last century as interest in psychology grew, fathers were seen as a role model in addition to the breadwinner and disciplinarian. By the middle of the century, another role emerged for fathers, that of playmate.5 More recently, for many families, fathers and mothers share both breadwinning and caregiving roles. Paquette2 suggests that when both parents are involved from infancy and have different roles (example caregiver and playmate) children have better prosocial skills. Children tend to be more mobile, open, and honest as well as have better cooperation and competition skills. Father as Role Model. Early researchers on father involvement from the 1940s to 1970s looked at fathers as the male role model.4,5 They examined the quality of father-son relationships and found that sons grew up to be more masculine when they grew up with fathers who were warm and loving. They were surprised to find that the masculinity of fathers was not a factor in son’s masculinity. Boys tended to conform to the standard male role of their culture when their relationship with their father was warm, regardless of how “masculine” the father was.5 Father as Playmate. Play is the one area that fathers are more involved than mothers with their children. Father-child play looks different from mother-child play. It is more physical, unpredictable, and vigorous.6 Studies have shown that more father-child play at 14 months old is associated with higher language and cognitive skills at 24 months.7 Vigorous play, or rough and tumble play, is related to social-emotional development. Playing with fathers teaches children to take initiative, explore, take chances, and overcome obstacles. Children learn independence, self-control, how to read facial and body cues, and how to control their aggression.6,8 Fathers are more likely to play with toys in unconventional ways which causes children to expand thinking and problem solving skills.9 Fathers tend to use bigger words, ask for clarification more often, and ask children to problem-solve more often than mothers.2 When fathers provide safety, stability, and play, they enhance children’s sense of security and improve the father-child relationship.2 Father Love. Children’s relationship with their parents is a major predictor of their psychosocial functioning and development. An important component of the quality of the parent-child relationship is love. Parent behaviors typically described as love are warmth, supportiveness, comforting, caring, nurturance, and affection. Countless studies of all cultures and ethnicities show that people respond in the same way when they feel loved and accepted or unloved/rejected by parents (or those important to them when growing up). However, most of these studies focused on mother love, leaving father love unstudied.5 While the term “mother love” is quite commonly used, the term “father love” is rarely used. Most people associate “mothering” with warm, fuzzy, nurturing feeling and “fathering” with discipline. Current research is taking a more scholarly look at fathers’ warmth, sensitivity, and love towards their children due to: 1) the growing evidence that fathers’ love affects outcomes for children, 2) the movement toward gender equality in both the home and the workplace, and 3) improved statistical procedures for analyzing multiple variables.5 The research indicates fathers are as capable as mothers at nurturing and competent caregiving, that father-child bond can parallel mother-child bond in emotionality and intensity, and that father love appears to affect the child from 8/08

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infancy through at least young adulthood. Father love is as significant as mother love regarding positive outcomes for children and possibly more important for some outcomes.5 Co-Parenting. Currently researchers are looking closely at co-parenting.5 Co-parenting includes relationships between the child and each parent as well as interactions between the parents themselves. Co-parenting includes parents living in a traditional two-parent household as well as parents in separate households. Several surveys done during the 1990s have shown that more parents are sharing nurturing, discipline, and caregiving duties.2

Father Absence Biological fathers are absent from the lives of 34% of American children.1,10 When compared to peers living with two biological or adoptive parents, children without fathers are more likely to live in poverty, use drugs, and later engage in criminal activity. They are more likely to have problems with school, health, and behavior. They are more likely to experience child abuse or neglect. Living with a single parent doubles a child’s risk for physical, emotional, or educational neglect.10,11 Poverty is a major factor in outcomes for children raised in single parent homes. But several studies have found that living in a home without a father increases the likelihood of school dropout and other child problems even when controlling for income. However, other studies have found that controlling for socioeconomic status, lessens the association between single parent homes and negative child outcomes.12 Although researchers find poorer outcomes for children in single-parent household to be statistically significant, the majority of children in single-parent households do not have long-term adverse affect.13 Single parenthood is one risk factor and may be offset by protective factors present in the child’s life. A non-residential father who is physically and emotionally present can be a protective factor. Children do not always benefit from living in two-parent households. The quality of the parenting is more important than the type of family. If either parent exhibits antisocial behaviors, the benefits of living in a two-parent household can be negated.13 Examples of adult antisocial behaviors that affect parenting include: illegal activity, irritability, aggressive behavior, and emotional and financial irresponsibility. The likelihood of conduct disorders among children increases when they are exposed to parents’ antisocial behavior. Researchers found several factors that influence the effect of having a father present13: 

An antisocial father predicts a child’s antisocial behavior.

Children had worse outcomes when fathers with high antisocial behavior were involved in care giving or when fathers without antisocial behavior were not involved with care giving.

For fathers with low to medium antisocial behavior, children had fewer behavior problems when their fathers spent more time living with them.

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Quick Reference IMPORTANCE OF FATHERS - IN SCHOOL AND IN LIFE 10-C1c Parent Messages (see Experts pages 4, 6)  Children do better academically when their fathers are involved in their day-to-day life, school, and other activities. Parent Skills  Supports child emotionally by using caring words and actions.  Sets and consistently enforces age appropriate rules and limits.  Supports child financially.  Engages in school involvement activities.  Spends time engaged in home learning activities such as reading to child.

Parent Tip IMPORTANCE OF FATHERS - IN SCHOOL AND IN LIFE Children learn many important life lessons from their fathers. Father-child play helps a child develop thinking skills and teaches independence, self-control, and how to overcome problems. Children have less behavior problems and do better in school when:     

They feel emotionally close to their father. Father supports them financially. Father consistently sets and enforces rules. Father is warm, sensitive, and caring. Father is involved in the child’s school and home learning activities like reading. Children are more likely to get good grades and are less likely to repeat a grade when parents are involved with their school. The connection between parent involvement and school success is especially strong for fathers. And this is true whether the father lives with the child or not. Research also shows that adults who grew up close to their fathers have an easier time getting an education and a job they like.

IMPORTANCIA DE LOS PAPAS-N LA VIDA Y EN EL COLEGIO Los niños aprenden muchas lecciones importantes de la vida de sus padres. Juegos de Padre-hijo ayudan al niño a desarrollar habilidades para pensar y enseña independencia y auto control y como sobreponerse a los problemas. Los niños tienen menos problemas de comportamiento y se manejan bien en el colegio cuando:     

Ellos se sienten emocionalmente cerca de su padre. El padre les brinda soporte financiero. El padre regularmente establece y refuerza las reglas. El padre es cariñoso, sensitivo y cuidadoso. El padre esta comprometido con la escuela del niño y el aprendizaje en la casa como la lectura. Los niños están más dispuestos a tener buenas notas y menos dispuestos a repetir un grado cuando los padres están comprometidos con su escuela. La conexión entre el compromiso de los padres y el éxito en la escuela es especialmente fuerte por los papas. Y esto es cierto, no importando si el padre vive o no con el niño. Investigaciones también demuestran que adultos que crecieron cerca de sus padres obtienen más fácil una educación y el trabajo que les gusta.

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Quick Reference

IMPORTANCE OF FATHERS – BOOKS WITH A FOCUS ON FATHERS 10-C1d Parent Messages (see Experts page 1)  Sharing books with your child has multiple benefits, including enhanced social-emotional and cognitive skills.  Keeping books in the home makes it more likely that parents will share books with their child. The public library is an excellent place to borrow books at no cost.  Children who are read to in the home are more likely to become successful readers in elementary school. Parent Skills  Makes reading a part of the daily routine.  Has a collection of children’s books in the home.  Has access to their local public library (library card).  Makes reading a pleasant time of interaction, allowing child to set the pace (eg. skip pages, ask questions, make comments, and end reading session).

Parent Tip

IMPORTANCE OF FATHERS – BOOKS WITH A FOCUS ON FATHERS Dear Parents, When you read to me, you help me develop a love of reading that will last a lifetime. Reading books with a focus on fathers can help me see the special love I get from dad and the important role he plays in our family. It’s ok if we read only part of the book, or if we spend our time just talking about the pictures. This is a good time for me to learn and to talk about my feelings. Visit the public library to find these and other books: Lots of Dads by Rotner Bertie at Bedtime by Pfister My Dad by Browne Daddies by Prap Father’s Day by Rockwell My Daddy by Paradis I Love My Daddy Because by Porter-Gaylord What Dads Can't Do by Wood Kevin and His Dad by Smalls With a Little Help from Daddy by Andreason Love, Your Child

LIBROS ACERCA DE LOS PADRES Queridos Padres, Sabia usted que si usted me lee mucho ahora mientras estoy en el preescolar, será mas fácil para mi aprender a leer en el colegio “grande?” Es bueno que me lean en español también. Esto me ayudara con la lectura en ingles después. Cuando ustedes me leen, yo disfruto el sonido de su vos y el estar cerca de ustedes. Esta bien si solo leemos una parte del libro, o si ocupamos el tiempo solo hablando de las pinturas de este. Compartir un libro con ustedes me enseña que los libros son para disfrutarlos e importantes. La mayoría de las librerías públicas tienen libros para niños en español. El listado de libros al otro lado de esta tarjeta pueden estar disponibles en español. Pregúntele al bibliotecario por ayuda de como encontrar estos y otros libros para compartir con migo. Los libros en esta lista me ayudaran a aprender acerca de los padres. Los Amo, Su Hijo

8/08

Page 14 of 14 Copyright © 2009 Patti Bokony – bokonypattia@uams.edu

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