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HPH

Suisse/Switzerland, 2010/2011

HIGH PERFORMANCE HORSES SCIENTIFIC NEWS Sponsored by

THE ADAPTOGENIC SUPPLEMENT TESTED SEEMS TO IMPROVE THE EFFICIENCY OF MUSCULAR ENERGY PRODUCTION AND, CONSEQUENTLY, PERFORMANCE Professor Pierre Lekeux


HPH HIGH PERFORMANCE HORSES SCIENTIFIC NEWS sponsored by

Editor: Photographers:

Pavesco AG – TWYDIL® Elisabethenstrasse 54 CH-4010 Basel Trevor Jones, Worlington, UK Gilly Wheeler, UK Sabine Heüveldop, Germany TEMPS DE POSE, Belgium APRH, France DOLLAR, France

Print: Copyright:

Offsetdruck Grauwiller Partner AG CH-4410 Liestal Reprints as well as partial reprints of text allowed with indication of reference only : TWYDIL® HPH 10/11 Copy requested. Copyrights of pictures belong to the photographers.

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HPH

SUMMARY

THE PRESIDENT’S STATEMENT

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NEW CHIEF EXECUTIVE OFFICER

4

TWYDIL® MANAGEMENT TEAM

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EVALUATION OF THE EFFECT OF AN ADAPTOGENIC SUPPLEMENT ON THE PERFORMANCE AND ON THE NON-SPECIFIC IMMUNITY OF THOROUGHBREDS

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MIKE DE KOCK, 2,000 VICTORIES ON 4 CONTINENTS!

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ELECTROLYTES, A DAILY MANAGEMENT

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25 KM/H MEAN SPEED OVER 160 KM CAN THERE BE ANY IMPROVEMENT?

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RESEARCH, 44 YEARS OF ASSESSMENT

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NOVELTY IN THE FIELD OF PREBIOTICS

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RACING CAMELS AND ITS DEVELOPMENT PHASES

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HENDRA VIRUS: A DOWNUNDER DILEMMA

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EQUINE GERIATRICS

54

14

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PRACTICAL EXPERIENCE IN CROSS-GENERATIONHERD HUSBANDRY

58

THE TWYDIL® RANGE OF PRODUCTS

60

22

18

4 _ HPH 2010/2011

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THE PRESIDENT’S STATEMENT

D

espite an extremely strong Swiss Franc, TWYDIL® benefited from a sales increase of over 10% worldwide in 2010. In most countries, we reinforced or even restructured our sales forces, which re-

sulted in an increase in our business activity. Even in Japan, a country with the recent ordeal we know, business developed with gradually intensifying customer relations there. However, increase in turnover is mainly due to access to new markets including Australia and Pakistan. Our scientific research cooperation with high-level universities has intensified once more. For example we carried out new studies to confirm the beneficial effects of TWYDIL ® MUCOPROTECT on the performance of horses. “Horses then preserve their immune defences and their well-being and extend their running time-to-fatigue.” For a better channelling of our development, we are pleased to announce that we have hired as CEO Dr Vet. Roger Crozet who perfectly embodies the balance between practice and science (see photo: Dr Vet. Roger Crozet standing at the right of President Valère Henry). The anti-doping control of our whole product range was reinforced by strictly supplying all necessary information about the withdrawal period. All team members work hard to sustain TWYDIL®’s unchallenged technical research image worldwide. Valère Henry President

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NEW CHIEF EXECUTIVE OFFICER We are pleased to introduce to you our new Chief Executive Officer, Dr Roger Crozet. Born in 1954, Roger Crozet completed his doctor’s degree in veterinary medicine in Toulouse in 1977. He spent the next three years as a volunteer for technical assistance on Reunion Island where he acquired practical experience of tropical pathologies and horses’ conditions of adaptation to very hot climates. In search of a higher qualification, he then went to the USA where he was appointed as a “visiting professor” at the University of West-Lafayette (Indiana). There, he spent three years teaching in the faculty of Horse Medicine and Surgery and in the faculty of Histology where he took part in various research programmes. Drawing on this additional training, he decided to put his knowledge into practice. Malta was his first destination with its thousands of race and leisure horses. He set up a clinic there, and – just as if working with horses was not time-consuming enough – he was appointed the commercial agricultural attaché at the French Embassy. Then came the time when he felt ready and settled down in Cagnes-sur-Mer, purchased the veterinary practice at the local racecourse and, over the years, built up a team of 9 colleagues and purchased the newest technological equipment. Meanwhile he spent 2 years in Bahrain as veterinary doctor of the horses of the Emir, visited many Gulf Countries as an equine specialist, and went again to USA to qualify in Chinese acupuncture for horses. And then on January 1, 2011, Dr Roger Crozet joined our company as CEO. 6 _ HPH 2010/2011

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STAFF

TWYDIL ®

TWYDIL® MANAGEMENT TEAM Here is the team behind TWYDIL®, the most famous Swiss brand present today in more than 70 countries:

VALERE HENRY - President

Agricultural and Rural Engineer (A.I.Gx) My job: Anticipate future situations, set up the corporate strategy and ensure its implementation My favourite horse: Croissant Royal who won dozens of races in Europe Passion: South of France and the Swiss mountains Distinctive feature: Belgian Soccer Top League Champion with Standard de Liège

ROGER CROZET- CEO

Doctor of Veterinary Medicine, Toulouse, 1977 My job: Orchestra leader when the weather is fine, supervision rounds when the weather is bad, I bring the experience of more than 30 years in the field of customer care in equine business My favourite horse: Quidalium Pelo who shows high class in the box and in the lane Passion: mountains Distinctive feature: empathic tenacity

BARBARA BORER - Financial Manager

Federal Diploma of Business My job: prepare the budget; manage the income and expenditure of TWYDIL® My favourite horse: Bubi, my grandfather’s Franche-Montagne. Passions: literature and music Distinctive feature: 25 years hard work at TWYDIL®

SANDRA SCHUBIGER - Production Manager

Federal Diploma of Business My job: efficiently manage the production of TWYDIL® products My favourite horse: seahorses Passions: Mountain biking, cycling, movies Distinctive feature: balance between TWYDIL® and my family.

PHILIPPE HENRY- Sales Manager

Diploma of Law My job: Meeting TWYDIL®’s clients and distributors everywhere in the world My favourite horse: Jolly Jumper Passions: travelling, ski, music Distinctive feature: Former managing editor and TV news presenter in Belgium

BRIEUC DE MOFFARTS - Research and Development Manager

Doctor of Veterinary Medicine (DMV, Ms, PhD) My job: manage the scientific studies and ensure that the formulation of TWYDIL® products remain unparalleled. Quality control of the products. My favourite horse: Rembrandt Passions: dressage and the good things of life Distinctive feature: overflowing positive energy in me. 7


XXXXX STUDY

ADAPTOGEN

EVALUATION OF THE EFFECT OF AN ADAPTOGENIC SUPPLEMENT ON THE PERFORMANCE AND ON THE NONSPECIFIC IMMUNITY OF THOROUGHBREDS THIS STUDY WAS SUPPORTED BY PAVESCO TWYDIL®

TATIANA ART, CLÉMENCE MIGNOT, CELINE MOLITOR, BRIEUC DE MOFFARTS, AUDREY FRAIPONT, PIERRE LEKEUX DEPARTMENT OF FUNCTIONAL SCIENCES, CENTRE OF SPORTS MEDECINE, FACULTY OF VETERINARY MEDICINE, UNIVERSITY OF LIEGE, BELGIUM

8 _ HPH 2010/2011

P

hysical effort creates a much higher bodily stress than normal and natural conditions. For a race horse, this means increases in the heart rate (up to 240bpm), the respiratory rate (up to 120bpm), the body temperature (up to 41°C in the muscles), the ratio of the red blood cells and the circulating leucocytes (sometimes x 2), the lactic acid in the muscles and in the blood (the pH may be lower than 7.000), and the hormonal secretions etc. Recent studies have shown that, in horses as well as in humans, this effort-related stress leads to a decrease in the quality of immune responses – for example, the body’s defences against infections days after the race (“open window period”), leading to illnesses, principally respiratory infections, during that sensitive period.

ing specifically vitamin C, probiotics, and ginseng, amongst other ingredients, has been tested for its possible effects on race performance, stress by physical effort and resistance to respiratory infections.

Training, a regular repetition of effort, is meant to lower the intensity of stress caused by physical work by adapting physiological responses to this kind of extreme investment of the body. Apart from training, feeding and supplements can have so-called “adaptogenic” effects as protective effects against stress. In the present study, a supplement contain-

They stayed in the same stable and received the same feeding (daily 2 litres of concentrated feed and unlimited fodder) through the whole experiment. During the test, every horse’s VLA4 was evaluated during a treadmill performance – VLA4 being the race speed at which the blood rate level of 4 mmol/l lactate is reached.

PRESENTATION OF THE STUDY

The study is a close examination of horses at rest and under test of strenuous physical effort on a treadmill before oral supplementation and 12 days later. 8 untrained, clinically healthy Irish thoroughbreds (3-4 years old) were used for the study. These horses went through a four week familiarisation routine where they were trained and progressively accustomed to a treadmill.


TESTS

Different evaluations were carried out to measure (1) performance, (2) stress, and (3) immunity to infections. Systematically both horse groups (placebo and supplement) were evaluated. No treatment information was revealed to the team members involved in the handling of the horses and in the collection of the data. Evaluation at rest: transcriptomic study of 23,000 leucocyte genes by the chessboard technique (see box page 9). Evaluation under effort: direct parameters (lactates, heart rate, muscular enzymes) and indirect parameters (VLA4, V200) of sports medicine based on heart rate and lactatemia were measured (for more details, see HPH 08-09, p. 45-48). These parameters provide objective measures of the intensity of the effort and the corresponding stress in an individual. Tests before and after effort • Hormones: plasma stress hormone variations, for example beta-endorphins and cortisol, reflect the intensity of the stress. A rise in the cortisol ratio is one of the factors responsible for the decrease in the immune response. • Variations of the immune response of the pulmonary leucocytes (see box page 12). To study this, white blood cells were sampled from the pulmonary liquid and placed in a growth medium. The white blood cells’ response to simulate viral or bacterial attack was then evaluated.

TIMING OF MEASURINGS AND SAMPLINGS

2 days before and after the test, the horses were given a tranquiliser and a bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) carried out. White blood cells were sampled from this BAL for an in vitro test of their immune response to specific stimulations. The tests took place before and after every test of physical effort, i.e. on the days D1 and D27 (evaluation of effort’s effects), D10 and D36 (evaluation of supplement’s effects) and D13 and D39 (evaluation of supplement’s effect on effort’s effect). On day D0 blood was sampled to provide white blood cells for the transcriptomic study. In the next step, the horses were equipped with a device for continuous ECG-measurement and put on a treadmill (test 1) for a warm-up, a gallop (3,500m) at the speed of VLA4 (preset). After 2 minutes of recovery, the horses performed again a 1-minute gallop at the speed VLA4, then 3 incrementally higher levels of 1 m/sec. each, with 1 minute for the first 2 levels and then up to full fatigue for the third level, i.e. the horses’ inability to keep the necessary speed no matter how intensively they were encouraged to do so by the supervisor. The data of “time to fatigue” (TTF), the duration (expressed in seconds) of the last level were recorded for each horse.

TATIANA ART (DVM, PHD, DIPL ECEIM) Professor of Physiology (muscular exercise) at the Veterinary department of ULg. Head of the Centre of Equine Sport Medicine of ULg. 9


XXXXX STUDY

ADAPTOGEN Interferon beta BAL Interferon beta BAL

0

2 random groups each of 4 horses were chosen for the next step: a treatment group and a reference group.On day D1 and the following 12 days, the treatment group received a vitamin supplement in the feed (1 dose daily) and the reference group received a placebo. On day D12, both groups went once again through the same effort test as on day D0 (test 2).

-50

delta rest vs effort (%)

-5 -10 -10 -15 -15 -20 -20 -25 -25 -30

supplémenté supplémenté Supplemented placebo placebo Placebo

-30 -35 -35 -40 -40 -45

* *

-45

supplémebté supplémebté Expressiongénique géniquede demarqueur marqueur Expression lymphocytairesanguin sanguin(Log2) (Log2) lymphocytaire

Blood lymphocyte genes expression(Log2) interferon interferon reg regF2 F2BP2 BP2

interferon interferona-b a-breceptor2 receptor2 **

0,3 0,3

**

0,35 0,35

placebo placebo

0,3 0,3

0,25 0,25

0,25 0,25

0,2 0,2

0,2 0,2

0,15 0,15

0,15 0,15 0,1 0,1

0,1 0,1

0,05 0,05

0,05 0,05

00

00

TTF/lactate (s.(mmol/L)-1)

supplémenté

*

100

placebo

80 60 40 20 0

Lamax (mmol/L) (mmol/L)

avant Before

18

Lamax (mmol/L)

14

6

aprèsAfter complémentation supplementation

20

10

16 250

350

450

Y = 4,34 + ,018 * X; R^2 = ,257

550

*

650

TTF (s)

On day D26, the effort test was carried out again (test 3). The administered content (supplement or placebo) was then reversed for the groups. 12 days later, i.e. on day D38, the last effort test was carried out (test 4).

MATERIAL AND DESCRIPTION OF ANALYSIS

Physiological parameters under effort: Heart rate was continuously recorded with a Holter system, vein blood lactatemia with a portable analyser. Blood samples were taken before and 1 hour after effort to measure the red blood cell ratio, the CK (muscle enzymes) and the stress hormones (beta-endorphins and cortisol). Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), cytology and extraction of white blood cells. The horses were given a light tranquiliser for bronchoalveolar lavages (BAL) with a fiberscope while. 360 ml physiological serum was introduced into the lungs of the horses and re-collected. The collected solution was subsequently used to count and isolate the cells by successive centrifugations. After isolation, the cells were exposed to virus or bacteria-like stimulation. Their response was then “read” in their mRNA (see box 9 and 11).

après avant Before After supplémentation supplementation supplémentation supplementation

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The horses were then kept for 15 days in a paddock for a 15-day wash-out.

12

Transcriptomic study of the white blood cells 10 ml blood was sampled on 4 horses on D0 and D26 as well as on D12 and D38, just before effort, for RNA extraction.

8

Lamax (mmol/L)

4 200

20

Y = 6,777 + ,007 * X; R^2 = ,083

16

après After Placebo placebo

12 8 4

400

200

300

400

Y = -4,806 + ,042 * X; R^2 = ,796

10 _ HPH 2010/2011

*

500

600

TTF (s)

600

800

TTF (s)

RESULTS

Supplement’s effect on aptitude to effort The whole outcome of the effort test confirms that high effort performance (up to fatigue) causes a significant physiological stress as can be seen e.g. in the heart rate, lactatemia, the rise of the stress hormones ratio etc.


➜ WHAT IS TRANSCRIPTOMICS A transcriptomic study uses sophisticated techniques of molecular biology to find out if specific parts of a genome are expressed and translated. Basically, the genome in a cell is a kind of instruction of use for the construction and the operation of any organism. Construction and operation orders are transmitted by the mRNA which can be seen as carriers sent by the genome into the cell to trigger the synthesis of proteins necessary for the production of new tissue, enzymes, cytokines or hormones e.g.

A transcriptomic study “intercepts” the message (extraction of the mRNA from the cells) and reads it (transcription and PCR, or chessboard reading) to detect at a very early and precise stage physiological changes caused by a modification of conditions (e.g. by effort, training, feeding, inflammation or infection), and sometimes even before functional and clinical signs of such adaptations can be observed.

That is why transcriptomics were chosen to control the effect of the supplement in the test. Variations of gene expression were studied in the circulating leucocytes by a transcriptomic analysis on equine homologous chessboard (see HPH 04-05, 46-49).

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XXXXX STUDY

ADAPTOGEN The adaptogenic supplement lowers the maximal production of lactates and keeps the TTF very high. Statistically, the result is a significant change of the TTF/ lactate ratio: the initial value of this ratio (the longer the TTF, the higher the lactate production) remains unchanged for the placebo group but is modified for the supplement group. Hormonally, effort raises the level of the plasma cortisol but the ratio of beta-endorphins remains stable. The TTF increase in the 2nd test causes a rise in the secretion of beta-endorphins virtually associated with this parameter in the treatment group (p<0.60).

B-endorphin (ηg/ml) ,18 ,16 ,14

Before avant

,12 ,1 250

350

450

550

Y = ,122 + 7,992E-5 * X; R^2 = ,107

650

TTF (s)

,3 ,28 ,26 ,24 ,22 ,2 ,18 ,16 ,14 ,12 ,1

Supplement’s effect on the gene expression of white blood cells Based on the results, the supplement horses show, compared to the placebo horses, an overexpression of some immune genes (higher immunity) and of some genes favouring metabolic stress resistance.

B-endorphin (ηg/ml)

CONCLUSIONS

After après complémentation supplementation 200

300

400

500

Y = ,08 + 2,606E-4 * X; R^2 = ,462

12 _ HPH 2010/2011

Supplement’s effect on the post-effort decrease of innate immune response. Effort causes a decrease in the response of pulmonary blood cells to a simulation of virus attack. This means that the cells’ response to a polyIC stimulation (polyIC having the same double-string as a virus RNA), as measured in the gene expression of some pro-inflammatory cytokines, is weaker than 24h after effort. A 12-day supplementation of the horses tends to break down this weakening of the immune response as can be seen for example in the beta-interferon gene overexpression in the samples from supplement horses 24h after effort.

600

p=0.06

700

800

TTF (s)

The adaptogenic supplement used for this study seems to have protective effects against the process of decreasing immunity caused by effort both in the blood and in the lungs. Furthermore, it seems to limit the production of lactates during intensive effort, which makes it comparable to training, in that it enables the development and the use of aerobic metabolic resources.


â&#x17E;&#x153; C HESSBOARD TECHNIQUE As described in the diagram on page 9, the expression of some genes must be quantified. With RT-PCR, the presence of mRNA is detected by targeting genes that may be overexpressed or underexpressed. Rather, the chessboard procedure is an analysis of the whole genomeâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s response. The disadvantage of this procedure is the huge response examination of 23,000 genes implying the use of sophisticated statistics. On the other hand, with the chessboard method, every single modification of gene expression can be detected.

Sample

purification

transcription

Hybridation and wash Supplemented horse

scanning

binding with colour agent

normalisation and analyse

non supplemented horse

RNA extraction Reverse transcription

Micro array hybridation

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XXXXX STUDY

ADAPTOGEN

➜ STEPS OF THE STUDY OF THE INNATE IMMUNITY IN WHITE BLOOD CELLS OF THE DEEPER RESPIRATORY

Study of the pulmonary immunity

LPS/ POLY IC stimulation

3

1 broncho-alveolar lavage

2 cells isolation

DNA c/

5 reverse transcrition 4 RNAm extraction

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PROFESSOR PIERRE LEKEUX ANSWERS Professor of Physiology at the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine of Liège

1/ How would you explain to a nonscientific horse professional what is new in this study? The adaptogenic supplement tested in this study seems to have a double beneficial effect on race horses. Firstly, it seems to improve their ability to ward off numerous pathogenic agents in their respiratory system when they are under competition stress. Secondly, it seems to improve their efficiency of muscular energy production and, consequently, performance. 2 / Why is immunity so important for horses and why did the study choose to focus selectively on the lungs? A race horse is exposed to a double risk of diseases (viral and bacterial ones) 14 _ HPH 2010/2011

which affect predominantly the main entrance into the body, i.e. the airways. On the one hand, a race horse travels a lot and meets many other horses, which increases the spread and, thus, the contamination risk of infectious diseases.On the other hand, training and competition stress has a negative effect on horses’ immune system, i.e. their ability to ward off a viral or bacterial aggression. That is why, though race horses are inoculated, they still present so frequent sub-clinical respiratory infections altogether with the corresponding harmful effects on their performance. 3/ Practically speaking, can you say that the supplementation somehow

simulates the effects of training? The adaptogenic supplement does not replace training, but it seems to enable positive effects, i.e. a better use of oxygen and, thus, a lesser production of lactates for a particular effort. Performance and post-effort recovery should theoretically be improved. 4/ Concretely speaking, in which disciplines and when would you recommend to use the feed supplement? This kind of adaptogenic supplement should be indicated for horses who deliver intense and repeated efforts – without consideration of discipline. The most adequate time for administration should be intense training phases and competition periods.


RUN LONGER BEFORE FATIGUE !

TESTED AT UNIVERSITY ON 8 THOROUGHBREDS IN A CROSS OVER STUDY.

AVAILABLE THROUGH YOUR VETERINARY SURGEON

TWYDIL® MUCOPROTECT

Latest scientific studies show that the increase of workload significantly affects the immune defences of race horses particularly in the pulmonary tract. TWYDIL® MUCOPROTECT with its content in vitamin C, prebiotics, Ginseng panax, Glycyrrhiza glabra and Hydrastis canadensis helps support the horse’s natural defences. A standardised treadmill test conducted at university (ULg) showed that compared to themselves non supplemented, horses having received TWYDIL® MUCOPROTECT for 12 days preserved significantly their immune defences and well being and ran longer before fatigue. •Withdrawal time before competition: 48 hours. •Declared content guaranteed until expiry date.

TWYDIL® is used by most of the successful professionals in the world. HEAD OFFICE PAVESCO AG

CH-4010 Basel, Switzerland Tel. (41)(61)272 23 72 Fax (41)(61)272 23 88

PAVESCO U.K. LTD.

116, High Road Needham, Harleston, Norfolk IP20 9LG Tel. (01379) 85 28 85 Fax (01379) 85 41 78

PAVESCO EQUINE HEALTH USA, LTD 321 N, 22nd Street St.Louis, MO 63166, USA Tel. (314) 421 0300 Fax (314) 421 3332

e-mail: info@twydil.com

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XXXXX INTERVIEW

MIKE DE KOCK

MIKE DE KOCK, 2,000 VICTORIES ON 4 CONTINENTS! CONFIDENCES OF ONE OF THE BEST TRAINERS WORLDWIDE, WINNER OF 83 GROUP 1 RACES. AN INTERVIEW WITH PHILIPPE HENRY

HPH: Mike, you are in Newmarket (UK) at the time of this interview. How do you divide your time between Dubai, South Africa and England?

MDK: I spend January, February and March in Dubai when I focus on the ‘Racing Carnival’. However, I am in touch every day with my staff in South Africa. In May and June, I return to Johannesburg and, now and then, I travel to England if I have horses racing here such as is the case now. HPH: How did you come to racing?

MDK: When I was small boy in South Africa, I lived in Newmarket (Alberton) a stone’s throw away from the racecourse. My classmate then was David Ferraris (today a successful trainer in Hong Kong) whose father was in charge of a stable. I caught the racing virus by hanging around everyday with Ormond Ferraris’ horses. 16 _ HPH 2010/2011

HPH: Your parents were not involved in racing?

MDK: No. My father worked in the gold industry and my mother took care of us at home. HPH: And then you learned more about horses in the army…

MDK: Yes, I did my military service as an instructor in the cavalry unit of the South African Armed Forces which trained horses for warfare. HPH: Did you learn anything from that experience for your later career?

MDK: I learned the basic seat there, but apart from that nothing that I use today in my job as a horse trainer. HPH: What are your guiding principles as a horse trainer?


MDK: I always want to learn and I am openminded. I think that I can always do more in all fields, i.e. in the physical preparation, in the nutrition etc. I listen carefully to people who are successful in their field. I owe all the good results I have achieved everywhere to those I listened to and from whom I learnt a lot. I put all my experiences together and it worked. Anyway, there is no universal recipe that works for all horses. Every horse is different and you have to adapt. HPH: What did you learn from your experience in USA?

MDK: Without any doubt their training and feeding methods. Coming from South Africa, I realized that they were on a quite different level as far as feeding is concerned. HPH: Are you still a great user of the treadmill?

MDK: Yes, I still use it a lot. It provides me with much information particularly related to heart condition and lactates. I was so lucky to have Professor Alan Davie teach me how to use the treadmill. Basically, I always keep myself updated by people who are much better qualified than I am. HPH: Do you carry out very regular blood tests on your horses?

MDK: No, I have never been a great fan of blood tests. I think that they sometimes mislead you and lead to wrong conclusions. I resort to blood tests only when the horse shows an obvious problem. HPH: Are you a trainer who is hard on his horses?

MDK: Honestly, I think that all highperforming trainers – at least in Europe and in South Africa – are demanding towards their horses.

racing in South Africa and this will be the challenge. The potential of our breed is real, but it will be necessary to set up once and for all precise protocols of transport for South African horses. Only then we could try to play in the major league of horse breeding. HPH: You deplore the quarantine rules which you find excessive and unjust towards South African horses. Why?

MDK: I am frustrated because I know the potential of our horses. What annoys me is the fact that it is proved that the African horse sickness virus is inactive in the winter months, from June to November. The possibility to export our horses normally in that period would represent no risk for anyone at all. Restrictions and quarantine rules – not limited to South Africa only – are the most frustrating things for horse trainers. You train perfectly healthy champions that are unfortunately not allowed to take part in race competition abroad for reasons unrelated to you. HPH: Is it true that it takes you currently 150 days to send a horse from South Africa to Dubai?

MDK: For the time being, yes.

HPH: What did you decide under these circumstances for your champion IGUGU? Will you send it to the Dubai Racing Carnival?

MDK: I would have to stop the training already in August for Igugu to make the journey via Mauritius and Europe to Dubai (5 months later!) possible. I simply stopped sending South African horses under these circumstances. It is very disappointing not to be able to send a 3-year old champion that has been elected the best South African horse to compete with the other horses in Dubai. I

HPH: You have been a great promoter of South African horses; what would you say about them?

MDK: We breed resistant horses that are often good runners. However, we cannot currently achieve an international position for our horses – except maybe in Dubai. At this time there are huge investments in horse

17


Horse Chestnut is by far the best horse I ever trained.

Sheikh Mohammed bin Khalifa Al Makhtoum is a man of great humility who loves horses.

really hope that this situation will change and international travel will again be made normal for horses. I am optimistic and I expect that it will change in the next 6 to 12 months, but for the moment the chance is lost for us regarding the next Racing Carnival.

D-day. By the way, Henry Cecil is also one of those trainers who always get the best out of their horses they have.

HPH: Do you still think that HORSE CHESTNUT has been the key horse of your career?

MDK: You need the necessary horses for that. In my present situation and considering my location in the Southern hemisphere, it is impossible for me to aim at such goals. I would need to settle down in Europe and – frankly speaking – I don’t like much the idea. I love South Africa and I feel good there. I like my current approach with valuable competitions in Dubai, Hong Kong, Singapore and South Africa as well as selected races in Europe. Besides, I think that I am becoming too old to think of moving to Europe to live there (laughs).

MDK: Absolutely. It has been not only the key horse of my career but simply the best horse I have ever had the chance to train. HPH: Due to its injury in the United States no one will ever know the real potential of that horse…

MDK: Exactly. It was a super ace.

HPH: Its injury in the US was just before the Dubai World Cup race…

MDK: Yes, and I can tell you that if Horse Chestnut had been there, it would have made life difficult for Dubai Millennium, which won that year. It would have been a fantastic race anyway! HPH: What comes to your mind when you hear great names like Aidan O’Brien?

MDK: That’s a guy who wins international competitions everywhere. He must be under terrible pressure and yet he manages though to promote Coolmore’s image everywhere in the world. When they say I am hard with horses, look at that other guy who, in my opinion, is also hard and look at his achievements… HPH: … André Fabre?

MDK: I hardly know him. I know that he is the undisputed master in France, but I know only what I read about him. HPH: … Michael Stoute?

MDK: I admire him a lot. He is unparalleled when it comes to training a horse for the 18 _ HPH 2010/2011

HPH: In order to also become a legend like those celebrities, is it not high time you won some major classics in Europe?

HPH: Where do you buy most of your horses?

MDK: In South Africa, New Zealand, Australia and Argentina. It should be noted that horses which perform well on the ‘turf’ also do well on the new all-weather tracks in Dubai. HPH: Can you tell us a few words about your main owner Sheikh Mohammed bin Khalifa Al Makhtoum?

MDK: I am very lucky that my path crossed his! The Sheikh is a man of great humility. He loves races but moreover loves horses. HPH: Are you not under too much pressure?

MDK: No. The important thing to understand is that the Sheikh loves Dubai; hence, the horses must perform well during the Racing Carnival as a matter of fact. It is the most natural thing in the world. HPH: You made the suggestion that Dubai should offer top-level racing competitions 3 months in the year…


My wife Diane and family are what matters most to me.

Victory Moon, winner of 2003 UAE Derby.

MDK: I think that if this should be Sheikh Mohammed bin Rashid’s wish, then anything can happen and Dubai could become the focal point of the racing world. HPH: Which race is still missing from your record and the one you would wish to win?

MDK: Oh my God! I would say, the Dubai World Cup. Otherwise a US ‘classic’ or the English Derby. HPH: Did you enjoy your short stay in Australia?

MDK: What I love about Australia is the unbelievable enthusiasm of the crowd, such as during the ‘Melbourne Cup’. You experience there an extraordinary atmosphere with a crowd of horse sport connoisseurs and lovers, somehow like in England. And also, by mixing European and Australian blood, they breed high-performance horses. We need such crossbreeding in South Africa. I think they are doing things right in Australia, so providing a good example for others. HPH: Do you still play golf?

MDK: Yes, I try to play twice a week. Golf helps me get rid of other pressures. When I am on the greens, I forget everything else. HPH: Your handicap?

MDK: 5

HPH: What do you need to become a scratch?

MDK: Time (laughs).

HPH: What dream have you not yet fulfilled in your life?

You know, I am not a dreamer. Rather, I am a realistic person. My family keeps me happy and that is the most important thing for me. Besides, I would like to travel around our planet ‘Earth’ a little more than I have done so far, and – naturally – experience some new golf courses (laughs).

MIKE DE KOCK - 46 years old. CAREER: More than 2,050 victories, including 83 Group 1, 87 Group 2, and 55 Group 3 races. 5 South African Champion titles. In 2010, with 11 G1 within 6 months only, he got ahead of all trainers worldwide. Second trainer with most winners in the Dubai Racing Carnival, just slightly fewer than Saeed Bin Suroor. 4 CONTINENTS: Winner in South Africa, Dubai/Abu Dhabi, USA/Canada, Hong Kong, Singapore. BEST HORSES: Horse Chestnut (1999 G1 J&B Met, the only horse which won the Triple Crown in South Africa, and the first horse trained in South Africa to win a race in the US). Badger’s Coast (2000 J&B Met). Ipi Tombe (2002 Vodacom July and 2003 Dubai Duty Free). Wolf Whistle (2003 Summer Cup). Greys Inn (2004 Vodacom July). Ihla Da Vitoria (2005 Summer Cup).Victory Moon (2003 UAE Derby). Lundy’s Liability (2004 UAE Derby). Right Approach (2004 Dubai Duty Free). Grand Emporium (2005 Godolphin Mile). Sun Classique (2008 Sheema Classic). Archipenko (2008 QEII Cup). Eagle Mountain (2008 Hong Kong Cup) Lizard’s Desire (2010 Singapore Cup). Igugu (2010 SA Fillies Classic, 2011 Woolavington Stakes, 2011 Vodacom Durban July). Amanee (2011 Thekwini Stakes) 19


XXXXX STUDY

ELECTROLYTES

ELECTROLYTES, A DAILY MANAGEMENT CATHERINE DELGUSTE, DVM, MSC, PHD, DIPL. ECEIM

E

lectrolytes are substances which disintegrate into ions when dissolved in water or body liquids (plasma, sweat, intra- and extra-cellular liquids). Ions can be positively charged- for example sodium (Na+), potassium (K+), hydrogen (H+), calcium (Ca++) or magnesium (Mg++) -, and are called cations. Ions can be negatively charged- for example chloride (Cl-), bicarbonate (HCO3-) or phosphate (PO4-) -, and are called anions. Ions are involved in complex mechanisms such as the transmission of nerve impulses or muscular contractions. These various ions play a major role in all living beings because their distribution and their maintained presence in physiological concentrations ensure the hydro-ion and acid-base balance of their body. Thus, under physiological conditions, they enable the regulation of cell hydration by osmotic ef-

20 _ HPH 2010/2011

fect; they keep the intra-cellular pH up on a survival base; and they ensure a trouble-free functioning of all cells and metabolisms. The most important ions in those homeostatic functions are definitely sodium and chloride, and also potassium. Furthermore, by manipulating the plasma concentrations of these electrolytes, and considering the principle of electro-neutrality, an animal can modify its pH by the production of bicarbonate. An increase in the sodium/ chloride-ratio increases the plasma pH to a level which is higher (and more basic) and which (mainly by producing lactates) is potentially more capable of neutralising the acidogenic effect resulting from the horseâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s effort (Waller, 2007). Besides their major role in keeping a hydroelectric balance in the body, ions are also in charge of managing the variations in the trans-membrane potentials of the so-called


INDICATIVE CONTENT OF THE MAIN ELECTROLYTES IN EQUINE SWEAT Electrolytes Sodium (Na) Potassium (K) Chloride (Cl)

Sweat concentration (g/L) 3.1 1.6 5.3

Additionally extreme temperature and/or moisture conditions may increase this need. Furthermore, it is important to realise that horses’ basic feed – hay – is known to be rich in chloride and potassium but proportionally poor in sodium. Frequent supplementation is therefore required for the nutritional balance of any sport animal, even under conditions of adequate feeding.

excitable cells (neurones and muscle cells). There they are involved in complex mechanisms such as the transmission of the nerve influx or the muscular contraction (in a broad sense of the terms, i.e. not only the contraction of locomotive or respiratory muscles but also of the heart or of the muscles of the intestinal wall) via their movements in the cell membranes.

The importance of electrolytes for horses was observed in cases where elite endurance horses (160 km) who reached the finish line presented signs of hyponatremia, hypochloremia, hypokaliemia and hypocalcaemia (Schott, 2006), though they had received a comprehensive supplementation during the competition.

Here, calcium and magnesium are in charge of a very important task. All these ion movements are thoroughly regulated in the cell via a highly complex vector system, but they are also controlled by a global regulation system of their respective plasma concentration coming mainly from the kidney. Frequent supplementation with electrolytes is necessary for the nutritional balance of a sport horse even if the horse’s feeding is deemed adequate. Two main characteristics of horses must be considered in relation to electrolytes. On the one hand, their digestive tract may be used as a reservoir to address the horses’ extra needs in cases of high mobilisation. On the other hand, horses’ sweat contains a higher concentration of electrolytes compared to other species (See above Table). Considering that horses may sweat up to 15 litres/ hour (Sosa Leon, 1998), it follows that race horses’ need of electrolytes is particularly high. 21


XXXXX STUDY

ELECTROLYTES Electrolyte losses and acid-base imbalances are also involved in the syndrome of exhaustion observed with horses (Foreman, 1998), a syndrome mainly occurring in extended heavy-load disciplines such as endurance race, full competition and hunting.

BIBLIOGRAPHY Foreman JH. (1998) The exhausted horse syndrome. Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract. 14:205-19 Sampieri F, Schott HC 2nd, Hinchcliff KW, Geor RJ, Jose-Cunilleras E (2006) Effects of oral electrolyte supplementation on endurance horses competing in 80 km rides. Equine Vet J Suppl. 36:19-26 Schott HC 2nd, Marlin DJ, Geor RJ, Holbrook TC, Deaton CM, Vincent T, Dacre K, Schroter RC, Jose-Cunilleras E, Cornelisse CJ.(2006) Changes in selected physiological and laboratory measurements in elite horses competing in a 160 km endurance ride. Equine Vet J Suppl. 36:37-42 Sosa León LA. (1998) Treatment of exercise-induced dehydration. Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract. 14:159-73 Waller A, Lindinger MI. (2007) The effect of oral sodium acetate administration on plasma acetate concentration and acid-base state in horses. Acta Vet Scand. 49:38-49

This syndrome is characterised by hyperthermia. tachycardia (a too high heart rate), tachypnea (a too low heart rate), exhaustion, anorexia, refusal of effort, dehydration, weakness, stiffness, hypovolemic shock (a shock state causing a critical decrease in the volume of blood circulating, generally as a result of severe dehydration), myopathy (degeneration of the locomotive muscles), diaphragmatic flutter (“hiccup” due to diaphragm contractions synchronic to the ones of the heart beats in cases of hypocalcaemia), atrial fibrillation (abnormal heart rhythm), diarrhoea, colic or laminitis. In severe cases, this can jeopardise the horse’s life so the effort must be stopped immediately and the horse treated by a veterinary doctor.

their mode and frequency of administration. On the one hand, it has been shown that a too high concentration of electrolytes can damage the stomach wall and cause ulcers. On the other hand, while such concentrated solutions enable water consumption and, thus, the potential recovery of a reasonable volume of circulating blood during intensive efforts, there also is evidence that they cause significant temporary modifications of the acid-base balance in the body as well as acidosis which has a negative effect on performances (Sampieri, 2006). Finally, it seems logical that a horse’s digestive tract can perfectly play its role as a reservoir only if the horse’s daily feeding is rich enough in these elements. For all those reasons, a frequent administration of ordinary physiological quantities corresponding to the horse’s needs for its daily activities seems preferable to occasional concentrated administrations in competition times.

Giving the horses frequent physiological doses covering their daily needs seems to be preferable to occasional doses in high concentrations during competitions. While the usefulness of electrolytes for sport horses needs no further demonstration, one main question still remains about

CATHERINE DELGUSTE DVM, MSc, PhD, dipl. ECEIM Born on March 4, 1976 in Tournai. Did her Doctor of Veterinary Medicine in 1999 at the ULg (PGD) 1 year mixed practical experience (dogs/horses) in various veterinary clinics in Belgium and in France; then Assistant position at the ULg since October 2000 Postgraduate thesis (“DEA”) on the topic “Myoglobinurie atypique chez les chevaux au pré: une série de cas en Belgique” (“Atypical myoglobinuria in grassland horses: a case study in Belgium”) PhD in 2008 on the topic “Contribution à l’étude pharmacologique et clinique du tiludronate chez le cheval” (“Contribution to the pharmacological and clinical study of tiludronate in horses”. 22 _ HPH 2010/2011


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after ed that to 50 % of w o h s A studyorses drink uption from the sump tion, h a t adap aily water coniched with their d bucket enr CTROLYTES. L® ELE TWYDI

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Mixed in the daily feed or diluted in the drinking water, TWYDIL® ELECTROLYTES (in buckets), helps to compensate for the loss of mineral salts following intensive work. TWYDIL® ELECTROLYTES (in mouth syringes) is a palatable paste, rich in electrolytes and ascorbic acid, to be given on the days of competition and during transportation. -O  fficially certified by LCH (after analysis on final product, urine and blood): can be used without risk up to the day of the competition. - Declared content guaranteed until expiry date.

TWYDIL® is used by most of the successful trainers in the world. HEAD OFFICE PAVESCO AG

CH-4010 Basel, Switzerland Tel. (41)(61)272 23 72 Fax (41)(61)272 23 88

PAVESCO U.K. LTD.

116, High Road Needham, Harleston, Norfolk IP20 9LG Tel. (01379) 85 28 85 Fax (01379) 85 41 78

PAVESCO EQUINE HEALTH USA, LTD 321 N, 22nd Street St.Louis, MO 63166, USA Tel. (314) 421 0300 Fax (314) 421 3332

e-mail: info@twydil.com


XXXXX STUDY

ENDURANCE

25 KM/H MEAN SPEED OVER 160 KM, CAN THERE BE ANY IMPROVEMENT ? BY DR SIDI SEFIANE EL ALAMI

E

ndurance horse racing in the UAE or “the sport of the sheikhs” as it is widely known started in January 1993 when camels competed against horses in a 40 km desert ride; the first 15 places were taken by horses. The first National endurance race rules were established in 1995 and the period 19951998 saw long distance point-to-point endurance rides in the UAE. For the first time the UAE riders participated in the 1996 world championship endurance race in Kansas, USA. In 1998, for the first time the UAE hosted the world horse endurance championship, which attracted a record of 162 competitors out of which 78 completed the 160km ride. And also for the first time, time control was fully computerized and the riders carried plastic swipe cards to register their arrival after each phase of the ride. The first world’s premier endurance ride was held in 1999 in the UAE, which became an annual feature and has been renamed FEI/ UAE world cup endurance. The UAE has built up a very strong infrastructure to support equestrian sport in general and endurance in particular. There are 3 self-sufficient modern endurance centres or villages and all the endurance rides are electronically monitored and controlled, and receive comprehensive media coverage.

OVER SEVERAL DAYS’ RACES HORSES CAN RUN UP TO 240 KM!

Most of the races are FEI listed and vary from 1 to 3 days including distances of 80 km, 120 km, 160 km and over several days rides of 240 km. All the endurance competitions are under veterinary supervision including the national rides. (Courtesy of the UAE Equestrian Federation) One of the features of the endurance sport in the UAE is the level of competition, which 24 _ HPH 2010/2011


is the highest and the toughest in the world, speed records for the different distances are dazzling and the very high number of the races in such a short season (4 to 5 months) is the biggest challenge for all teams to remain competitive at all times. It is a sport widely practiced over the country with all ages represented; there are races for ladies, for private owners, junior, and heavy weight categories. Many very important personalities are constantly supervising the success of this national sport, generously sponsoring the rides and encouraging, by their participation, a whole generation of young riders to take part in it. This requires the different endurance stables to provide the best care possible for their horses and to manage them for optimal efficiency. As a team vet of the AL REEF STABLES, my efforts together with my very efficient team mates aim to make our horsesâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; score as high and as long as our tradition permits.

A HORSE WITH A NATURAL SUPERIOR HEART RATE RECOVERY HAS A GREAT ADVANTAGE OVER COMPETITORS

The road to the championship starts from the first step of purchasing the right horse. We should always keep in mind that endurance is a specialised sport so horses that have failed in other equestrian disciplines are not necessarily good for endurance. Genetics are very important because a horse that is naturally superior in heart rate recovery will always make a huge difference. The breed and body conformation should always be adapted to the environment where the horse

is supposed to evolve. Team vets usually make sure that the horse to be purchased has the least possible injuries particularly in the locomotor function. Endurance sport is at the limit of the extreme sport and horses have to be managed to give their best performances with respect to their welfare and safety for as long as possible. The nutrition of an endurance horse depends primarily on the roughage basis of the ration (1.5 to 3% of the total body weight) which must be of a high nutritive quality. The energetic needs of the endurance horse come from the carbohydrates in the different concentrates (cereals, corn, etc.) and from the lipids, especially those rich in omega-3 fatty acids. The horse feed should be properly processed and stored in order to optimize the use of all its components. Proteins should be correctly adjusted to include all the essential amino-acids, while keeping in mind that protein excess can lead to high levels of blood urea and ammonia which stress the kidney and liver functions, irritate the respiratory system and disturb the digestion.

25


XXXXX STUDY

ENDURANCE

IN SUCH CONDITIONS HORSES CAN LOSE MORE THAN 12 LITRES OF FLUID PER HOUR THROUGH SWEATING

Sufficient vitamins and trace minerals should be included in the feed and electrolytes must be very closely monitored. The extreme nature of this sport (long periods of exercise and the incredible high speed of races) and the very hot and humid climatic conditions of the endurance season in this part of the world concentrate my attention particularly on the importance of the electrolytic balance to sustain the thermoregulation losses in the form of sweating (in such conditions these can exceed 12 litres/ hour). 26 _ HPH 2010/2011

With the very specific conditions of racing such as flat sandy tracks, hot and humid weather condition, the very high competitively level resulting in a very high average speed registered at all distances, fitness monitoring becomes a must during exercise as well as during the races. Close follow up of the athletes should include a physical examination, paraclinical examinations and the overall assessment by the trainer/rider. The heart rate recovery and the cardiac recovery index remain very useful tools to assess the physical ability of the horse to continue; the respiratory rate, skin test, the colour of the mucous membranes, gut sounds and the capillary refill time are all very valuable criteria to determine the metabolic changes. The soundness of the locomotor apparatus is paramount, a lame horse should always be stopped to undertake a complete lameness examination in order to be diagnosed and treated at early stage. Paraclinical examination relies on the assessment of the haematology and biochemical parameters to monitor the effects of the training/racing on different organs and apparatus. It is important to evaluate the dehydration level combining haematocrit, Rbc level and total proteins. The analysis of the CK and AST levels give an overview about the musculo-skeletal apparatus; creatinine and BUN give information about the renal function, and GGT and total bilirubin are important to assess the hepatic function. There are many other parameters to be monitored in order to know more about the real level of CONTINUED PAGE 26


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TWYDIL® PMC is a scientifically proven complementary feeding stuff for optimal bone formation and good structural development of the horse. With its unique formula, TWYDIL® PMC helps bone and joints support. TWYDIL® PMC is particularly recommended for young horses in their growth phase and for all horses that need bone support notably for the three first months of training at least. -O  fficially certified by LCH (on final product, urine and blood) can be used without risk up to the day of the competition. - Declared content guaranteed until expiry date.

TWYDIL® PMC has been used for many years by most of the successful breeders and trainers in the world. HEAD OFFICE PAVESCO AG

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PAVESCO U.K. LTD.

116, High Road Needham, Harleston, Norfolk IP20 9LG Tel. (01379) 85 28 85 Fax (01379) 85 41 78

PAVESCO EQUINE HEALTH USA, LTD 321 N, 22nd Street St.Louis, MO 63166, USA Tel. (314) 421 0300 Fax (314) 421 3332

e-mail: info@twydil.com

27


ENDURANCE fitness (lactic acid, blood gas, base excess, ph, SDH, ALT, Ca etc.) However a correct assessment of the fitness of the horse can only be possible if all the clinical, paraclinical elements and the overall conditions of the athlete, training and race efforts are combined together.

horses, the professionalism and hard work of all the participators of the discipline, a race which was completed in the year 2000 in about 8½ hours is now achieved in only 6 hours 20 minutes, two hours less! In only ten years, the mean speed per hour has increased from 20 to 25 km/hour!

Since dehydration and electrolytes losses are the major limiting factors, the restitution of the body fluid losses become a major interest in relation to the electrolytic balance. According to the clinical findings including the haematology, biochemistry and electrolytes analyses, fluid replacement therapy is based on the administration of isotonic fluids (NaCl 0.9%) and /or other hypertonic fluids in order to restore the fluid volume and the concentration of the major electrolytes such Na, Cl, Ca, K, etc. Rehydration will stop once the horse’s vital functions return to normal (gut sounds, heart rate, respiratory rate, appetite. . .) and electrolytes level plus renal indicators (BUN, creatinine) return to normal range.

For those who still doubted it, the endurance horse is definitely an exceptional athlete who commands respect!

To conclude this overview it was interesting to analyse the evolution of the speed times of the winners of the ‘President Cup’ over 160 km. Thanks to the selection of the best

Evolution des vitesses

moyennes sur 160 Km des gagnants de la « President Cup » MEAN SPEED EVOLUTION OF THE «PRESIDENT’S CUP» WINNERS UAE ON 160 KM IN DUBAI 30 Speed (km/h)

XXXXX STUDY

25 20 vitesse 15 (Km/h) 0 200020022004 200620082010 années

DR SIDI SEFIANE EL ALAMI

Graduated from Agronomic and veterinay Institute Hassan II Rabat, Morocco. Equine vet at the Royal Cavalery, Morocco. Equine vet at the National Stud, Morocco. Since 1999, Senior Veterinary Doctor at Al Reef Stables in Abu Dhabi for HH Sheikh Tahnoon Bin Zayed Al Nahyan. IEF endurance vet. 28 _ HPH 2010/2011


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29


APPRAISAL XXXXX

COMPETITION

RESEARCH, 44 YEARS OF ASSESSMENT WHAT HAS TWYDIL® BROUGHT TO THE SCIENCE OF COMPETITION HORSES?

DR BRIEUC DE MOFFARTS SCIENTIFIC DIRECTOR

A

fter 44 years of the existence of the TWYDIL® range, it is worthwhile for us to question what has been our contribution to the scientific knowledge of competition horses. Since its creation, the speciality of TWYDIL® has been to market products that can be supported scientifically. As any serious researcher, we consider that the efficiency of a product is demonstrated in a relevant way only if its effect has been proved by an independent study, by scientists en30 _ HPH 2010/2011

joying an international expertise in the specific subject area, on a sufficient number of horses and always by comparison with a control group. If we lack only one of these elements, we are not in the field of ˝The Science˝. The present article has its object to estimate what, thanks to its investments in the highest-level research, TWYDIL® has significantly improved the science related to competition horses. To be clear, we present these results of several decades of research by lis-

ting them by category (physiology, oxidative stress, enzymatic stress, inflammation, and immunity) and then, by discipline (gallop, eventing, trot, endurance, steeplechase). For the non-scientists, we summarise each of these results by some simple words in a practical way. The following presentation, also mentions high-level scientific publications, presentations in the congresses, and scientific posters which accompanied these researches, so accrediting their seriousness. It is also mentioned the awards with which these researches were presen-


ted whether it is in Great Britain, in France, in Switzerland, in Belgium or somewhere else. We can assert without fear of contradiction that TWYDIL速 has always led the field of competition horse research. TWYDIL 速 does not just look at a problem linked to intense exercising from a unique angle but envisages the imbalance occurring in various metabolic stresses such as enzymatic, ionic, or oxidative. When nobody wanted to consider oxidative stress, 25 years ago TWYDIL速 presented its first study in the

HPH magazine; the present magazine offers you in its first pages a study on an adaptive supplement tested on 23.000 genes of horses subjected to an standardized effort until fatigue! It is always amusing to read assertions asserting, for example, that a particular feed contains all that competition horses need on the basis of papers often dating back several decades. How seriously should we treat them when compared to recent studies working on the effects of intense

exercise on several tens of thousand genes or in front of scientific results obtained on hundreds of horses! But what would be the value of the research if it is not confirmed by the professional under field conditions? Our researches have been validated for decades by the best professionals in the world in all the disciplines and we shall continue to work on the development of research-supported nutritional solutions, envisaging the problems of the competition horse from many different angles, currently concentrating on the locomotive and respiratory systems. 31


APPRAISAL XXXXX

COMPETITION

PHYSIOLOGY

1. LOCOMOTOR

BONES

1) Bone defect healing after administration of CaCO3 35 days after the lesion was produced. Weak formation of the matrix. Slight mineralization.

IN VIVO 1

2

Observation : Bone healing. 3

4

CARTILAGE

2 32 _ HPH 2010/2011

3) Bone defect healing after administration of CaCO3 84 days after the lesion was produced. Example of inadequate cure (trabeculae not well defined). Weak mineralization. 4) Bone defect healing after administration of OS-Hx. 84 days after the lesion was produced. Example of very good cure (regular trabeculae). Well defined mineralization.

1

Observation : Functional capacity of cartilage cells.

2) Bone defect healing after administration of OS-Hx. 35 days after the lesion was produced. Rapid and massive formation of the organic osseous matrix (osteoids, in yellow). Mineralization taking place.

IN VIVO


CHONDROCYTES

Observation : Metabolic effect of a supplement on tendinocytes proliferation in culture.

Observation : Metabolic effect of two supplements on chondrocytes proliferation in culture.

IN VITRO

3

TENDONS

IN VITRO

4

CARTILAGE Figure 4:

IN VIVO HORSE

Articular MMP9 activity in vivo after 6 weeks oral supply

Observation : Decrease of bad enzymes into the joints. *

MMP9 activity (arbitrary * unit)

Articular

Fore fetlock

T0

Stifle

Back fetlock

5

tarsus

T0 = Before oral supply T6= After 6 weeks oral supply * Significant differences between group A and B, p<0.05

CARTILAGE

Figure 3:

6

F2-isoprostanes concentration in the chondrocyte supernate (ng/mL)

Observation : Stabilization and protection of cartilage in advance of inflammation.

EX VIVO HORSE

ex vivo F2-isoprostanes in the chondrocyte supernate coming from horses first orally supplied with the feed complement

ium World eparerm res ch

(with or without IL-1-beta for 6 or 24 hrs.)

*$

*

$

*

Control

$

*

A = G/CS B = Placebo p<0.05

Data presented in average ± standard error *Significantly different from the respective value in group A p < 0.05 *$ Significantly different from the respective control value

33


APPRAISAL XXXXX

COMPETITION

2. RESPIRATORY LUNGS

EX VIVO HORSE

Observation : Capacity of physiological liquids to destroy viruses in contact.

7

LUNGS

IN VIVO HORSE

Observation : Maintains the immune resistance during effort.

8

3. MUSCULAR MUSCLES

FIELD TEST/HORSE

Observation : Significant effect on muscular function, stabilization of CPK values.

9 Scientific prize. Award for the best PhD publication in the Veterinary Journal 2005 34 _ HPH 2010/2011


4. PERFORMANCE PERFORMANCE ANTIOXIDANT CAPACITY

Observation : The most successful horses possessed the best antioxidant capacity.

10

FIELD TEST/HORSE

PUBLICATIONS 1/ Annefeld M, Caviezel R, Schacht E, Schicketanz KH.The influence of osseinhydroxyapatite compound on the healing of a bone defect. Curr Med Res Opin. 1986;10(4):241-50. 2/ Annefeld M. Ultrastructural and morphometrical studies on the articular cartilage of rats:the destructive effect of dexamethasone and the chondroprotective effect of glycosaminoglycan-peptide-complexs Actions. 1986 Jan;17(3-4):320-1 3/ Vincent Gurné, Marie Daix, Nathalie Kirschvink. Pathologies articulaires chez le cheval : Investigation de l’effet d’extraits de compléments alimentaires sur la croissance de chondrocytes équins in vitro. (2009) Mémoire de 3ème Bac Médecine Vétérinaire, FUNDP Buclin T, Jacquet AF, Burckhardt P. Intestinal absorption of calcium gluconate and osseine-mineral complex: an evaluation by conventional analyses. Schweiz Med Wochenschr. 1986 Dec 13;116(50):1780-3 4/ Nathalie KIRSCHVINK, Emilie BODEAU. Etude de l’influence d’extraits de compléments alimentaires sur la croissance fibroblastique équine : (2010) Mémoire de fin d’étude présenté en vue de l’obtention du grade de bachelier en agronomie, finalité biotechnologies et agro-industries (Haute Ecole de la Province de Namur,Ciney) 5/ Marie DAIX, Laetitia WIGGERS-COULON, Martine RAES, Nathalie KIRSCHVINK Effect of in vivo glucosamine and chondroitin sulphate supplementation on enzymatic and oxidative markers in horses : In proceedings: Hippos2008 Belgium: International Congress of Equine Veterinarians and Farriers; 11-12th January 2008, Liège, Belgium; p.137. Marie DAIX, J.-F. BASTIN, Marianne RAES, Laetitia WIGGERS-COULON, Nathalie KIRSCHVINK Effect of chondroprotector or placebo on lameness score and matrix metalloproteinase activity in synovial fluid of ponies, in ICEL6 (6th International Conference on Equine Locomotion), Cabourg, France, 16-19 juin 2008. Marie DAIX, Laetitia WIGGERS-COULON, Samuel SCHLUSSE, Martine RAES, Nathalie KIRSCHVINK Effects of oral supplementation with glucosamine and chondroitin sulphate on F-2-Isoprostane concentration and enzymatic balance in IL-1-beta stimulated-chondrocytes, in Autum Meeting of the Belgian Society of fundamental and clinical Physiology and Pharmacology, 8/11/08, Woluwé, Belgium

6/ Marie DAIX, Laetitia WIGGERS-COULON, Nathalie KIRSCHVINK, Jean-Michel VANDEWEERD, Sam SCHULSSE Impact of in vivo nutraceutical supplementation in ponies on enzymatic and oxidative markers in synovial fluid and chondrocyte cultures, in Proceedings ECVS Congress, Helsinki, Finland, pp. 151-153 Samuel SCHLUSSE, Laetitia WIGGERS-COULON, Marie DAIX, Nathalie KIRSCHVINK Effects of an oral supplementation with glucosamine and chondroitin sulphate on MMP-2 activity in supernatants of IL-1B stimulated-equine chondrocytes, in Autum Meeting of the Belgian Society of fundamental and clinical Physiology and Pharmacology, 8/11/08, Woluwé, Belgium 7/ SCIPIONI A., DAMS L., DE MOFFARTS B., THIRY E. In vitro susceptibility of equine herpesvirus type 1 to two feed additives containing flavonoids. In proceedings: Hippos congres, Liège, Belgium, 2008. THIRY E., BARRANDEGUY M., FORTIER G, SCIPIONI A, DE MOFFARTS B., THIRY J., MUYLKENS B. Vaccination and antiviral therapy against equine herpesvirus infections: facts and expectancies. In proceedings: symposium “Giornata di aggiornamento sulla malattie infettive del cavallo – Equine infectious diseases: an update”, Verona, Italy, 2008. 8/ C. MIGNOT, B. DE MOFFARTS2, D. PIROTTIN1, C. MOLITOR1, P. LEKEUX 1, T. ART1 EFFET D’UN EFFORT JUSQU’A FATIGUE SUR LA RÉPONSE INFLAMMATOIRE PULMONAIRE CHEZ LE CHEVAL, AVEF 2011, Lyon, France. 9/ DE MOFFARTS B., KIRSCHVINK N., ART T., PINCEMAIL J., LEKEUX P. : Effect of oral antioxidant supplementation on blood antioxidant status in trained thoroughbred horses. Vet. J., 2005, 169, 65-74. 10/ VAN ERCK E., DE MOFFARTS B., LEKEUX P., KIRSCHVINK N. : Performance parameters but not oxidant-antioxidant equilibrium markers are modified in Standardbred horses with lower airway disease. In proceedings: 26th Annual Veterinary Comparative Respiratory Society Symposium, 2008, Oklahoma City, USA.

35


APPRAISAL XXXXX

COMPETITION

DIGESTIVE SYSTEM STOMACH

FIELD TEST/HORSE

Observation : Improvement of stomach condition of competition horses. Fast effect without waiting time.

PUBLICATION VAN ERCK E., DE MOFFARTS B., ART T., LEKEUX P. Management of gastric ulcers in sport horses using food. In Proceedings : 9è Congrès de Médecine et Chirurgie Equine. Genève, Suisse, Décembre 2005

36 _ HPH 2010/2011


OXIDATIVE STRESS OXIDANTS/ANTI-OXIDANTS

Observation : Improve the oxidative balance. Decrease of the risk of pathologies associated with the effort.

Award for the best post graduate Placebo

supplemented

Antioxidant marker linked to effort recuperation

master intitulated « effect of exercise on oxidative stress markers in trotters », foundation Thomas lermusiaux 2003

Top leverly discove Placebo

supplemented

Fat soluble antioxidant present in feed ration

PUBLICATIONS

FIELD TEST/HORSE

1/ LEKEUX P., DE MOFFARTS B. : Anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative feed ingredients. In : Applied Equine Nutrition, A. Lindner (Ed.), Equine Nutrition Conference (ENUCO), Hannover, Wageningen Academic Publishers : Wageningen, 2005, 115-126. DE MOFFARTS B., KIRSCHVINK N., PINCEMAIL J., LEKEUX P. : Impact physiologique et pathologique du stress oxydant chez le cheval. Ann. Méd. Vét., 2005, 149, 1-9. DE MOFFARTS B., KIRSCHVINK N., VAN ERCK E., ART T., PINCEMAIL J., LEKEUX P. : Assessment of the oxidant-antioxidant blood balance in a field exercise test in Standardbred and eventing horses. ECEP, 2005, 2, 253-261. DE MOFFARTS B., KIRSCHVINK N., ART T., PINCEMAIL J., LEKEUX P. : Effect of oral antioxidant supplementation on blood antioxidant status in trained thoroughbred horses. Vet. J., 2005, 169, 65-74. ART T., FRANCK T., LEKEUX P., DE MOFFARTS B., COUËTIL L., BECKER M., KOHNEN S., DEBY-DUPONT G., SERTEYN D.: Myeloperoxidase concentration in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from healthy horses and those with recurrent airway obstruction. Can. J. Vet. Res., 2006,70, 291-6.

KIRSCHVINK N., DE MOFFARTS B., FARNIR F., PINCEMAIL J., LEKEUX P. : Investigation of blood oxidant/antioxidant markers in healthy competition horses of different breeds. Equine Vet. J., 2006, Suppl. 36, 239-244. DELGUSTE C., DE MOFFARTS B., KIRSCHVINK N., ART T., PINCEMAIL J., DEFRAIGNE JO., AMORY H., LEKEUX P. : Change in blood antioxidant status of horses moved from a stable following diagnosis of equine motor neuron disease. Can Vet J. 2007, 48, 1165-7. VAN ERCK E., DE MOFFARTS B., LEKEUX P., KIRSCHVINK N. : Performance parameters but not oxidant-antioxidant equilibrium markers are modified in Standardbred horses with lower airway disease. In proceedings: 26th Annual Veterinary Comparative Respiratory Society Symposium, 2008, Oklahoma City, USA. KIRSCHVINK N., DE MOFFARTS B., LEKEUX P.: The oxidant/antioxidant equilibrium in horses. Vet. J., 2008, 177, 178-91. KIRSCHVINK N., LEKEUX P. : Antioxidants and horse health; In : Current Concepts of Equine Internal Medicine, edited by E.D. Robinson; 6th Edition 2008.

37


APPRAISAL XXXXX

COMPETITION

ENZYMATIC STRESS ENZYMES

Figure 4:

FIELD TEST/HORSE EX VIVO

Observation : Balance the enzymatic ratio by decreasing the enzymes of tissue destruction.

Articular MMP9 activity in vivo after 6 weeks oral supply

*

MMP9 activity (arbitrary * unit)

Articular

T0

Fore fetlock

Back fetlock

Stifle

tarsus

T0 = Before oral supply T6= After 6 weeks oral supply * Significant differences between group A and B, p<0.05

PUBLICATION DAIX M., BASTIN J.-F., RAES M., WIGGERS L., KIRSCHVINK N.: Effect of chondroprotector or placebo on lameness score and matrix metalloproteinase activity in synovial fluid of ponies. In proceedings: ICEL6 (6th International Conference on Equine Locomotion), Cabourg, France, 16-19 juin 2008

IMMUNITY INTERFERON

38 _ HPH 2010/2011

FIELD TEST HORSE

Observation : Reinforce defences of the body. Expression strengthened by immune genes.


INFLAMMATION

ISOPROSTANS

Figure 3:

F2-isoprostanes concentration in the chondrocyte supernate (ng/mL)

ex vivo F2-isoprostanes in the chondrocyte supernate coming from horses first orally supplied with the feed complement (with or without IL-1-beta for 6 or 24 hrs.)

*$

*

$

*

Observationâ&#x20AC;&#x2030;: Supplementation allowing reductions in inflammatory syndromes.

Control

$

*

A = G/CS B = Placebo p<0.05

Data presented in average Âą standard error *Significantly different from the respective value in group A p < 0.05 *$ Significantly different from the respective control value

FIELD TEST/HORSE

PUBLICATIONS FRAIPONT A., DE MOFFARTS B., LEKEUX P., ART. T. : Effects of a fatty acid-enriched antioxidant supplement on markers of cellular damage, oxidative and inflammatory stress in endurance horses. In proceedings: WEVA congres, Moscou, Russia, 2008 LEKEUX P., DE MOFFARTS B. : Anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative feed ingredients. In : Applied Equine Nutrition, A. Lindner (Ed.), Equine Nu-

trition Conference (ENUCO), Hannover, Wageningen Academic Publishers : Wageningen, 2005, 115-126. Marie DAIX, Laetitia WIGGERS-COULON, Martine RAES, Nathalie KIRSCHVINK Effect of in vivo glucosamine and chondroitin sulphate supplementation on F2-isoprostane production in equine chondrocyte cultures, in Oxygen and Reactive Oxygen Species - BSCDB - FNRS Meeting, pp. 10-10

39


APPRAISAL XXXXX

COMPETITION

ENDURANCE Observation : Improve anti-oxidant capacities Maintains a good blood circulation Stabilize the cardiac frequencies.

PUBLICATION

FIELD TEST/HORSE

FRAIPONT A., DE MOFFARTS B., LEKEUX P., ART. T. : Effects of a fatty acid-enriched antioxidant supplement on markers of cellular damage, oxidative and inflammatory stress in endurance horses. In proceedings: WEVA congres, Moscou, Russia, 2008

EVENTING MEMBRANE FLUIDITY Observation : Delay the stiffening of red blood cells membrane . Improve inflammatory status of horses Maintains low cardiac frequencies.

Best scientific presentation in Geneva congress 2005 Best research work submitted in AVEF 2005

PUBLICATION

FIELD TEST/HORSE

PORTIER K., DE MOFFARTS B., FELLMANN N., KIRSCHVINK N., MOTTA C., LETELLIER C., RUELLAND A., VAN ERCK E., LEKEUX P., COUDERT J. : The effects of dietary N-3 and antioxidant supplementation on erythrocyte membrane fatty acid composition and fluidity in exercising horses. Equine Vet. J., 2006, Suppl. 36, 279-284. DE MOFFARTS B., PORTIER K., KIRSCHVINK N., COUDERT J., FELLMANN N., VAN ERCK E., LETELLIER C., MOTTA C., PINCEMAIL J., ART T., LEKEUX P. :Effects of exercise and oral antioxidant supplementation enriched in (n-3) Fatty Acids on blood oxidant markers and erythrocyte membrane fluidity in horses, Vet J., 2007, 174, 113-21.

40 _ HPH 2010/2011

DE MOFFARTS B., PORTIER K., KIRSCHVINK N., COUDERT J., FELLMANN N., MOTTA C., PINCEMAIL J., LEKEUX P. : Effect of an oral antioxidant supplementation enriched in (n-3) fatty acids on erythrocyte membrane fluidity in horses. In Proceedings : 9è Congrès de Médecine et Chirurgie Equine, Genève, Suisse, Décembre 2005, 165-166. PORTIER K., DE MOFFARTS B., FELLMANN N., KIRSCHVINK N., MOTTA C., PINCEMAIL J., LEKEUX P., COUDERT J. : Stress oxydant et fluidité membranaire du globule rouge du cheval athlète : effets de l’exercice et de la complémentation en antioxydant. In Proceedings : Congrès Annuel A.V.E.F., Angers, Octobre 2005, 471-472.


FLAT AND STEEPLECHASE RED BLOOD CELLS Observation : Influence production of red blood cells Fast kinetics of absorption.

1 FIELD TEST/HORSE

RATIO TIME TO FATIGUE/LACTIC ACID

Observation : Improves effort resistance and decrease production of lactic acid. Mimics the effect of training.

TREADMILL TEST/HORSE

PUBLICATION 1/ B. de Moffarts. Optimisation des paramètres hématologiques chez le cheval de sport sain. HPH 04/05, 34-37

41


APPRAISAL XXXXX

COMPETITION

TROTTING PERFORMANCE OXIDATIVE STRESS MARKERS

FIELD TEST / HORSE

PUBLICATIONS VAN ERCK E., DE MOFFARTS B., LEKEUX P., KIRSCHVINK N. : Performance parameters but not oxidant-antioxidant equilibrium markers are modified in Standardbred horses with lower airway disease. In proceedings: 26th Annual Veterinary Comparative Respiratory Society Symposium, 2008, Oklahoma City, USA.

42 _ HPH 2010/2011

Observation : Partial correction of muscular disorders, oxidative stress and inflammatory phenomena to trotters.


SUMMARY

TWYDIL ®

NOVELTY IN THE FIELD

OF PREBIOTICS A

prebiotic is a non-digestible fermentable food that stimulates the development and activity of useful intestinal flora inside the colon and improves the well-being and health condition of a subject who consumes it (Roberfroid et al., 2010). FOS or fructo-oligosaccharides are complex sugars composed of fructose chains and a glucose ending. In the right amount, these FOS show a confirmed prebiotic activity in horses. Here are the effects of FOS in horses when used in the right selection and dose: • Improvement of the microbic quality of the horse feces • Decrease in the risk of colic • Optimisation of fermentation and stabilisation of the pH • Helps to prevent dysbacteriosis following a change in feeding • May help reduce the risk of gastric ulcers • Potential improvement of the quality of the colostrum

Recently, a study was carried out on obese horses with a high risk of metabolic syndromes (such as laminitis etc.). The result showed that the FOS given to them could influence positively their insulin status.

CONCLUSIONS

FOS definitely represent a first-choice tool in the management of intestinal well being and the health condition of horses. TWYDIL® products with a specific contribution to the gastric wellbeing of horses TWYDIL® GROWING TWYDIL® STUD TWYDIL® HEMOPAR TWYDIL® CALMIN TWYDIL® MUCOPROTECT TWYDIL® VIGORADE

PUBLICATIONS E. L. Berg, C. J. Fu, J. H. Porter, and M. S. Kerley Fructooligosaccharide supplementation in the yearling horse: Effects on fecal pH, microbial content, and volatile fatty acid concentrations. J. Anim. Sci. 2005. 83:1549–1553 V. Julliand. Impact of nutrition on the microflora of the gastro-intestinal tract in horses.in proceeding: ENUCO 2005, 85-103 F. Respondek, A. G. Goachet, and V. Julliand Effects of dietary short-chain fructooligosaccharides on the intestinal microflora of horses subjected to a sudden change in diet. J. Anim. Sci. 2008. 86:316–323 Respondek F, Myers K, Smith TL, Wagner A, Geor RJ.

Dietary supplementation with short-chain fructo-oligosaccharides improves insulin sensitivity in obese horses. J Anim Sci. 2011 Jan;89(1):77-83 Roberfroid M, Gibson GR, Hoyles L, McCartney AL, Rastall R, Rowland I, Wolvers D, Watzl B, Szajewska H, Stahl B, Guarner F, Respondek F, Whelan K, Coxam V, Davicco MJ, Léotoing L, Wittrant Y, Delzenne NM, Cani PD, Neyrinck AM, Meheust A. Prebiotic effects: metabolic and health benefits. Br J Nutr. 2010 Aug;104 Suppl 2:S1-63

43


TWYDIL XXXXX ®

DROMEDARIES

RACING CAMELS AND ITS DEVELOPMENT PHASES ROBOTS RIDE FEMALES WHO ARE FASTER THAN MALES! BY DR. JAHANGIR AKBAR DIRECTOR, DUBAI CAMEL HOSPITAL

F

or many centuries camels have been an integrated part of life of a Bedouin. It has been both a means of transport and their livelihood, i.e., its milk, meat and skin were all used and transport relied on camels shifting people from places to places, oasis to oasis. Festive occasions were another part of their activity bringing excitement and the prospect of winning in camel racing for both young and adults over a known distance. People of the Arabian Gulf have experienced a

44 _ HPH 2010/2011

rapid change in their lifestyle. Previously, their commercial activities such as fishing, trading pearls extracted from the sea, agriculture in the oases and a small level of ship-building were rather limited. But now, because of oil exports, there has been a huge influx of wealth in the region. Breeding camels for racing purposes has continued unabated. Camels are known as “The Ships of the Desert” and now it is very evident in organized breeding yards and race tracks how they participate in competitive races.


PRIZES GIVEN ARE IN THE FORM OF EXPENSIVE CARS.

The Camel Racing Instituteâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s prizes have increased 100-fold since the use of lightweight robots due to the involvement of large sums of money purchasing prizes. Prizes given are in the form of expensive cars, i.e., Mercedes, BMWs, Land Cruisers; a total of 20 of different brands of cars; gold cups, watches, ornaments, daggers, prestigious swords and many others. Most of the race-enthusiast countries like the U.A.E., Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Bahrain have built their racetracks in big cities. Racing seasons start in October and continue to April. Young camels aged 18 months to 2 years old, race during the summer. Throughout the summer seasons, small racing tracks are kept busy with the buying and auctioning of these camels. Selection is not done by pedigree but is based on actual track performance and which camel achieved the best timings for at least two races.

ALL JOCKEYS WERE REPLACED WITH A MODIFIED ROBOT!

From the 1970s to 2000s, the style of racing has been revolutionised. Earlier, small jockeys sat on the backs of the camels having walky-talky radios on their arms. A lot of cars travelled alongside, inside which were the race trainer and the camel owner, giving directions to the jockey: when to whip the camel or make noises to encourage it to run faster. Most of the VIPs were seated in the grandstand. There were live telecasts and watching the Big Screen of the TV. After 2005, new Rules were implemented in which all jockeys were replaced by modified robots with similar instructions given through a remote control by the trainer or owner to whip whenever required.

U.A.E. has a major share in contributing to camel racing. Each Emirate has its own racing committee, framing the Rules & Regulations for the conduct of races. Major events of Final Races start from Dubai, where at least 5000 camels participate in the 8-Day Camel Festival. After 20 days, the Festival moves to Abu Dhabi, then to Qatar and a smaller number of participants in Kuwait and Bahrain. In Saudi Arabia long distance races are also popular and are conducted in the desert where the King and other Rulers attend Sprint races for adults can also be organized over shorter distances. After completing the race, the first three camels are presented for the collection samples for forensic testing. Success is generally related to successful selection of breeding from known stallions; either by natural breeding or by embryo transplant. 45


Traditional dance performed by local men during the opening ceremony of the races.

Cross-breeds and pure breeds have separate races, in which the sample will be taken for DNA tests whenever verification of camel stallion is needed.

FEMALES ARE USUALLY FASTER THAN THE MALES!

Camels can continue racing until the age of 10 to 12 years. Upon reaching the age of 12, they are located to a breeding station. Generally, 80% of the breeding camels are female. They are usually faster by 30 seconds than the males and more manageable. A good young adult female completes 8Km in 12 minutes and 40 seconds which is an excellent time achieved by adopting good exercise practices, better breeding and providing a balanced nutrition. Generally, races are conducted at two times â&#x20AC;&#x201C; morning and evening. After the race, camels are presented for collection of the blood and urine samples for forensic testing. Generally, a policy of zero- medication is observed

46 _ HPH 2010/2011

Sheikhsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; delightful moments with H.H. Sh. Hamdan Bin Mohammed Al Maktoum, Crown Prince of Dubai

throughout the Gulf States. There is great scope in the area of exercise and more research is required to investigate the different diseases and the use of different treatments for the wellbeing of the species. Traditional feeding, fresh alfalfa, barley, milk, honey and other feed materials, together with vitamins and minerals as joint supplements are fed to the camels according to the quantity they need. If the camel is regarded as half-horse, halfcattle, with certain anatomic and activity functions similar to ruminants, we find benefits in racing. Gastro-intestinal problems are the major concern area on a daily basis. In racing seasons, competitive activity increases considerably. Therefore, stress triggers low immunity and leads to epidemic influenza-like sickness. Symptoms appear and respond accordingly to antibiotic treatments. Lameness, joint problem and fractures are also very common.


Competitive racing – Sh. Hamdan’s camel (blue jockey) hits the finish line. VIPs and Sheikhs escort the camels from inside their cars.

Endoscopy being conducted at the Dubai Camel Hospital.

In the U.A.E., as well as in the other Gulf States, camel racing is reaching the level of a national industry involving the mobilization of labour, capital and different institutions.

TODAY, CAMEL RACING HAS BECOME A MULTI-MILLION DOLLAR INDUSTRY!

Modern communication means, i.e., T.V., radio, newspaper, magazines, etc., play a vital role in promoting camel racing among young and old. Even young boys after completing their formal education would love to raise and manage camels because if they are able to sell 3 to 4 camels, they know they can have a better annual income. Today, camel racing has become a multi-million industry backed by the Royals and a great institution of the local people.

Camels returning back to their yards with the saffron being sprayed on its back upon winning.

Racing General Rules: Category Male & Female

AGE GROUPS 3 years 4 years 5 km distance 6 km distance

5 years Adult 8 km distance 8 km distance

DR JAHANGIR AKBAR

1980: graduated in Veterinary Science, Lahore, Pakistan. Scholarship for post graduation in the field of Veterinary Pathology. 1980-1983 : technical advisor for the Poultry & Feeds for Punjab Feeds. 1983-1985: lecturer at the College of Veterinary Sciences & Animal Reproduction Dept., Lahore. 1985: in-charge of the Dubai Camel Hospital, now the Director. 2000: co-authored the book, “Camel and Its Diseases”, a book that could be used as a textbook because it comprises systemwise discussing system of the animal. Research on exercise induced pulmonary hemorrhage in racing camels. 47


TWYDIL

®

UNITED ARAB EMIRATES Mike De Kock, world-famous trainer with Philippe Henry and Dr Ilyas, TWYDIL® distributor in the Emirates.

KUWAIT ITALY Left to right: Alessandro Bovolenta from Qualifarma (TWYDIL® distributor in Italy), Rita Montalbano (TWYDIL® delegate in Italy) and Frank Boetto, trainer of Arabian horses.

AUSTRALIA Dr Darren Arnold of Giddyup Performance Products, TWYDIL® distributor in Australia and New Zealand. 48 _ HPH 2010/2011

Sheikh Khaled received Philippe Henry and Dr Brieuc de Moffarts.

JAPAN Trainer Tanaka and his wife with Bénédicte Maemoto, TWYDIL® Japan and Valère Henry.


®

IN THE WORLD

Doug Watson, American trainer in Dubai receiving directions from JAPAN Trainer Ninomya with his champion Nakayama Festa and Valère Henry, President TWYDIL®

Dr Brieuc de Moffarts and Dr Ilyas. PORTUGAL Marina Frutuoso de Melo 5-times Portugese jumping Champion with Luis Cunha, TWYDIL® distributor in Portugal and Philippe Henry.

FRANCE Christian Bigeon, famous trainer of standardbred in the company of Valère Henry, TWYDIL® President at exhibition Etalon in Vincennes before the ‘Prix d’Amérique’.

UK Edward Dunlop discussing with Philippe Henry during the morning work in Newmarket.

49


SPELL

AUSTRALIA

A DOWNUNDER DILEMMA DR DARREN P ARNOLD BSC BVMS MRCVS

T

he Australian horse industry is one of the biggest industries of the Australian economy adding over $8 billion AUD to the GDP each year. Australia has a proud horse industry history in numerous disciplines from multiple Olympic gold medal winning 3 day event teams to currently having the highest rated sprinting thoroughbred in the world the unbeaten Black Caviar and 3 of the top 7 thoroughbreds worldwide coming from our shores. To protect this industry our quarantine and border controls are extremely stringent and even following the first ever Equine Influenza outbreak in August 2007 the disease was subsequently controlled and eradicated in Australia within just 4 months.

50 _ HPH 2010/2011

Now the Australian horse industry faces the possibility of a devastating disease, and this historically safe haven of Australia is faced with its own home grown deadly disease that is unique to our shores. The fact that this disease is transmittable to humans and now apparently other species such as dogs is an extreme worry for all individuals who work and play within the Australian horse industry. Hendra virus was first isolated in 1994 after investigation into an outbreak of unexplained disease in a racing stable in a Northern Brisbane suburb of Hendra. The outbreak resulted in the death of 13 horses and subsequent death of the trainer and serious illness of a stable hand. A further 7 horses with evidence


Black Caviar unbeaten in 13 race life starts including 4 Group One and 2 Group 2 events in her last 6 runs.

of exposure to the virus were destroyed in an attempt to control the spread of the disease. Shortly after this outbreak researchers isolated and characterised the virus and developed tests to identify the virus in both animals and humans. The researchers also identified the likely source of the virus and the possible association with the Australian fruit bat or â&#x20AC;&#x153;flying foxâ&#x20AC;?. Hendra virus is carried by the flying fox a species of bat that are mammalian and give birth to live young and suckle them. Over 60 different types of bats occur in Australia however, only 8 eat fruit and flowers and are thus known as fruit bats or the flying fox . The bats congregate in camps ; these are places where the large flying-foxes gather during the day, sometimes in many thousands.

Along the coast they may be in mangroves, further inland they are often in deep gullies or rainforest patches, and west of the Dividing Range they are usually along water-courses. Their location may be known only to a few local people. The same campsites tend to be used year after year, although not necessarily every year, or all year round. The largest of the flying foxes may have a wingspan of over 1m and thus can travel large distances in search of food these bats have a massive potential to spread Hendra virus quickly and over a wide area. Currently Hendra virus has only been confirmed in Queensland and New South Wales. However, the widespread area of flying fox colonies means that the entire east coast of 51


SPELL

AUSTRALIA Australia is susceptible to the disease. Unfortunately over 80% of the Australian population lives in this area as well. Hendra virus has a close relation that emerged in Malaysia initially affecting pigs and humans called the Nipah virus; both belong to a category of the Paramyxoviride family ,the Henipaviruses. Both these viruses are distinguished from other members of the family by their ability to infect a broad range of species and fatally infect both animals and humans. Over 240 deaths in Malaysia, Singapore, Bangladesh and India have been linked to the Nipah virus. Malaysia has banned all animal importation from Australia currently citing Hendra virus as the reason under fear that Hendra may be transported and enter their own bat population. The virus is spread from bats to horses by direct contact of, or likely inadvertent ingestion of, infected fluids from the bats on contaminated foodstuffs. The clinical signs exhibited by horses with Hendra virus are extremely varied making definitive diagnosis only pos-

sible through laboratory tests. All sick horses encountered now in NSW and Queensland must be treated with caution by owners, veterinarians and stable hands especially if there is a known fruit bat (Flying Fox) colony in the area. Horses with the disease present with anything from pyrexia and acute illness with respiratory distress to low grade colic. Neurologic signs such as ataxia, circling, twitching,head tilting etc. may be encountered with rapid deterioration frothy nasal discharge and death. Human infection is an influenza-like illness (which led to pneumonia in one case) with symptoms such as fever, cough, sore throat, headache and tiredness and/or encephalitis (inflammation of the brain) with symptoms such as headache, high fever, and drowsiness, which progressed to convulsions and/or coma and death. Time from exposure of a person to a sick horse until the start of illness in humans has been between 5 and 21 days.

Veterinarians now need to take extra precautions when called to treat horses.

52 _ HPH 2010/2011


FLYING FOX DISTRIBUTION IN AUSTRALIA

Currently 7 known cases of human infection have been identified resulting in 4 deaths, all of these infections have been in individuals that have had extremely close contact with infected horses eg veterinarians, veterinarian nurses, horse trainers etc. and came into contact with either secretions from an infected horse or blood. Bat to human infection has not been reported and appears to be unlikely. 2011 has been the worse year for Hendra virus outbreaks with 19 horses contracting the disease since 20th June. The reason for the increase in infection rates is not completely understood but may be linked to the devastating floods encountered in Queensland earlier this year resulting in a shortage of fruit crops and placing stress on the bats through malnutrition and overcrowding in colonies. Many people have called for culling or eradication of bat colonies however, this in itself

BIBLIOGRAPHY

could have ecological knock on effects as the bats are critical for pollination of Australian forests. Experts advise that if we start killing, we’ll start losing our forest and thus may actually intensify and further stress bat colonies increasing disease outbreaks. Currently a vaccine is being developed and it is reported it should be available by early 2012, it is only hoped that the vaccine will be successful and that this deadly disease can be controlled for both the safety of human inhabitants and the horse industry of Australia.

DR DARREN P ARNOLD BSC BVMS MRCVS Has been an equine veterinarian for 17 years, with a vast array of experience in sport and pleasure horses having worked in Europe (Cambridge , Suffolk and Ireland), Australia and Asia. Dr Arnold’s experiences in racetrack and sport horse practice, radiology and surgery has given him a wide range of patients to use TWYDIL® products upon over the last 4 years in varied countries and climatic conditions. Dr Arnold has been so impressed with the TWYDIL® range and their efficacy that he co-founded the company GIDDYUP PERFORMANCE PRODUCTS to work as an exclusive distributor in Australia and New Zealand for the TWYDIL® range.

Hess IM, Massey PD, Walker B, Middleton DJ, Wright TM. Hendra virus: what do we know? N S W Public Health Bull. 2011;22(5-6):118-22. Paterson BJ, Mackenzie JS, Durrheim DN, Smith D. A review of the epidemiology and surveillance of viral zoonotic encephalitis and the impact on human health in Australia. N S W Public Health Bull. 2011; 22(5-6):99-104. Plowright RK, Foley P, Field HE, Dobson AP, Foley JE, Eby P, Daszak P. Urban habituation, ecological connectivity and epidemic dampening: the emergence of Hendra virus from flying foxes (Pteropus spp.). Proc Biol Sci. 2011 11. Vigant F, Lee B. Hendra and nipah infection: pathology, models and potential therapies. Infect Disord Drug Targets. 2011 ;11(3):315-36. Tulsiani SM, Graham GC, Moore PR, Jansen CC, Van Den Hurk AF, Moore FA, Simmons RJ, Craig SB. Emerging tropical diseases in Australia. Part 5. Hendra virus. Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 2011;105(1):1-11.

53


TWYDIL® AT INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITIONS AND CONVENTIONS

DUBAÏ EXPOSITION AL FARES 2010 Valère Henry, President interviewed by Dubai television.

Sheikh Hasher Maktoum Bin Juma Al Maktoum visiting TWYDIL® at the inauguration of the exposition.

Mahmood Al Zarooni, Godolphin trainer, with the TWYDIL® team.

SWITZERLAND

As the start of a regular event the TWYDIL® SCIENTIFIC EQUINE CLINICS welcomed the Swiss equine veterinarians in Berne (Switzerland) in April 2011.

54 _ HPH 2010/2011


AUSTRALIA

2009: Dr Richard Corde (AVEF) controlling the correct drawing of the winner of the TWYDIL® contest the 1st Prize being a Hublot Swiss Watch (CHF 10’000.-).

Conference in Adelaïde of Dr Brieuc de Moffarts, Scientific Director TWYDIL®.

FRANCE

CONGRESS OF THE EQUINE VETERINARIANS (AVEF) 2010: Dr Richard Corde (AVEF) and Valère Henry, President TWYDIL® with Dr Charly Leyder winner of the TWYDIL® contest, receiving an art work of Ada Loumani.

Two young French vets on TWYDIL® stand.

Marion François, TWYDIL® agent in France with Valère Henry and Dr. Roger Crozet

55


TWYDIL XXXXX ®

EQUINE GERIATRICS

EQUINE GERIATRICS TODAY’S REALITY, TOMORROW’S ACTIVITY BY DR ROGER CROZET

56 _ HPH 2010/2011


PART ONE

DEMOGRAPHY

D

o you know that the world’s oldest horse was called “Big Billy”? He was born in 1760 and died on November 27, 1822 aged 62. He was certainly an exception. But the demographic evolution of the equine population shows a clear increase in the number of aged horses. Now, the question is: when should a horse be called aged? There are different ways to determine when a horse is old. One is to consider chronology or physiology (functionality) which varies from horse to horse, their genetic heritage and their environmental exposure (Timiras et al., 2005). Another one is demographic age for which an “old horse” is the survivor of a horse population in which at least 25% are dead and a “very old horse” is one of the 25% survivors of a given horse population. A census of aged horses worldwide is impossible. However, it seems obvious that their life expectancy is increasing based on data from the geriatric treatments provided by vets. A British study (Ireland et al., 2011) has shown that horses under 15 represent 29% of the equine population in the regions researched and – though no age pyramid can be drawn due to missing statistical data – over 20% of veterinary examinations are carried out on horses at least 15 years old. Mellor et al., 1999 mention about 300,000 horses and ponies older than 15 living in Great Britain within an overall population of 1,330,000 horses – a significant indication similar to the situation in France. In the US, the percentage of aged horses is much lower. There is an error ratio due to horses without passports because age determination based on teeth wear is inaccurate beyond 15 years of age. Most of the time, horse owners do take personal care of their aged horses and – if possible – they prefer keeping them at home on pasture or in a paddock during the day and in a box at night. Some horse owners continue to take part in race competitions with their aged horses while most of them think that their aged horses should enjoy active retirement with walks with or without riding, tethering, and little exercise.

post-professional life as their reward, in their owner’s opinion. Alternatively, these horses may be given fodder containing meal or grain and appropriate feeding supplements (mainly vitamins, dietary minerals, digestion regulators and antiosteoarthritis support). Manufacturers propose senior horse feeding which is easily digestible and assimilable with less sodium to limit water retention, long fibres or not for a better intestinal, rich in biotin, zinc, omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids for better hoof condition, and rich in fats and proteins to ensure sufficient coverage of the horses’ needs and compensate low consumption. Aged horses are treated more and more as pets in our societies. Their owners finance their retirement and their age related medical care in the same way they do for the human members of their family. However, owners tend to underestimate their aged horses’ health problems and/ or have some difficulties to identify them accurately. A visit to the veterinary clinic shows almost always a clear difference between the real geriatric condition of the horses and their owners’ opinion. Most neglected pathologies are: dental anomalies, heartrate problems, and leg and hoof ailments. Such ignorance causes delays in treatment and can impair the horses’ well-being. The vets’ guild informs and trains horse owners and recommends regular controls. Equine geriatrics as a branch of veterinary medicine is becoming progressively a specialisation on its own, and expert centres are setting up to host these old companions of ours.

Aged horses’ feeding has always been different from the feeding they received during their sporting career. Ideally, they should be grazing on good pasture in their 57


TWYDIL XXXXX ® EQUINE GERIATRICS

PART TWO

AGED HORSES’ DISEASES Unfortunately, there are very few publications on equine geriatrics and on animal gerontology although the number of veterinary visits for aged horses has increased six-fold in the last 10 years. Nonetheless, the following publication should be mentioned here: J. Bertone: Equine Geriatric Medicine and Surgery Insurance companies lead the way by extending the term of contractual health coverage for aged horses in order to motivate horse owners to provide appropriate treatment for their aged horses. While a decrease in flu and tetanus vaccination for retired horses can be noticed, as a whole, vermifugation programmes are maintained. The most common – and serious – mistake is the discontinuation or the irregularity of visits to the farrier, causing aged horses to be left with unprotected hooves. This leads to quarter cracks, sand cracks, abscesses, laminitis, horn deterioration and conformation problems. Fortunately, horse owners pay adequate attention to the mouth care of their horses since about 75% of aged horses are visited yearly by a dental technician or (as is more and more the case) by a vet. Here is a list of aging signs often noticed by keepers of aged horses: joint stiffness, muscular meltdown, coat turning grey, diminishing eyesight, irregular appetite, obesity, hollow back, sagging of the fetlock joints, ptosis of the lower lip, deterioration of the teeth, chronic coughing, rhinorrhoea, deeper supraorbital depression, rheum, quidding (keeping unchewed fodder in the mouth), soft dung. In his or her examination of these symptoms, a vet must distinguish between natural age-related signs and possible pathological signs, and issue a geriatric heath report showing the connections between aging and disease. Prognosis and medical reaction are subject to some error ratio that must be explained to the horse owner.

FEEDING

Aging horses show nutritional needs similar to those of young horses, i.e. 12%-16% protein, 7%-10% fat, at least 12% fibres, and a good quality and ratio phosphorus-calcium, with less than 1% calcium in the feeding, to balance possible kidney or gall stone occurrences. The feed must be easy to chew – due to aged horse’s dental anomalies – and easy to digest. Manufacturers propose “senior”, extruded (pre-digested) horse products designed for better assimilation. Vegetable oil – 1 or 2 cups 58 _ HPH 2010/2011

daily – may be gradually added to the feed for supplementary calories. A good body score is essential, because obesity leads to laminitis and thinness to anaemia and to a higher sensitivity to infections and cold.

DIGESTIVE TRACT

Dentistry is important for aged horses: problems such as a sore mouth, bad digestion etc. lead to even bigger problems. Besides the annual teeth-filing, a vet must pay special attention to periodontal diseases (gingival hyperaemia, gingival erosion or ulceration, periodontal pockets including feed jam, lysis of the alveolar bone), diastema, malocclusions, abnormal wear and loss of teeth, tooth decay and abscesses. Endoparasite-controlling programmes vary regionally and following the hosting conditions of the horses, i.e. frequent, seasonal or annual rotation. The best thing to do is to carry out periodic coproscopic examinations. Colic is the primary cause of mortality among horses under 20; and the second beyond this age. Age reduces intestinal peristalsis, intestinal enzymatic activity and the absorption capacity of the enterocytes of the mucous membrane. Oesophagus anomalies (ulceration, obstruction, striction, perforation and diverticulum) as well as gastro-duodenal ulcerations are frequently found. Aged horses’ small intestines may be impaired with an entrapment in the epiploic foramen or with a strangulation or a pedunculated lipoma. Impairments of the large intestine are (caecal) impaction and volvulus; the descending colon may be obstructed. Neoplasms of the digestive tract increase significantly with age.

LOCOMOTOR SYSTEM

With increasing age there is a decline in the muscular mass and strength, the aerobic capacity, the number of muscular fibres and the muscular vascularisation. The anabolism-catabolism ratio is inverted and the anti-oxidant response becomes weaker; one additional cause of this is reduced physical activity. Slow articular degeneration leads to osteoarthrosis including a deterioration of the joint cartilage, synovitis, a diminishing quality of the synovial liquid, osteophytosis and sclerosis of the cartilaginous bone in combination with huge and complex biochemical and biomechanical changes. It is necessary to control inflammation in order to protect the rest of the horse’s body


and the horse as a whole against physiological and mental stress. Tendons and ligaments also experience alteration. The matricial structure, vascularisation as well as the conjunctive tissue’s elasticity decrease. The spine may show lesions of stiff osteoarthritis and of deforming spondylosis. All these chronic pathologies call for adequate physical exercise, well designed feeding as well as oral supplementation.

CARDIOLOGY

The population of aged horses is exposed to a higher risk of aortic valvular failure most often caused by infections, including fibrous infiltration – which however is not very harmful. On the contrary, mitral failures, neoplasia and aortico-cardiac fistulas are in general not caused by increasing age.

kidney tumours. There are often urinary infections and incontinence, rarely some bladder stones and hematuria.

NEUROLOGY

Most horses become quieter with age, less excitable and less careful as their responses slow down. Their neurological condition is also disturbed by osteo-articular pathologies. Different kinds of hypersomnia caused by pain, monotony, environmental insecurity may occur. Aging increases the risks of motoneuronal diseases for horses. Furthermore, they may be affected by narcolepsia. In human medicine, experts are working on the hypothesis that this may be linked to some vaccine stem cells.

RESPIRATORY TRACT

Horses’ most frequent pulmonary disease heaves with coughing, dyspnoea, rhinorrhoea, and a chronic respiratory discordance. Infectious pneumonia is also a serious problem of aging horses. Lung cancer is rare but must be considered in the differential diagnosis.

OPHTHALMOLOGY

Some eye-related pathologies come with increasing age. These are senile retinopathy, proliferative optic neuropathy, degeneration of the vitreous humour, and cataract. Furthermore, there are conjunctival infections, corneal infections, glaucoma, tumour etc. It is estimated that 80% of all horses over 15 show ophthalmologic lesions.

NEOPLASIA

The most common neoplasias are sarcoids, squamous-cell carcinomas, melanomas and lipomas. It is not only the skin of aged horses that is affected but also their eyes, their oral cavity, and their sinuses. An increase in thyroidal and hypophysal adenomas can also be mentioned here.

ENDOCRINOLOGY

Thyroidal dysfunctions may cause obesity, laminitis, sterility (hypo) or thinness and polyphagia (hyper). Hypophysal dysfunctions cause hirsutism, hyperglycaemia, polyuria, plydipsia, chronic laminitis and refer to the Cushing’s disease – which is different from equine metabolic syndrome (overweight, laminitis).

UROLOGY

Kidney failures are caused by chronic tubulointerstitial disease or – more often – by glomerulonephritis followed by loss of weight and of appetite. Carcinomas are the classic

PART THREE

A LOVELY RETIREMENT HOME In the past, euthanasia was the next place for horses after their commercial and sport value had decreased – without being a shock for anyone. Since those times there has been a social refusal to kill horses still in good healthy condition. At last! Here is a very interesting example of a retirement home for aged horses showing an original view of their well-being there.

BIBLIOGRAPHY Timiras PS, Yaghmaie F, Saeed O, Thung E, Chinn G. The ageing phenome: caloric restriction and hormones promote neural cell survival, growth, and dedifferentiation. Mech Ageing Dev. 2005, 126 :3-9. Ireland JL, Clegg PD, McGowan CM, McKane SA, Pinchbeck GL. A cross-sectional study of geriatric horses in the United Kingdom. Part 2: Health care and disease. Equine Vet J. 2011, 43 :37-44. Mellor DJ, Love S, Gettinby G, Reid SW. Demographic characteristics of the equine population of northern Britain. Vet Rec. 1999, 145 :299-304. J Bertone, Equine Geriatric Medicine and Surgery, 2006, W.B.SAUNDERS Elsevier

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TWYDIL XXXXX ®

OLD HORSES

PRACTICAL EXPERIENCES

WITH TRAINING, EXERCISE AND REHABILITATION OF SPORT HORSES IN CROSS-GENERATION-HERD HUSBANDRY BY KURT FUCHS

F

irst of all, I would like to give you a short presentation of our family business. Les Dannes is located in the east of France near the German and Swiss borders. Approximately 250 horses live on our pastureland of altogether 300 ha in different groups – the largest one having 60 horses. Here is the highlight: a herd is composed of different horse generations. The herds are grouped by gender and not by age. This husbandry concept is not an invention of ours; rather, we followed nature’s good example, took a close look at the horses themselves and came out with the right knowledge about their needs. Our objective is to provide them with breeding conditions that are as close as possible to their natural way of living. This includes sufficient grazing land for feeding and physical mobility, fresh air and climatic stimuli as well as socialising with other generations within the group. We have gathered a lot of corresponding experiences for the last 15 years and found out how beneficial this kind of husbandry can be for sport horses as well.

60 _ HPH 2010/2011

KINDERGARTEN AND PRIMARY SCHOOL

Horses learn from other horses! That is the principle and basis of our husbandry concept. On most breeding farms, young horses grow up today in same-generation groups. That is an unnatural situation. Rather, our experiences agree with the ethological analyses as described for example. by zoologist Dr. Iris Bachmann: “Horse groups in the wild consist of different generations.” We too noticed no strict hierarchy in the herds. Contrary to smaller groups of less then 10 horses, herds develop rather a dynamic of social networking in subgroups. These family units provide a stable social structure which is beneficial to younger and older horses as well. Same-age foals are important playmates for one another, but older horses are also significantly useful to them. The experienced herd members support through their behaviour the learning process of the younger ones; they represent good examples and can correct the misbehaviour of the younger generations. All this constitutes the prerequisites of a successful socialisation of the young horses and makes


them what horses are: friendly and gregarious animals. Without experienced herd members, there is practically a missing link in the horses’ social structure. The young horses must then care for themselves in various situations and the challenge may be sometimes too great for them. We must not forget that foals go through many strenuous experiences after their weaning, for example, the loss of their mother, parting from their familiar environment and from their early group members as well as changes in their breeding and feeding conditions. Dr. Iris Bachmann emphasized these problems in her presentation at the FFP-conference in Les Dannes with the indication that obviously many horses between 6 months and 3 years of age show behavioural disorders like cribbing or weaving. According to Dr. Bachmann, such stereotypies are understood as expressing the horses’ insufficient adaptability and would often be caused by a so-called initial trauma. In Les Dannes, we carry out the weaning as carefully as possible. Ideally, the pregnant mare is brought to us some time before the foal is weaned. Some horse owners bring us the mare and the foal together for the weaning and leave them with us for some additional months. The mothers’ presence makes their familiarisation easier for young horses and aids their socialising and connecting with members of the new group. Our experience has shown that the later parting occurs under much more relaxed circumstances for the mare and the foal.

HIGH SCHOOL

The true importance of a good socialisation periods becomes manifest at the latest with the first training with a rider. We experience this personally and we receive also a lot of positive feedback from horse owners who take home their 4 year-old horses for breaking-in or after breaking-in. Well socialised horses are not only physically but also emotionally fit. Working with them is unproblematic. However, we break in no horse under 4 years of age. Meanwhile, our children Stefanie, Janine and Andi are fully involved in the business. This makes training and sports particularly relevant for us. All the children are very good at show jumping. They impress their audience at competitions not only with their extraordinary calmness but also with their horses’ dedication to performance. As a matter of fact, the active show-horses live in herd units just like all other horses.

IN GOOD COMPANY

The familiarisation of newcomers is most of the time unproblematic – even for horses coming from conventional box-husbandry. First, a particularly good-natured horse from the herd spends a few days with the newcomer on a pasture near the group. Then both are integrated into the group. Most group members hardly notice the presence of the newcomer. Besides, the group composition is kept constant whereas permanent changes in smaller groups with frequent place problems cause repeated hierarchical fights within the group. Social pressure decreases in bigger horse families. Group members can connect with one another without having necessarily to get involved with one another. Though the horses enjoy extended freedom, they are not left to themselves; rather, they receive professional care. They have open stables in winter and recovering ones stay in spacious single boxes. As a matter of fact, they receive minerals in their feeding and – in winter – hay and lucerne as well as worming treatments. A vet, a horse osteopath, a horse physiotherapist and a horse dentist provide them with extended veterinary care when necessary

KURT FUCHS

has been breeding horses in mixed-generation herds (ranging from foals to senior horses) on more than 300 ha pastureland for nearly 20 years. His family business has received several awards (the highest distinction with 5 stars) from the Freestall Association (LaufstallArbeits-Gemeinschaft e.V., LAG). Today, breeding, training and sports go hand in hand in Les Dannes. 61


THE TWYDIL ® RANGE OF PRODUCTS

Complete documentation 1. COMPETITION LINE TWYDIL® ARTRIDIL With its unique formulation to help support healthy joints. With or without Harpagophytum procumbens. - W  ITH HARPAGOPHYTUM : WAITING TIME BEFORE COMPETITION 48 HOURS - W  ITHOUT HARPAGOPHYTUM: OFFICIALLY CERTIFIED (AFTER CONTROLS ON FINAL PRODUCT BUT ALSO ON URINE AND BLOOD OF A HORSE HAVING RECEIVED AN OVERAGE OF THE BATCH): CAN BE USED WITHOUT RISK UP TO THE DAY OF THE COMPETITION.  DECLARED CONTENT GUARANTEED UNTIL EXPIRY DATE

TWYDIL® BEBACK TWYDIL® BEBACK helps to stabilize the intestinal flora and helps horses that have lost condition. - E  ACH BATCH OFFICIALLY CERTIFIED BY LCH (FOLLOWING CONTROLS ON FINAL PRODUCT, URINE AND BLOOD) CAN BE USED WITHOUT RISK UP TO THE DAY OF THE COMPETITION  DECLARED CONTENT GUARANTEED UNTIL EXPIRY DATE

TWYDIL® CALMIN A scientific blend of selected vitamins, fructo-oligosaccharides, trace elements and tryptophan to help manage excitability and stress, and to optimise digestive and muscular well-being of the horse. - E  ACH BATCH OFFICIALLY CERTIFIED BY LCH (FOLLOWING CONTROLS ON FINAL PRODUCT, URINE AND BLOOD) CAN BE USED WITHOUT RISK UP TO THE DAY OF THE COMPETITION  DECLARED CONTENT GUARANTEED UNTIL EXPIRY DATE

TWYDIL® COMPETITION TWYDIL® COMPETITION is a daily supplementation of vitamins, minerals and amino acids specially formulated for riding and sport horses. - E  ACH BATCH OFFICIALLY CERTIFIED BY LCH (FOLLOWING CONTROLS ON FINAL PRODUCT, URINE AND BLOOD) CAN BE USED WITHOUT RISK UP TO THE DAY OF THE COMPETITION  DECLARED CONTENT GUARANTEED UNTIL EXPIRY DATE 62 _ HPH 2010/2011


THE TWYDIL ® RANGE OF PRODUCTS

o n w w w. t w y d i l . c o m TWYDIL® RACING

Ideal daily supplement of vitamins, minerals and amino acids specially formulated for high performance horses (14 vitamins, 7 trace elements, 3 amino acids and magnesium). - E  ACH BATCH OFFICIALLY CERTIFIED BY LCH (FOLLOWING CONTROLS ON FINAL PRODUCT, URINE AND BLOOD) CAN BE USED WITHOUT RISK UP TO THE DAY OF THE COMPETITION  DECLARED CONTENT GUARANTEED UNTIL EXPIRY DATE

TWYDIL® ELECTROLYTES in pails For the compensation of electrolytes loss after heavy sweating. - E  ACH BATCH OFFICIALLY CERTIFIED BY LCH (FOLLOWING CONTROLS ON FINAL PRODUCT, URINE AND BLOOD) CAN BE USED WITHOUT RISK UP TO THE DAY OF THE COMPETITION  DECLARED CONTENT GUARANTEED UNTIL EXPIRY DATE

TWYDIL® ELECTROLYTES in mouth syringes Oral paste for the compensation of electrolytes and vitamin C losses after heavy sweating. - E  ACH BATCH OFFICIALLY CERTIFIED BY LCH (FOLLOWING CONTROLS ON FINAL PRODUCT, URINE AND BLOOD) CAN BE USED WITHOUT RISK UP TO THE DAY OF THE COMPETITION  DECLARED CONTENT GUARANTEED UNTIL EXPIRY DATE

TWYDIL

®

ELECTROLYTES+C

Compensation of electrolytes and vitamins losses and recuperation after intense exercise. - E  ACH BATCH OFFICIALLY CERTIFIED BY LCH (FOLLOWING CONTROLS ON FINAL PRODUCT, URINE AND BLOOD) CAN BE USED WITHOUT RISK UP TO THE DAY OF THE COMPETITION  DECLARED CONTENT GUARANTEED UNTIL EXPIRY DATE

TWYDIL® HEMATINIC in mouth syringes and in bottles Formulation (either in paste or liquid form) with key vitamins and trace elements to support haematological parameters. - E  ACH BATCH OFFICIALLY CERTIFIED BY LCH (FOLLOWING CONTROLS ON FINAL PRODUCT, URINE AND BLOOD) CAN BE USED WITHOUT RISK UP TO THE DAY OF THE COMPETITION  DECLARED CONTENT GUARANTEED UNTIL EXPIRY DATE

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C o m p l e t e d o c u m e n t a t i o n o n w w w. t w y d i l . c o m

TWYDIL® HEMOPAR Aids appetite. Helps maintain good digestive function. - E  ACH BATCH OFFICIALLY CERTIFIED BY LCH (FOLLOWING CONTROLS ON FINAL PRODUCT, URINE AND BLOOD) CAN BE USED WITHOUT RISK UP TO THE DAY OF THE COMPETITION

 DECLARED CONTENT GUARANTEED UNTIL EXPIRY DATE

TWYDIL® HIPPACAN+C Supplement with bioflavonoids and vitamin C to minimise the effects of effort and help fortify the natural immune response system. - DO NOT USE WITHIN 48 HOURS OF A COMPETITION.

 DECLARED CONTENT GUARANTEED UNTIL EXPIRY DATE

TWYDIL® MUCOPROTECT Supports the horse’s natural defence system. - DO NOT USE WITHIN 48 HOURS OF A COMPETITION.

 DECLARED CONTENT GUARANTEED UNTIL EXPIRY DATE

TWYDIL® OMEGADIL Supports the microcirculation. Helps the body’s natural defences. Synergic action with other TWYDIL® supplements. - E  ACH BATCH OFFICIALLY CERTIFIED BY LCH (FOLLOWING CONTROLS ON FINAL PRODUCT, URINE AND BLOOD) CAN BE USED WITHOUT RISK UP TO THE DAY OF THE COMPETITION

 DECLARED CONTENT GUARANTEED UNTIL EXPIRY DATE

64 _ HPH 2010/2011


THE TWYDIL ® RANGE OF PRODUCTS

TWYDIL® PROTECT PLUS To provide optimum metabolic balance between antioxidants and oxidants, and give extra muscle protection. - E  ACH BATCH OFFICIALLY CERTIFIED BY LCH (FOLLOWING CONTROLS ON FINAL PRODUCT, URINE AND BLOOD) CAN BE USED WITHOUT RISK UP TO THE DAY OF THE COMPETITION

 DECLARED CONTENT GUARANTEED UNTIL EXPIRY DATE

TWYDIL® STOMACARE Specially formulated blend of refined oils, glucosamine fibres and magnesium which may help to soothe the stomach and coat its lining. - E  ACH BATCH OFFICIALLY CERTIFIED BY LCH (FOLLOWING CONTROLS ON FINAL PRODUCT, URINE AND BLOOD) CAN BE USED WITHOUT RISK UP TO THE DAY OF THE COMPETITION

 DECLARED CONTENT GUARANTEED UNTIL EXPIRY DATE

TWYDIL® TWYBLID Helps to reinforce natural anti-viral defences, helps to maintain the integrity of capillary blood vessels, and to maximise endurance and optimise the performance. - E  ACH BATCH OFFICIALLY CERTIFIED BY LCH (FOLLOWING CONTROLS ON FINAL PRODUCT, URINE AND BLOOD) CAN BE USED WITHOUT RISK UP TO THE DAY OF THE COMPETITION

 DECLARED CONTENT GUARANTEED UNTIL EXPIRY DATE

TWYDIL® VIGORADE To enable the horse to achieve its maximum potential.

- E  ACH BATCH OFFICIALLY CERTIFIED BY LCH (FOLLOWING CONTROLS ON

FINAL PRODUCT, URINE AND BLOOD) CAN BE USED WITHOUT RISK UP TO THE DAY OF THE COMPETITION

 DECLARED CONTENT GUARANTEED UNTIL EXPIRY DATE

65


C o m p l e t e d o c u m e n t a t i o n o n w w w. t w y d i l . c o m

2. BREEDING LINE TWYDIL® GROWING Very sophisticated complementary feedingstuff, providing growing horses with vitamins, trace elements, diversified amino acids, proand pre-biotics, necessary for optimal development and for the diversification of the intestinal flora. - E  ACH BATCH OFFICIALLY CERTIFIED BY LCH (FOLLOWING CONTROLS ON FINAL PRODUCT, URINE AND BLOOD) CAN BE USED WITHOUT RISK UP TO THE DAY OF THE COMPETITION

 DECLARED CONTENT GUARANTEED UNTIL EXPIRY DATE

TWYDIL® PMC Assists the healthy development of osteoblasts which form the bones, chondrocytes which form the cartilage, and fibroblasts which influence the tendons, ligaments and synovial fluid. - E  ACH BATCH OFFICIALLY CERTIFIED BY LCH (FOLLOWING CONTROLS ON FINAL PRODUCT, URINE AND BLOOD) CAN BE USED WITHOUT RISK UP TO THE DAY OF THE COMPETITION

 DECLARED CONTENT GUARANTEED UNTIL EXPIRY DATE

TWYDIL® MINERAL COMPLEX Appetising and bio-available mineral supplement with three different sources of calcium so that the total ration tends toward an ideal phosho-calcic ratio. - E  ACH BATCH OFFICIALLY CERTIFIED BY LCH (FOLLOWING CONTROLS ON FINAL PRODUCT, URINE AND BLOOD) CAN BE USED WITHOUT RISK UP TO THE DAY OF THE COMPETITION

 DECLARED CONTENT GUARANTEED UNTIL EXPIRY DATE

TWYDIL® STUD Formula especially developed to cover the needs and stabilize the intestinal flora of broodmares and stallions. Favours milk production and colostrum quality. - E  ACH BATCH OFFICIALLY CERTIFIED BY LCH (FOLLOWING CONTROLS ON FINAL PRODUCT, URINE AND BLOOD) CAN BE USED WITHOUT RISK UP TO THE DAY OF THE COMPETITION

66 _ HPH 2010/2011

 DECLARED CONTENT GUARANTEED UNTIL EXPIRY DATE


THE TWYDIL ® RANGE OF PRODUCTS

3. COSMETIC AND HYGIENIC PRODUCTS TWYDIL® 4LEGS Cream for daily application to help soothe and relax tired legs. - E  ACH BATCH OFFICIALLY CERTIFIED BY LCH CAN BE USED WITHOUT RISK UP TO THE DAY OF THE COMPETITION

TWYDIL® LEG GEL Leg gel on iodine base to cover sore areas on the legs. - E  ACH BATCH OFFICIALLY CERTIFIED BY LCH CAN BE USED WITHOUT RISK UP TO THE DAY OF THE COMPETITION

TWYDIL® LEG PAINT Keep your horse’s tendons and ligaments in good health. - E  ACH BATCH OFFICIALLY CERTIFIED BY LCH CAN BE USED WITHOUT RISK UP TO THE DAY OF THE COMPETITION

TWYDIL® HOOFCARE Cream helping hoof growth and soothing pastern irritation. - E  ACH BATCH OFFICIALLY CERTIFIED BY LCH CAN BE USED WITHOUT RISK UP TO THE DAY OF THE COMPETITION

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Research quality and horse sense

PAVESCO AG

PAVESCO U.K. LTD.

PAVESCO EQUINE HEALTH USA, Ltd.,

Head Office CH-4010 Basel, Switzerland

116, High Road Needham, Harleston, Norfolk IP20 9LG

321 N, 22nd Street St. Louis, MO 63166, U.S.A.

Tel. (41) (61) 272 23 72 Fax (41) (61) 272 23 88

Tel. (01379) 85 28 85 Fax (01379) 85 41 78

Tel. (314) 421 0300 Fax (314) 421 3332

PAVESCO AG Head Office CH-4010 Basel, Switzerland Tel. (41) (61) 272 23 72 Fax (41) (61) 272 23 88

PAVESCO U.K. LTD. 116, High Road Needham, Harleston, Norfolk IP20 9LG Tel. (01379) 85 28 85 Fax (01379) 85 41 78

PAVESCO EQUINE HEALTH USA, Ltd., 321 N, 22nd Street St. Louis, MO 63166, U.S.A. Tel. (314) 421 0300 Fax (314) 421 3332


ALWAYS A TWYDIL® SOLUTION TWYDIL® 4LEGS Tired legs

TWYDIL® RACING Ideal daily supplementation

TWYDIL® STOMACARE Stomacal protection TWYDIL® BEBACK Aged horses

TWYDIL® GROWING Young horse’s development TWYDIL® PROTECT PLUS Antioxidants, muscle protection TWYDIL® ELECTROLYTES Mineral salts

TWYDIL® MINERAL COMPLEX Mineral supplementation

TWYDIL® STUD/ELEVAGE Broodmares + stallions TWYDIL® TWYBLID Bleeders TWYDIL® VIGORADE Booster

TWYDIL® ELECTROLYTES+C Mineral salts and vitamins

TWYDIL® ARTRIDIL Supple joints TWYDIL® GEL MEMBRE/ TWYDIL® LIQUIDE MEMBRE Ligaments, tendons

TWYDIL® CALMIN Nervous horses

TWYDIL® HEMATINIC Tonic effect, red cells

TWYDIL® HEMOPAR Digestion, appetite stimulant

TWYDIL® MUCOPROTECT Immune system

TWYDIL® OMEGADIL Improvement of natural defences, Omega-3

TWYDIL® HIPPACAN+C Adaptation, Endurance

TWYDIL® PMC Structural development, quality of the bones

TWYDIL® HOOFCARE Hooves

TWYDIL® is used by most of the successful professionals in the world. HEAD OFFICE PAVESCO AG

CH-4010 Basel, Switzerland Tel. (41)(61)272 23 72 Fax (41)(61)272 23 88

PAVESCO U.K. LTD.

116, High Road Needham, Harleston, Norfolk IP20 9LG Tel. (01379) 85 28 85 Fax (01379) 85 41 78

PAVESCO EQUINE HEALTH USA, LTD 321 N, 22nd Street St.Louis, MO 63166, USA Tel. (314) 421 0300 Fax (314) 421 3332

e-mail: info@twydil.com


High Performance Horses 2011/2012