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| Grand River Territory e ee n Frke O Ta

HONOURING SURVIVORS

Free Take One

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EAGLE'S NEST – Hundreds of supporters came out to the Woodland Cultural Centre for the annual Survivor’s Gathering at the former church-and-state run Mohawk Institute Indian Residential School. This year’s event coincided with Orange Shirt Day on September 30. Organizations produce and distribute orange shirts to raise awareness of the legacy of Indian Residential schools in Canada. The above illustration was the University of Victoria 2019 design contributed by Coast Salish/ Kwagiulth artist Carey Newman who is the Audain Professor of Contemporary Art Practice of the Pacific Northwest with the Department of Visual Arts at UVic. PHOTO BY CHEZNEY MARTIN

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TWO ROW TIMES

October 2nd, 2019

LOCAL

keeping you informed. Our group gets together every otherother Thursday at Tourism building. We Our group gets together every Thursday at Tourism building. start with a potluck supper at 6:30. Attendees include survivors, We start with a potluck supper at 6:30. Attendees include survivors, caregivers, spouses, extended family, children and friends. For more caregivers, extended children and or friends. information on spouses, next meeting contact family, Terry (519)445-2470 Eva (905)768-3891.

For more information on next meeting contact Terry (519)445-2470 or Eva (905)768-3891. Helping Others to HelpThemselves Helping Others to HelpThemselves

Nominations submitted for Six Nations General Council elections STAFF REPORT

editor@tworowtimes.com

TWO ROW TIMES

OHSWEKEN — Nominations for the next Elected Council were held on Saturday and this may go down in history as the most popular nomination day in Six Nations local history. Four people were nominated to run for elected chief: Cynthia L Jamieson, Courtney Skye, Harvey Powless and current Elected Council member Mark B Hill. Jamieson previously ran for chief in 2001 and 2016. She is a former policy analyst for Chiefs of Ontario and former director of Six

Nations Health Services. Skye is a research fellow with the Yellowhead Institute — a First Nations-led policy think-tank at the Faculty of Arts at Ryerson University. Powless has no previous political experience but is a lifelong community member with strong ties to the grassroots community and is a cannabis advocate. Hill started as a Six Nations Elected Council member when he was just 19 years old. He has remained with Elected Council for ten years. He is former co-chair of the Assembly of First Nations Youth Council and member of the Ontario First Nations Young People’s Council.

A whopping 21 names were put forward to take one of the 9 available spots as elected council members. This year’s election will put the community’s new Election Code into place, reducing the seats from 12 to 9 and removing districts. Council members will be chosen by popular vote. Those people nominated to run as elected council members are: Brenda L Johnson, Hazel Johnson, Audrey Powless-Bomberry, Melba I Thomas, Sherri Lyn Hill-Pierce, Wendelyn Johnson, Carl Chancey Hill, Derek Bomberry, Alaina M VanEvery, Rheva Helen Miller, Nathan M Wright, Nicoli Wilson Wyman, Lynn T Bomberry, Mi-

chelle J Bomberry, Rhonda Martin, Kerry Bomberry, Chad General, Crystal Gail Monture, Colleen D Davis, Rodney Whitlow and Greg Fraser. Seven of the nominees: Hazel Johnson, Carl Chancey Hill, Rheva Helen Miller, Sherri Lyn Hill-Pierce, Melba I Thomas, Audrey Powless-Bomberry and Kerry Bomberry — are all acting SNEC council members seeking re-election. Advance polls will be held Saturday, November 2 at the Six Nations Community Hall from 9 a.m. to 2 p.m.. Six Nations Election Day will be the following week, Saturday, November 9 at the Six Nations Community Hall from 9 a.m. to 6 p.m..

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Ontario may change cannabis store TORONTO — Ontario is considering alternative cannabis distribution models and intends to launch a consultation process in the coming weeks, according to sources familiar with the matter. This comes after the Ontario Cannabis Retail Corp., which handles online sales and wholesale distribution of recreational pot and operates as the Ontario Cannabis Store, earlier this month said it lost $42 million in the latest fiscal year ended March 31. The consultation also comes as the provincial government is ramping up the number of legal pot outlets to 75 by October, up from 25 retail licences currently, while edibles and other next-generation products are set to be legalized later this year. When asked for com-

ment, OCS spokesman Daffyd Roderick said that its wholesale and e-commerce distribution operations will continue to serve Ontarians and facilities are in place to allow for the planned expansion and new product categories. He added in an emailed statement that the OCS ``continuously considers how to improve operations and services'' and it is in ``constant communications'' with licensed pot producers and industry partners to ensure that distribution capacity is in place. Ontario officials are expected to consult with industry and other stakeholders in the coming weeks on potential alternative delivery models, sources told The Canadian Press.

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October 2nd, 2019

Names of children who died in residential schools released in sombre ceremony CANADIAN PRESS

editor@tworowtimes.com

TWO ROW TIMES

GATINEAU — Their anonymous deaths have been honoured and their names _ hundreds and hundreds of them — are finally known. The National Centre for Truth and Reconciliation revealed today the names of 2,800 children who died in residential schools during a sombre ceremony in Gatineau, Que. A 50-metre long, bloodred cloth bearing the names of each child and the schools they attended was unfurled and carried through a gathered crowd of Indigenous elders and chiefs, residential-school survivors and others, many of whom openly wept. The list and the ceremony are intended to break the silence over the fates of at least some of the thousands who disappeared during the decades the

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schools operated. ``Today is a special day not only for myself but for thousands of others, like me, across the country to finally bring recognition and honour to our school chums, to our cousins, our nephews to our nieces that were forgotten,'' said elder Dr. Barney Williams, a residential-school survivor and member of the National Centre for Truth and Reconciliation survivors committee. ``It is essential these names be known,'' said Ry Moran, director of the National Centre for Truth and Reconciliation, which compiled the list. Year of research was conducted on what happened to the many children who were taken into residential schools and never came out. Archivists poured over records from governments and churches, which together operated as many as 80 schools across the country over 120 years. It's

the start of meeting one of the 94 calls to action in the Truth and Reconciliation Commission report issued in 2015, which called for resources to develop and maintain a register of deaths in residential schools. A total of 150,000 Indigenous children are thought to have spent at least some time in a residential school. The 2,800 on the list are those whose deaths and names researchers have been able to confirm. Moran said there are another 1,600 who died, but remain unnamed. There are also many hundreds who simply vanished, undocumented in any records so far uncovered. Some schools have an extensive list of students who died; some list none. Moran wonders at such large discrepancies. ``Even our recent re-

CONTINUED ON PAGE 25

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TWO ROW TIMES

October 2nd, 2019

OPINION editor@tworowtimes.com

Editorial: On Orange Shirt Day — I was triggered NAHNDA GARLOW

nahnda@tworowtimes.com

TWO ROW TIMES

People across the country this week marked the memory of former students, now survivors, of the Indian Residential School System in Canada. The Orange Shirt campaign was launched in 2013 and was inspired by the story of one BC First Nation survivor, Phyllis Webstad, and her story of having her favourite orange shirt taken away on her first day at the St. Joseph Mission Indian Residential school. Now, six years later, September 30 is recognized as a day to raise awareness about the Indian Residential school system. The intentions are good, but there is something that is deeply disturbing to some survivors of both the Indian Residential and Indian Day School systems — something that needs to be talked about. Like many indigenous people my age, I am an intergenerational survivor of residential school. I am also a former student of an Indian Day School. Like many of my peer survivors I have a childhood marked with trauma that left me as an adult who struggles with mental health issues and on Orange Shirt Day — I was triggered. If you grew up on Six Nations it’s likely that someone in your family experienced significant

childhood trauma in either an Indian Residential or Indian Day school. Ours is the longest history of a First Nation interacting with both systems. The Mohawk Institute, aka the Mush Hole, opened on Six Nations territory in 1831 and was the first formal churchand-state run Indian Residential school in Canada. It operated through to the 1970s. Simultaneously, Canada’s government and the Anglican Church of Canada co-ran Indian Day Schools in my community for over 130 years — from the 1860s through to the 1990s. Both systems would eventually be brought into the courts by survivors in separate class-action lawsuits. Statistics In total, Canada’s 2016 Census counted more than 705,000 Indigenous people aged 35 and older among its participants. That is on the low end of factual reality. Historically on-reserve Indigenous residents do not participate in the census. Approximately 86,000 former Indian Residential School students were eligible to apply for compensation in the IRSSA. The Indian Day Schools settlement now says up to 140,000 former students are eligible in that process. Those numbers mean that approximately 1/3 of indigenous adults in Canada aged 35 and older were directly impacted

by church-and-state run school programs that disrespected our culture, prioritized assimilation and often enabled physical, psychological, spiritual and sexual abuse of students by both staff and peers. Let me say that again: 1/3 of the adult indigenous population living in Canada today either attended an Indian Residential school or Indian Day school in Canada. This year, ahead of Orange Shirt Day I got to thinking about my own childhood trauma and the knowledge I carry about the childhood traumas of my loved ones who attended Indian Residential school before me. I started looking into childhood trauma in general. What are the lifelong implications of experiencing genocide, systemic family separation policies and imposed religion on the brain of a child? What I found when looking into childhood trauma in general was a vast knowledge base. Did you know that significant childhood trauma can alter brain chemistry and development? Long-term childhood traumas have the potential to develop into a long list of Post Traumatic and Complex Post Traumatic Stress Disorders that if left untreated can further develop into personality disorders or addiction. Unchecked long term emotional distress can then create a sense of general isolation — one of the greatest risk

factors to suicide. The September 30 events that made mainstream media overwhelmed me. The giant banner with the names of deceased children was too much. It felt like trauma on parade — and it was colossally unfair. It felt like it was a drama put on, not for us - but for them. Why is our pain not sacred? Why is everything indigenous eventually objectified for someone else’s benefit? I was chatting with a friend and she put it perfectly. “The real work of this day is falling almost exclusively on the shoulders of indigenous folks and like, not everyone is feeling that work.” Exactly. Eventually, my anger was bubbling over too much. I managed to find that Health Canada does have a National Crisis Line for people to talk to when facing troubling memories about Indian Residential schools to get help 24/7. Their phone number is 1-866-925-4419. I was skeptical but I called them. I was instantly connected to an Annishnabe counsellor somewhere in Quebec and talked to her a bit about how I was feeling. She validated my concerns and helped me get grounded again. Survivors of Indian Residential Schools finding their voices and telling their stories to Canadians are central and critical to this journey. We need to hold space for them and have those stories heard.

But if another misguided shiny happy person comes through my newsfeed, smiling and flashing a peace sign in their orange shirt, coupled with a hashtag and some inspirational quote — I’m gonna burst. Don’t get this missed your #woke Insta moment is not why we are holding space for Survivors. Orange reminds me of some of the darkest memories of my life that I work really hard to manage in tolerable ways so I can cope with regular everyday life on a daily basis. And to be honest, sometimes I can’t. When I am triggered — in the worst times the memories come in like a tsunami. Sometimes there is nothing I can do but just float through it and wait until the waters subside. As a mom, that usually means nobody has clean clothes and we end up eating bologna sandwiches and dry cereal until I can set my feet back on dry land again. It means sometimes the memories take up so much room in my spirit that I can’t find the will to shower or brush my teeth. It’s trauma. It is real and it is every day. I hate to say it — but I see more work ahead of us that we as indigenous people have to do. It’s almost like we have reached the epilogue portion of the national dialogue surrounding the Indian Residential school story. And in order to do that work, survivors and intergenera-

tional survivors have to be real and vulnerable. Next year — we need to transition from talking about the historical what, why, when, how and who — and graduate to a national dialogue about the now. What do the Indian Residential and Indian Day schools stories of the past have to do with the overrepresentation of our people in the statistics of homelessness, mental illness, child welfare, addiction, criminal justice and MMIW of today? What is it like for survivors with C-PTSD who are suffering both food insecurity and boil water advisories? Can someone explain how they cope with being an intergenerational survivor dwelling at the intersection of cultural shame and two-spirited identity? Talk to me about overcoming avoidant personality disorder in the shadow of being a mixed blood woman on-reserve. Teach me how I can safely access healing through my language and ceremonies when culture hoarding is such a problem in our communities. These are all real world today problems from the fallout of Indian Residential and Indian Day schools. These are the messages I would love to see on a giant orange banner, paraded in front of a room full of ‘thems' and broadcast live on national television. That is the bright orange banner Canada needs.

If you are experiencing emotional distress surrounding Residential or Indian Day Schools please reach out for help. You can call both these helplines toll free and speak anonymously to indigenous counsellors 24 hours a day - 7days a week.

Six Nations Mobile Crisis Response at 1-866-445-2204 National Indian Residential School Crisis Line at 1-866-925-4419

Volume 7, Issue 8 Make advertising cheques payable to:

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Publisher: Jonathan Garlow Editor: Nahnda Garlow Head of Production: Dave LaForce Co-Editor: Chezney Martin Senior Writer: Jim Windle Website Manager: Benjamin Doolittle Contributing Writer: Gary Farmer Advertising Sales Co-ordinator: Marshall Lank Advertising Sales Executive: Christine Patton Advertising Sales Executive: Rachel Binek Distribution Manager: Tim Reynolds Distribution: Christian Kovacs Distribution: Logan Martin-King Distribution: Mari Reeve Main office: (519) 900-5535 Editorial line: (519) 900-6241 Advertising line: (519) 900-6373 For advertising information: ads@tworowtimes.com General inquiries: info@tworowtimes.com Website: www.tworowtimes.com


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October 2nd, 2019

7

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recognize the importance of healthy and active lifestyles.

get active and better themselves, we know we are doing right,” said Delby Powless Sr.

It comes as no surprise that with ILA SPORTS wants to continue to show the continued success of ILA SPORTS Starting with a small one thousand customers true appreciation for they continue to give back to their square foot store and one major brand their business. own people. This includes their home of Lacrosse merchandise in 2004, the community of Six Nations and other business has grown substantially to All First Nations Youth Hockey Teams First Nations across Turtle Island. include one of the largestUNIFIED retail CREATE A TEAM LOOK that come in to purchase uniforms, collections of Lacrosse equipment - ASSOCIATIONS - SENIOR - JUNIOR - REP -Over HOUSE LEAGUE team apparel or team equipment from the past three years alone, ILA in Canada. WE HAVE YOU COVERED October 1, 2019 to January 10, 2020 SPORTS has donated over $50,000 into will be entered into a draw. We organizations such as the Carney But it hasn’t stopped there, the will be giving away "12 Prizes of Elijah Johnson Memorial Fund, Six business has also moved to carry paid LITTLE NHL REGISTRATION ($800 baseball and hockey equipment and Nations Rebels, Ride to Conquer each)" and consolation prizes to be a great selection of sportswear Cancer, along with many individuals announced later. and shoes with brand names like and team donations, golf tournament Under Armour and Nike. ILA SPORTS sponsorships, prize donations for Come and see ILA SPORTS for your also specializes in team and fundraisers and most significantly Hockey Team needs and get your organizational sales, assisting donations for teams to attend the ballot in! Little NHL. teams with their uniforms, custom apparel and equipment needs. Check out our social media for more "We appreciate the continued business information and details, or email: The owners of ILA SPORTS, Delby of all our customers who come to info@ilasports.com. Powless Sr., Ryan Burnham and ILA SPORTS, our success enables us to give back and if we canCREATE assist Curt Styres have all been sport A TEAM UNIFIED LOOK our young people -to get healthy, driven individuals and continue to ASSOCIATIONS - SENIOR - JUNIOR - REP - HOUSE LEAGUE CONTACT OUR TEAM SALES DEPARTMENT AT: BRANDON@ILASPORTS.COM

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TWO ROW TIMES

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Damning report from inquiry on treatment of Indigenous people has issued a scathing final report that says the province should apologize. TWO ROW TIMES The Viens Commission lays out 142 recommenVAL D’OR — A Quebec dations for the Quebec inquiry that examined government in its final relations between Indigreport submitted today. enous communities and The first one calls PDF/X-1a:2003 the provincial government for a ``public apology to CANADIAN PRESS

editor@tworowtimes.com

members of First Nations and Quebec's Inuit for the harm caused by laws, policies, standards and the practices of public service providers.'' The inquiry presided over by retired Quebec Superior Court judge Jacques Viens was convened in De-

cember 2016 to look into how Indigenous people are treated by the police, the province's youth protection agency, health and social services as well as the justice and correctional systems. It wrapped up public hearings last December

and today published its 520-page report, which concluded that Quebec's Indigenous peoples are victims of ``systemic discrimination'' in their relations with those departments and agencies. Premier Francois Legault told Radio-Cana-

da today that preceding governments have a lot to answer for and promised to follow up on the commission's findings. ``We must change the way we provide services to Indigenous peoples in Quebec,'' Legault said.

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TWO ROW TIMES

October 2nd, 2019

Indigenous shelter users leave sooner, return more often, study finds OTTAWA — Indigenous people are spending fewer nights in homeless shelters than non-Indigenous users, a finding from federal researchers who warn in internal documents that the result points to more problematic — or even insidious — issues in the country's housing system. The study found that no matter the community, Indigenous people were over-represented in emergency shelters, making up

about 30 per cent of users despite only being about five per cent of the national population. They stayed more often, but for fewer nights — almost five fewer nights per year, on average — which federal researchers say isn't ``necessarily a positive outcome.'' Underlying that concern was that Indigenous users were less likely to stop using shelters because they had found more

stable places to live, with almost one-third instead leaving for ``whereabouts unknown,'' officials write in the documents obtained by The Canadian Press under the Access to Information Act. Indigenous experts who reviewed the findings say that the figures may underestimate the scope of the housing problem, and point to a growing need for more on-reserve housing and concerns about racism in

the private housing market. Researchers with Employment and Social Development Canada concluded something similar, writing in a presentation about the study that the results suggest Indigenous people ``experience barriers in finding stable housing.'' The study has been in the works for months and is not yet public. It's the first time nationwide shelter data has been used to delve deep into the issue of

Indigenous homelessness. The review looked at shelter data from 46 communities in Canada in 2016, capturing almost 133,000 shelter users, including an estimated 41,100 Indigenous people. Some communities were dropped from regional breakdowns because of incomplete data, including Canada's largest city, Toronto. The numbers also don't capture those who are couch surfing — bounc-

Notice of Community Information Sessions Detailed Design Study - Argyle Street Bridge Replacement Caledonia, Haldimand County - G.W.P. 3805-01-00 THE STUDY WSP has been retained by the Ontario Ministry of Transportation (MTO) to undertake the Detailed Design and Class Environmental Assessment Study (Class EA) for the replacement of the Argyle Street Bridge over the Grand River in Caledonia, Haldimand County. THE STUDY PROCESS This study is following the Class Environmental Assessment for Provincial Transportation Facilities (2000) process for Group “B” projects, under which approval for the replacement bridge was obtained in the fall of 2009 during Preliminary Design. Upon completion of the study, a Design and Construction Report (DCR) will be prepared and filed for a 30-day public review period. The DCR will provide a description of the recommended design, construction staging, and potential environmental impacts and proposed mitigation measures. A further notice announcing the DCR public review period will be published at that time in local newspapers, sent to persons on the project mailing list, and posted on the project website: www.argylebridge.ca. COMMUNITY INFORMATION SESSIONS Two Community Information Sessions (CISs) have been arranged to provide the public and community members an opportunity to review the study process and background, the recommended bridge design, including heritage enhancement features, traffic management and construction staging plans. The CISs will be informal drop-in sessions and representatives from the Project Team will be in attendance to answer questions and receive comments. You are encouraged to attend the CISs and provide us with your views and comments so they can be considered as the study progresses. The CISs are scheduled as follows. October 7, 2019 Community Hall 1738 Fourth Line Road Ohsweken, ON N0A 1M0 6:00 p.m. to 8:00 p.m.

October 10, 2019 Haldimand County Caledonia Centre Remax Room 3-100 Haddington Street Caledonia, ON N3W 2N4 4:00 p.m. to 8:00 p.m.

COMMENTS If you wish to obtain additional information or provide comments, or if you would like to be added to the study’s mailing list, please contact: Mr. Mark Velicevic, P.Eng. Consultant Project Manager WSP 610 Chartwell Road Oakville, ON L6J 4A5 tel: 289-835-2629 toll-free: 1-877-562-7947 fax: 905-823-8503 e-mail: project-team@argylebridge.ca

Mr. Graydon Botsford, P.Eng. Project Engineer Ministry of Transportation 659 Exeter Road London, ON N6E 1L3 tel: 519-200-4604 fax: 519-873-4388 e-mail: project-team@argylebridge.ca

Mr. J.A. (Sandy) Nairn, MCIP, RPP Consultant Environmental Planner WSP 610 Chartwell Road Oakville, ON L6J 4A5 tel: 905-823-8500 toll-free: 1-877-562-7947 fax: 905-823-8503 e-mail: project-team@argylebridge.ca

If you have any accessibility requirements in order to participate in this project, please contact one of the Project Team members listed above. Comments and information will be collected to assist the MTO in meeting the requirements of the Ontario Environmental Assessment Act. Information will be collected in accordance with the Freedom of Information and Protection of Privacy Act and the Access to Information Act. With the exception of personal information, all comments will become part of the public record. Please visit our website at: www.argylebridge.ca

ing between other people's homes, which Indigenous experts suggest is common — or living outside. ``Prior to this document, I think they were drastically under-estimating Indigenous homelessness, but I think even the document itself underestimates Indigenous homelessness,'' said Jesse Thistle, a professor of Metis studies at York University in Toronto. Two-thirds of Indigenous shelter-users were there because of evictions or emergencies — a higher rate than the two-fifths of non-Indigenous shelter-users. Indigenous shelter-users were also more than twice as likely to be in shelters because of substance abuse or financial issues. The situation was most acute for Indigenous women, who were more than 15 times more likely than their non-Indigenous counterparts to use shelters. The corresponding figure for Indigenous men was 10 times more likely. Inuit, too, were also found be more likely to use shelters than First Nations, Metis and non-status Aboriginals. Indigenous women in shelters with children often spend their days shuttling among schools, medical appointments, and meetings to land social assistance and housing — all the while worrying they'll be reported to child-welfare advocates, said Pamela Beebe, an Indigenous cultural education and protocol specialist at the University of Calgary who has also worked in Indigenous women's shelters. On top of that, finding a place to rent can be difficult, she said. ``There are a lot of small towns where it's really hard to find housing if you are Indigenous because of stereotypes that exist,'' said Beebe, from the Kanai First Nation in southern Alberta. ``They're not coming out and saying, 'You're Native and I don't want to rent to you' _ well, one guy did,'' she said, recalling her own experiences, ``but most of them don't. They'll say something like, 'you people.' '' Without permanent places to live, Indigenous women may bounce between shelters, or go back to abusive situations they were originally fleeing, she said.


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Lawyers for disqualified pot shop applicants say process was unfair TORONTO — A legal battle over Ontario's licensing system for retail cannabis stores focused Wednesday on the steps taken by the province to contact a number of applicants who were later disqualified for failing to file documents by a certain date. The group of 11 applicants is challenging the rejection and disputing the fairness of the procedures involved in the lottery that has been used to grant all of Ontario's pot shop licences.

At a hearing in Toronto, the group's lawyers argued Wednesday that under the rules set out by the provincial agency overseeing the process, those who win the chance to apply must submit certain documents within five business days once they are notified of their selection. They said an email alerting their clients of the lottery's outcome and the application timeline did not go through, and as such, the deadline

should have been recalculated based on when the message was actually delivered. The Alcohol and Gaming Commission of Ontario ``just determined that the attempt-to-notify was sufficient'' to trigger the countdown, which is unfair and unreasonable, attorney Michael Lacy told a three-judge panel. As a result, he argued, the commission was not entitled to disqualify the 11 applicants or to select a

new slate of applicants to replace them. The group should be allowed to complete the application process and the others returned to the wait list, he said. Lawyers representing the commission, however, said the eliminated applicants were to blame for the email bouncing back since they provided the address and chose that method of communication. What's more, Judie Im

argued, the commission then followed up with telephone calls, posted the list of lottery winners online and eventually sent letters by courier. Many of the calls failed to reach the applicants and three never picked up the packages, she said. When they did receive a letter notifying them of their selection, the applicants should have seen that it was dated Aug. 21 and laid out a deadline of Aug. 28, she added.

``The fault? lies with them and not the registrar,'' Im said, noting none of the applicants sought to clarify the deadline or obtain an extension. Lottery winners have five business days to turn in their application, along with a $6,000 non-refundable fee and a $50,000 letter of credit. The legal challenge may affect the government's timeline to increase the number of legal pot shops in the province.

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TWO ROW TIMES

October 2nd, 2019

The legacy of Oka in an era of supposed reconciliation

By Sean Carleton, Assistant Professor, Department of General Education, Mount Royal University

Tensions are rising between the Kanien'keha:ka (Mohawk) of Kanehsata:ke and the Quebec municipality of Oka. During the last Oka conflict in summer of 1990, the federal government used military force to end a 78-day protest by Mohawks to protect a burial ground and prevent the expansion of a golf course and the development of

luxury condos on unceded Mohawk land. The conflict ended in a stalemate. Development stopped but the disputed land was not returned to the Mohawks. Now, 29 years later, Mohawks have called on Prime Minister Justin Trudeau and the government of Canada to intervene to stop more unauthorized development on the unceded land. All eyes should be on Canada's response. So far, Trudeau is refusing to enter into negotiations. I currently teach a

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October 2nd, 2019

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The metal eagle of Montezume Wildlife Refuge By TRT Staff SENECA FALLS â&#x20AC;&#x201D; Driving by the Cayuga-Seneca Canal, you might spot eagles. But driving on, you will definitely spot a metal eagle on the roadside. This metal eagle is a monument that was commissioned by the Montezuma National Wildlife Refuge in New York State for the 40th anniversary of the bald eagle reintroduction program . Refuge manager Tom Jasikoff commissioned Trumansburg artist James Seaman, a self taught artist that uses wood and metal, to create the sculpture which has a 21foot wingspan. The body, armature and branch are made of steel while the head and tail are stainless steel. Each feather was individually cut, hand-forged and welded into place then bent into position. During the 1800s and early 1900s, there were more than 70 nesting pairs of bald eagles in New York State. But by

enough to fly. By 1980, 23 bald eagles had been released on the refuge. Now there can be as many as 60 bald eagles on the refuge at one time. The bald eagle is protected by the Bald and Golden Eagle Protection

Act, but they are no longer listed as threatened or endangered. In February of this year, surveyors counted 70 eagles at the refuge.

SENECA FALLS. N. Y. - This eagle monument was commissioned to commemorate the 40th anniversary of the bals eagle re-introduction program that largely took place at the Montezuma Wildlife PHOTO BY CHEZNEY MARTIN Refuge.

1960, only one bald eagle nest was left. The decline in bald eagles was cause by chemicals like DDT. DDT was outlawed in Britain in 1986 and banned as a pesticide worldwide under the Stockholm

Convention in 2001 after it was discovered to be dangerous to wildlife and the environment. The chemicals made their way into the eagleâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s prey and poisoned the eagles, which resulted in thin eggshells which

further resulted in eggs that could not survive to hatching. Beginning in 1976, young eagles were brought to Montezuma from other states and fed by staff and volunteers until they were old

ne:ne`

it is R E L AT E D W O R D S :

editor@tworowtimes.com

ne:hni`- too, also, and ne:`hni`ne:` - and that also n,: - Look! Here, take this! (exclamation, said when pointing to something) CAYUGA LANGUAGE

SOURCE:English-Cayuga Dictionary, Frances Froman, Alfred Keye, Lottie Keye, Carrie Dyck


October 2nd, 2019

TWO ROW TIMES

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Indigenous water activist Autumn Peltier speaks at UN sustainability forum CANADIAN PRESS

editor@tworowtimes.com

TWO ROW TIMES

NEW YORK — Indigenous water activist Autumn Peltier addressed hundreds of international guests at UN headquarters in Manhattan Saturday. The 15-year-old activist from Wiikwemkoong First Nation on Manitoulin Island in northern Ontario urged the global community to respect the sacredness and importance of clean water. ``I've said it once, and I'll say it again, we can't eat money, or drink oil.'' Peltier spoke at the Global Landscapes Forum, a platform on sustainable land use founded by UN Environment and the World Bank that's dedicated to achieving development and climate goals. She used the speech to draw attention to the lack of clean water in numerous Indigenous communities, which she says sparked her activism. ``All across these lands, we know somewhere were someone can't drink the water. Why so many, and why have they gone without for so long?'' She said she's been taught traditional knowledge from an early age

about the sacredness of water, and that more should learn these lessons. ``Maybe we need to have more elders and youth together sitting at the decision table when people make decisions about our lands and waters.'' Peltier called for an end to plastic use as one step in restoring a more sustainable world. Her speech comes a day after huge crowds took to the streets in Canada as part of a global climate strike. The speech was her second at the UN headquarters, having urged the General Assembly to ``warrior up'' and take a stand for our planet last year. Peltier, who is nominated for the 2019 International Children's Peace Prize by the David Suzuki Foundation, has spread her message at hundreds of events around the world. In 2015, Peltier attended the Children's Climate Conference in Sweden, and a year later, confronted Prime Minister Justin Trudeau about his ``broken promises'' at a meeting of the Assembly of First Nations.

October 2nd, 2019

Voting is open for the 19th NAMA STAFF REPORT

editor@tworowtimes.com

TWO ROW TIMES

Murray Porter has been nominated in two categories at the 19th Annual Native American Music Awards for 'Best Male Artist' & 'Best Blues Recording’, while Bear Fox has also been nominated for Artist of the Year Award. Each year. the annual Awards program features over one dozen mesmerizing and dynamic performances by some of today’s leading Native American artists along with 30 awards presentations including; Lifetime Achievement and Hall of Fame. The Awards show is

Among the talented artists nominated in this years NAMA run is none other than Murray Porter and Bear Fox, with voting still open online for fans and PHOTO FROM FACEBOOK. family to help the nominees.

an extraordinary and unprecedented celebration

of today’s best contemporary and traditional music.

Featured live music performances include: DJ Shub (Mohawk), a former member of a Tribe Called Red, Kelly Derrickson, Joanne Shenandoah, NDN Cars' Keith Secola and more! This year's awards show is co-hosted by actor Wes Studi (Cherokee) and professional wrestler Micki James (Powhatan tribe). The Awards will take place on Saturday, November 2, at the Seneca Casino, in Niagara Falls, New York. All online voting can be checked out online at https://www.nativeamericanmusicawards.com/.

The ice is back at Gaylord Powless Arena

SIX NATIONS — Ice has returned to the Gaylord Powless Arena and that brings skates eager to make use of it. Hockey try-outs for the Six Nations Minor Hockey League division have begun, and the Six Nations Skating Club began registration for Star Skate on Friday, PHOTOS BY CHEZNEY MARTIN September 30.

Self defence focus of appeal in shooting death of Ontario Indigenous man CANADIAN PRESS

editor@tworowtimes.com

TWO ROW TIMES

TORONTO — The legalities of self-defence and what constitutes ``reasonable'' actions are the focus of the Crown's appeal of a Hamilton-area homeowner's acquittal in the fatal shooting of an unarmed Indigenous man in 2016. Peter Khill, of Binbrook was found not guilty in 2018 of second-degree murder in the death of Jon Styres of the Six Nations of the Grand River in southern Ontario. Khill testified at trial

that his training as a military reservist — he served from 2007 to 2011 — kicked in when he heard a noise outside his home in the early morning hours on Feb. 4, 2016, then grabbed his shotgun and loaded it. Court heard Khill left his house quietly, did not call 911 or turn on the outside lights, and snuck up on Styres. He said he saw a shadowy figure leaning into his truck, then the man made a move with his hands _ which is when Khill shot him twice. Prosecutor Susan Reid said Monday at the Court of Appeal for Ontario that the key question in the

Crown's case is, ``Did the respondent act reasonably in lawful self-defence?'' She said the provisions of self-defence discuss what a ``reasonable'' person would do in the same situation, and Khill did not act reasonably. The trial judge made four errors, Reid said, including when he directed the jury to consider Khill's military training as a factor in his self-defence. ``The military training is not a relevant characteristic for a reasonable person,'' said Reid. ``It is relevant in the accused's subjective belief and for how he behaved, but not a characteristic for a rea-

sonable person.'' The lower court heard Styres, 29, was shot in the chest and through the back of his arm and into his chest. He died minutes later. The Crown said the lower court judge essentially created a ``reasonable reservist,'' rather than a reasonable person. ``That is not what the self-defence provisions were intended to address,'' Reid said. ``That is creating too subjective a standard.'' Khill's lawyer argued in court documents that the judge did not make a mistake, and the military training could not have

made a difference in the verdict. ``There was no difference between the reasonable actions of a member of the military and the reasonable person in these circumstances _ both would have reasonably fired to preserve their own or others' safety,'' Khill's legal team stated in court documents. Khill sat in court on Monday with his wife and friends, while friends and family of Styres packed the other side of the courtroom, most wearing orange shirts with the slogan, ``Every child matters.'' Khill's acquittal set off

outrage among the Six Nations community, which subsequently banned him for life. Six Nations Chief Ava Hill said at the time the court's decision left the Indigenous community with no faith in the justice system. The trial echoed a high-profile case in Saskatchewan where a white farmer, Gerald Stanley, was acquitted in the 2016 shooting death of a young Indigenous man, Colten Boushie.


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October 2nd, 2019

19

SPORTS

know the score.

Canada beats Iroquois Nationals for fifth straight world indoor title STAFF REPORT

editor@tworowtimes.com

TWO ROW TIMES

LANGLEY, B.C. — In five appearances since the World Indoor Lacrosse Championship was launched in 2003, Canada has never gone home with anything less than a gold medal. In fact, the team has never lost a game at the event. But the Canadians were taking nothing for granted before their 1912 win over the Iroquois Nationals to capture the Cockerton Cup on Saturday at the Langley Events Centre. ``There's pressure,'' acknowledged goaltender Mike Poulin, who stopped 42-of-54 shots for Canada. ``Don't be the guy to lose the first game for Canada. ``When there's pressure if means you're in an important situation and I like that,'' he continued. ``It felt great.'' The opportunity to win gold on home soil playing in front of friends and family was especially sweet for the Canadian team. ``This is the biggest stage, playing for your country,'' said Curtis Dickson, who grew up in nearby Port Coquitlam and led the way offensively with five goals. ``Getting to do it on home soil, in my back yard, it's pretty special. I've got my family and my girlfriend here. It's awesome and we're going to celebrate this win tonight.'' ``We talked about it all along — no assumptions,'' said Canadian coach Glenn Clark about the messaging he used to keep his team focused

LANGLEY, B.C. - For the fourth championship in a world, the Iroquois Nationals returned home silver medalists, losing to their top rivals, Team Canads in the final 19-12. PHOTO FROM FACEBOOK.

without succumbing to the pressure of sky-high expectations. ``The theme was an honest game. ``These guys know what the opponent is and they're familiar enough with the talent on that other group. so there was no problem keeping them on task, motivated. There's a real championship pedigree here, with a lot of these guys having a lot of success. They understand what this stage looks like and how to perform at this stage, and you saw that tonight.'' The Canadians scored by committee in their win. Dickson's five goals were backed up by four from Robert Church, three by Dhane Smith and Dane Dobbie, two from Chris Corbeil and singles from Mark Matthews and Ben McIntosh. Zed Williams scored five times to lead the Iro-

quois, Tehoka Nanticoke had three and Cody Jamieson, Randy Staats, Kyle Jackson, and Lyle Thompson each scored once. With an enthusiastic supporters group pounding their drums in an energized Langley Events Centre, Iroquois got off to a strong start, jumping out to a 1-0 lead when Williams beat Poulin in close on the first shot of the game, just 19 seconds into the game. Canada responded by taking a 4-2 lead before Iroquois equalized again. The Canadians led 6-5 after 15 minutes, then outscored Iroquois 5-1 in the second quarter to take an 11-6 lead into the locker room at halftime. Shots were even at 15-15 in the third quarter, where Canada extended its lead to 14-8 and killed off a holding penalty to Dan Coates late in the

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frame. In a wild fourth quarter, the Iroquois scored four times but couldn't cut the deficit to less than five goals. The game's final score that was identical to the 19-12 defeat that Iroquois suffered at the hands of Canada in their only loss in pool play. ``I thought this was a better game for the fans,'' said Clark. ``There were a few power-play goals each way but last game, I think there were, like, seven for each team. ``It was a game where both teams knew what was at stake and stayed out of the box and kept the flow how it should be.'' Iroquois captain Cody Jamieson was named the tournament's most valuable player. The world all-star team included four Canadians _ Poulin in goal, Kyle Rubisch and Graeme Hossack on de-

fence and Mark Matthews on offence. The other allstars were Randy Staats of the Iroquois Nationals on offence and Joel White of the United States on transition. The World Indoor Lacrosse Championship was launched in 2003 with a six-team field and has been held every four years. This fifth edition saw a record 20 teams competing in four tiered groups of five squads each. In the end, the medal results aligned with all four previous tournaments _ Canada brings home gold, Iroquois Nationals earning silver and the United States claiming bronze. Lacrosse was invented by Indigenous people, and when the Iroquois Nationals were admitted into the International Lacrosse Federation (ILF) in 1990,

they became the only Native American team sanctioned to compete in any sport internationally. The Iroquois Nationals hosted the 2015 edition of the championship four years ago at Onondaga Nation, south of Syracuse, New York. In the 2015 gold-medal game, Canada bested the hosts by a score of 12-8. This year, Iroquois advanced to the gold-medal game after a fourth-quarter come-from-behind 9-7 semifinal win over the United States on Thursday. While Canada defeated England 21-4 to advance. Earlier on Saturday, the third-ranked U.S. team withstood a second-half surge from the English squad to win their fifth bronze medal by a score of 11-8.

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October 2nd, 2019

Fourth Wooden Sticks Festival aims to educate CHEZNEY MARTIN

chezney@tworowtimes.com

TWO ROW TIMES

LIVERPOOL, N.Y. — Situated right beside the lake, the fourth Wooden Sticks Festival took place at the sports field of the Onondaga Lake Parkway over this past weekend. The event offered free access to artisans, crafters and more while the event cascaded with education on the history and current game of lacrosse. Put on by the Indigenous Values Initiative (IVI), the event hosted Sherri Waterman-Hopper and her family and Onondaga Nation singers and dancers performed, as renowned wooden lacrosse stick maker Alf Jacques showcased his collection of sticks and offered presentations, with the Randy Hall Memorial Wooden Sticks Master Tournament taking place in the background and Spirit Twins Lacrosse provided lacrosse clinics throughout the day. One of the co-ordinators said that her participation in the organization of the event is something that she could “go on for hours” about. “I can’t believe I’m apart of this,” said Sandy Bigtree, co-organizer of the festival. “My children were born athletes and lacrosse became an integral part of our family. Bigtree explained that the IVI is comprised of three main individuals that want t focus on educating the public on the Haudneosaunee influence in the development of the USA. She said that “there’s growing interest,” in the event and they held it at the parkway so that non-indigenous visitors could have access to it. “This is cool because it takes place where the council formed many thousands and thousands of years ago and it reaches peoples hearts, like the Haudenosaunee, and it also reaches the hearts of people coming here to actually feel what’s going on here. It’s very powerful.” Bigtree also included that the coordinators from the Indigenous Values Initiative negotiated with the Onondaga Nation

SpiritTwins Lacrosse brought together a group of youth to explore the dynamics of both field and box lacrosse. PHOTO CHEZNEY

MARTIN.

Alf Jacques poses with a new and old style Iroquois stick as he offered his knowledge of lacrosse to PHOTO CHEZNEY MARTIN. visitors during the fourth annual Wooden Sticks Festival.

Onondaga Lake Parkway was filled with lacrosse, as the Randy Hall Memorial Tournament seen four PHOTO CHEZNEY MARTIN. teams compete using only wooden sticks and a leather ball.

on terms for the parameters of the Randy Hall Memorial Tournament, which included the use of a leather ball and only wooden sticks. “They’re playing for the water too.” Making use of the field when teams finished playing, Kroy Arnold from Sprit Twins Lacrosse and Know the Game podcast took to offering a handful of youth lacrosse skill drills. He said that the opportunity “is just great.” “We really like to give back to the youth and I think that working with the kids helps them learn a lot and we like to have fun too,” said Arnold. “Giving back to the community is a priority for us and seeing those kids faces smile is just great.” As the name of the skills development course was inspired by the creation story, Arnold of the Oneida Nation combines box and field drills to maximize skill development.

“We teach these kids the field and box aspects of the game kind of rolled up into one.”

Alf Jacques, renowned wooden lacrosse stick maker, said that he’s “kind of the mainstay-er”

at the event as he has been presenting his sticks and his understanding of lacrosse and its origins at the event each year. “I keep up to date with things and I tech the history and people appreciate it because it’s so rare,” said Jacques. “I don’t make as many sticks as I used to but I keep the tradition alive by showing the sticks and carrying the game on to other people this way.” He explained that he has Great Lake style sticks, south-eastern style sticks, old style Iroquois sticks that date back to 1890, original plastic sticks and a wide selection of balls. Behind his stick collection was also a homemade stick carving apparatus, to show visitors how the curve of a wooden stick head and handle is refined. The Onondage Nation and Title Clan stick maker

said that being able to teach is “a wonderful place to be.” “Lacrosse has been my whole life,” he said. “All of the guys that are playing now, I played against their grand-fathers. So I’m still in the game this way. I’m not playing, not coaching, I retired from coaching, but I’m still giving the game this way. It’s our game,” he said. Jacques also supplied some the players in the Randy Hall Tournament with his sticks, while some players already had one. Out of the four teams, Team Ohi:yo placed 1st in the tournament and took home the trophy made by Tuscarora WoodWorks. The IVI extended a welcome to masters teams in Canada that would like to take part next year.

LIVERPOOL - The Randy Hall Memorial Tournament finalized during the Wooden Sticks Festival last weekend, which seen Ohi:yo in first PHOTO CHEZNEY MARTIN. place.


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October 2nd, 2019

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High hopes for archery on Six Nations CHEZNEY MARTIN

chezney@tworowtimes.com

TWO ROW TIMES

SIX NATIONS — In the evening of Thursday, September 26, members of Six Nations Tourism put together their last archery night of the season to close the programs second year running. Hawk Jacobs, an archery program facilitator, explained that for the archery nights, the participants would use traditional bows and arrows with regular circle targets, as well as one 3-D deer target and balloons to motivate the archers. “I like it,” said Jacobs in regards to teaching the sport. “I’d just like more people to get into it ‘cause

SIX NATIONS - Six Nations Tourism hosted their last archery night of the season last Thursday. Pictured above is Hawk Jacobs teaching proper form to a particpant, who took aim at one of four tarPHOTO BY CHEZNEY MARTIN. gets including a 3-D deer.

I feel like I missed out the whole time that I didn’t do it. And it’s something that

Form is the name of the game in archery, as the front hand and pull hand both determine the trajectory of the arrow. PHOTO BY

CHEZNEY MARTIN.

anybody can do, like you don’t need to be in shape or a specific age — anyone can do it.” Speaking solely to those interested in hunting, he said that using a bow opens up a lot of opportunity. “I think I got my first compound bow when I was sixteen, so I’ve been using bows for twelve or thirteen years,” he said. “It just opens up a lot more hunting opportunities ‘cause it’s quieter and safer. A lot of guys use hunting rifles and you

can’t hunt near houses and stuff with those.” Jacobs said that there are also many competitive opportunities using compound bows in the area as well, including Brantford and Kitchener with a competition that took place near Ancaster this past weekend. But competitively speaking, he said that there are “only ten” indigenous bowmen that go to compete. In talks of Six Nations hosting a tournament in the future, Jacobs said that one was held two years

ago that yielded over 130 archers. “It was really good, so we want to get that going again. This is a good place for it,” he said. Moving from a cultural hunting technique, archery first appeared in the Olympic Games in 1900. In the year 1904 women competed in Olympic archery, making it one of the first sports to include both genders. “When you think of archery it’s not just a physical activity, it’s a mental activity,” said Alysha Longboat, who is the marketing and programming supervisor at SN Tourism. “When we do have people come in we try to talk about how archery is really for anybody, like anybody can shoot.” Longboat explained that members of SN Tourism earned the archery instruction training to offer it to the community, and each month they would offer themed archery nights such as ladies night and youth and family night. “For the most part, there’s a lot of interest and that’s part of the reason why we started it and it’s also because there was a lack of it.”

She said that for their regular archery nights the program has seen up to twelve archers at a time. “But we don’t just do these nightly programs,” she added. “You can ask us to come here and shoot. We’ve had McMaster University come here, where they had up to thirty people shooting and we’ve had GREAT (Grand River Employment and Training) members here.” Longboat said that she has gone hunting herself with a compound bow and also went to two competitions and wanted to share what she seen archery could offer. “We’re trying to get it more out there even education wise, for outdoor events, but it’s still starting up so hopefully we’ll get there,” she said. The duo explained that the competition that was held on Six Nations had 3-D targets set up along the trail that leads from the SN Tourism parking lot, with groups of four entering to shoot at a time, and a sector of the competition seated on the Chiefswood Park grounds. There are hopes that the program will garner enough interest to return next year.

Oneida dancers take Green Bay Packers halftime STAFF REPORT

editor@tworowtimes.com

TWO ROW TIMES

WISCONSIN — On September 22, the Oneida Nation Pow Wow and Smoke Dancers took to the Lambeau Field to perform at half time during the Green Bay Packers home game versus the Denver Broncos, which earned the Packers their third win of the season. The game led to a 2716 win for the Packers, after a strong 7-point first quarter pulled them ahead to finish with a leading fourth. Earlier this month on September third, the Packers announced that they agreed to expand their partnership with the Oneida Nation of Wisconsin, which will allow

WISCONSIN - The Oneida Natio Pow Wow and Smoke Dancers performed at half time during the Green Bay Packers hosting of the Denver Broncos at the Lambeau Field, which resulted in the PackPHOTO FROM FACEBOOK. ers winning 27-16. .

the nation to advertise its casino locations inside Lambeau Field and on other platforms with the Packers. Last year, the NFL changed its policy regarding how teams accept advertising from casinos. The deal allowed casinos to advertise their properties — but not their sports

book operations — in stadiums and in their deals with NFL teams. Term length and financial details of the expanded partnership with Oneida Nation were not disclosed by the Packers, which has worked with the nation for more than 20 years. Under the partnership,

the Oneida Casino becomes the official casino of the Packers and the nation operates five casino locations in the Green Bay area. Since 2002, Oneida Nation has sponsored a gate on the east side of Lambeau Field.

The dancers awaited their call to center-field as they were surrounded by a packed stadium of home-team fans. PHOTO FROM

FACEBOOK.


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Teaching truth and reconciliation in Canada: The perfect place to begin is right where a teacher stands By Lindsay Morcom, Assistant Professor, Faculty of Education, Queen's University, Ontario and Kate Freeman, Manager, Aboriginal Teacher Education Program, Queen's University Faculty of Education, Queen's University, Ontario Where do we start? Our question echoes our larger work supporting and educating teacher candidates, and our personal commitments seeking to act as witnesses to the need for reconciliation in Canada. As researchers, teachers and administrators _ one of whom is of Anishinaabe, German, and French heritage and one of whom is a longstanding non-Indigenous ally of Irish, Scottish and English ancestry _ we have dedicated our careers to education for and about Indigenous people, and to

Indigenous-led ally-building in education. So, we start by acknowledging the situation. We are acutely aware of the historic and ongoing legacy of colonialism and racism that pervades Canadian society, and the specific role that education had in creating and perpetuating this legacy. Indeed, in Canada the education system has been a tool for genocide through the residential school system. At the same time, we acknowledge that we have tremendous hope. We see self-determination and resilience in Indigenous communities, and increasing willingness, unimaginable a generation ago, in the general Canadian population to acknowledge history and move forward in a better way. And we acknowledge that we are teaching and learning in an era where, after the

findings of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada, we know more about colonial legacies. We have more guidance on what to do moving forward than ever before. Teacher education offers a path forward In our personal actions, we start where we are. For us, this means working together and with the teachers and teachers-tobe whom we encounter in our work at our Faculty of Education at Queen's University. The Aboriginal Teacher Education Program (ATEP) at Queen's University that we both work with qualifies graduates for Ontario College of Teachers certification and provides a focus on Indigenous education in their teacher preparation. This program has over 400 primarily Indigenous graduates. We stand in awe of

CONTINUED ON PAGE 24

October 2nd, 2019

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TWO ROW TIMES

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October 2nd, 2019

The legacy of Oka in an era of supposed reconciliation cont'd flict The land at the centre of the dispute was fraudulently sold first by the Sulpician Fathers Seminary and then by the municipality of Oka, Que., and the government of Canada. The return of this land has been at the heart of Mohawk demands for more than 300 years. Since the 17th century, Mohawks have attempted all means _ from petitions and land claims to blockades _ to have their land returned, without success. In 1990, tensions boiled over. The municipality of Oka, which sits on the disputed land, approved a golf course expansion project and Mohawks set up a blockade to prevent the development. In response, the Quebec government sent in the provincial police. When a police officer was shot and

killed during the police siege of the Mohawk blockade, the conflict escalated. Though no further deaths occurred, tensions in the area remained high. The government of Canada intervened, deploying 2,500 troops to the area as a show of force. In the end, the conflict cost Canadian taxpayers an estimated $200 million. Oka's legacy The legacy of the Oka conflict is mixed. As the troops and tanks left Kanehsata:ke, the federal government established the Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples in 1991 to recommend ways to improve relations with Indigenous peoples across the country. The commission's 1996 report highlighted many issues, including the ongoing effects of the Indian Residential School system.

This attention helped clear the path for the government of Canada's apology to residential school survivors and the creation of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission, which has laid the foundation for reconciliation in Canada. But reconciliation has mostly missed Mohawks in Kanehsata:ke. The golf course expansion project was cancelled and the federal government purchased the land to return to the Mohawks. Yet the land has still not been returned. In the 2000s, developer Gregoire Gollin acquired the land, and in recent years he has been building houses on the disputed territory without Mohawk consent. Facing continued resistance by many community members, including Ellen Gabriel, who was the Mohawk's

spokesperson in 1990, Gollin announced in July that ``in the spirit of reconciliation'' he was willing to give 60 hectares to the federal government through a federal ecological gifts program. This would prevent future development on part of the disputed land, but the land would still not be controlled by the Mohawk people. Gollin's land contribution is also contingent upon the federal government purchasing an additional 150 hectares of land in Kanehsata:ke. If the deal falls through, Gollin has said that he will continue to pursue development projects on the disputed land. Peace and justice As it stands, no one is happy with the unresolved situation. The mayor of Oka, Pascal Quevillon, told

CBC News he does not want the Mohawk people to be able to reacquire their land for fear of being ``surrounded'' by Mohawks. He added fuel to the fire by calling on the federal government to send in the RCMP to protect Oka residents and their property. In response, Mohawk activists held a news conference at the end of August to call on the federal government to intervene and negotiate a peaceful end to the dispute by returning the land once and for all. As of early September, government officials are refusing to enter into negotiations. Many Mohawk people and Oka residents fear that further delay could lead to new conflict. With the federal election in full swing, resolving the growing tensions

in Kanehsata:ke is an important litmus test for Canada's commitment to repairing its relationship with Indigenous Peoples. Trudeau was elected, in part, on a platform of reconciliation and improving relations with Indigenous peoples. Though apologies, financial compensation and renaming government buildings are important steps in the right direction, meaningful reconciliation in Canada also requires the return of stolen land. Canadians, and the world, must pay close attention to the situation in Kanehsata:ke to ensure that 2019 ends with negotiated peace and justice and not more conflict and bloodshed. This article is republished from The Conversation under a Creative Commons license

Teaching truth and reconciliation in Canada: The perfect place to begin is right where a teacher stands continued from 23 the change they have made at all levels of education; we are excited to follow where this change leads next. We deeply believe in decolonized, self-determined, authentically Indigenized education. At the same time, it is unfair to expect already marginalized people to shoulder the full burden of educating the mainstream population and creating social change, as is often the case. We believe it is a vital part of our jobs to facilitate the learning of settler teachers so they can see their roles and responsibilities in the reconciliatory process. As Senator Murray Sinclair, Chair of the TRC, told the Standing Senate Committee on Aboriginal Peoples: ``I'll tell you what gets me through it now and got me through it then, and that is the belief that you don't have to believe that reconciliation will happen; you have to believe that reconciliation must happen ... and you have to do what you can to make it happen.''

Our teacher candidates come from a variety of backgrounds. In addition to the teacher candidates who come from diverse Indigenous nations and heritages, we work with teacher candidates who are racialized, some of whom also carry post-colonial histories both internal to and external to North America. However, the majority of teacher candidates in our faculty are settler people of diverse European heritages. Given their diverse backgrounds, our teacher candidates engage with Canada's legacy of colonization in different ways. We also spend time working with qualified teachers to respond to inquiries about how to address truth and reconciliation in their teaching practice. Overcome guilt, find courage For many teachers and teacher candidates, especially those who are non-Indigenous, the biggest obstacle we now see is fear _ these educators want to do the right thing but they are afraid of

making the problem worse, of being guilty of cultural appropriation, of offending or misinforming. Many teachers have come from educational backgrounds that offered little in the way of Indigenous education content, and have not been challenged to think about power and privilege, or how various kinds of privilege intersect. They are now called to include Indigenous perspectives that they didn't have the opportunity learn themselves, which presents an obvious challenge. As educators still learning (as we all are), we empathize with feelings of anxiety and inadequacy. In addition to a lack of education, we are aware that another barrier can be caused by what University of Washington whiteness studies scholar Robin DiAngelo describes as ``white fragility,'' which includes ``anger, withdrawal, emotional incapacitation, guilt, argumentation and cognitive dissonance, (all of which reinforce the pressure on facilitators to

avoid directly addressing racism).'' These emotions can be paralyzing. We tell our settler students: You can cry. You can feel angry. You have a huge burden to carry. But do not stop at guilt. Guilt is unproductive. Even if the ongoing legacy of colonization is not your fault, it is your responsibility, and you do benefit from it. So to move forward in a spirit of right relations, it's important to recognize what is going on and what you can do about it. That doesn't mean taking over, or taking charge of the reconciliatory process, since meaningful reconciliation needs to be led by Indigenous people. It does mean listening, really listening, in the effort to find fitting paths forward. We know that inaction in itself is a choice and an action. No reconciliation without truth So, the first step in becoming an ally is witnessing. Being a good witness involves deep listening _ full attention, openness, the ability to be present

without judging and accurate recall. Sharing what is witnessed is about enacting the responsibility to promote right relations by widening the circle of learning and understanding. The Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada (TRC) gifted us with 94 Calls to Action that have provided valuable guidance on how to proceed in supporting and furthering truth and reconciliation. The Calls to Action are practical, easy to understand and apply to all Canadians. Inspired by the Calls to Action, an abundance of resources exist to help guide action. For example, The National Centre for Truth and Reconciliation produces invaluable resources to help people grow as allies. The Assembly of First Nations and the Montreal Indigenous Community Network have also both created outstanding resources for aspiring allies. We understand that for many Indigenous people, reconciliation is a mean-

ingless term in a time when social inequity is still rampant and the legacy of residential schools and Indian day schools is still so visible. There cannot be reconciliation without truth. There can also be no reconciliation without Indigenous leadership, language and culture perpetuation, equal sharing of resources and meaningful consultation on issues such as resource extraction and relationships to land, air and water. If we want to build something better for generations yet to come, each person must answer their own unique call to work for truth and reconciliation, which means noticing and responding to the particular circumstances and realities surrounding them. The work has started. We have nowhere to go but forward. ___ This article is republished from The Conversation under a Creative Commons license.


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Names of children who died in residential schools released in sombre ceremony cont`d search efforts have uncovered another 400 students,'' Moran said. ``We know there's many more students to be found.'' The age range is wide. ``Infants, three-year-olds, four-year-olds all the way up through their teenage years. We've got some students on this list that are named as 'babies.' '' A number of national Indigenous officials spoke at the ceremony Monday, which felt much like a funeral for the many young victims of abuse and neglect in residential schools. National Chief Perry Bellegarde of the Assembly of First Nations mourned for the ``little ones,'' many of

whom were buried unceremoniously in unmarked graves. He called the deaths of the children in the schools a ``genocide'' — echoing the findings of the final report of the national inquiry into missing and murdered Indigenous women and girls, which was released earlier this year. ``The residential-school system was a genocide of Indigenous peoples, First Nations peoples, forcibly removing from their homes and inflicting pain,'' Bellegarde said during the ceremony. ``We still feel the intergenerational trauma of that genocide. We see it every

day in our communities. But now we say there's hope, because it's not just (the term) 'survivors' we want to use. The people are ... thrivers, starting to thrive, becom(ing) proud of who we are as Indigenous Peoples.'' Although the names of the victims unveiled Monday are public, the details researchers have been able to uncover about them will be restricted to families. The work won't stop, Moran added. The team continues to seek the names of the 1,600 others confirmed dead and to find some kind of resolution for the children who disappeared.

Abuse in male-dominated politics STAFF REPORT

editor@tworowtimes.com

TWO ROW TIMES

Do you know what sovereignty is? Plainly speaking, sovereignty is the authority of a state to govern itself or another state. This is the inherent type of governance found within first nations communities and is supposed to be the catalyst to the type of governance that comes in the form of the Assembly of First Nations Chiefs. But opinions on the issues within this system are abundant. But did you know that there are two definitions of sovereignty? The counter-part definition explains that sovereignty is “supreme power or authority.” Although the lesser known definition, that counterpart seems to bleed out into indigenous politics quite often. An example of this would be a chief acting from a place of privilege and making decisions that are selfish in nature. And a lot of times, the corruption in hereditary lines of chieftainship and clan-motherhood are highlighted. But there are moments of corruption within the higher elected council systems of this country too, and a large downfall is that

their actions are also under much more scrutiny. This includes the AFN, who have taken some spotlight this year. On July 13, Grand Chief Arlen Dumas of the Assembly of Manitoba Chiefs took a leave of absence after being accused of sending unwanted messages to a woman. Dumas apologized and “after careful reflection,” committed to taking active steps in engaging in professional sensitivity training so that his future communications follow a more formal communication style. Earlier in July, Dwayne Bird, the director of communications for the Peguis First Nation, struck and then grabbed a microphone out of the hands of an APTN producer. The producer, Beverly Andrews, had her microphone grabbed during a scrum and was then ordered to leave by Bird because he did not like the question she asked Chief Glenn Hudson. Specifically, on Thursday, July 25, at the AFN General Assembly in Fredericton, New Brunswick, policy advisor Dakota Kochie allegedly shoved an APTN news reporter. The reporter, Amber Bernard, was pushed during her interview with National Chief Perry Bellegarde. As well, the AFN executive board also proposed a

suspension for Morley Googoo, who acted as regional chair for the AFN of Nova Scotia and Newfoundland, over harassment allegations levelled against him in a report written last year. In the report written in September 2018, Cheryl Maloney, former president of the Nova Scotia Native Women’s Association, said she was harassed by Googoo. In July, St. Mary’s First Nation Chief Alan Polchies, was facing on charge of assault and one of sexual assault from March. Polchies was scheduled to speak at the AFN event in July as it was held in his riding, but Chief Perry Bellegarde said the AFN and Wolastoqey leadership reached an agreement that Polchies would not address the delegation from the stage, but from a microphone. He then delivered his welcoming message to chiefs and delegates from the floor, but did not address the charges against him. The number of accusations were being linked to the MeToo movement as well, but in reality, they should be linked to a male-dominated system that is not indigenous, that indigenous nations have had to shape themselves to and inherit to be taken seriously by the Canadian government.

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J O B POSITION

B O A R D

EMPLOYER/LOCATION

TERM

Outreach Worker Atloha Family Healing Services, London, On Youth Lodge Counsellor Ganohkwasra Family Assault Support Services Sexual Violence Community Educator Ganohkwasra Family Assault Support Services Jordan’s Principle – Oneida Nation of the Thames, Southwold, On Cultural Resource Coordinator Jordan’s Principle – Youth Worker Oneida Nation of the Thames Southwold, On Community Wellness Assistant The Mississaugas of the Credit First Nation Executive Director Woodland Cultural Ctre, Brantford, On Facilities Manager Weekend Visitor Services Clerk Osh-ka-be-Wis (Traditional Helper) Cultural Interpreter Park Coordinator Human Resources Specialist Instructor GED/Pre-GED/ Academic Upgrading

Full Time TBD Full Time $51,000 Yr Full Time TBD Full Time $18 - $30 Hr

Jordan’s Principle Administrative Assistant Director of Human Resources Education Policy and Research Analyst Education Finance Analyst Team Manager – Egowadiyadagenha Registered ECE Community Energy Champion Dental Assistant Community Support Worker Community Support Worker Maternity Leave Legal Counsel Data Base Research Support Training Coordinator Cultural Advisor Coordinator Alternative Care Resource Team Member (3 positions) Language & Cultural Instructor (2 positions) Case Manager Food Service Worker Registered Social Worker Counsellor RECE/ Cultural & Language Instructor (2 positions) Food Services Supervisor Early Childhood Development Worker Registered Practical Nurse Director of Policy, Communication & Records Child Mental Health Nurse Case Manager Physiotherapy Assistant Alternative Care Resource Team Leader AADR Coordinator Consultation Point Person Consultation Administrative Assistant Job descriptions are available at GREAT Weekdays... Monday through Friday from 8:30 - 4:30 pm 16 Sunrise Court, Ohsweken

Oct 4 2019 Oct 4 2019 Oct 4 2019 Oct 7 2019

Term 3yrs $18 - $30 Hr Oct 7 2019 Full Time $16.90 Hr Oct 10 2019 Full Time $65,000 - Oct 11 2019 $75,000 Yr Full Time $19.50 Hr Oct 11, 2019 Part Time $15 Hr Oct 12 2019 Full Time TBD Oct 16 2019 F/T Contract TBD Oct 18 2019 F/T Contract TBD Oct 18 2019 Contract TBD Open Until Filled Full Time $42,491 Open Until $60,115 Yr Filled

Seven Leaf, Akwesasne, On Woodland Cultural Ctre, Brantford, On Anishnawbe Health, Toronto, On Six Nations of the Grand River Dev. Corp. Six Nations of the Grand River Dev. Corp. Six Nations of the Grand River Dev. Corp. Grand River Employment and Training Inc./ OSTTC, Ohsweken, On

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SALARY CLOSING DATE

EMPLOYER/LOCATION

Child and Youth Health, Health Services Human Resources, Central Administration Education, Central Administration Education, Central Administration IMHATC, Health Services Early Years and Childcare Services Public Works Dental Services, Health Services Home & Community Care, Health Services Community Support, Health Services Ogwadeni:deo, Social Services Ogwadeni:deo, Social Services Ogwadeni:deo, Social Services Ogwadeni:deo, Social Services Ogwadeni:deo, Social Services

TERM

SALARY CLOSING DATE

Contract TBD Full Time TBD Contract $65K per Yr Contract $65K per Yr Contract TBD Contract $22. 00 Hr Contract $45,000 Yr Full Time TBD Part Time $21 Hr Full Time $21 Hr Full Time TBD Full Time TBD Full Time TBD Full Time TBD Full Time TBD

Oct 2 2019 Oct 2 2019 Oct 2 2019 Oct 2 2019 Oct 2 2019 Oct 2 2019 Oct 2 2019 Oct 9 2019 Oct 9 2019 Oct 9 2019 Oct 9 2019 Oct 9 2019 Oct 9 2019 Oct 9 2019 Oct 9 2019

Family Gatherings Social Services Home & Community Care Health Services Iroquois Lodge Health Services Child & Youth Health, Health Services Family Gatherings, Social Services

Full Time Full Time Part Time Contract Full Time

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October 2nd, 2019


TWO TWO ROW ROW TIMES TIMES

October 2nd, 2019 DECEMBER 19TH, 2018

CLUES ACROSS 1. Fertile desert spots 6. Married woman 9. Some animals travel in one 13. Fear 14. Hawaiian island 15. Fit to work 16. Electronic counter-countermeasures 17. Former Senator Specter 18. Cambodian currency 19. Dave Matthews Band hit 21. Lists ingredients 22. Endangered antelope 23. Jerry’s TV partner 24. Blue grass state 25. Obstruct 28. Luke’s mentor __-Wan 29. Fencing swords 31. Oh, heavens! 33. Insensitive to changes in price 36. Hillsides 38. Brew 39. Gland secretion 41. A typical example 44. Get up 45. You put it on your pasta 46. Expresses surprise 48. News organization 49. Disorder of the lungs (abbr.) 51. One millionth of a gram 52. Some are of the “suit” variety 54. Group of organisms 56. Produces 60. Passage into a mine 61. __ and cheeses 62. Semitic fertility god 63. Dry or withered 64. Religious ceremony 65. __ Winger, actress 66. German river 67. Midway between northeast and east 68. Take something or somebody somewhere CLUES DOWN 1. Lyric poems 2. Genus of saltwater clams 3. Ingroup 4. Type of lounge chair

27 27

ARIES – Mar 21/Apr 20 A hectic few weeks find you looking forward to some time off, Aries. You may have to finish some complicated tasks first to free up moments for relaxation. TAURUS – Apr 21/May 21 Taurus, this week, feelings that have been simmering just under the surface come to light. Clear the air and you’ll discover everything was just miscommunication.

GEMINI – May 22/Jun 21 There’s more going on with friends than meets the eye, Gemini. Do not rush to think something negative is going on. Keep an open mind and you could be surprised.

5. Memory card 6. Archipelago 7. Common Korean surname 8. It’s up there 9. Quantity that helps to define 10. First month of the Jewish ecclesiastical year 11. Metal-headed golf club 12. A shade of green 14. Begin 17. A good thing to have 20. Language spoken in Laos 21. Loosely compacted sediment 23. Naturally occurring protein 25. Woman 26. Central Indian city 27. Volcanic craters 29. The largest existing land animals 30. Romanian city 32. Equal to 10 meters

Answers for October 4th, 2019 Crossword Puzzle

34. Historic Nevada city 35. A point of transition 37. Remove 40. Overwatch character 42. Records electric currents linked to the heart 43. Settles in calmly 47. Partner to his 49. Banking giant 50. Slowly disappeared 52. End 53. Sword with a v-shaped blade 55. Fabric with smooth, shiny surface 56. Wild cherry tree 57. Traditional Japanese socks 58. Make of your hard work 59. Stony waste matter 61. Woman (French) 65. Unit of loudness

SUDOKU

CANCER – Jun 22/Jul 22 Temporary responsibilities at work have you feeling a tad overwhelmed, Cancer. This project was put in your hands, so you will have to see it through to the end.

LEO – Jul 23/Aug 23 Talk things through with a close friend before you swing into action, Leo. Sometimes it is better to have a springboard for ideas to see if things are truly feasible. VIRGO – Aug 24/Sept 22 Virgo, you may be having doubts about just where the future will bring you. But you don’t have to be looking too far ahead for the time being. Focus on the here and now.

LIBRA – Sept 23/Oct 23 It is sometimes good to look at the world through rose-colored glasses, Libra. However, do not let this cloud reality to the point that you do not see the truth.

SCORPIO – Oct 24/Nov 22 You are so busy with various activities that it is impossible to be bored for the next several days, Scorpio. You may be able to eke out a little time to recharge if you delegate. SAGITTARIUS – Nov 23/Dec 21 Sagittarius, new friends come into your life this week. It’s an exciting opportunity to get to know new faces. You can benefit from expanding your social network. CAPRICORN – Dec 22/Jan 20 Avoid a knee-jerk reaction to a stressful situation, Capricorn. You may find that not all stress is bad; some can spur you to accomplish things you never imagined. AQUARIUS – Jan 21/Feb 18 Aquarius, miscommunication can be a tough hurdle to clear. Make a greater effort to communicate effectively in the coming days and weeks.

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1979 4th Line Road, Ohsweken, Ontario N0A 1M0 P.O. Box 187, Six Nations of the Grand River Tel: (519) 445-4133 • E-Mail: innkeeper@thebearsinn.com www.thebearsinn.com

PISCES – Feb 19/Mar 20 Make family your top priority this week, Pisces. Everything else can take a back seat for the time being. There will be time to get everything done.

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