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People were checking their calendars Tuesday morning when they woke up. Only a couple of days earlier the weather was almost summery and most people thought they had seen the last of Ol’ Man Winter. But Tuesday morning there was snow on the ground and the Grand River was overrunning its banks, and shutting down some Six Nations roads. PM42686517 More photos of the flooding on our website PHOTO BY DAVE LAFORCE



April 16th, 2014

Six Nations opposes new education act By Jen Mt. Pleasant OHSWEKEN - The latest version of the First Nations Education Act which is now entitled the “First Nations Control of First Nations Education Act,” was introduced in Parliament last week. Six Nations Elected Chief Ava Hill was already in Ottawa that same day meeting with politicians to discuss Bill C-10. In an interview with the Two Row Times, Hill stated that when she, along with band council representatives from Kahnawake and Tyendinaga were meeting with Opposition leader Thomas Mulcair, they had heard that the Assembly of First Nations leader Shawn Atleo was downstairs giving a press conference on the newly tabled education Act. Hill said they went downstairs to listen in on the press conference. One of the biggest questions concerning Six Nations Elected Council right now is how much of a role the AFN and Atleo have played in the making of this new Act. Repeated attempts by Hill to contact Atleo have been unsuccessful which is leading her to believe that he may have something to hide. “When we were at Parliament last week and we got wind of

the AFN press conference, we crashed it. APTN was there and I asked them when they interview Atleo to ask him if he co-drafted the FNCFNEA and he never really answered the question,” Hill told Council on Monday morning. In an interview, Six Nations community member Amber Skye stated, “I don’t think having more educated children will help our people unless they know who they are and who their people are. There’s a lot of educated people in the world but not a lot of people who have good minds. Our children really need to know who they are. Having a strong cultural foundation facilitates resilience but resilience is one of the best measures of success and not just in education but in just about every other issue we see in our community. “I also think success is something culturally defined. What is success for our children may not be the same as success for others. Success for me is that my children know who they are and they use whatever gifts they have to help their people.” Skye attended immersion school and went on to graduate from university and currently teaches at McMaster University. What concerns her the

most is the standard provincial curriculum that is taught in the schools on Six Nations. “We have known for a long time that the current system doesn’t work for our children. Many indigenous education scholars have demonstrated the flaws of the system and the need to indigenize our education for our children to succeed and at the same time challenge assimilation.” Asked about what worries her the most concerning education, Skye stated, “I’m most worried that we are moving in the wrong direction. I’ve asked myself what good my children will be to the community if they are highly educated but don’t know the culture or the community? What will they be able to offer that the current system doesn’t? We all want the best for our kids and we’ve been told too long that Euro-western knowledge is superior. We need to change our curriculum and delivery methods also.” On what her advice would be to those who are in control of the funding dollars and the curriculum for schools on Six Nations, Skye explained, “We need to recognize our right to provide education as we see fit for our children. That is what our immersion schools did in the be-

ginning. Culture should not be a lesson it should be centralized. It should guide how we teach and what we teach. “We can still meet requirements and I think we will excel if we take this approach. We also need to utilize our people both in the schools and in higher-level positions. We have so many very qualified people in our community that we should be drawing on. Again we tend to consult outsiders about what is best for our children.” Elected Chief Ava Hill told the Two Row Times that the newly tabled

FNCFNEA has two small clauses that stipulate that language and culture ‘may be taught’ in the schools but English or French are to be the main languages spoken. If the FNCFNEA gets passed through Parliament, the Minister of Indian Affairs will still be in control of schools on Six Nations and what is to be taught in the schools. In response to the

FNCFNEA, the Chiefs of Ontario have sent out emails to all First Nations in Ontario asking councils to send letters to the AFN stating that they were never consulted on the education act and that the AFN does not represent the best interests of First Nations and to also send a letter to the Minister of Indian Affairs stating the same thing.



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April 16th, 2014

Smoke from disintegrator causes concerns By Jen Mt. Pleasant

Last week a group of community members attended the Six Nations Landfill Site, which is where the new disintegrator is located. Still in its trial run and operated by the Kearns Waste Sciences Group from Nova Scotia, some neighbours of the landfill site are complaining of black smoke and the smell of burned garbage. The group had asked operator, John Kearns to shut down his disintegrator but was refused and they left peacefully, leaving Kearns to continue operating. The group attended the landfill site last week after they were approached by community members who informed them of smoke coming from the disintegrator, and the toxic smell of burned garbage lingering in the air. The other concern was the quality of the air surrounding the disintegrator and whether or not it posed a health risk to those who live near the disintegrator. The disintegrator is in its trial run and Elected Council has not yet closed the deal with Kearns. Derek Sandy, who led the small group to the dump last week, told Two Row Times that he went to Kearns because a friend of his lives near the unit and told him that he could smell the garbage

burning. Sandy said that they told him that they have seen black clouds of smoke over the machine and are concerned why the unit, which claims to be emissions free, is producing the smoke. Kearns told the group that in order for his disintegrator to work efficiently, it has to be heated to a temperature of at least 2,200 degrees. To get it up to that temperature, he has to burn wood or some other flammable material until the temperature reaches its ideal range and that during that time, there could possibly be some sort of emissions coming from it. According to Kearns’ website, “The system is designed to generate heat from waste material introduced for disintegration. Volatile gases created in the disintegration process are processed in a scientific manner producing a vast amount of heat termed ENTHALPY. A normal by-product of the fire is smoke and the Kearns Disintegration System simply harnesses the fuel value from the resultant smoke and incorporates it as a fuel source. This engineering design allows the Kearns Disintegration System to obtain and maintain it’s extremely high operating temperatures.”. On whether or not emissions pose a danger

to those close to the disintegrator, such as workers or those who live close to the landfill site, Two Row Times spoke with Six Nations Environmental Technician, Clynt King. Asked whether he has been asked to come and assess the air quality around the disintegrator, King explained he has not. “Not in this case, I have not been involved at all,” stated King who explained his job is too general to perform something specific as testing air quality at a particular area. “I don’t have the technology or the experience to test air quality,”

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said King. Two Row Times also spoke with Elected Chief Ava Hill, who stated that right now, the disintegrator is just a demonstration. It is a project performed by Kearns who is trying to prove to Elected Council whether or not his invention works. “We have to do something with the garbage back there,” stated Hill. “We can’t just keep burying it. Another option is to ship our garbage off the territory, which would come with a cost to it as well.” Right now, Hill stated that the disintegrator is having mechanical issues

because it is old. If Elected Council decides to go ahead with the disintegrator project it will purchase one brand new and it will also be indoors. On what Elected Council is doing regarding the clouds of black smoke that have been reported around the disintegrator on a few occasions, Hill stated that right now, there isn’t any one on the territory who is qualified to assess air quality at the landfill site and they would have to bring in outside experts. “I’ve heard it may cost as much as $100,000 to bring in a specialist,”

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stated Hill. On whether or not Elected Council has consulted a specialist regarding complaints of burning garbage or clouds of smoke, Hill stated that as of yet, no. She also said that she has spoken with some residents who live near the landfill site and they haven’t complained of noxious smells or smoke and that right now, Elected Council is taking the word of Kearns and and the emission tests he undertook in Nova Scotia that his machine is not damaging to the environment or to people.

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April 16th, 2014

Area high schools face restructuring By Jim Windle SIX NATIONS – Declining high school enrollments at Hagersville Secondary, Cayuga Secondary, Dunnville Secondary and McKinnon Park Secondary, has created a problematic situation after the Province recommended that wings of all three schools be shut down and some programs they offered cancelled. To fill those spaces the board is considering partnerships with Mohawk College, for instance, or other private training institutes to use some of the available space at these schools to produce added income streams. This has created an especially problematic situation for Six Nations and New Credit high school students who represent a large and growing demographic amongst Native communities. While mainstream population is in decline, the number of Native teens coming into high school age is increasing rapidly. Ontario’s Ministry of Education has given the Grand Erie School Board the cumbersome charge to gather recommendations from an adhoc committee to discuss plans to downsize, or as they refer

Cayuga Secondary School is one of a number of schools facing recommendations to down size their facilities, programs and staff. PHOTO BY JIM WINDLE to it, “right-size,” their facilities, programs and staff. To gather information, ideas and suggestions on how to implement these changes, the Grand Erie Board has put together what they call an Accommodation Review Committee. McKinnon Park, the newest of the three, is the most popular due to its proximity to fast food outlets like MacDonald’s being close by. But even they have a juggling act to do over the summer, and are actually over crowded while the other schools are well under capacity. Max King, a lifelong

educator, now retired, is especially concerned with how these changes will affect New Credit and Six Nations students. An arts and culture semester for Native students was discussed in the past to encourage kids to learn about their culture. It would include an arts class, a law class, lacrosse class, and a history class, all from an Onkwehon:we perspective. This idea never got off the ground. It was suggested that this idea could be developed at just one school, and students leave their regular high school for one semester to take this course as a part of an

overall high school experience that would be culturally relevant to them. The proposed changes are not just about reassessing which schools to send students to; it also includes the cancelation of programs currently being offered to students. “The province is now saying that the ideal size of the high school would be about 1,000 students,” says Max King. “The Province was building these super-schools which have 2,500 to 3,000 students in the Toronto and Ottawa area, but now they are saying that the optimum size of a secondary school is of 1,000 so you can still maintain a close relation-

ship with parents and students. “That impacts staff as well as programs,” says King, “This is why Mohawk and Ojibwa language classes have disappeared out of the schools.” “Because of shrinking enrollments, there are fewer students so it’s a real problem for the school boards,” says King. “The Province says you have X-number of dollars to operate a school. In order to comply with that, you have to shrink spaces to save on heating, staffing and maintaining more space than needed. It’s a matter of ‘right-sizing’ all the


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schools, according to the Grand Erie Board of Education. At Cayuga High they are considering shutting down their entire techwing. King points out that while these schools are being forced to resize, there is a new development being planned in Caledonia that would put 1,200 new homes up (Mackenzie Meadows). Those homes mean 1,200 families with children will need a high school education. King predicts that in five or ten years, the battle will be a school for Caledonia residents on the other side of the river, and possibly closing Hagersville and Cayuga. Bussing students from Six Nations and New Credit is also something that will have to be redesigned once the classes and programs and boundaries are readjusted. Parents of current high school age children and those of younger children destined for high school, need to be aware of these pending changes and how they may affect their children. The next meeting of the Accommodation Review Committee is April 30 at 6:30 pm at Cayuga Secondary School.


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April 16th, 2014

Grassy Narrows stands against logging By Alex Hundert

On April 1, the Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources’ (MNR) 10 year Forestry Management Plan (FMP) for the Whiskey Jack Forest comes into effect, with over 50 000 hectares – that’s more than 500 square kilometers of forest scheduled for clearcutting. If you think you have heard of the Whiskey Jack before, it is probably because the Whiskey Jack Forest is one of the names that have been given to an area of land that corresponds with Asubpeeschoseewagong Netum Anishinabek (Grassy Narrows First Nation) Traditional Territory, which has been protected against clearcut logging for over a decade by the longest standing blockade in Canada. Over 50% of Grassy Narrows Traditional Territory has previously been logged. The Province does not recognize the land as Grassy Narrows’ Territory. While they tacitly rec-

ognize Grassy Narrows Traditional Land Use Area (GNTLUA), that is mostly for the purposes of “assigning” traplines, a right claimed by the MNR. They also call it Forestry Management Unit #490, and the FMP makes it clear that they intend to take the trees, which they view as belonging to the Crown. Recently the MNR rejected a request from Grassy Narrows Chief, Simon Fobister for the management contract (also known as the “Sustainable Forestry License”) for the Whiskey Jack Forest. It took less than 48 hours for the Minister of Natural Resources, David Orazietti to reject the offer, an offer that was also condemned by Kenora MP Dave Rickford. The quick rejection and condemnation came after months of silence and refusals to publicly address the issue by the Wynne Government and Orazietti Ministry. Even the NDP’s MNR critic, Dave Vanhouf has refused to comment.

Then on March 28, just days before the plan is to come into effect, a statement was released from the MNR in which Orazietti claims that this year’s Annual Work Schedule (AWS) will not contain any cutblocks within the GNTLUA, however the AWS is still yet to be released by MNR. They seem to have, for this year, decided to only log Whiskey Jack cutblocks that do not fall within Grassy Narrows’ Territory, though all of the blocks within the GNTLUA would remain on the 10 year plan. One possible reason for their decision is the request for an Individual Environmental Assessment (IEA) made by the Grassy Narrows First Nation Band Council. The Ministry of the Environment has yet to formally reply to the request. However, regardless of whether clearcutting is scheduled within the GNTLUA for this year or next, the 10 year plan, as well as their own statements (or in some cases, lack

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thereof) have made the Government’s intent clear. The silence and remaining uncertainty come as even more severe a slight since when she was Minister of Aboriginal Resources, Wynne actually visited Grassy Narrows and promised to help the community find a resolution to the ongoing logging conflict and the ongoing problems caused by the mercury poisoning of the English River System, from which new generations of children continue to be affected. In the 1960’s logging operations dumped an estimated ten metric tonnes of industrial mercury into the waters at the Dryden Paper Mill, resulting in the long term poisoning of the English and Wabigoon River Systems, affecting Grassy Narrows as well as other First Nations. Another factor in the decision might be the recent commitment by major regional lumber company EACOM to avoid conflict wood from Grassy Narrows. EACOM’s com-

mitment leaves no large operating mills in the region willing to accept conflict softwood from Grassy Narrows Territory after years of boycotts and divestment actions. The Grassy Narrows First Nation Chief and Council, as well as grassroots organizers in the community have firmly rejected the logging plan. Taina Da Silva, a Youth organizer in the community, and daughter of long-time organizer and grassroots leader Judy Da Silva, said in a recently released statement from the Grassy Narrows Youth Group, “If the logging begins in our territory, I am certain there will already be planned strategies on our part to bring it to a complete halt… It’s important to stop the new logging plan because our traditional way of life depends on the health of the environment.” Another of the newly formed Youth Group’s core organizers is Edmond Jack, who is also the eldest child of another


one Grassy Narrows’ most prominent grassroots voices and former “Youth Leader”, Chrissy Swain. In the March 1 statement, Jack says, “Our organizing is connected through bloodline relations and teachings. Our mothers fought so we could have this land, so we will continue to fight for it… Not only does the plan threaten my family trapline, but it also threatens the traditional knowledge of future generations who cannot yet speak for themselves.” The most concise place to get information and updates on developments at Grassy Narrows, where there is also information on how to support land protection efforts, is at According to the website, direct political pressure on the Liberal Provincial Government is important. The Grassy Narrows Youth Group is also currently fundraising and can be reached at GrassyNarrows.YouthGroup@

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April 16th, 2014


Fear and Control

What frightens you? For some of us the impenetrable dark of night can be unsettling. Others fear the face of a clown or committing to an idea without total assurances of security. There are many ideas and notions in this world that are potentially alarming and lead down the road of fear. Unfortunately people don’t realize how the emotion of fear can control their future actions and perceptions. Additionally, the sentiment of fear can be used. Fear is a tool the government

uses to assert control over people and to direct them down the highway of their own destruction. Do you remember the school bully? When you saw them, you would deviate from your path in hopes of avoiding a confrontation that could potentially leave you bleeding and penniless. Reasoning with this bully was equally destructive and useless, just when you thought you were making progress and might escape unscathed, he/she would hit you from behind. This bully

never cared about your well-being, only about trying to dominate and control you. The by-product of this relationship is that someone is always left in a vulnerable position until a reasonable solution can be found. The school bully cannot be the countenance of fear forever. A solution should always be sought. Coercion is often used to intimidate and aggressively impose domination. The behaviour of coercion in most circumstances is repeated and habitual.

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Breaking the cycle of fear and control is not easy. Just ask a bruised and battered woman who tries repeatedly to leave her abusive relationship. The ties are profound and affect more than a single person. In most instances, the abused woman will have to seek shelter from an outside source in order to be safe. The Canadian Government has employed this strategy for hundreds of years and has made great headway leaving the Indigenous populations of Turtle Island in a perpetual state of trepidation. Anyone who has ever lived on or near a Native reservation can tell you about the difference in

attitude and perception shared throughout the community. The difference in attitude and perception is the result of years of marginalization and racial bias that then manifests into an insular social grouping. Residential schools are a prime example of how fear can focus the mind to sacrifice a part to save the life. Through the medium of the Indian Act, Indian Agents would take children from their parents to ‘civilize’ the child. In the Government’s eyes, they were ‘helping’ the native become culturally assimilated to the now dominant non-Native society. Parents were threatened with incar-

ceration if they did not surrender their children for ‘education’. The culmination of these actions by the Indian Agents exemplify the strengths of Fear and Control. Everybody that incorporates the use of bullish behaviour to achieve results which are solely beneficial to them is short-sighted and ignorant. Meaningful dialogue can dramatically change the outcome of inevitability. Fear and control should never be an alternative to reasonability. Appreciation of our intrinsic value and can be the catalyst to new relationships and understanding. Are you listening Canada?

First, Let’s Put an End to Tory Election Fraud By Michael Keefer The Harper Government – as our Prime Minister modestly likes it to be called – has been showing its teeth during the past several years. In 2011, though crime rates in Canada had been steadily declining, we were presented with an omnibus crime bill, numbered C-10. Responding to a nonexistent crime wave, this bill set about turning Canada into a prison state on the model of the US, with measures including mandatory minimum sentences that legal experts guaranteed would victimize the vulnerable, overwhelm the courts and legal aid systems, fill to overflowing even the big new jails the government proposed to build, and increase the already scandalous proportion of First Nations people behind bars. Now we have another Bill C-10, the “Tack-

ling Contraband Tobacco Act,” which targets First Nations directly, offering a toxic recipe of kickdown-the-door-policing, incarceration, economic stagnation, and welfare dependence. Both lawand-order bills have been

accompanied by government fear-mongering – including, in the present case, a billboard campaign in major cities that blames gun violence on the illicit tobacco trade. (This happens to be untrue, as a recent mono-

Volume 1, Issue 36 657 Mohawk Road Six Nations of the Grand River Territory, Ontario, N0A 1H0 Make all cheques payable to: Garlow Media Printed at Ricter Web, Brantford ON

graph by Professor Jean Daudelin of Carleton University makes clear.) In between the two Bill C-10s we’ve had Bill C-45, an omnibus bill that attacked the land and resource base of First Nations, enabling the surrender of reserve lands without majority support, stripping environmental protections from Canada’s lakes and rivers, and also, as environmental lawyer Jessica Clogg observes, defying the Supreme Court’s requirement that governments should engage honourably with First Nations over land and resource decisions. Rammed through the House of Commons, with spin-doctoring and false advertising substituted for the normal democratic procedure of careful study by committees and full parliamentary debate, bills like these have been made possible by one simple thing: the fact

that in the election of May 2, 2011 Stephen Harper and his party won majority-government status. But here’s another simple fact that Canadians have to confront: the Harper Conservatives appear to have won that parliamentary majority by fraud. Whenever he’s asked a question in the House of Commons on the subject of the so-called robocalls scandal of the 2011 election, Harper repeats the same mantra: We know that one or two bad eggs sent out illegal phone calls in Guelph; we’re keen to see them punished; and any suggestion that the Conservative Party was to blame is a vicious smear. Mr Harper is not telling the truth. There were in fact two campaigns of fraudulent phone calls in the 2011 election—both of them set in motion and coordinated, not by some

rogue operative scarcely out of short pants, but by an organization with national reach. That organization was the Conservative Party. The first set of fraudulent calls, which pretended to come from Liberal Party offices, harassed Liberal supporters in 22 ridings across Canada during the last two weeks of the campaign: they woke people in the middle of the night, and pestered Christians on Easter morning and Jews on the Sabbath. They were often rude, and sometimes racist – and there’s little doubt that they contributed to the decline in Liberal support. The second set of fraudulent calls began at the end of the campaign, first with live-operator calls, and then with a surge of robocalls on May 1 and on election day, CONTINUED ON PAGE 18

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April 16th, 2014

Dolly Parton’s library imagines literacy By Tim Reynolds SIX NATIONS – A group of Six Nations residents are pursuing community and financial support to get the Dolly Parton Imagination Library started for all of those born in 2014 at Six Nations. The program was established by country singer Dolly Parton in 1996. Holly Frank, chairperson of the Six Nations Imagination Steering Committee stated, “Reading to your baby is the foundation of language and learning. It also builds a strong bond between parent and child. It is a simple idea but the effects are deep and it provides long-term benefits for the person and the community.” The Imagination Library provides an opportunity for children to receive quality, age appropriate books in the mail once a month for

free, from birth to age five. If a baby is registered at birth they will have received a library of 60 books when they reach their fifth birthday. In 2009, the program was started in Brant by the Kids Can Fly program in partnership with the Rotary Club of Brantford-Sunrise. “We see the impact on the children in Brant and the positive responses from their parents and teachers and want to offer this program to our children too” said Frank. “We want to work with existing programs and agencies on and off Six Nations” added Frank. “Sharon Brooks of Kids Can Fly and Gene Smitiuch of the Brantford Public Library have shown support. David Dotson, President of the Dollywood Foundation is also in full support. We have been in con-

tact with agencies on Six Nations. Our group currently consists of myself,

Misty Ladd, Connie Van Every, Charlotte Maracle, and Abby Powless. We

are currently seeking out other community members to make the program community driven.” There are currently 10,000 Canadian children per month registered for the program. This is compared to 700,000 children per month in the USA and 26,000 in the United Kingdom Considerable success has been achieved in First Nations communities, particularly in British Columbia and Manitoba. A provincial wide effort in Manitoba has secured funding to provide the Imagination Library to every First Nation child under 5 on reserve. These children are currently being enrolled and ultimately 7,000 children in Manitoba will be participating in the program. The group is seeking 50% of the costs to be provided from the Six Nations Elected Council,

which will be $19,500 to cover the cost for the first 3 years. The other 50% of funding would come from monies raised from local businesses, foundations or other grants amounting to $19,500. Many studies have shown children who enter kindergarten unprepared will read below grade level when they reach the third grade, are less likely to graduate from high school and are more likely to have substance abuse problems and struggle financially. The cost of dealing with these aforementioned problems is far greater than the investment required to bring more children to school ready to learn. Those interested in supporting this effort financially or in joining the group are encouraged to call Holly Frank at 226920-5267.

ering cost and being compensated for our time. Like it or not we live in a money society. We do not have the luxury of taking 10lbs of fish to “Joe Deer Hunter” to trade for venison, or Cindy Dressmaker for clothes. I crunched the numbers and took into account compensation for helpers, equipment amortization, vehicle payment, gas, insurance, Jamie’s time for teaching others, water, Ziploc bags, and costs associated with running two freezers and I subtract that from the gross revenue, we clear enough to pay overdue bills, pay off any credit cards and buy something we need, usually, for the house. We still have another forty-four weeks to get through. Last year was the first time Jamie raised his prices, $1.00, in the eight years I’ve been here. The people he sells to are from three Haudenosaunee communities and they are business owners like Toni Anthony and traditional people like Hubert Skye. These two

people would not have access to fresh pickerel if it were not for the efforts of the Haudenosaunee men and women who go out every year to get it. To say that the society doesn’t benefit from those Aboriginal people who chose to fish and sell it, do not fully understand. Money may not be our original form of currency, but we were never so primitive that we stayed static. Our people adapt and evolve just like any other race or society. Not everyone in society can fish, they don’t have the resources or knowledge required, the residential schools made sure of that. Every year our people go through the same thing with non-native people, and the police antagonize the situation. Our people have been hunting and fishing for centuries and have made a living from it. That is how a society works and just because the government considers it commercialized doesn’t mean we do.

Spear fishing a family affair By Erica L. Jamieson

Every year, on the first nice day after the snow is gone, Jamie Kunkel, a Mohawk Bear, gets ready for spear fishing. Self-taught Jamie has been spear fishing for most of his life. Aboriginal fishing begins weeks before the regular open fishing season. At around 9:00pm, Jamie begins his routine by checking his equipment; big rubber boots, waterproof overalls, warm clothes, a net, a small bright flashlight, his son, a friend and his spear. If he’s staying close to the truck he takes his younger son, two daughters and if I’m up for it, me. We take the 30 minute drive to the Trenton area and find a place to park. If it’s cold, Jamie starts a small fire to keep us warm and we sit around drinking coffee and eating snacks. Jamie and his helper(s) make their way down to the river banks and one by one the fish are tossed up. After ten or more fish, they take a fifteen/twen-

ty minute break between five or so runs. After the third run the younger kids start making their way to the truck to fall asleep. The next morning, the guys are up and friends show up to clean the fish. After the fish have been filleted and a bucket filled, Jaylee, our son, takes the bucket to the kitchen. Now it’s my turn, I check each fish for bones and cut out whatever has been missed and I wash away any dirt or blood that’s been left. They are frozen and bagged in water. After the first night of a good run it’s fish fry for dinner. The next day we do it all over again for about 2 months but without the fish fry. It’s a great time of year for our family and friends. We do everything together and we each have our own duties for the common good. Everything about that is from our original ways. Last year Jamie had some trouble with non-native people coming to cause problems.

Jamie Kunkel teaching Sonny Delaronde how to fillet a fish One man brought his son down to the river and started making banging noises. Jamie asked him to stop because it was scaring the fish away. Needless to say it got a bit out of hand, the guy left and the cops came back. They couldn’t charge him for fishing out of sea-

son so they charged him with trespassing. The dispute arises from a racist opinion that because Jamie charges money, in their minds it isn’t for “food, ceremonial and societal uses.” The amount he charges isn’t about getting rich. It’s about recov-




April 16th, 2014


Who You Calling Formerly Colonized? During the past week I have had more conversations about “decolonization” than I have had in my whole life. As I mentioned in one of my Facebook conversations, I am not entirely comfortable with the expression. Clearly as Native people continue to carve out our existence with the dominant societies, cultures and politics around us, we find ourselves getting caught up in the next word, policy or social theory of the day. Sovereignty became almost synonymous with Native rights. Self-governance and self-determination also began rolling off the tongues of every “tribal leader” and “Indian expert.” Oh yeah, and let’s not leave out “nation-to-nation” and “government-to-government” relations. Those were good ones. For me, the “trust relationship” with a complete lack of the “trust” part makes that one problematic for me but that one was easy to call. This decolonization thing was a little more troublesome for me. I mean, I get it and the whole “decolonize your mind” slogan does have a nice ring to it but for me it still didn’t feel right. I was finally able to put my finger on it today when my good friend Kerry Hawk Lessard used

University of Michigan Associate Professor of Psychology and American Culture Joseph Gone’s definition in our discussion. Gone uses decolonization to describe “the intentional, collective, and reflective self-examination undertaken by formerly colonized peoples that results in shared remedial action.” Well, there you have it. Decolonization felt to me a little too much like the abolition movement and Gone confirmed the problem for me. Just like abolition was all about addressing and ending the very successful dehumanizing institution that was American slavery, decolonization is about remediating the problems associated with “formerly colonized peoples” as though the act of colonization was both complete and successful. I understand that colonization is a clear and well-defined concept, but at its core it is about claiming land. Just as the Doctrine of Christian Discovery really had nothing to do with converting the pagans into Christians but rather converting their land to Christendom, colonization was less about colonizing people and more about taking their land for the colonizer. So having said that, I certainly acknowledge that almost all of our lands were stolen, defrauded, claimed and/or swindled from us for THEIR colony and most Native commu-

nities, on either side of the imaginary line (U.S./ Canadian border) are led to believe their lands are held “in trust” for them by the colonial powers. But the keyword here is “most” — not all. One of the little-known facts about Native people is that 70 percent of them do not live on Native lands and most of the remaining percent that do, live on lands that the colonizers claim to hold the title to. But that is not the case for the Haudenosanee territories I have lived on. Although our ancestral lands have been greatly reduced, all of the peoples of the Haudenosaunee still retain a portion of those once vast lands and they own it. The lands of which I speak are not under US or state title. And they are not “held for the use and enjoyment” of our people. Our people own them. So to say it more clearly and in the context of this discussion — our land is not part of their colony. The land we still occupy has not been colonized. Now I am not suggesting that we are the only people who can claim to have not been colonized but I would say that if they can’t claim our lands then they can’t claim us. I will also state for the record that I have never ascribed to the notion that the U.S. and Canada hold our lands for us. But I will say if you view yourself among the formerly colonized peo-

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ples then the first step you need to take is to assert your connection to your homeland. Beyond the inability of the colonial powers to render us landless, I maintain that there is no legal basis to claim our subjugation or cite just when our clearly recognized sovereignty was ever transferred to them. It is laughable that the foundation of US and Canadian “federal Indian law” is still only based on papal bulls from the fifteenth century. In 1823 when the U.S. codified the Doctrine of Christian Discovery into U.S. law via Johnson v. M’Intosh, Chief Justice John Marshall literally suggested that Native sovereignty was diminished upon discovery. And in the wake of Marshall’s legal dicta on this ruling there began this absurd assumption that discov-

ery could be viewed as tantamount to conquest. Of course, even with this weak rationale building the foundation for the imperialistic belief in Manifest Destiny, neither the U.S. nor the state of New York ever claimed to own the land we retained. In fact, even when attempting to relocate the Seneca during the Removal Act era, the U.S. was forced to include language in its offer of lands west of the Mississippi that even those lands would never be claimed by the U.S. or incorporated into any state (an offer that was nonetheless rejected). As late as the second half of the nineteenth century, New York State still acknowledged in its State Judicial Reports that Seneca lands were not part of the state, that the Seneca were not represented in their legislature and that

the state could not tax them. I have many reasons for refusing to be considered a formerly colonized person. I maintain that there are many of us that are among a long line of people who have resisted and rejected subjugation and the assumption of colonization. So excuse me for not embracing the decolonization movement. My sovereignty is a birthright. That whole unalienable rights thing? That came from us. The concept of seven generations doesn’t just suggest that we consider the effects of our actions on those unborn faces — it prohibits and denies any legal and legitimate authority of anyone to sell out their future generations. I can’t decolonize. That would suggest that I was colonized in the first place. I wasn’t and I’m not.

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April 16th, 2014



Let’s Grow A Garden Together Last week I wrote about decolonization, specifically asking the question “How?” We got a lot of good responses to that and this week I’d like to share a letter sent in by a self-described “white girl” about her thoughts on Decolonization. I loved it. I’m sure you will too. Dear Nahnda Garlow, I was in my workplace lunchroom, perusing the countertops for something to read, when I found a copy of the Two Row Times on an old washing machine. I picked it up and started reading through it. When I got to your article, I read it and then re-read it. I suddenly felt excited because the conflict you were describing and the overwhelming number of questions regarding

decolonization, what it means, what it would look like, whether or not it is completely valuable, etc., were all questions that I find myself grappling with on a daily basis—except that I am not a “rez girl;” I am a “white girl.” My ancestors were the colonizers… What I really connected to in your article was your honesty with the internal conflicts you are experiencing with wanting to re-connect to the land, rather than simply accepting and adapting to the westernized, cultural regime; however, still finding that you take pleasure in some Western products and activities. I think this is a very real struggle, and I am humbled by your honesty and by your willingness (despite how difficult it may be), to engage with those probing self-questions. I think that you sort of answered the last question you pose in your

article in regards to decolonization, “where do you begin?”—through the very act of writing the article itself. In regards to “decolonization,” I don’t think I had ever heard the term used before reading your article, and yet, I have lived nearly all my life on the Haldimand Tract— contested land. Despite living on contested land my whole life, I have spent most of my life living in ignorance of this fact. I am ashamed of how much I have taken for granted—not only because I do not fully understand the history of colonization, but also because I have taken for granted many western values—or what I like to call, “American Dream” values—values associated with the “systems” you refer to in your article. I fear that I have accepted many values that make these systems work, without really questioning them. I am

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currently struggling to re-think what it is that is truly important to me in life. I am constantly trying to challenge my own reality, and my own values, while also trying to figure out how to act—a question I felt you were asking within your article. As a white, Canadian girl, I have some questions to add to your compelling list… How can the colonizers take responsibility for colonizing and act toward decolonization? How might the people sharing the land (even though some people don’t act as though they are ‘sharing’)—how might we become allies in this struggle to “[reclaim] our relationship to the earth,” (as you state in your article)? How might we become allies in asking these hard and daunting questions of ourselves? Anyway, I would like to meet sometime, and maybe talk about how to

grow a garden together. It doesn’t have to be a literal garden, but it could be a space where we practice this struggle of asking harder questions of ourselves and the historical/cultural state we find ourselves in. Perhaps “decolonization” is not an endpoint or a goal to achieve, the way getting a “good job” is a goal. Perhaps “decolonization” is a way of being in the world. Thank you for your piece.

-Calla Churchward

Dear Calla, Thank you for sharing your heart. Our ancestors said that the covenant between the indigenous people and settlers had to be taken care of. My people called this process “polishing the covenant chain”. While there is an honourable and ceremonial side to this rite, there is also the practical - basi-

cally just being friends. Funny thing is, we can’t effectively carry out the practical side of taking care of our relationship as the two parties involved in the Two Row Wampum if we don’t have a relationship to start. Indigenous peoples and descendants of settlers are equal parties in the Two Row Wampum. In that respect, it is a covenant of humanity and does not exclusively belong to only the Haudenosaune, but is open ended and available to all who trace the roots of peace and wish to remain in that peace. I am honoured that despite my self-proclaimed black thumb you invited me to garden with you. Sure I’ll come over, and while I’m there maybe we can make some scone dogs. -Nahnda Garlow

Six Nations

Awards Banquet featuring the

Wilma General Memorial Award The Six Nations Awards Committee is seeking nominations for the Wilma General Memorial Award You are encouraged to submit a nomination if you know anyone who: • Is a community member • Possesses a strong background in volunteer activities • Promotes unity and strength both within the family and the community • Demonstrates ability to create change • Liaises to bridge the gap between Native and Non-Native • Possesses positive interpersonal skills and is always willing to sacrifice their personal time to help where needed. Nomination Forms can be picked up at the Council Administration Building during normal business hours Monday to Friday 8:30 a.m. to 4:30 p.m.

Nomination deadline is Wednesday, April 17, 2014 at 4:00 p.m. Late nominations will not be accepted




April 16th, 2014

CLax all-star game, just for fun By Jim Windle WILMOT, ON – It was more like a lacrosse jam session than a game, but the fans still got a show at the Canadian Lacrosse League’s All-Star game, which was played in Wilmot, Ontario, Saturday afternoon. The game featured this year’s Creator’s Cup winners, the Niagara Lock Monsters, against a team made up from selected star players from the other CLax franchises, including the Ohsweken Demons who were well represented. It was all about fun, as players from both sides, showed off their favorite trick shots and had a few laughs along the way. The Lock Monsters won 1916, if that matters. It was also a time to hand out the individual player awards. Six Nations’ Tommy

Montour won the Transition Player of the Year award, and Chris Attwood took Outstanding Player of the Year honours. Other Ohsweken Demons selected to the team were Kehoh Hill, Wayne VanEvery, Blue Hill and Josh Johnson. Roger Vyse was filling in for Blue Hill who could not make the game. “Everyone’s just kind of showing off their talent today,” said Vyse. “It’s good to get together with fellow players from some of the other teams. Nobody wants to get out there and get injuries, we just want to have a good time.” Vyse has played in the NLL for several seasons and considers the quality of CLax lacrosse as comparable to it. “There’s a lot of guys that just missed the NLL cut because they’ve shortened their benches

there, and so they come here to play,” he says. Vyse also plays in the summer Major Series League with the Mann Cup Champion Six Nations Chiefs where he hopes to try and repeat this year. The fledgling CLax professional lacrosse league completed its third year of operation and is gaining momentum and respect as a second tier league to the National Lacrosse League, CLax boasts several former NLL players or players still working their way towards an NLL career. It is not a formal NLL affiliation as yet, but CLax organizers hope to evolve into that one day soon. But in the meantime, the CLax provides quality professional lacrosse at a fraction of the ticket price of an NLL game and is located in smaller centres.

The score really doesn’t matter at all since they stopped ringing them up on the score clock after it was 18-4, but suffice it to say it was like boys against men. The talent laden Rebels just kept coming, wave after wave, line after line, and every one looked even better than the last. A lot of new stars are

about to become much better known names around the league as this coming season unfolds. Cam Bomberry, assistant to general manager Scott Maracle, is impressed with what he has been seeing. “There was good ball movement,” he said after the game. “Defensively, there are some areas

The Canadian Lacrosse League's All-Star game was all about having fun together on Saturday afternoon at the Wilmot Arena, in the village of Wilmot Centre. This year's Creators Cup winners, the Niagara Lock Monsters, took on a selected team of all-stars representing the rest of the CLax franchises. PHOTO BY JIM WINDLE

2014 Rebels looking for more history By Jim Windle

WILMOT, ON – The OLA Jr. B season is still a couple of weeks away, but if the Six Nations Rebels exhibition game against the Guelph Regals in Wilmot, Sunday afternoon is any indicator at all, the other teams in the league, as well as the record book, are in deep trouble.


to work on, but that can be expected this early. Overall I saw some good things today.” Last season the Rebels team made Jr. B history by winning its third Founders Cup in a row, and this year they are looking for the “quad”. With the deep talent pool of Six Nations, this dynasty could last for a while,

judging by the talent that will have to be let go as the Rebels formulate their 2014 roster. “The talent pool at Six Nations is great thanks to the Six Nations Minor Lacrosse system,” attributes Bomberry. “They get ‘em ready for this kind of competition and hopefully we can get ‘em ready for higher com-

petition.” That creates a problem most other GM’s wished they faced. “We’ve got some tough decisions to make right now,” he says. There are still a few of last year’s Rebels trying out for the Jr. A Arrows, and although the CONTINUED ON NEXT PAGE






April 16th, 2014

Corvairs one step away from the Cup By Jim Windle

WATER LOO/C ALEDONIA – The Caledonia Pro-Fit Corvairs went to Waterloo Sunday afternoon, confident that they were about to sweep the Siskins in Game 4 of the GOJHL semi-finals at the Waterloo Recreation Complex. But the Siskins weren’t quite ready yet to hang up the blades for the summer and beat the Corvairs 3-1 to stay alive, at least until Wednesday when the series continues with Game 5, in Caledonia. Spencer Gourlay scored right after leaving the penalty box to give Caledonia a 1-0 lead at 3:30, assisted by Cody Brown. But Troy Lajeunesse tied it for Waterloo at 4:22. Corvairs goalie Colin Furlong is the reason the score remained 1-1 the rest of the period. He saved a least 4 sure goals, and maybe more, to keep the tired looking Corvairs from being left behind by the Siskins in the first period alone. Ryan Taylor scored what would prove to be the game winner at 1:23 of the second, while Furlong continued to stymie Waterloo shooters and Caledonia shooters couldn’t seem to hit the net, even when they did get great chances. The Corvairs played with a lot more focus in the third, but by then, Siskins’ netminder Leo Lasarev went from good to wow, keeping the surging

Corvairs from scoring. As the seconds wound down, and with Furlong on the bench for an extra attacker, Taylor was handed the puck at his own blue line, which was intended for a Caledonia point man. He took a couple of strides over the centre line and casually fired the puck into the empty net at 19:36. Saturday night in Caledonia, it took only 14 seconds of OT to decide the winner of Game #3 of the Surtherland Cup semi-finals. Corvairs’ Jordan Peacock did the honours from Connor Murphy and Kyler Nixon to win 5-4 and take a 2-0 stranglehold on the series. Nixon scored first at 5:23, unassisted, but the Siskins came back with two goals to end the first period with Waterloo leading 2-1. Spencer Gourlay evened the score at 2-2 with a powerplay marker representing the only goal of the middle frame. Nixon and Cody Brown assisted. Peacock gave Caledonia the 3-2 lead with a powerplay effort from Murphy and Nixon, but once again Waterloo responded with Danny Hanlon’s second of the night. Cosimo Fontana took the lead back, from Brier Jonathan and Mitch Brown but a defensive mistake by the Corvairs at 18:21 was capitalized on by Evan Buehler to send the game into OT, where Peacock played the

hero. The series opened last Wednesday at the Haldimand Centre in Caledonia with a 4-1 score over the Siskins. The teams felt each other out in the first period, which ended in at 0-0 tie. Troy Lajeunesse broke the ice for Waterloo with a powerplay goal at 1:26 of the second period. Connor Patton evened it up again at 1-1 from Connor Murphy at 3:39, and then took the lead with Ryan Blunt scoring at 10:59. Cody Brown and Murphy added third period goals with Jordan Peacock, Kyler Nixon, Ryan Moran and Connor Patton drawing assists. Shots on goal were 49-22 in Caledonia’s favour. The next night, April 10th, in Waterloo, the Corvairs had an even easier time with the Siskins with a 4-0 shut out win to jump into the series’ drivers seat leading two games to none.

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Corvairs' Cosimo Fontana is down but not out as he continues to make a play in front of the Waterloo net from ice level. Fontana picked up a goal in Saturday's Game #3 of the Sutherland Cup semi-finals, played before a full house at the Haldimand Centre Arena in Caledonia. PHOTO BY JIM WINDLE

REBELS FROM PREVIOUS PAGE Rebels are holding some spots open for those who come back, even they will still have to work hard to get back on the Rebels’ roster. Briley Miller is just one example. He is 6’2, 240 lb. and is a solid goaltender with an enormous future. He is also only 14-years-old and has two more years of midget eligibility. Although he will likely remain in midget this year to gain more game experience, the Rebels brass know they have a capable call-up should they need him. RIGHT: Fourteen-year-old goaltender Briley Miller is turning heads at the Six Nations Rebels' training camp and exhibition games as the team gets tuned up for the 2014 season. He played the second half of Sunday's exhibition game against the Guelph Regals in Wilmot Ontario. Photo by Jim Windle

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April 16th, 2014

An old warrior has gone home By Xavier Kataquapit

If the comings and goings of people can be compared to a pebble tossed into a lake and the resulting ripples that radiate infinitely, then I would say that the passing of John R Bradley, a member of Six Nations, will bless many with a spirit of good nature and humour for generations. His life was all about sacrifice, dedication and doing his very best for family and friends. He passed away on April 1, 2014 at the age of 94. When I first met him many years ago through my friends John Jr and Patty Bradley, I was impressed with his fast wit, kindness and I found myself laughing most of the time in his presence. He had a special knack for making people feel good about themselves. As a matter of fact, all of his

John Bradley Sr. children share that trait of a special type of humour. John Bradley Sr lost his father early in his life but thankfully his mother Emma (Montour) Bradley raised him and his four sisters Edith (King), Helen (Tobicoe), Voila (Bradt) and Lorraine, along with brother Bill on the family farm in Six Nations. Although life was hard for everybody, back in the 1930s and 40s, John Sr. had the

comfort of his large family, the produce and production of a 90 acre farm and a tight knit community revolving around Six Nations and Hagersville. He knew education was a big deal and he persevered with the many kilometre daily walk in all kinds of weather to elementary and then high school in Hagersville, Ontario near Hamilton. At 19 years of age, the Second World War called on he and his brother Bill for their service. Amazingly, he endured, survived and excelled in carrying out his duties as a Sergeant on a 25 pound gun with service over five years and three months in England, France, Belgium, Holland and Germany. As his son, John Jr, confided in me, he left a boy and came back a man with a lifetime of experiences. John Sr’s brother Bill, although wounded also returned.

As a life long member of the Royal Canadian Legion, Hagersville Branch 164, John Sr. was one of the few remaining Native veterans of the Second World War. On their return to Six Nations, John Sr and his brother Bill joined the family to work the farm. He also had a job as a fireman at the army camp outside of Hagersville. Due to his respect and friendship with Natives and non-Natives alike, he secured a position with the Canadian Gypsum Company limited in their local mine. He had much success and worked with the company for 38 years. Through his childhood and his quest for education, his dedication and service to Canada in the most terrorizing conditions you can imagine for almost six years in Europe and his return to start a

long term career and family, John Sr always saw himself as a person who could survive and succeed. He didn’t see the colour of people in any detrimental way and like the words of Martin Luther King, he valued ‘the content of their character’. John Sr passed on a great work ethic, the importance of honesty and a kind sense of humour to his own children. There was nothing complicated about John Sr and what you saw was what you got. His children carry on that that sense of character and they include: John Jr. (Patty) Bradley, Russell (Debbie) Bradley, Laurie (Fred) Lambert, Ronald Bradley (Elsie) and Luanne (Chris) Martin. He has also blazed a trail for many grandchildren, great-grandchildren and a great-great-grandchild. Lucky for John Sr, when he was a young man,

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he found a secret weapon that turned a very good man into a spectacular human being. That secret weapon was his wife Norma (Russell) Bradley, who stood by him for 65 years, on the long and steady walk which was his life trail. Their love of life, family, friends and community has endeared them both to so many. Thankfully, Norma will continue to be a part of so many lives she and John Sr have touched. When his great grand daughter Brynn Vokes raised her voice in song during the memorial there was not a dry eye in the building. These were not tears of sadness but of joy for a life well lived and hope for the future. An old warrior has gone home. Xavier Kataquapit’s writings can be viewed on his website at


April 16th, 2014


3613 1st Line

Enjoy customer service and great prices at Nancy’s Variety and Gas Bar When you walk thru the front doors of Nancy’s Variety it becomes obvious that this is a special place. The main floor of the new store is beautifully finished, spacious and well stocked with a wide variety of products and groceries. Looking out the window at the full service gas bar and watching the staff in

action it quickly grabs your attention as they wash windows, check oil and share friendly conversation with the customers. Full service actually means what it says at this gas bar, something you don’t see often in this business anymore. The shopping doesn’t end once you have filled your tank and picked up a few

Nancy’s Full Service Gas Bar

things in the store, the upper floor is home to Nancy’s Gift Shop. This store is beautifully displayed and well stocked with a wide variety of native merchandise, authentic moccasins, children’s clothing and all those special items that bring smiles to people’s faces . Demon and Nancy Hill, owners of D&N Enterprise

are the pulse of this business and its marketing platform. Their dedication to the community, people and culture are evident when speaking to them, it becomes obvious that providing employment, positive work ethic and a future for their employees is one of the things that make them happy and hungry to expand.

Nancy’s Gift Shop

Willy’s World on Chiefswood Rd. is another fine example of Demon and Nancy’s dedication to their community. Named after their son, Willy’s World was created to help provide cost effective options for everything from walkers to wheelchairs. Educated staff, competitive pricing and a well stocked inventory make this store the place to go for all your needs and friendly advice

Willy’s World Well Mart



April 16th, 2014

BUSINESS CCAB Launches Aboriginal Business in Ontario Survey By Millie Knapp Aboriginal entrepreneurs’ experiences, successes, and challenges in Ontario today came to light at the launch of a Canadian Council for Aboriginal Business (CCAB) survey. JP Gladue, CCAB president and CEO, led a discussion about CCAB’s most recent research endeavor, Promise and Prosperity: the Ontario Aboriginal Business Survey 2014 at the Toronto Marriott Downtown Eaton Centre Hotel on April 8. “We need to understand that Aboriginal business is also big business. It’s not just local business. It’s not just regional business or provincial business. Sometimes it’s actually international business. We need to be able to support that and showcase it to the rest of the community because there’s a stereotype that we’re not good at busi-

ness – that we’re a financial drain on Canada’s economy while quite the opposite is true in this country,” said Gladue. CCAB worked with Environics Research Group to conduct the survey. The group spoke to more than 300 Aboriginal businesses, sole propriertorships or partnerships, across Ontario, mostly by telephone, while JP Gladue met with community members, community leaders, and business leaders. “The survey is a vital link in our continuing commitment to building the bridge between corporate business Canada and Aboriginal business,” said Gladue at the Marriott. “We need to embrace our own statistics to serve our business community and accurately inform potential markets and partnerships. The survey is the voice of our business community reflecting their challenges, successes, and potential.”

Sarah Roberton, senior research associate for Environics Research Group, outlined the research findings in three topics: why and how the research was done, what was found in the research, and the next steps for Aboriginal businesses, government, and the private sector. Roberton mentioned how census findings reveal about 9,000 First Nations, Metis, and Inuit people in Ontario have their own business. She noted how these businesses are critical to develop healthy, prosperous Aboriginal communities and to create jobs for young Aboriginal job seekers, a growing population. Roberton went on to note how the survey shows that Aboriginal businesses in Ontario can be characterized by size, diversity, success, and optimism. The survey revealed that the businesses are

fairly small. Eight in 10 are unincorporated. Twothirds don’t have any employees. Eight in 10 have annual revenues of less than $100,000. The businesses are diverse in terms of the industry and service sectors they represent. They have access to a wide range of markets. They operate at local, national, and international levels. They work with consumers, governments, and the private sector –both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal. Aboriginal business in Ontario is successful in terms of financial criteria. Eight in 10 said they’d been profitable in the past year. Almost half had increased their sales revenues in the past year. One-third created jobs for other people. Among the group who created jobs, most of them have at least one Aboriginal employee. Nine in 10 said they believe they are successful. The entrepreneurs

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are optimistic. Eight in 10 expect to increase their business income in the next couple of years. Three-quarters expect their annual sales revenue to grow. Three-quarters anticipate they will still be running their business in five years. Roberton noted two factors linked businesses to success. The most successful group is likely to have innovated by introducing new products or services and they are twice as likely to have a business plan. Roberton identified three key barriers to further growth. The first one is workforce development. One-third of Aboriginal businesses have employees and most have at least one Aboriginal employee. Attracting qualified workers and retaining qualified workers becomes a problem as firms grow. The second barrier is access to financing. Smaller entrepreneurs find lack of collateral a challenge. Most Aboriginal businesses use personal savings to start. Even past the start up phase, they continue to use personal savings along with retained earnings. Larger Aboriginal businesses have better access to loans and lines of credit. The third barrier is limited access to support. Some of the businesses turn to local colleagues including Aboriginal organizations when they need mentorship and advice. A significant minority say they don’t have anyone to turn to. Paul-Emile McNab, CCAB research coordinator, described how based on the findings of the survey, the following actions by governments, financial institutions, and Aboriginal entrepreneurs will help achieve success. One recommenda-

tion is for Aboriginal entrepreneurs to build partnerships with larger, successful ventures, both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal. The most obvious benefit is access to capital. It’s also an opportunity to access other collateral that comes from partnerships like training and experience, mentoring and advice, equipment, physical location or a skilled workforce. Governments can make a significant contribution to Aboriginal business in workforce development. There’s a need for effective programs and policies to help businesses train and retain skilled Aboriginal employees. Financing is a significant barrier for Aboriginal businesses. The difficulties include where to find it, how to apply for it, and how to meet the necessary requirements. Many give up on outside financing. Financial institutions who identify simpler and more effective ways to provide financing will be in the best position to capitalize on the growing business community. There’s an opportunity to build stronger Aboriginal business networks. Aboriginal entrepreneurs need to know where to turn when they require support. McNab noted how a useful first step would be the bringing together of Aboriginal businesses, governments, private sector and local or regional networks. The bringing together of these groups along with the statistical information found in CCAB’s survey work towards realizing the potential of Aboriginal business in Ontario. Got a Story? Email millie. if you have a Business story in Toronto.


April 16th, 2014




The community engagement process will run from April 21st to May 23rd, 2014. There will be one community dinner meeting scheduled for April 24th at 6pm at the Community Hall. The dinner meeting will provide further information and will include the opportunity for community New wind projectNew to bewind discussed via to Sixbe Nations community engagement project discussed via Six Nations community engagement process members to have one-on-one discussions with staff. The remainder of the engagement period will be open to field comments and process questions from the can continue to participate Six Nations of Grand River Territory – Six Nations Elected Council is pleased tocommunity. announce Community the launchmembers of community after the meeting by returning the comment sheet from your mailbox, submitting Six Nations of Grand River Territory – Six Nations Elected Council is pleased to engagement to determine community support for the Capital Power Port Dover and Nanticoke Wind Project, comments on the website, emailing, or by calling announce the launch of community engagement to determine community support community agreement. us at 519- 753-1950. for the Capital Power Port Doverbenefits and Nanticoke Wind Project, community benefits agreement. Capital Power’s, Port Dover and Nanticoke Wind Project is generating megawatts renewable energy which is more information Community 105 members can visitin to get about the project andThe to share theirisfeedback. being sold the Ontario Power Authority under the Feed in Tariff (FIT) program. project owned and operated by Capital Power’s, Port Dover andtoNanticoke Wind Project is generating 105 megawatts in renewable energy which being sold to Power Authority and Norfolk, Ontario. This project commenced operation in Capital Power, andis is located in the theOntario Counties of Haldimand 24th,a2014 under the Feed in Tariff (FIT) program. The project is owned and operated by Capital November 2013 and consists of 58 turbines. The proposed Thursday benefits April include Royalty Payment of $3,350/MW/year Information Session Power, and is located in the Counties of Haldimand and Norfolk, Ontario. This project ($349,740), estimated at $6.99 million over 20 years, and an annual education scholarship payment of $15,000 to Six Nations Community Hall commenced operation in November 2013 and consists of 58 turbines. The proposed Grand River Post Secondary Education ($300,000 over 20 years). 6-9pm (Doors open at 5:30pm) benefits include a Royalty Payment of $3,350/MW/year ($349,740), estimated at $6.99 million over 20 years, and an annual education scholarship payment of $15,000 “I Secondary would encourage community Community Engagement Sessions. Your * *up-coming * to Grand River Post Educationall($300,000 overmembers 20 years). to participate in the APRIL 16, 2014

APRIL 16, 2014

voice is important to us”, said Chief Ava Hill.

For more information please contact: “I would encourage all community members to participate in the up-coming Amy Lickers or Nicole Kohoko Community Engagement Sessions. Your voice is important us”,been said Chief Ava Hill. The community engagement processtohas designed to educate the Six Nations community about the financial, Six Nations Economic Development economic, and environmental impact associated with the project, and provides a community wide mechanism to gather 519-753-1950 The community engagement process has been designed to educate the Six Nations feedback that will help guide the Six Nations Elected Council now and in the future. community about the financial, economic, and environmental impact associated with the project, and provides a community wide mechanism to gather feedback that will st community engagement will run from April 21 to May 23rd, 2014. There will be one community dinner help guide the Six The Nations Elected Council now andprocess in the future. th

meeting scheduled for April 24 at 6pm at the Community Hall. The dinner meeting will provide further information and will include the opportunity for community members to have one-on-one discussions with staff. The remainder of the engagement period will be open to field comments and questions from the community. Community members can continue to participate after the meeting by returning the comment sheet from your mailbox, submitting comments on the website, emailing, or by calling us at 519- 753- 1950.

Your Voice Is Important

Community members can visit to get more information about the project and to share their feedback.

It’s Our Community’s Future, Let’s Talk About It

Thursday April 24th, 2014 Information Session Six Nations Community Hall 6-9pm (Doors open at 5:30pm)

*** For more information please contact:

Upcoming Meetings: Amy Lickers or Nicole Kohoko

Six Nations Economic Development Port Dover and Nanticoke Wind Project 519-753-1950

* Thursday April 24, 2014 Six Nations Community Hall 6:00pm (Doors open at 5:30pm) Join us for a free dinner and learn about the Port Dover and Nanticoke Wind Project! A Project for Discussion by Six Nations Community Members. Contact Amy Lickers or Nicole Kohoko Six Nations Economic Development

P: 519-753-1950



April 16th, 2014

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Iroquois Lodge celebrated National Volunteer Week last Friday with a free BBQ in appreciation to dozens of volunteers. PHOTO BY JEN MT. PLEASANT

Election Fraud story from page 8 May 2. These calls gave opposition-party supporters false information about the location of their polling stations, with the aim of suppressing opposition-party turnout; and the robocalls claimed to be from Elections Canada. On April 29, 2011, when complaints about these vote-suppression calls began pouring in to its offices, Elections Canada knew that the Conservative Party was responsible, because the live-operator calls included call-back numbers which led directly to Conservative Party offices. The fraudulent robocalls came from the same source. Early in 2012, a CBC investigation and an Ekos Research poll found a pattern in which people who had identified themselves to Conservative voter-identification callers as non-supporters subsequently received vote-suppression calls. Because all information from voter-ID calls goes straight into the Conservative Party’s central database, known as the Constituent Information Management System (CIMS), this was an indi-

cation that the fraudsters had used CIMS nationwide. In the riding of Guelph – the only one in which there has been anything approaching a full investigation – the Conservative Party’s central office has acknowledged to Elections Canada that the CIMS list of non-Conservatives in Guelph was used by Edmonton voice-broadcaster RackNine in sending out the infamous ‘Pierre Poutine’ robocalls on the morning of election day. Elections Canada has evidence that a team of five Guelph Conservatives had repeated surreptitious access both to CIMS and to RackNine, and that one of them shared an IP address with ‘Pierre Poutine’, and Elections Canada has a recording of a harassment call that the operatives sent to RackNine at the end of the campaign but decided not to use. What about the scale and impact of the fraud? During our last federal election, Harper’s Conservatives tried to cheat supporters of opposition parties out of their right to vote with fraudulent phone calls – more

than three-quarters of a million of them – that were received by voters in more than 240 ridings across Canada. There’s strong evidence that this fraud tipped the balance in enough close races to give Harper his parliamentary majority. That raises urgent questions. What right does a ruling party that broke the law on this scale have to ram its extremist legislation through parliament? What right do these fraudsters have to lecture Canadians and First Nations people about law and order?

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April 16th, 2014



By Joe Farrell Of the many things I’m looking forward to this spring, ramps – also known as wild leeks – are top on my list. They are a sure sign that spring has sprung. They are a member of the Allium genus of the Alliaceae plant family that also includes onions, chives, leeks, garlic and more. Last fall at Edge of The Woods Farm we planted a lot of garlic. We waited patiently through

Sweet onions the winter for the first signs of their scapes to poke through the soil. I am anxiously looking forward to harvesting the burgeoning scapes and to foraging the forthcoming ramps this spring. Onions with their sharp, pungent flavours when eaten raw can be a turn off for some people. When cooked they are typically used as a wonderful supporting flavour for a variety of preparations including soups, sauces or stews. But the


onion doesn’t always get the attention or respect it deserves. When you cook an onion you end up with a sweeter product than when you started. Onions contain different types of natural sugars that caramelize when cooked. Burnt onions are onions that have been caramelized too much. Charred sweet onion is delicious but not the best way to minimize that strong onion flavour. The best way to max-




Administrative Clerk Principal Administrative Assistant Data Entry Clerk Sr. Estates Lands Researcher Finance Accounts Payable Distribution Clerk Child Advocate Housing Clerk Customer Service Representative Executive Assistant Trainee Marketing Assistant Trainee Life Long Learning Administrator Director of Sustainable Economic Development Youth Coordinator 4 Youth Work Experience Workers Early Childhood Educator Development Officer

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imize the sweetness in onions is to cook them low and slow for a long time, typically at least 45 minutes. The natural sweetness of preparing onions this way is a great accompaniment to meats, breads, dips, sauces, soups, just about anything. The natural sweetness will amaze you.

How to Caramelize Onions I peel and cut my onions in half from top to bottom, and slice them from top to bottom. You can cut them however you choose. Select the widest bottom pan or pot you have. You want as much surface area as possible to aid in

the caramelizing process. Heat the pot to medium high heat, add enough vegetable oil or butter to cover the bottom of the pot, add onions and some salt, this will draw out moisture and give you an evenly seasoned final product. Cook on medium high heat until the bottom of the pot starts to look dark golden brown. Turn the heat off, stir and let sit for five minutes, moisture will be released from the onions. Use this liquid to naturally deglaze the bottom of the pot by scraping it with a wooden spoon, stirring well. Turn heat back on to low stirring every so often paying close attention

to not burn the onions. Repeat the deglazing process as often as you need to. If you choose you can also deglaze with water or a flavoured liquid of your choice. The lower and slower you cook the onions, the better tasting final product you will have. I usually like to cook mine for several hours but never less than 45 minutes. When they’re done they should be a dark walnut colour. The longer you cook them the darker they will be. They will eventually turn into a puree or what can be called an onion jam. They will keep for several days in the fridge. Enjoy!

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21 20


Two Row Times Obituaries


Jonathan: Glen Wayne “Junker” Suddenly at home on Friday April 11, 2014 with his mom by his side at the age of 56 years. Beloved son of Betty and the late Johnny. Loving brother of Joanne (Tom). Grandson of the late Leonard and Evelyn VanEvery and Andrew and Mabel Jonathan. Also will be sadly missed by aunts and uncles Joyce Davey, Jessie, Elva, Elaine, Melvin and Virginia and many cousins and friends. Junker was the manager and coach of the Mohawk Stars for several years and had a real passion and love for various sports. The family will honour his life with visitation at the Hyde & Mott Chapel, R.H.B. Anderson Funeral Homes Ltd., 60 Main Street South, Hagersville on Monday 2-4 and 7-9 p.m. where Funeral Service will be held on Tuesday April 15, 2014 at 11 a.m. Interment Bethany Baptist Cemetery. In lieu of flowers donations may be made to the Ohsweken Dialysis Unit or the Charity of your choice. Evening Service Hill - Squire: Terrance Melvin Sr. Suddenly at home on Monday April 7, 2014 Terrance Melvin Hill - Squire Sr. began his journey with the Creator. Terry leaves behind his wife and best friend April of 15 years. Beloved father of Ryan, Kayla, Matthew, Anthony, Dylan, Ciara, Kathryn, Chelsea, Terrance Jr. (Rose), Susan (Kenny), Luke (Coteanne), Raven (Robb), Tera, and Nathan (Miranda). Dear grandfather of numerous grandchildren. Predeceased by mother Theda (Jim); brothers Lynn (Flakey) and Woody and four grandchildren. Also survived by sister-in-law Pat Hill (General). Resting at Pat’s home 1505 Second Line, Six Nations. Evening Service Wednesday April 9, 2014 at 7 p.m. Funeral Service Thursday April 10, 2014 at 11 a.m. Burial at Stumphall Cemetery. www.rhbanderson. com

WEDNESDAY, 16, 2014 AprilAPRIL 16th, 2014

Thank You

Yard Sale

I would like to send a BIG THANK YOU to The Dreamcatcher Charitable Foundation for sponsoring my 2013-14 hockey season registration. I scored a lot of goals, learned to play defence and had a lot of fun with my teammates. Justin Vinnai

Indoor yard sale

Line 9 Information Evening Wed. April 30th, from 7:30 p.m. to 9:30 p.m. at West Hill United Church, 62 Orchard Pk. Drive, at Kingston Road. Guest Speakers from: Friends of the Rouge Watershed, Mississaugas of New Credit First Nation and Environmental Defence. All are welcome. Light refreshments will be served. Event organized by the the First Nations Study Group, West Hill United Church. For more info email:

Coming Events

2691 First Line – behind New Credit United Church – many vendors with last minute Easter ideas – pies – baked goods – Loonie table – silent auction – breakkie on a scone – B.L.T. burrito – spinach quiche – lots of odds & ends. Couple tables still available call 519-445-0583 - $10.00 a table.

MOTHER EARTH ALL NATIONS WOMYNS GATHERING ~June 1215 2014, Whiteshell Park, Manitoba. Inviting womyn of all nations to gather at Manitou Ahbee for healing, ceremony and sharing knowledge. Call Diane 2042051777, Kim SittingEagle 306937304 or check the event name on FB.

Social Service Gym, Ohsweken, ON April 26, 2014 from 9 am – 1 pm $20/Vendor’s Spot Fund Raiser for Expeditions Guiding Spirits – The Duke of Edinburgh’s Award (519) 445-0094 (messages) *Get a head start on that Spring Cleaning!

Coming Events

Community Yard Sale



Duke of Ed Community Clean Up April 22, 2014 – Earth Day. 4:30 – 6:30 PM. South Side of the Library. Enter a team: Groups to be entered into a Draw for a Pizza Party (Thank you Village Pizza!). To Register: (519) 445-0094 or

Coming Events

Easter Special Open Jam Sat., Apr. 19 2PM till ???? At Chiefswood Fellowship 506 4th Line, 3 miles west of Ohsweken. Special Bluegrass guests Doug Moerschfelder with Rhyme ‘N’ Reason. Come on out and have some fun and a few laughs. Door Prizes… 55/50 Draw… Silent Auction… Refreshments. Info Phil Sault 905 768 5442.




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22 WEDNESDAY, APRIL 16, 2014

CLUES ACROSS 1. A braid 5. Print errors 11. Any of 3 avatars of Vishnu 12. Odor masking toiletry 16. Abba __, Israeli politician 17. An enlisted person 18. Any speed competitor 19. Manitoba hockey team 24. The Bay state 25. Trees with conelike catkins 26. Central area of a church 27. 2 year old sheep 28. Interpret written words 29. Greek goddess of youth 30. Bullfighting maneuver 31. Shapes 33. Decreased 34. Fly 38. Unbelief 39. Traditional Hindu rhythms 40. Yemen capital 43. Prayer leader in a mosque 44. A sheep up to the age of one year 45. Soldier in an airborne unit 49. What a cow chews 50. K particle 51. 50 cent pieces 53. Trauma center 54. 2011 Stanley Cup winners 56. Inner bract of a grass spikelet 58. The Show-Me State 59. Self-immolation by fire ritual 60. Offshoot interests 63. Amounts of time 64. Salty 65. Guinea currency 1971-85 CLUES DOWN 1. Existing before a war 2. Open to change 3. Gunsmoke actress Blake 4. Converted into leather 5. Boundary 6. Predominated 7. Royal Observatory 8. Promotion 9. Rich multilayered cake


April 16th, 2014 19

ARIES - Mar 21/Apr 20 Aries, your thoughts are distant right now, almost as if you’re living in a fantasy world. This is creatively beneficial but not so helpful for practical tasks. TAURUS - Apr 21/May 21 Taurus, if you’re not careful, you could find yourself debating family and friends this week. Instead, try to sit back and listen rather than fostering debate.

GEMINI - May 22/Jun 21 Gemini, a realization about what is really important to you instills a renewed sense of confidence this week. You will be focused on important things.

10. River between Iran and Armenia 13. Carrier’s invention 14. Banes 15. Catastrophe 20. Atomic #77 21. A note appended to a letter 22. Licks 23. Adam’s wife 27. Counterbalance 29. Brokeback star’s initials 30. Golf score 31. Manuscripts (abbr.) 32. Old English 33. Pod legume 34. Upper arm muscle 35. Japanese warrior 36. Oh, God! 37. A Scottish cap

Answers for April 16, 2014 Crossword Puzzle

38. Expresses surprise 40. Carbon particles 41. 4th cognomen 42. “Joy Luck Club” actress Irene 44. Holds 45. Favorable factors 46. Bird enclosure 47. Act of pay for usage 48. St. Francis of __ 50. Aussie bear 51. Day-O singer’s initials 52. One of the six noble gases 54. Apiary inhabitants 55. Proboscis 57. “Titanic” star’s initials

61. Lincoln’s state 62. Atomic #28


CANCER - Jun 22/Jul 22 Cancer, if your finances seem like they are in a state of upheaval, it could be because you have not looked at everything in black and white just yet. Make some changes.

LEO - Jul 23/Aug 23 You come on too strong sometimes, Leo. Those who know you best can handle this approach, but you can scare off potential new friends if you do not ease up. VIRGO - Aug 24/Sept 22 Be patient and do not demand too much of yourself during the next few days, Virgo. You need to keep your workload light; otherwise, you may get easily overwhelmed.

LIBRA - Sept 23/Oct 23 This is a time to discover the value of others, Libra. A willingness to try new things and delegate some responsibilities will free up your calendar. SCORPIO - Oct 24/Nov 22 Certain personalities don’t always click, Scorpio. Don’t feel the need to overcompensate for a strained relationship. Spend more time with those with whom you connect. SAGITTARIUS - Nov 23/Dec 21 Flexible thinking is key, Sagittarius, especially as you face a few new challenges this week. There are some opportunities to reconnect with family later in the week.

CAPRICORN - Dec 22/Jan 20 A rush of activity fills your calendar and keeps your phone ringing off the hook, Capricorn. Your challenge will be separating the pressing events from others.

AQUARIUS - Jan 21/Feb 18 Aquarius, paperwork has built up and requires more time than you had originally planned. There is no way to avoid this task, but a helper can make it move more quickly. PISCES - Feb 19/Mar 20 Moderation is your mantra for the week, Pisces. Do not let the pendulum swing too far in either direction.

3304 Sixth Line Rd. Ohsweken, Ontario N0A 1M0 Phone: (905) 765-7884 Fax: (905) 765-3154

1 Alabastine Avenue, Caledonia, Ontario N3W 1K9 3304 Sixth Line (905)Rd. 765-CARS (2277) Ohsweken, Ontario N0A 1M0 Phone: (905) 765-7884 Fax: (905) 765-3154 Cynthia Trimble Email: RIMS & BATTERIES • UNBELIEVABLE PRICES

1 Alabastine Avenue, Caledonia, Ontario N3W 1K9 3304 Sixth Line Rd. (905) 765-CARS (2277) Ohsweken, Ontario N0A 1M0 Phone: (905) 765-7884 Fax: (905) 765-3154

Cynthia Trimble


April 16th, 2014





8am 9pm

8am 9pm

8am 9pm

8am 10pm

April 16th, 2014

8am 10pm

9am 10pm


with weed control 9kg bag

Killex Lawn Weed Control Ready-to-use 709ml

Easter Stuff Baby Bullet

Bed Sheets Assorted Colours

Twin, Double, Queen, King 1500 Thread Count 100% Wrinkle Free Deep Pocket Fabric Becomes Softer with Every Wash

Our Finest Laundry Detergent

9am 9pm

Two Row Times  

April 16, 2014

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