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STUDIO

AIR JOURNAL

TET WEY CHEN 828678 MATT DWYER 2017, S2


INTRODUCTION My name is TetWey Chen, I am currently a second year student majoring in architecture at the University of Melbourne. Being exposed to the construction of built environment at a young age due to my father’s influence as well as my early interest in visual arts and design has played a major role in my path of architecture. I learned to appreciate the beauty of architecture and how good design can better people’s lives. Having done Digital Design & Fabrication last semester, I came to realise the impact of technology not only as a mean of communication, but also a medium of spontaneous workflow in digital fabrication. I cannot wait for what Studio Air has to offer and I am excited to further experiment with scripting and parametric tools.


STUDIO EARTH A Place for Keeping Secrets 2017

DIGITAL DESIGN & FABRICATION Second Skin 2017


A

CONCEPTUALISATION


CONTENTS A1

DESIGN FUTURING CASE STUDY 1 CASE STUDY 2

A2

DESIGN COMPUTATION CASE STUDY 1 CASE STUDY 2

A3

COMPOSITION/GENERATION CASE STUDY 1 CASE STUDY 2

A4

CONCLUSION

A5

LEARNING OUTCOMES

A6

APPENDIX ALGORITHMIC SKETCHBOOK BIBLIOGRAPHY


A1 DESIGN FUTURING With the world population increasing ever exponentially, time and resources are at an increasing rate of depletion. We are fully aware of our destructive nature to the environment as we are constantly reminded of it from rising temperature and sea. We have reached a point where it can no longer be assumed that we, en masse had a future1. This defuturing poses a threat to our species. In order for us to achieve sustainability, conventional design processes and techniques needs to be changed, as well as the mindset of people. As architects, we must acknowledge the ongoing issues that our environments are facing due to our mistreatment of the environment. We need to learn from our past and implement new

strategies that can ultimately slow down the rate of defuturing and be involved with nature again. Also, designs should be seen as a compass rather than maps for navigating new sets of values2. Imagination and creativity is essential in critical design and generating alternatives. The following projects explore architecture’s ability to influence our way of thinking. They will help us further our understanding of how architecture is able to propose change and understanding of our environment which in turn leads to a more sustainable future.

1.

Tony Fry, Design Futuring: Sustainability, Ethics And New Practice (Oxford: Berg Publishers Ltd, 2008), p. 1

2.

Anthony Dunne & Fiona Raby, Speculative Everything: Design Fiction, And Social Dreaming (MIT Press, 2013), p. 44

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“Designers should become the facilitators of flow, rather than the originators of maintainable ‘things’ such as discrete products or images3” John Wood

3.

John Wood, Design for Micro-Utopias: Making the Unthinkable Possible (Aldershot: Gower, 2007) CONCEPTUALISATION | 7


CASE STUDY 1 Project: The Bullitt Center Architect: Miller Hull Partnership Date: 2013 Location: Seattle, Washington

The Bullitt Centre is a six-story office building designed by Miller Hull Partnership. They distinguished themselves from many other sustainable projects due to the use of highly sustainable materials. With an aim to be the world’s greenest commercial building, what actually caught my attention was how self-sufficient the building was with its ability to achieve net-zero energy with low-cycle impact, and net zero water with most of its water sources come from rainwater 4. I was also impressed how incredibly sustainable the building was with the use of renewable energy. Incorporating good daylight in the morning with its tall ceiling heights, it provides an expansive view of the surrounding. The interiors can be kept

4.

well lit without turning on artificial light. If it gets too hot in the summer, the stainless-steel venetian blinds automatically lower over the windows to prevent solar heat gain. Besides, the hot sun helps with building’s complete reliance on the electricity generated by the solar panels. The building also encourages users to use the glassenclosed stairs and conserve energy. The project has proven to us that it is possible for a commercial building to be self-sustainable. The project will serve as an exemplary design approach for future projects, making an effort towards a more sustainable future. Image Source: http://www.archdaily.com/363007/the-worlds-greenest-commercial-building-opens-in-seattle-today

David Hill, “Benchmarking The Benchmark”, Bullittcenter Architect Magazine, 2017 <http://bullittcenter.architectmagazine.com/> [accessed 29 July 2017]

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Image Source: http://designapplause.com/architecture/buildingsarchitecture/bullitt-center-worlds-greenest-building/40760/

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CASE STUDY 2 Project: The Eden Project Architect: Grimshaw Architects Date: 2000 Location: Cornwall, UK

The Eden Project, specifically the biome dome is a notable example of biomimicry design using technological advancements. The grid shells are comprised of hexagonal tessellation that creates a grid, it provides the framework for the membrane construction.

bark. This indicated new possibility for humans to regenerate the site after its destruction from society’s globalised industrialisation. The place now serves as an eco conservatory educational centre that helps teach and inspire the generations to come.

This project shows us that we simply do not need to create interventions to care for the environment. It is evident that computation functions as a design tool that is currently redefining the practice of architecture5. It tells us that computers are more than just nifty drafting and modeling tools, they are widely used alongside the design team to test the structure’s performance. Before the ‘Biomes’ were constructed, the foundations were created from local mine waste and composted

Grimshaw’s sustainable project reflects Dunne and Raby’s claim of radical design possessing an intrinsic pluralism of ideology and values6. Designs such as this has provided us an extensive view for us to reflect on, we should all take this as an inspiration to better our designs and ultimately enriching our world with better practice. Image Source: https://grimshaw.global/projects/ the-eden-project-the-biomes/

5.

Brady Peters, “Computation Works: The Building Of Algorithmic Thought”, Architectural Design, 82.2 (2013), p. 10

6.

Anthony Dunne & Fiona Raby, Speculative Everything: Design Fiction, And Social Dreaming (MIT Press, 2013), p. 9

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Image Source: http://www.edenproject.com/

CONCEPTUALISATION | 11


A2 DESIGN COMPUTATION Architects in the past has often faced a discontinuation of their projects where problems are only realised in later stages of construction, causing undesirable designs. The introduction of computational methods in architecture has significantly improved this issue of workflow. Softwares like Building information Modeling (BIM) or Non-Uniform Rational Basis Spline (NURBS) based softwares like Rhino allows designers to work simultaneously on a file while optimising data collection to produce the best possible results. It allowed us designers a degree of flexibility during our decision-making process, challenging the conventional style of architectural practice. In the new era of computation, it is safe to say that designers are better equipped to deal with highly complex situations7. And unlike us humans,

a computer never gets tired and even better, they never make arithmetical mistakes8. At the end of the day, the computer can produce far more accurate and fast results than we ever could in a matter of seconds. Through this new medium, designs can now be conceived quickly, and eventually opening doors to more possibilities in the future. Integration of digital fabrication after design has also greatly impacted on the construction process, it will forever change the building industry. Other than offering a continuous workflow, it also offers efficiency and reduction of material wastage and confronting the question of sustainability for years to come.

7.

Brady Peters, “Computation Works: The Building Of Algorithmic Thought”, Architectural Design, 82.2 (2013), p. 10

8.

Yehuda E Kalay, Architecture’s New Media: Principles, Theories, And Methods Of Computer-Aided Design (MIT Press, 2004), p. 2

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“The computational way of working augments the designer’s intellect and allows us to capture not only the complexity of how to build a project, but also the multitude of parameters that are instrumental in a buildings formation9” Brady Peters

9.

Brady Peters, “Computation Works: The Building Of Algorithmic Thought”, Architectural Design, 82.2 (2013), p. 15 CONCEPTUALISATION | 13


CASE STUDY 1 Project: ICD/ITKE Pavilion Architect: Achim Menges Date: 2011 Location: Stuttgart, Germany

With the power of computation, it enabled us to study complex forms found in nature. This approach has already been taken forward by the University of Stuttgart where they explored biological systems in architecture. What particularly interests me was the 2011 pavilion, where they studied the biological principles of a sea urchin’s plate skeleton. The pavilion’s high load bearing capacities is achieved by their geometric arrangement of the plates and their joining system10. This illustrates an exploration of the concept of biomimicry through design computation. Here it utilizes computation to recreate geometries from a collection of data which was later used to develop robotic fabrication method for the

creation of unique cells that adapt to local curvature and discontinuities. Edges of 3 plates meet exclusively at one point, forming an efficient joinery using customised wedge protrusions. This technique of traditional finger joints typically used in carpentry can be seen as a technical equivalent of the sand dollar’s calcite protrusions. The project reflects on design paradigms found in Kalay’s article, using robotics and computation as a problem solver to fabricate unique cells of the pavilion11. The project also reveals the potential that design computation technique has to offer in contribution to our future of design.

Image Source: http://icd.uni-stuttgart.de/?p=6553

10.

“ICD/ITKE Research Pavilion 2011 | Institute For Computational Design And Construction”, Icd.uni-stuttgart.de, 2017

11.

Yehuda E Kalay, Architecture’s New Media: Principles, Theories, And Methods Of Computer-Aided Design (MIT Press, 2004), p. 2

<http://icd.uni-stuttgart.de/?p=6553> [accessed 4 August 2017]

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Image Source: http://www.arcspace.com/exhibitions/ unsorted/naturalizing-architecture-archilab-2013/

CONCEPTUALISATION | 15


CASE STUDY 2 Project: PS Canopy Architect: Ferda Kolantan + Erich Schoenenberger Date: 2009 Location: New York, USA

The canopy is an abstract design that challenges conventional architecture and explores new ways of form finding through the use of digital computation. In this project, the designers explored the morphogenic concept from biologist Sean B. Caroll’s “Body Part” where he argued that in a cell development, a “gene toolkit” generates an algorithm for the cell to create different body parts from the same instructions12. The variation of forms generated was meant to challenge the conventional definition of architectural elements we see everyday, elements like columns, roof, table or chairs. Through the idea of a “gene toolkit”, different iterations can be generated using a similar algorithm which

allowed the designer to explore performative potentials within the design. Varying the local conditions will result in different shading qualities of the roof as illustrated below. This precedent shows an important role of computation work, allowing a more experimental exploration of new expression in architectural forms. This new approach enabled us to understand the implication of our actions beyond the immediate solution of the problem at hand13.

Image Source: http://www.suckerpunchdaily.com/2011/02/21/ ps-canopy/

12.

Dimitris Kottas, Contemporary Digital Architecture, Design & Techniques (Linkbooks, 2013), p. 136

13.

Yehuda E Kalay, Architecture’s New Media: Principles, Theories, And Methods Of Computer-Aided Design (MIT Press, 2004), p. 6

16 16 | CONCEPTUALISATION


Image Source: http://www.suckerpunchdaily.com/2011/02/21/ps-canopy/

CONCEPTUALISATION | 17


A3 COMPOSITION/GENERATION In recent years, a shift from composition to generation has influenced the result of many projects on a global scale. The introduction of generative computation enabled us to effectively explore and analyse various design iterations at a faster pace. This is revolutionary because minor adjustments on the definition of our design algorithm can immediately translate into another iteration. This approach has the capacity to generate complex order, form and structur , allowing exploration of innovative ideas. With the new generation of designers, architects can even perform tests before building it, plugins such as Kangaroo allows us to simulate performance for material optimisation. These designer-created softwares can ultimately increase the efficiency in problem solving. The only thing that separates the architect

from generative design is the skillset. Many generative software requires some knowledge of mathematical theory and visual programming (grasshopper). Which is why the structure of architectural firms are changing in response to the work of computational designers15. Complex projects are made possible as firms integrate computational designers. I believe it is important that computation should be integrated as an intuitive and natural way to design, not exploiting the tool to simply generating ‘cool’ designs for one’s satisfaction. If computational methods are utilised correctly and effectively, it will prove itself to be beneficial to many practices in the future.

14.

Brady Peters, “Computation Works: The Building Of Algorithmic Thought”, Architectural Design, 82.2 (2013), p. 10

15.

Ibid, p. 11

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“Only parametricism can adequately organise and articulate contemporary social assemblages at the level of complexity called for today16” Patrik Schumacher

16.

Patrik Schumacher, “Parametricism 2.0: Gearing Up To Impact The Global Built Environment”, Architectural Design, 86.2 (2016), p. 16. CONCEPTUALISATION | 19


CASE STUDY 1 Project: Landesgartenschau Exhibition Hall Architect: Achim Menges Date: 2014 Location: Stuttgart, Germany

The Landengartenschau Exhibition Hall is one of its kind in terms of its structure entirely made out of wooden panels robotically fabricated off-site. The exhibition hall exhibits the main morphological principles of sea urchins and sand dollars, similar to the 2011 ICD/ITKE Pavilion. The main challenge the team faced was how they could unite all the aspects in one coherent computational design approach. Its researchers adopted a modeling method that would allow the concurrent feedback-driven integration of material, fabrication and construction constraints in one integrated computational design process17. The development of the exhibition hall’s complex plate structure is made possible through advanced computational design and simulation

methods. These allow the generation, simulation and optimisation of biomimetic construction principles in architecture18. This precedent accentuates the opportunity of computation design that made way for generative structural performance to resolve design problem. Computation also allows the designer to accurately calculate material cost which makes it materially efficient, removing any wastage. This generative approach is thus a more suitable candidate for solving complex issue.

Image Source: http://aasarchitecture.com/2014/06/ landesgartenschau-exhibition-hall.html

17.

Tobias Schwinn & Achim Menges, “Fabrication Agency: Landesgartenschau Exhibition Hall”, Architectural Design, 85.5 (2015), p. 93

18.

Ibid, p. 95

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Image Source: http://www.archdaily.com/520897/landesgartenschauexhibition-hall-icd-itke-iigs-university-of-stuttgart

CONCEPTUALISATION | 21


CASE STUDY 2 Project: Foundation Louis Vuitton Architect: Gehry Partners Date: 2014 Location: Paris, France

The Foundation Louis Vuitton museum designed by the world-renowned architect Frank Gehry, famous for his distinctive sketches. During the construction of the museum, Gehry’s team developed a high-precision design tool which allowed him to turn drawings into complex multi-platform building informaton model. This corresponds to Peter’s claim with firms integrating computational designer expertise into design process19. The building information model of structural and enclosure systems were developed through parametric scripting. The information is then carried forward to fabricate and install all aspects of the project. Computation in this context was able to offer simulation and communication of

19. 20. 21.

the constructional aspects of a building as well as the experience and the creation of meaning20. This precedent is a good example in representing a shift from composition to generation. In the past, information from design to construction flows from one stage to another, technically passing on a baton to the next person. However, in the complexity of the project, informations are synchronised and shared seamlessly on dedicated servers21. This essentially benefits the collaboration of different parties in multiple countries. Image Source: “Gehry Partners’ Foundation Louis Vuitton: Crowsourcing Embedded Intelligence”, Architectural Design, 84.1 (2014), 86-87

Brady Peters, “Computation Works: The Building Of Algorithmic Thought”, Architectural Design, 82.2 (2013), p. 11 Ibid, p. 13 Tobias Nolte & Andrew Witt, “Gehry Partners’ Fondation Louis Vuitton: Crowdsourcing Embedded Intelligence”, Architectural Design, 84.1 (2014), p. 88

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Image Source: http://www.mikikokikuyama.com/project/ frank-gehry-louis-vuitton-foundation-paris-france/

CONCEPTUALISATION | 23


A4 CONCLUSION Part A demonstrates the extent of computation has on design thinking, not only it changed the way we practice as architects, it exceeded the conventional problem-solving practices. With the capacity to explore highly complex forms and geometry, it seems that was not enough, as designers are even making custom tools to better generate valuable information for decision making and problem solving. With the study of precedents, we can tell that computation currently plays a key role in architecture, it has removed many restrictions that previously restrained the design and construction flow. Computational design reveals many opportunities in development of complex solutions which can empower us to design for sustainable future.

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By means of scripting and algorithms, we can take advantage of this opportunity to ultimately lessen environmental problems caused by human intervention. I intend to incorporate biomimicry as an innovative approach to bring natural systems found at the site and apply in on our brief in hope that would change the way people perceive the existing site.


A5 LEARNING OUTCOMES In the past couple of weeks, I came to understand that parametric design is more than just a tool to create prominent designs or for presentation purposes. It is an innovative approach for generative designs. Take the ICD/ITKE research pavilions for example, where the whole design and fabrication processes were done through computation. I believe this type of workflow will be integrated in future practices simply because of how incredibly efficient and accurate the outcome is. My exploration of parametric modelling and design computation has taught me that multiple individuals can work on one file simultaneously. This has proven to be revolutionary in works like the Louis Vuitton foundation how they developed their own software to optimise mass information across multiple countries. This has removed the need for any transfer of file and individuals

can work together continuously. These shared information is then utilised for later fabrication of the building. In my experience of doing Digital Design and Fabrication last semester, our team has struggled during the fabrication stage of our Second Skin as we would make multiple prototypes in attempt to optimise the performance using mainly craftmanship. Pluginâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s such as Kangaroo prior to fabrication stage can ultimately solve the issue by simulating its material performance and strength. Learning grasshopper was tough to begin with. However, after exploring the precedent, I am extremely motivated in mastering this new skillset for myself to be able to do emulate what the practices are currently shifting towards.

CONCEPTUALISATION | 25


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A6 APPENDIX

CONCEPTUALISATION | 27


ALGORITHMIC SKETCHBOOK

28 | CONCEPTUALISATION


CONCEPTUALISATION | 29


BIBLIOGRAPHY •

Dunne, Anthony, & Fiona Raby, Speculative Everything: Design Fiction, And Social Dreaming (MIT Press, 2013), p. 9, 44

Fry, Tony, Design Futuring: Sustainability, Ethics And New Practice (Oxford: Berg Publishers Ltd, 2008), p. 1

Hill, David, “Benchmarking The Benchmark”, Bullittcenter Architect Magazine, 2017 <http:// bullittcenter.architectmagazine.com/> [accessed 29 July 2017]

“ICD/ITKE Research Pavilion 2011 | Institute For Computational Design And Construction”, Icd.unistuttgart.de, 2017 <http://icd.uni-stuttgart.de/?p=6553> [accessed 4 August 2017]

Kalay, Yehuda E, Architecture’s New Media: Principles, Theories, And Methods Of Computer-Aided Design (MIT Press, 2004), p. 2, 6

Kottas, Dimitris, Contemporary Digital Architecture, Design & Techniques (Linkbooks, 2013), p. 136

Nolte, Tobias, & Andrew Witt, “Gehry Partners’ Fondation Louis Vuitton: Crowdsourcing Embedded Intelligence”, Architectural Design, 84 (2014), p. 88

Peters, Brady, “Computation Works: The Building Of Algorithmic Thought”, Architectural Design, 82 (2013), p. 10, 11, 13

Schumacher, Patrik, “Parametricism 2.0: Gearing Up To Impact The Global Built Environment”, Architectural Design, 86 (2016), p. 16

Schwinn, Tobias, & Achim Menges, “Fabrication Agency: Landesgartenschau Exhibition Hall”, Architectural Design, 85 (2015), p. 93, 95

Wood, John, Design For Micro-Utopias: Making The Unthinkable Possible (Aldershot: Gower, 2007)

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CONCEPTUALISATION | 31


B

CRITERIA DESIGN


CONTENTS B1

RESEARCH FIELD BIOMIMICRY PRECEDENCE

B2

CASE STUDY 1.0 ITERATIONS SUCCESSFUL ITERATIONS

B3

CASE STUDY 2.0 DESIGN INTENT TO REALISATION REVERSE ENGINEERING SEQUENCE OUTCOME

B4

TECHNIQUE: DEVELOPMENT ITERATIONS SUCESSFUL ITERATIONS

B5

TECHNIQUE: PROTOTYPES STRUCTURE, PANEL & CONNECTION

B6

TECHNIQUE: PROPOSAL CONCEPT DIAGRAM & RENDER DESIGN LOGIC, ELEVATION & ISOMETRIC

B7

LEARNING OUTCOMES

B8

APPENDIX ALGORITHMIC SKETCHBOOK BIBLIOGRAPHY


B1 RESEARCH FIELD

BIOMIMICRY As mentioned previously, architecture has been implementing sustainable design solutions to reduce further damage that we are causing to the environment. Lucky for us, the solution has always been in front of us this whole time. The natural world is the real model when it comes to true sustainability because they have been striving for millions of years22. Its existence has yet to show its negative impact on our environment.

2011 ICD/ITKE Research Pavilion is an example of studying the biological principles of a sea urchin’s plate skeleton. They also adopted the technique of finger joints found in a sand dollar’s calcite protrusions and applied it as part of their primary structural joinery. Precedents such as this shows us that we can learn from natural behaviour to find solutions that effectively solve our design problems.

Advanced scientific instruments have recently enabled us to make precise observation of the natural processes. This concept has made possible using parametric design computation and advanced fabrication methods. Computation is used not only to observe and understand the underlying principles of nature, but to imitate, simulate and manipulate it to create complex design solutions for future sustainable practices. Several of my previous precedent studies revolved around the notion of this concept. The

Our group will attempt to use the concept of biomimicry as the basis of our design, incorporating nature’s characteristics to find potentials that will ultimately inform our design brief. The biodiversity surrounding Dight Falls serves as an excellent starting point for us in search of inspirations. The following projects use biomimicry in a similar way and serves as great examples for the interesting designs by utilising biomimicry as a design approach.

22 .

Janine M. Benyus, Biomimicry In Action, 2009 <https://www.ted.com/talks/janine_benyus_biomimicry_in_action>

[accessed 19 August 2017]. 34 | CRITERIA DESIGN


“Biomimicry is learning from and then emulating natural forms, processes and ecosystem to create more sustainable designs23” Janine M. Benyus

23.

Janine M. Benyus, “A Biomimicry Primer”, Biomimicry 3.8, 2013, p. 2 <https://biomimicry.net/b38files/A_Biomimicry_Primer_Janine_Benyus.pdf> [accessed 20 August 2017] CRITERIA DESIGN | 35


PRECEDENCE ICD/ITKE RESEARCH PAVILION 2013-2014

GROTTO

The project takes inspiration from the protective shell for beetles’ wings and the abdomen to generate a lightweight panellised structure. The performance of its lightweight structures relies on the geometric morphology of a double layered system and the mechanical properties of the natural fibre composite. The fabrication process uses dual-robot setup to wind the fibres around steel frames which allowed for a force-driven differentiation of each shell element24. So, after a layer of transparent glass fibre is applied to make the overall mould, the black structural carbon fibres were laid in response to the local loadbearing requirements which greatly reduces material wastage.

This project conceived by Benjamin Aranda and Chris Lasch utilises a methodology that is heavily influenced by cellular structure, fractals and crystals found in natural systems. The designers developed an algorithm that generates the aperiodic system to create any shape with certain tetrahedral tiles that never repeats the same way twice25. Four unique shapes of boulders were formed through controlled voronoi and it can be arranged to interlock endlessly to create a wide range of possibilities. Spatial qualities of the pavilion are achieved by subtraction of voronoi cells, much like the elemental erosion that forms our caves.

As a result, the modular shell’s differentiated composite elements unfold an interesting spatial experience and unique material expression of the research pavilion. Image Source: http://www.archdaily.com/522408/icd-itkeresearch-pavilion-2015-icd-itke-university-of-stuttgart

24.

The design approach imitates the growth of living system, growing into a variety of possibilities. It is this search of endlessness that makes their work intriguing to the community. It paves the way for deeply informed application of clustered forms. Image Source: http://arandalasch.com/works/grotto/

Moritz Doerstelmann & others, “ICD/ITKE Research Pavilion 2013-14: Modular Coreless Filament Winding Based On Beetle Elytra”, Architectural Design, 85.5 (2015), p. 59

25.

Benjamin Aranda & Christopher Lasch, Tooling (New York: Princeton Architectural Press, 2006), p. 83

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ICD/ITKE RESEARCH PAVILION Achim Menges 2013-2014 Stuttgart, Germany

http://www.archdaily.com/522408/icd-itke-researchpavilion-2015-icd-itke-university-of-stuttgart

GROTTO Aranda Lasch 2005 Queens, New York

http://arandalasch.com/works/grotto/

CRITERIA DESIGN | 37


B2 CASE STUDY 1.0 Project: The Morning Line Architect: Aranda Lasch Date: 2008 - 2013 Locations: Seville, Spain; Istanbul, Turkey; Vienna, Austria; Karlsruhe, Germany

The morning line is a public sculpture by Benjamin Aranda and Chris Lasch in collaboration with the artist Matthew Ritchie and Arup AGU. The design explored the interplay between multiple disciplinaries which challenged the architectural convention. It is a work of fractal geometry, which is a recursive mathematical derivation of form that possesses a self-similar structure at various levels of scale or detail26. The architects employed the language of fractal geometry to truncate regular tetrahedron into various scales of components. This is an example of how highly complex forms can be generated from a simple form. Like Grotto, this design approach imitates growth and allows replication endless possibilities to creates intriguing forms. However, this pavilion adds another layer of complexity as varying curves were pulled across the geometrical surfaces to create unique patterns.

The project is constructed of slender yet highstrength aluminium plates. The profile-cut aluminium plates provide the main structural load paths transferring gravitational and lateral loads through 6 arching supports to the ground27. Although the pavilion weighs 17 tons, the components are designed in a way that is transportable and rebuildable. Its modularity allows it to be unfolded on site, stacked, transported and re-erected in a different place. With the given grasshopper definition, we will be exploring its potentials while evaluating them closely to see fit our design brief. The selection criteria below will help us select the following iterations.

SELECTION CRITERIA Aesthetics

Structure

How does the iteration manage to be freestanding and lightweight?

Flexibility

How is it able to create spatial qualities that negotiate with visual privacy for a change room?

Relevancy

26.

Does the composition look aesthetically pleasing? What visual impact does it have on the users?

How closely does it relate to biomimicry and its symbolism?

James Harris, Fractal Architecture: Organic Design Philosophy In Theory And Practice (Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 2012), p. 3

27.

â&#x20AC;&#x153;The Morning Lineâ&#x20AC;?, SPANS, 2017 <http://www.spans-associates.com/the-morning-line-arup-agu> [accessed 21 August 2017]

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Image Source: http://arandalasch.com/works/the-morning-line/

CRITERIA DESIGN | 39


ITERATIONS SPECIES

NO. OF SEGMENTS

SCALE FACTOR

Variable = number slider [Number (N)]

Variable = number slider [Factor (F)]

N=3

F = 0.10

N=4

F = 0.25

N=5

F = 0.33

ITERATION

F = 0.50 40 | CRITERIA DESIGN


COMPLEXITY

HEIGHT OF TETRAHEDRON

Variable = number slider

Variable = number slider [u-value (u)]

[Number of fractal step (FS)]

Expression = u*sqrt((y/z)2-x 2)

FS = 1

U = 0.1

FS = 2

U = 0.5

FS = 3

U = 1.0

FS = 4

U = 1.2 CRITERIA DESIGN | 41


ITERATIONS SPECIES

SHIFT OF LIST ITEM

VARIATION OF POLYHEDRON

Variable = number slider [y-value (y)]

Input of different platonics

HoopSnake = x+y to list item

from LunchBox

y=1

Cube

y=2

Dodecahedron

y=3

Icosahedron

y=4

Octahedron

ITERATION

42 | CRITERIA DESIGN


SCALE LOOP

LINE OF BEST FIT

Variable = number slider

Variable = number slider [y-value (y1,y 2)]

[Factor (F)]

3D helix = y1*sin(x) y 2 *cos(x)

y1 = 5 F = 0.8

y2 = 5

y1 = 10 F = 1.0

y2 = 5

F = 1.1

y 2 = 10

F = 1.2

y 2 = 20

y1 = 5

y1 = 20

CRITERIA DESIGN | 43


SUCCESSFUL ITERATIONS

Aesthetics

Aesthetics

Structure

Structure

Flexibility

Flexibility

Relevency

Relevency

The first set of iterations focussed on our exploration of single modular geometry. This selection was the result of the scale of fractalization. We eventually applied the scale factor of 0.33 for the rest of the iterations, if we were to go beyond the 0.5 mark, the overall composition will become completely arbitrary.

44 | CRITERIA DESIGN

Our second selection comes from varying the number of fractal steps on the truncated tetrahedron. This directly translates to the complexity of the composition. We selected two fractal steps as any more would be hardly noticeable or perhaps infeasible because there is a limit to how small we can work with. It also allows us to control the degree of privacy with the amount of fractal steps it takes.


Aesthetics

Aesthetics

Structure

Structure

Flexibility

Flexibility

Relevency

Relevency

The next set of iterations look at how the geometries can be joined together and not repeat the same direction twice to generate a collective form similar to the morning line. This tiling effect was described previously in Aranda and Lasch’s book ‘Tooling’. The third selection, we supplemented to the definition with a scaling function that scales itself as it loops. This created an interesting outcome that emerges to the audience, playing with the depth and perspective of people experiencing the space.

With our strong interest in the theme of growth within the realm of biomimicry, we applied a mathematical definition to generate a 3D helix that allows a modular truncated tetrahedron to follow it. This enabled us to control the path it takes, which will have potential to create openings and introduce threshold to a changing room. The disadvantage of this iteration would be the lack of privacy.

CRITERIA DESIGN | 45


B3 CASE STUDY 2.0 Project: Dragon Skin Pavilion Architect: Emmi Keskisarja, Pekka Tynkkynen, Kristof Crolla & Sebastien Delagrange (LEAD) Date: 2012 Locations: Kowloon Park, Hong Kong

The dragon skin pavilion is an architectural art installation that challenges and explores the spatial, tactile and material possibilities architecture is offered today by revolutions in digital fabrication and manufacturing technology 28. The design of the pavilion is a result of repeated regular framework of rectangular post-formable plywood panels bent into shape. Its modularity of the panels across the curved form creates a very engaging experience. It entices the audience with its scaled feature to draw attention into the architectural space. What makes the design so unique was the fact that it is self-supported by the interlocking bent plywood. The project was done without the need for conventional on-site communication methods

28.

like plan and drawings29. Instead, the designers utilise a computer programmed 3D master model for both its design and fabrication process. The project developed fabrication scripts to give every rectangular component their precise calculated slots for interlocking joints, labels and numbers for assembling the pavilion. This allows for a far more efficient work flow. During the reverse engineering process, we will attempt to understand the pavilion in a modular level. Once we fully grasp the logic behind the panel creation, we will apply it onto a curve for further refinement such as interlocking and rotation features. Image Source: http://dragonskinproject.com/

“Dragon Skin Pavilion”, LEAD – Laboratory For Explorative Architecture & Design, 2012 <http://l-e-a-d.pro/projects/dragon-skinpavilion/2259/> [accessed 26 August 2017]

29.

“Dragon Skin Pavilion / Emmi Keskisarja + Pekka Tynkkynen + Kristof Crolla (LEAD) And Sebastien Delagrange (LEAD)”, Archdaily, 2012 <http://www.archdaily.com/215249/dragon-skin-pavilion-emmi-keskisarja-pekka-tynkkynen-lead> [accessed 27 August 2017]

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Image Source: http://dragonskinproject.com/

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DESIGN INTENT TO REALISATION

DESIGN INTENT

Inspiration

• Interest in digital fabrication & manufacturing technologies

• 3D master model applied throughout design & fabrication

• Expressive patterns of dragon scale

• Given rectangle components its precise cut slots, label & number

• Structurally defined ornament • High-efficient & environmental friendly • Self-supporting, lightweight & freestanding

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Parametric Model


REALISATION

Fabrication

Dragon Skin Pavilion

• Single material production

• Assembled at site

• Post-formable Grada Plywood

• Voila

• CNC-router used to make mould that bends the preheated plywood • Made in Finland & shipped to Hong Kong for assembly

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REVERSE ENGINEERING SEQUENCE

Edge End Points Surface Creation

Quadrangular Panels

Polyline Base (Edge 1)

Rotate

Po (

Edge Mid Point

1

SURFACE CREATION Two curves extruded into surface

2

PANELLING Surface divided into quad panels

3

BASE LINE FORMATION Identify order of small panel edges Form polyline with edge end points and edge mid point to form edge number one

4

SECTION LINE GENERATION Rotate polyline to an angle as edge number two Create axis line using vertices of two edge and ends of panalsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; base edge Fillet axis line to create bending effect

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5


olyline Base (Edge 2)

5

Axis Line

SURFACE FORMATION Loft edge one, two and filleted axis line

Loft

Scale

Rotate to Overlap

Rotate to Interlock

Fillet Edge

6

SURFACE SCALE Enlarge panels to enable overlapping effect

7

EDGES OVERLAP Flip edges to overlap panels

8

EDGES INTERLOCK Rotate panels to intersect edges with the adjacent edges

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OUTCOME Our attempt in reverse engineering the pavilion is reasonably successful. We were able to capture the scaled effect as well as most of its feature including the interlocking and rotational aspect. Before arriving to our final outcome, we challenged different approaches in attempt to replicate the dragon scale effect. Our first attempt utilised the Box Morph approach. The technique applies a base geometry across a surface domain. This approach tends to limit the overall composition as it is defined by a single bounding box, which does not offer much flexibility for our parametric model. Box morph also produces inaccurate result. For instance, as

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surface divisions are much larger due to curvy surfaces, this will directly affect the product of our panels, which is the opposite of what we are trying to achieve as the original pavilion uses a regular sized panel throughout. The next approach we implemented a series of transformation parameters that plays with the formation and composition of the panels into our definition. This approach not only kept the panels across the surface uniform, but also provides much more flexibility to our exploration of our technique development.


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B4 TECHNIQUE: DEVELOPMENT The purpose of technique development is to extend the definition that we have created from reverse engineering to develop our technique that will ultimately inform our design. The iterations will be divided into three categories: panel composition, panel transformation and form finding. Compared to case study 1.0 where we explored the grasshopper techniques for potentials, this part of the iteration is more focussed on generation of ideas that aims to benefit our proposal for a change room used by swimmers at Dight Falls.

on the panels itself. We will be revisiting the structural element and materiality of our design in prototype stage. Assuming that the panels are attached to the structure and a mechanic is being integrated in a way that allows the panel to bend outwards. This led to the development of our selection criteria when working computationally. The selection criteria will guide us in selecting relevant iterations to further our design process that could be adapted to the brief.

As we intend to use the panel systems as part of our responsive facade, panels no longer serve as part of the structure and we will focus purely

SELECTION CRITERIA Aesthetics

Kinetic Potential

Flexibility

Relevancy

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Does the composition look aesthetically pleasing? What visual impact does it have on the users? Is the iteration able to implement kinetic applications, in the case of panel bending? How is it able to create spatial qualities that negotiate with visual privacy for a change room? How closely does it relate to biomimicry and its symbolism?


http://www.archdaily.com/215249/dragon-skinpavilion-emmi-keskisarja-pekka-tynkkynen-lead

CATEGORIZATION OF SPECIES 01

Panel Composition

02

Panel Transformation

03

Form Finding

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ITERATIONS SPECIES

CATEGORY 01 - PANEL COMPOSITION CHORD GEOMETRY

PANEL GRID

Base chords defining panel geometry

Panels from Lunchbox

Top chord = Arc Bottom chord = Arc

Quad Panels

Top chord = Polyline

Staggered Panels

ITERATION

Bottom chord = Arc

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Top chord = Arc Bottom chord = Polyline

Diamond Panels

Top chord = Semi-Hexagon Bottom chord = Semi-Hexagon

Skewed Panels

Top chord = Concave Curve Bottom chord = Concave Curve

Random Quad Panels


SURFACE GRID RATIO Variation = Ratio [a:b]

Category 01 involves variation of intrinsic parameters with case study 2.0 script. These species explore the overall composition of the scales. a:b = 6:1

a:b = 3:1

a:b = 2:1

a:b = 3:2

a:b = 1:1

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ITERATIONS SPECIES

CATEGORY 02 - PANEL TRANSFORMATION DEGREE OF FOLD

ORIENTATION OF PANEL

Variation = Panel width [Factor (X)]

Variation = Radians [Factor (R)]

X = 0.34

R = 2.0

X = 0.5

R = 1.5

X = 0.6

R = 1.0

X = 0.7

R = 0.5

X = 0.9

R = 0.0

ITERATION

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FLIP ON VERTEX Variation = Radians [Factor (R)]

R = -1.2

R = -0.6

Category 02 iterations extends the design potential by influencing the panel transformation. This will change how the user will experience the space upon first impression.

R = -0.1

R = 0.4

R = 0.8

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ITERATIONS SPECIES

CATEGORY 03 - FORM FINDING VERTICAL SURFACE APPROACH Variable = Horizontal dynamic of base curve using graph mapper

ITERATION

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CANOPY APPROACH

RIB STRUCTURE APPROACH

Variable: Curvature profile of curves

Variable: Section profile of ribs

v1 = (-14,-40,23) v2 = (20,1,0)

S = (0.35,0.33,0.25,0.00)

v1 = (21,-32,54) v2 = (-7,-32,-26)

S = (0.00,0.25,0.33,0.00)

v1 = (13,-52,35)

S = (0.00,0.44,0.22,0.00)

Category 03 is a configuration of selected outcomes from previous categories. In this section, we will implement different forms unlike the original surface to explore its potential and imitation.

v2 = (24,-32,0)

v1 = (17,-100,35) v2 = (16,0,0)

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SUCCESSFUL ITERATIONS

AA

AA

AA

AA

AA

Plan

Aesthetics Kinetic Potential AA

Flexibility

Section A A

Relevency

This specie takes inspiration from the swimming movement of a fish to generate dynamic forms. The form itself is generated using two sets of graph mapper, the top curve is kept constant while the bottom base curve is being manipulated. This selected iteration was favored by both of us as it explores the extreme concave curvature of the form. The slightly orientated panels ensured that the panels to not overlap too much to allow a hint of sunlight to enter the space while maintaining a level of privacy. However, even a slight overlap of the panels will interfere with the responsive skin to reach full bending effect.

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East Elevation


BB

BB

BB

BB

Plan

Aesthetics Kinetic Potential Flexibility

Section B B

Relevency

BB

West Elevation

CRITERIA DESIGN | 63 BB

In contrast to the first selection, this iteration explores the opposite extreme of convex curvature. Once more, keeping the top graph mapper constant and only switching the positive parabola to negative. The tightly packed scales looked more like the scale of a fish. It checks the box for optimal privacy, concealing the internal space with the panels. However, it remains questionable for the panels to be able to bend outwards. Perhaps our definition needs to be revised to avoid panel collision.


SUCCESSFUL ITERATIONS

CC

CC

CC

CC

v1 = (13,-52,35)

Plan

v2 = (24,-32,0)

Aesthetics Kinetic Potential Flexibility

Section C C

Relevency

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East Elevation

CC

This specie is generated by varying the curves on the surface edge. The successful iteration here has a very elegant skin as seen from the perspective view, it closely resembles the fish scales. The canopy-like form has the potential to be the top cover of the change room which offers not only visual privacy from the top, but as a shade of sun or shelter for rain. The panels are distributed enough which allows bending to take place without interference. However, there is a huge contrast of visual privacy depending on the direction the iteration is looked at. It may be well enclosed on one side, but hugely exposed on another as seen in the perspective view. Orientation of the panels need to be taken into consideration to maintain its privacy.


DD

DD

DD

DD

Plan

S = (0.53,0.42,0.09,0.00) DD

Aesthetics Kinetic Potential Flexibility DD

Relevency

The final specie integrates properties of both the vertical surface approach and the canopy approach from the previous species. We attempt to imitate the symmetrical form of the fish vertebrae, which generated a rib structure that somewhat looks like a fish tail. Intriguingly, the overlapping panel on the top can be seen as a dorsal finlet. Nonetheless, this poses an issue with the kinetic application of the panels.

Section D D

East Elevation

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B5 TECHNIQUE: PROTOTYPES Prototyping is a crucial part of our design, it draws a line to what we can produce in the reality when transitioning from digital design and physical fabrication. The prototype phase aims to give us an opportunity to test things out before proceeding to the production of our final model. Regardless of the outcome of the prototype, the information gathered should tailor our final design. As promised, we will discuss the structural part of our design at this stage. We will examine three essential components of our design, that is the structure, connection and panels. At this stage of prototype, we will not touch on the mechanics that forces the panels to bend as structure comes before the ornament. We intended to find a suitable structural system that is ideally lightweight and freestanding. However, our ability to test is

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limited to specific types of equipment available in FabLab such as laser cutter, CNC routes and 3D printer. We tested several materials like a MDF, Polypropylene and Bamboo Veneer to find the most effective structure. We also conducted a series of experimentations by laser-cutting or etching different patterns on a 1.8mm bamboo veneer strip, each with three different densities to allow further exploration on degrees of bending. As we intend to have kinetic applications to bend the panels, we need to be critical of the grain direction of the bamboo veneer during fabrication as this will directly affect the bending moment. When the pattern is parallel to the grain, it takes less effort to bend the strip, which corresponds to crack vulnerability.


STRUCTURE 1 MDF Waffle Grid with Interlocking

STRUCTURE 2 Bamboo Veneer Weaving Grid with Bolts and Nuts

STRUCTURE 3 Polypropylene Weaving Grid with Eyelet

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PATTERN 1 Straight lattice, varying density

PATTERN 2 Rectangular straight lattice, varying density

PATTERN 3 Straight lattice, varying area

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PATTERN 4 Circular lattice, varying density

PATTERN 5 Water droplet lattice, varying density

PATTERN 6 Straight etch, varying density

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BAMBOO VENEER BENDING Having tested the most efficient kerfing pattern, we then applied the dense straight lattice to the centre of a panel. The result was a successful kerfed panel that bends over 90 degrees.

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Upon the structural prototypes we have tested, the weaving grid bamboo veneer strips worked best as it maintained its shape while having a bit of flexibility to it. The MDF waffle grid came out as the most rigid structure which could be both a good and bad thing. It does not allow any room for flexibility and it does not facilitate any joint connections. The connections we have tried that suits best was bolts and nuts as it can easily be fixed and disassembled. The bolt was long enough which has the potential for multiple layers of bamboo veneer to be stacked together to reinforce the structure. The joint that did not work as intended was the eyelet. It was too short to add another layer of bamboo veneer as seen on the left. However, it did work well with the polypropylene due to its thinness, but polypropylene as a structure is way too fragile to be freestanding by itself unless otherwise supported.

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B6 TECHNIQUE: PROPOSAL

STRANDED ENTITIES Upon visiting Dight Falls, one can immediately experience the rich ecology surrounding the site. Pursuing the concept of biomimicry, we will seek inspiration from the biodiversity of the confluence of the Merri Creek and Yarra River. We eventually settled on a native migratory fish that is called the Australian Grayling. Although we are designing a changing room for the swimmers, we must not forget that nature is also a part of the stakeholders. We will present the concept of â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;equilibriumâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; into our design, to maintain a balance in nature and to never take anything for granted. Our respect to nature can begin with using environmentallyfriendly materials such as bamboo veneer. By utilising computational means, we will significantly reduce material wastage on our production. The notion of equilibrium will resonate within our design for the changing room in hopes of raising awareness of the environment to the occupants and others. Drawing inspiration from the fish scale and the concept of equilibrium, we proposed a change room that uses a revised algorithm from the

previous technique development to create a form that truly imitates the swimming movement of an Australian Grayling. Fishes curve their bodies in order to propel forward. We tried to emulate the curvature to produce a bending point on the change room. This has the potential to introduce a threshold into the space without the need of a door. The siting of our proposal sits in between the riverbank and the river, symbolising a stranding fish on land. By addressing the need of the swimmers, it is important that the panels provide sufficient visual privacy for users to feel comfortable to change. As the space is unoccupied, the panels bend outwards to allow ventilation to enter underneath the panels and into the space for natural ventilation. The mechanics for the kinetic application has yet to be developed, but our initial intentions were to somehow incorporate the occupants weight to trigger the panels to return to its normal shape. Anyhow, the mechanics will further be explored in Part C.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

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Dight Falls Yarra River Merri Creek Fishway Proposed Change Room Migration of Australian Grayling Pavilion


3. 7.

4. 5.

6.

1.

2.

1 : 2000

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CONCEPT DIAGRAM M SW I M I N G

CO N F LI C T

F

W

RI

UM

N GING A

TU RE

E

S

CHANGE ROOM

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G

N

UC E+ CO N FL U E N C

R

BIOMIMICRY

TR

+

TE

AL I A N G R AYL IN

AL

CY

SI

TR US

SC

P R I VA

PROGRAMME

+R VE E S P E C T + RI

TI O

CH A

B + G LO

+

FO

DU

C

CIA L

AL

FR

AR

I LIB

L/

I FI

SYMBOLISM

D LY

A +S UT I O N

IE N

E CA

MIN

PR

EQU

G

+

ET

SK

RA

RT

R WAT E R

Y

RI

N AT U

BACKGROUND/ SCENARIO A

RIV E

ACTIVITY

R M + RE PR O


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DESIGN LOGIC

Programme Changing room for swimmer at Dight Fall

Specifications

Design Brief

Biomimicry Inspiration

Design Concept Idea of Equilibrium

Concept + Inspiration

Tecnhique Development Idea of Equilibrium

Parametric Model

Analysis from prototyping

Fabrication Method

Fabrication

Final Physical Model

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Australian Grayling fish scale

Optimisation

Fabrication Approach Laser Cutting

Lightweight, freestanding + offers visual privacy

Bolts + Nuts


Elevation

Isometric

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B7 LEARNING OUTCOMES OBJECTIVE 01 Interrogating a brief The brief for our tutorial is quite different when compared to other classes. I was being slightly skeptical at first when I looked at the brief, it was at that stage where we still did not have a designated site for our â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;change roomâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;. As weeks progressed, we eventually settled on Dight Falls, and my partner and I began to uncover the potentials and limitations of our case study 1.0 and technique development which we will facilitate our proposal. We constantly referred to the brief to maintain its relevancy

OBJECTIVE 02 Developing an ability to generate a variety of design iterations Design iterations have been lots of fun but at the same time very challenging due to the sheer amount of iterations needed to be done. Although our tutor - Matt only required us to produce 30 iterations for our technique development, I feel that it was not enough for us. So, we push ourselves further to create in total 42 iterations. The set of iterations has definitely helped to explore the advantages and disadvantages, constraints of the parametric algorithm. It was extremely useful to keep track of the parametric changes. Iterations made it extremely easy to refer back to it when needed.

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OBJECTIVE 03 Developing skills in various threedimensional media I explored a wide range to media throughout the course of the semester. Few of the common media includes digital modeling and communication through Rhino and Grasshopper, Graphical communication through Journal and sketchbookand physical modeling through prototyping. However, the recent interim presentation posed the most valuable form of translating ideas into 3d media in a concise manner, We are essentially selling our product to the people

OBJECTIVE 04 Developing an understanding of relationships between architecture and air The nature of computational design we are going through for studio air tends to isolate ourselves from the physical site. Therefore, it is recommended that we take the time to visit the site, to make observation and conduct analysis of the site, making sure that our design complements with the local atmosphere


OBJECTIVE 05 Developing the ability to make a case for proposals At the start of our discussion for the proposal, we had at least 5 other designs that we were discussing, I found this stage to be quite challenging because we have to learn how to let go some of our â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;brilliantâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; ideas in pursuit of even better ideas. Or for some instance we can merge the two ideas together to achieve greater potential. We are content with what we have achieved so far, knowing that we have spent countless hours for the subject, we will continue to strive to achieve the best outcome.

OBJECTIVE 06 Develop capabilities for conceptual, technical and design analyses of contemporary architectural projects Our attempt on the reverse engineering of the Dragon Skin Pavilion requires the basic understanding at the modular level. Not only that, we also closely speculated the processes of the project, from the design intent all the way to realisation. Same applies to the Morning Line where we explore the possibilities of fractal geometries. This has left me with the ability to analyse contemporary architectural projects on all three fronts â&#x20AC;&#x201C; conceptual, technical and design.

OBJECTIVE 07 Develop foundational understandings of computational geometry, data structures and types of programming I have definitely improved my ways of computation through weekly videos and tutorials. It enabled me to see the potentials and limitations of digital design. Although I had no experience in the realm of computational design at the beginning of the semester, I put effort in attending several technical sessions on Mondays to further broaden my knowledge on grasshopper. I would not say that I am good at grasshopper because there are still much to learn. Plugins such as kangaroo or python have yet to be explored.

OBJECTIVE 08 Begin developing a personalised repertoire of computational techniques substantiated by the understanding of their advantages and disadvantages and areas of application The collection of grasshopper exercises in my algorithmic sketchbook has the opportunity to be presented in future portfolios. These collections of computational techniques will continue to build up as we progress into the realm of computational design.

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B8 APPENDIX

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ALGORITHMIC SKETCHBOOK

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ALGORITHMIC SKETCHBOOK

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ALGORITHMIC SKETCHBOOK

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BIBLIOGRAPHY •

Aranda, Benjamin, and Christopher Lasch, Tooling (New York: Princeton Architectural Press, 2006), p. 83

Benyus, Janine M., Biomimicry In Action, 2009 <https://www.ted.com/talks/janine_benyus_ biomimicry_in_action> [accessed 19 August 2017]

Benyus, Janine M, A Biomimicry Primer, 2013, p. 2 <https://biomimicry.net/b38files/A_Biomimicry_ Primer_Janine_Benyus.pdf> [accessed 20 August 2017]

Doerstelmann, Moritz, Jan Knippers, Achim Menges, Stefana Parascho, Marshall Prado, and Tobias Schwinn, “ICD/ITKE Research Pavilion 2013-14: Modular Coreless Filament Winding Based On Beetle Elytra”, Architectural Design, 85 (2015), p. 59

“Dragon Skin Pavilion”, LEAD – Laboratory For Explorative Architecture & Design, 2012 <http://l-ea-d.pro/projects/dragon-skin-pavilion/2259/> [accessed 26 August 2017]

“Dragon Skin Pavilion / Emmi Keskisarja + Pekka Tynkkynen + Kristof Crolla (LEAD) And Sebastien Delagrange (LEAD)”, Archdaily, 2012 <http://www.archdaily.com/215249/dragon-skin-pavilionemmi-keskisarja-pekka-tynkkynen-lead> [accessed 27 August 2017]

Harris, James, Fractal Architecture: Organic Design Philosophy In Theory And Practice (Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 2012), p. 3

“The Morning Line”, SPANS, 2017 <http://www.spans-associates.com/the-morning-line-arup-agu> [accessed 21 August 2017]

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C

DETAILED DESIGN


CONTENTS C1

DESIGN CONCEPT INTERIM FEEDBACK SITE ANALYSIS FORM FINDING

C2

TECTONIC ELEMENTS + PROTOTYPES TECTONIC ELEMENT SPECIFICATIONS EVOLUTION OF TECTONICS PARAMETRIC ALGORITHM FABRICATION + ASSEMBLY DESIGN INTENT TO REALISATION

C3

FINAL DETAILED MODEL INTEGRATED DESIGN SPACE ASSEMBLY OF TECTONICS FINAL PROTOTYPE 1:4 KINETIC MECHANISM PRINCIPLE PLAN + SECTION SITE MODEL 1:200 ANIMATIONS RENDERS

C4

TAKING IT FURTHER DECAY

C5

LEARNING OUTCOMES


C1 DESIGN CONCEPT The feedback from interim presentation centered around the materiality of our project. As our use of bamboo veneer will be immersed into the river, it poses an problem on how our materiality can withstand harsh environment over time. To address this issue, we can apply a layer of coating that could possibly improve its water resistivity. However, suggestions were made that we could embrace decay in our design. This concept ties in well with our notion of equilibrium and will be considered. Although a gridshell structure is undoubtedly the best suited structural system in our design, it was criticised to have weak load bearing capabilities, thus needs further refinements in able to support both kinetic mechanisms and panels. Suggestions were made for our project to be partially supported by the surrounding trees, which chould potentially reduce its load. Further prototypes will aim to improve its strength and adaptation to the site and other tectonic systems.

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Some feedback also centered on our concept of equilibrium not being specific enough and the link between our design proposal and concept is rather weak. More focus is required in generating our final form rather than relying on vague notions of fish movements. In dept site analysis is required which explores aspects that may influence our design. The findings will be considered and taken as references in our form finding development. Also, for our responsive panel to work, the kinetic mechanism needs to be resolved first and foremost as it will greatly affect our development of other tectonics. An extensive exploration of the mechanism as well as panels will be carried out to bring the responsive panel into reality.


CONCERNS FROM INTERIM FEEDBACK 01

Materiality

02

Design Concept + Intention

03

Concern with Kinetic Panels

DETAILED DESIGN | 93


SITE ANALYSIS

DIGHTS FALLS The first reason we have chosen the location for our design was its low current zone, indicated in hatched area below. This zone is benefitted from the point bar topography, which diffracts high current upstream from the confluence of Merri and Yarra. This allows us to immerse our design into the river without worrying it being washed away. Our location also serves as a major opportunity to divert visitorsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; attention towards our design. Particularly on the lookout point and on the fishway. However, this poses a challenge on how we can counter its extreme exposure. Thus, will

94 | DETAILED DESIGN

be greatly considered in our form finding. Also, by using the Australian Grayling fish as a source of inspiration from our research of Biomimicry, the fishes migrate upstream (indicated in dotted line) to breed in order to begin the next cycle of life. We took this as the foundation of our design symbolism to embody the idea of equilibrium.


Eastern Freeway

Fishway

Footbridge

Lookout Point

Proposed Location

Pavilion

Old Weir

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FORM FINDING Upon site analysis, our findings and observations will be considered in generating a form for our design. We strived for a form that not only merges into the local context, but also to facilitate the needs of the occupants and enables the swimmer to change. Also, a balance must be struck between the stakeholder - swimmer and the visitor. As our proposed location for our design

ENCLOSING BARRIER

96 | DETAILED DESIGN

is exposed to proximity of the site, we came out with several strategies to accommodate the two. We further refined our algorithmic script in a way that enabled us to consciously control and generate the following forms.

WATER CURRENT

HEIGHT RATIO


LOOKOUT PRIVACY

THRESHOLD

KINETIC PANELS

DETAILED DESIGN | 97


ENCLOSING BARRIER The preliminary form was first inspired by the very form of a fish with a tailed ending. An enclosed space is then created by a basic form that fully functions as a change room, much like a closed curtain in a dressing room.

98 | DETAILED DESIGN


WATER CURRENT Strong water current is caused by the confluence of Merri Creek and Yarra River. Using the flow of river as an incentive, a simulation of external force is applied in our digital model. The outcome was a curved surface that closely resembles a fish movement.

DETAILED DESIGN | 99


HEIGHT RATIO Following the importance of certain zones in our design, the height of the surface is altered to better suit the program.

100 | DETAILED DESIGN


LOOKOUT PRIVACY To address the issue of compromising privacy from the high-ground lookout point and bush trail, the flat enclosing barrier is converted to a convex form to increase the level of privacy within the changing zone.

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THRESHOLD A threshold is introduced to the access of the change room. This blocks off the view that was previously visible from the entrance.

102 | DETAILED DESIGN


KINETIC PANELS Platforms are added to the design as an integral to the mechanism design and connects to the closest vertical array of panels. Self-weight is applied when the occupant steps onto the platform, this triggers the mechanism and consequently flatten the panels to provide complete privacy to the occupant.

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C2 TECTONIC ELEMENTS + PROTOTYPES To address the concerns revolving around the possibility of our kinetic mechanism and materiality, we firstly refined our algorithmic script to address synchronisation problem between the tectonics of gridshell structure and panels. The mechanism will be developed based on the gridshell structure and it will work together as a homogenous system. The three tectonic systems include: 1. Gridshell Structure 2. Kinetic Mechanism 3. Responsive Panel These three tectonics have different requirements to perform properly as a whole. The joints also play a significant role in our tectonic systems. Not

104 | DETAILED DESIGN

only it is used connect the tectonics together, very specific joints are required for specific performances in the system. We will be refining our prototypes in accordance to their tectonic as it will be too costly to constantly fabricate the entire prototype. This saves a lot of time and it enhances our prototyping efficiency. The tectonics will be joined and tested in a small scale single module before attempting to assemble several panels together on a gridshell. Once the component is refined to our expectation and required performance, it will be assembled to other tectonics for complete synchronisation.


DETAILED DESIGN | 105


TECTONIC ELEMENTS SPECIFICATIONS

Gridshell - Panel Joint + Assemble layers of gridshell together + Allow panel attachment and movement

Gridshell - Kinetic Joint + Transfer load from kinetic mechanism + Flexible joint for mechanism movement

Kinetic - Gridshell Joint + Connect members to gridshell as a whole + Possible cental axis of mechanism movement

Panel - Gridshell Joint + Perform as an attacher to gridshell + Flexible for panel movement

Kinetic - Panel Joint + Trigger panel movement by mechanism + Appliable for range of included angles

Panel - Kinetic Joint + Motivated by mechanism movement + Well-fixed in position on panel surface

106 | DETAILED DESIGN


Gridshell Structure + + + + + + + +

Lightweight, freestanding Supported by pre-existing site elements Fabricatablein large scale High structural integraty Appliable for curvy surface Certian degree of elasticity Adaptable for panels and mechanism Load-bearing for panels and mechanism

Kinetic Mechanism + + + + + + + +

Simple but effective Retractable Durable for repeated movement Performance-consistent Adaptable to existing gridshell structure Corresponding to panel movement Responsive to change room occupancy Triggered by footing platform

Responsive Panel + + + + + + + +

Inspired from fish scale form Fabricatable by parametric data Fabricatablein large scale Corresponding to size of gridshell void Achieve bending performance To be experimented by pattern kerfing Form an overlapped globel network High-resistant in wet environment

DETAILED DESIGN | 107


KINETIC MECHANISM

EVOLU

MECHANISM DESIGN

Start from Single Deployable System Problem: high friction caused by moving system

TRIGGER DESIGN

Start from 2 Hemp Ropes Problem: High friction

108 | DETAILED DESIGN


UTION

FINAL VERSION

Replaced by Double Deployable System

Replaced by 2x0.7mm Fish Strings Problem: Too thick

Replaced by 2x0.5mm Fish Strings

DETAILED DESIGN | 109


GRIDSHELL STRUCTURE

MATERIAL USE

EVOLU

1.8 mm Bamboo Veneer

Problem: Poor material strength in larger size

GRIDSHELL DESIGN

Start from Double Layer Gridshell @ 2.8mm Bamboo Veneer Problem: Not adaptable to kinetic mechanism, easy to be deformed by shearing force

110 | DETAILED DESIGN


UTION

FINAL VERSION

2.8 mm Bamboo Veneer

Replaced by Triple Layer Gridshell with vertical member

DETAILED DESIGN | 111


PANEL KERFING

EVOLU

KERFING PATTERN

Start from Full Patterning + Cut Through Problem: Not flexible for kerfing

112 | DETAILED DESIGN

Replaced by 'Bac Patterning + Cut T Problem: Too few points, easy dam


UTION

ckbone' Through contact mage

FINAL VERSION

Replaced by 'Backbone' Patterning + Etch Edge Problem: Too few contact points, easy damage

Replaced by Regional Patterning + Moulded Learnt from Dragon Skin Pavilion in CS2.0

DETAILED DESIGN | 113


PANEL DEFORMATION

PRE-HEATING

EVOLU

60°C @ 5 Minutes

Problem: Required soften further

MOULD DESIGN

Start from 3*3 Waffle Grid @ 90 Degree Bend Problem: Unstable moulding structure, exceed bending allowance, too small in size

114 | DETAILED DESIGN


UTION

FINAL VERSION

80°C @ 6 Minutes

120°C @ 8 Minutes

Problem: Required soften further

Replaced by 5*5 Waffle Grid @ 70 Degree Bend

DETAILED DESIGN | 115


JOINERY

EVOLU

GRIDSHELL TO PANEL

Start from 1 Hook Screw Problem: Can't fix in position

Add 1 Plastic Expander Problem: Too large in size + opening

PANEL TO GRIDSHELL

Start from 1 Eye Screw Problem: Loose connection

Add 1 Plastic Attac Problem: Too

PANEL TO KINETIC

Start from 1 PolyProp Belt + 1 Metal Tag Problem: Too bulky

116 | DETAILED DESIGN

Replaced by 1 Rivet Problem: Unsecure connection


UTION

FINAL VERSION

Replaced by Smaller Hook Screw Problem: Too large in size

cher + nails bulky

Replaced by Smaller Hook Screw Problem: Lack of top chord

Replaced by 2 Bamboo Washer Problem: Too many washers

Replaced by 1 Timber Screw Problem: Insufficient strength

Add 1 Timber Screw Problem: Penetration damage

Replaced by Both-End Plastic Expander

Reduced by 1 Bamboo Washer

Add 2 Bamboo Washers + Timber Screw

DETAILED DESIGN | 117


JOINERY

EVOLU

KINETIC TO GRIDSHELL

Start from 12mm Bolt + 1 Nut Problem: Too short

KINETIC TO PANEL

Start from 1 Bolt + 1 Nut + 3 Washers Problem: Panel cannot flatten fully

KINETIC TO KINETIC

Start from 1 12mm Bolt + 1 Nut Problem: High Friction

118 | DETAILED DESIGN

Replaced by 25m Problem: High Fr


UTION

mm Bolt riction

FINAL VERSION

Add 3 Washers Problem: Too close to grishell

Add 3 Bamboo Washers

Reduce Top Bamboo Washer

Replaced by 2 Washers

DETAILED DESIGN | 119


PARAMETRIC ALGORITHM

Data from Site Analysis

Form Finding

Start End Points, Threshold

Anchor Point

Water Current

Unary Force

Height Ratio

Unary Force

1. Surface Grid Panelling

2. Gridshell N

Diagonal 1 Lines Look-out Privacy

Elastic length

Surrounding Privacy

Subsurface Density

Quadrangular Panals

Kangaroo Physic Simulation

Diagonal 2 Lines

Vertical Lines

Rebuild Surface

Evaluate Surface

Mesh to Surface Gridshell Structure

120 | DETAILED DESIGN

Cull Pattern into Checkers


Network Formation

Extrude Lines to define Material Thickness + Layer Sequence

3. Gridshell Outline Formation

Move Lines to define Strips Width

Loft Surface

4. Gridshell Surface Formation

Unroll Surface

Extract Edges

Nest In Template, Ready to Laser Cut Cross Product

Surface Normal

Intersection

Make holes for Joint Connection

Extract Outlines

DETAILED DESIGN | 121


0. Form Finding

Result From Form Finding

Rebuild Surface

1. Surface Grid Panelling

Staggered Quad Panals

Responsive Panel

122 | DETAILED DESIGN

2. Panel Edge Fo

Mid-point of Top Edge

Polyline

End-points of Bottom Edge

Arc


ormation

3. Panel Section Generation

Axis Line

4. Panel Surface Formation

Fillet Edge

Kerfing Pattern

Rotate

Loft Surface

Unroll Surface

Nest in Template, Ready to Laser Cut

Extract Edges

DETAILED DESIGN | 123


FABRICATION + ASSEMBLY

Row Row Row Row Row Row Row Row Panel Network Order Scheme

Extract Data from Grasshopper

Radius + Radian

Panel

Length

Kinetic Mechanism

Length + Intersection

Gridshell Structure

124 | DETAILED DESIGN

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Vertical Diagonal 1 Diagonal 2 Gridshell Layer Order Scheme

Panel Outlines Bound Kerfing Zone

Create Kerf Pattern

1/3 + 2/3 of Length

Create Edge

End-Point Intersection

Make Holes

Unroll Components

Make Slots

Intersection Parameter

Make Holes

Merge Together

Nest in Template, Ready to Laser Cut

Merge Together

Nest in Template, Ready to Laser Cut

Merge Strip Edges

Nest in Template, Ready to Laser Cut


Panel

1x

1 2

1x

2x

3x

Kinetic Mechanism

2x

2x 4x 2x

1x

6x

3x 16x 8x

Grishell Structure A

B

C A : Vertical B : Diagonal 1 C : Diagonal 2

1x 2x 2x 4x 4x

DETAILED DESIGN | 125


DESIGN INTENT TO REALISATION

DESIGN INTENT Fish Form

Fish Scale

Fish Movement

Programme: A change room for swimmer at Dights Falls

Biomimicry Inspiration: Australian Grayling Fish

Design Brief

Design Agenda

Specifications: Lightweight, Visually privite, Freestanding

Design Concept: Idea of Equilibrium

Interest/ Conflict

126 | DETAILED DESIGN

Eco-system of River

Fish Ecology

Gridshell Structure

Kin Mech

Tectoni Panel N on G

Para Mod

Value of Nature

FormData from

Water Current

Height Ratio


REALISATION

netic hanism

Responsive Panel

ic System: Networking Gridshell

Laser Cutting

Pre-Heating

Visual Privacy

Threshold

Spraying

Fabrication Method: Hybrids of Component Making & Post Production

Top Beam of Gridshell: Tied to Surrounding Trees with Rope

Fabrication

Assembly On-Site

Connection System: Hybrids of Engineering Joints

Bottom Beam of Gridshell: Anchored to ground with Metal Nails

ametric delling

-Finding: m Site Analysis

Bending by mould

Hook + Eye System

Bolt + Nut System

Belt + Screw System

DETAILED DESIGN | 127


C3 FINAL DETAIL MODEL We combined our refinement of prototypes and the design to create a fraction of the entire actual model that is scaled 1:4. Furthermore, the double deployable system has proven to be working nicely with the newly evolved deformed panel. Upon resolving many issues of fabrication, the last step is to assemble the tectonics together as a whole and finally install the fish strings to the kinetic joints to enable the panels to flatten when pulled. Along with the final prototype, a site model is made accompanied with a 3D powder printed parametric model for final presentation. Overall, we were pleased with the outcome of our project.

128 | DETAILED DESIGN


DETAILED DESIGN | 129


INTEGRATED DESIGN SPACE

Bamboo Veneer

Parametric Model

Anisotropic Material

Hook + Eye Screws

Bolts, Nuts + Washers

Hinge + Screws

Joint Connections

Dights Falls

Idea of Equilbrium

Swimming

Architectural Concepts 130 | DETAILED DESIGN

Laser Cutting

Change Room

Gridshell Structu


Sanding

Preheating

Moulding

Spraying

Fabrication Process

ure

Kinetic Mechansim

Responsive Panel

Tectonic Design Assembly

Australian Grayling

Fish Skeleton

Fish Scale

Biomimetic Investigation DETAILED DESIGN | 131


ASSEMBLY OF TECTONICS

Left: Assemble Panel to Kinetic Middle: Assemble Gridshell Layers Right: Assemble Panel + Kinetic to Gridshell

132 | DETAILED DESIGN


DETAILED DESIGN | 133


FINAL PROTOTYPE 1:4

Left: Opened Panels Right: Closed Panels

134 | DETAILED DESIGN


DETAILED DESIGN | 135


Left: Side View Right: Back View

136 | DETAILED DESIGN


DETAILED DESIGN | 137


KINETIC MECHANISM PRINCIPLE

138 | DETAILED DESIGN


DETAILED DESIGN | 139


Site Plan - Scale 1:400

140 | DETAILED DESIGN


DETAILED DESIGN | 141


Section - Scale 1:50

142 | DETAILED DESIGN


DETAILED DESIGN | 143


SITE MODEL 1:200

144 | DETAILED DESIGN


DETAILED DESIGN | 145


146 | DETAILED DESIGN


DETAILED DESIGN | 147


148 | DETAILED DESIGN


DETAILED DESIGN | 149


ANIMATIONS LOOKOUT POINT EXPERIENCE

01

150 | DETAILED DESIGN

02


03

04

DETAILED DESIGN | 151


ANIMATIONS FISHWAY EXPERIENCE

01

152 | DETAILED DESIGN

02


03

04

DETAILED DESIGN | 153


ANIMATIONS RESPONSIVE EXPERIENCE

01

154 | DETAILED DESIGN

02


03

04

DETAILED DESIGN | 155


156 | DETAILED DESIGN


DETAILED DESIGN | 157


158 | DETAILED DESIGN


DETAILED DESIGN | 159


160 | DETAILED DESIGN


DETAILED DESIGN | 161


162 | DETAILED DESIGN


DETAILED DESIGN | 163


C4 TAKING IT FURTHER Having used Kangaroo Physics Simulator as our form finding tool, there are yet other plugins in grasshopper we have yet explored. Take Ladybug for example, it can analyse the climate which can provide a better understanding to the site and the data collected from the local climate can potentially be used as parameters of our digital model. Although we have used Karamba in creation of our structural gridshell and provided us a separate set of structural analysis data which helped the refinement of our design, I trust that we merely scratched the surface of what Karamba has to offer. Learning how to master Karamba to provide us greater structural analysis could be our next step in producing real scaled prototype. We believe that our form could kept

164 | DETAILED DESIGN

improving with continuous development on our algorithmic script. If we plan to build a real scale model, there may be some more issues to be resolved, mainly the materiality as the prototype we are working with is 1:4 the actual size. This will affect the performance in our design greatly. However, joinery between the tectonics can be worked with real scale as larger bolts and nuts, hook and eye screws can be found in their respective sizes. But this also means that the overall weight has increased which challenges the strength and materiality of the gridshell. Factory level fabrication and machinery is required for such sophisticated systems. The idea of having the structure partially supported by the surrounding tree remains relevant.


DETAILED DESIGN | 165


DECAY

PRESENT

166 | DETAILED DESIGN

10 YEARS


50 YEARS

100 YEARS

Decay is inevitable in nature, instead of finding new ways to preserve our design, we decided to embrace decay. Our use of anisotropic material that is bamboo veneer is bio-degradable and environmentally friendly. Overtime, the materials will become nutrients for organisms. This symbolises the stranded fish going back to water, meaning that equilibrium is shifted back to the environement.

DETAILED DESIGN | 167


C5 LEARNING OUTCOMES OBJECTIVE 01 Interrogating a brief We had a clear idea on every aspect of the brief based on our interim presentation. We continued to develop our design from the valuable feedback received during the interim. We constantly tackled the project brief to achieve where we were at. I would say the number of diagrams we created for Part C has helped us to review every step within our design process. A particularly useful diagram is the Integrated Design Space. It really mapped out the overview of our project.

OBJECTIVE 02 Developing an ability to generate a variety of design iterations The techniques we have learnt from previous case study was directly translated to a form in our proposal without doing extensive site analysis and form finding. And due to some imperfection from our previous algorithmic script, the panels either overlap of do not bend properly. Therefore, we redeveloped the grasshopper definition by using two different surface grid structures and control their dimension with same set of parameters. Moving on to form finding, we attempted to manipulate a surface from Kangaroo Physic Simulator, but it was limited to our skill. So, a combination of Kangaroo and manually defined expressions were used to regain control.

168 | DETAILED DESIGN

OBJECTIVE 03 Developing skills in various threedimensional media The subject has been extremely intensive, it forces us to use multiple skills at the same time. I would say my knowledge in design computation as well as my Adobe Illustrator skills have improved significantly considering I have rarely used them both before doing Studio Air. I familiarised myself with machines and fabrication lab, especially 3D printing. It was exciting to see that our parametric model come to life in a small scaled site model. Hardwork is essential to this subject, I could not afford to slack off for a day.

OBJECTIVE 04 Developing an understanding of relationships between architecture and air There is a clear relationship between computational design in architecture and air. The incredible strength of computational design with grasshopper allowed us to develop jarring designs that may seem impossible to fabricate. It is also important not to fall too deep within the realm of computational design. Only by extensive prototype refinement we could bring our design into reality.


OBJECTIVE 05 Developing the ability to make a case for proposals The final presentation was our last attempt in proposing our design to a panel. It was relatively successful and has revealed a significant improvement compared to the interim. Constantly improving our design and consolidating our idea of equilibrium. The subject has undoubtedly assisted in my ability to make a case for proposals.

OBJECTIVE 06 Develop capabilities for conceptual, technical and design analyses of contemporary architectural projects In our attempt to refine our tectonic of responsive panel, we referred to the previous case study 2.0 on Dragon Skin Pavilion. We learned that we could preheat our bamboo veneer panels as well as using a mould we developed that fits our panel size to ultimately deform our panels. This discovery has led to several alterations but overall, the outcome turned out really well and beyond our expectation.

OBJECTIVE 07 Develop foundational understandings of computational geometry, data structures and types of programming If you ask me to look at grasshopper definitions 12 weeks ago, I would have had no clue and looked completely confused. However, at this stage, I wouldnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t say I have mastered grasshopper as there are still many things I have yet to learn, but I am quite confident in applying grasshopper in my future work. In Part C, we had no serious issues regarding computation as many basic geometry and tectonics stayed the same, all we had to do were minor tweaks, redefining form finding algorithms and to synchronise the three tectonics into a single system.

OBJECTIVE 08 Begin developing a personalised repertoire of computational techniques substantiated by the understanding of their advantages and disadvantages and areas of application Computational techniques enabled us to build our prototypes in the scale of 1:4. Using all the knowledge gained from the subject, peers and online tutorials, we could efficiently realise our 3D model in the physical realm, which was optimised for construction using grasshopper. I cannot stress how important human intervention is in realising our final project.

DETAILED DESIGN | 169


TET WEY CHEN 2017, SEMESTER 2

Studio Air Journal Part A + B + C  

University of Melbourne | 828678

Studio Air Journal Part A + B + C  

University of Melbourne | 828678

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