The Glories of
ŚrĪ Bhuvaneśvara and Bindu-sarovara
From the Combined Works of
Śrīla Vṛndāvana dāsa Ṭhākura Śrīla Bhaktisiddhānta Sarasvatī Ṭhākura Prabhupāda & Śrīla Gour Govinda Swami Mahārāja
The Glories of
ŚrĪ Bhuvaneśvara and
The information in this booklet is taken from darçanas and lectures by Çréla Gour Govinda Swami Mahäräja. Verses 2.307 - 314 from Caitanya-bhägavata, Antya-khaëòa by Çréla Våndävana däsa Öhäkura, the vyäsa-avatära of Caitanya-lélä. English Translation of the Gauòéya-bhäñya Commentary and Chapter Summaries of His Divine Grace Oà Viñëupäda Paramahaàsa Parivräjakäcärya Çré Çrémad Bhaktisiddhänta Sarasvaté Öhäkura Prabhupäda. Translated by Bhümipati däsa. Edited and Published by Puëòaréka Vidyänidhi däsa, Vrajraj Press. ©2008 by Puëòaréka Vidyänidhi däsa, All Rights Reserved. Used with permisssion. First Edition (soft bound) 1000 copies - 2018 ISBN: 978-0-648-16303-9 First Edition (hard bound) 250 copies - 2018 ISBN: 978-0-648-16304-6 © 2018 TATTVA VICARA PUBLICATIONS
SOME RIGHTS RESERVED. EXCEPT WHERE OTHERWISE NOTED, CONTENT ON THIS BOOK IS LICENSED UNDER THE CREATIVE COMMONS ATTRIBUTION-NO DERIVATIVES 4.0 INTERNATIONAL LICENSE.
To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0/ Permissions beyond the scope of this license write to email@example.com. Artwork on pages 1, 7, 15, 23, 41 and 63 courtesy: Dåòha Vrata Gorrick. Used with permission. www.divyakala.com Image page 6 of the main entrance to the Liìgaräja Temple, Bhuvaneçvara © juggadery Image page 59 of Lord Jagannätha Temple, Jagannätha Puré © Patrik M. Loeff
The Glories of
ŚrĪ Bhuvaneśvara and
From the Combined Works of
Śrīla Vṛndāvana dāsa Ṭhākura Śrīla Bhaktisiddhānta Sarasvatī Ṭhākura Prabhupāda & Śrīla Gour Govinda Swami Mahārāja
Çréla Våndävana Däsa Öhäkura The Vyäsa-avatära of Caitanya-lélä
Çréla Bhaktisiddhänta Sarasvaté Öhäkura Prabhupäda
Çréla A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupäda
Çréla Gour Govinda Swami Mahäräja
Table of Contents
Foreword “…Gour Govind, you will take me to Orissa…” Chapter 1 Çré Kñetra Dhäma
This Kñetra Is Supremely Purifying The Entrance to Çaìkha-kñetra Çré Nityänanda-Räma’s Merciful Strength This is a Special Temple This Opportunity is Given Here!
Chapter 2 The Entrance to Çré Kñetra
When Gurudeva First Came to the Donated Land It Became a Tértha Because of Prabhupäda Lord Çiva Invites Çréla Prabhupada Lord Çiva Is the Guardian of the Dhäma Kedar Gauri Water
Chapter 3 Srémad-Bhägavatam Was First Spoken in Bhuvaneçvara Rädhäräëé’s Parrot Relishing it in the Association of Rasika-bhaktas The Parrot Was Listening to Çivajé Çré-suka Is Rädhäräëé’s Parrot One Who Has Heard Becomes Immortal
i i 1 3 3 3 4 4 7 8 8 12 13 14 15 16 16 17 17 17
Chapter 4 The Glories of Sré Bhuvaneçvara & Bindu-sarovara
Ekämraka-kñetra Tribhuvaneçvara —The Supreme Brahman in the Form of a Liìga Lord Çré Ananta Väsudeva Personally Protects this Place Bhuvaneçvaré Bhagavaté Visits Ekämraka-tértha Viçvambharé Kills the Two Demons Kåtti and Väsa
19 19 20 21 21 20
Chapter 5 Bhuvaneçvara Establishes Çaìkara-väpé & Bindu-sarovara 23 Bhuvaneçvaré’s Thirst Lord Ananta Väsudeva Blesses His Dear Çaìkara Bindu-sarovara the Essence of All Térthas The Glories of Bhuvaneçvara’s Prasäda Even the Demigods Beg for Bhuvaneçvara’s Remnants Bhuvaneçvara Does Not Independently Accept Any Service The Deity of Çré Madana-mohana The Çré Bhuvaneçvara Temple The Temple of Ananta Väsudeva — Is the Most Ancient Temple in Bhuvaneçvara Bindu-sarovara Svayambhu-Vana Was a Place for Ascetics Where Can One Perpetually Worship — the Supreme Personality of Godhead?
23 24 25 25 26 27 28 29 33 34 34 36
Chapter 6 How Siva Came to Bhuvaneçvara
Chapter 7 The Most Auspicious Place in the World
Foreword “…Gour Govind, you will take me to Orissa…”
fter Çréla A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupäda had been donated land in Bhuvaneçvara, he sent his dear disciple Çréla Gour Govinda Swami Mahäräja there, with the order to build a temple. Çréla Prabhupäda had developed some sulkiness towards going to Orissa because his Western disciples were refused entrance to the famous Lord Jagannätha Temple in Jagannätha Puré. Çréla Prabhupäda said, “I will build a temple in Bhuvaneçvara similar to the Jagannätha Temple in Jagannätha Puré, because my Western disciples are not allowed there. Lord Jagannätha will come and stay in Bhuvaneçvara. So all my disciples can go there and have His darçana. After his initiation in Mäyäpura 1974, Çréla Prabhupäda said to Çréla Gour Govinda Swami, “…Gour Govind, you will take me to Orissa…” In 1977, Çréla Prabhupäda went to Bhuvaneçvara and stayed in a mud hut on the land for seventeen days. He waited for the auspicious occasion of the appearance day of Lord Nityänanda, on the 2nd of February that same year to lay the foundation stone of the KåñëaBalaräma Mandir. Prior to leaving Bhuvaneçvara Çréla Prabhupäda poked his cane into the ground and said, “I leave all my mercy here! I leave all my mercy here! I leave all my mercy here!” The Bhuvaneçvara temple was to be Çréla Prabhupäda’s last founded project.
After sixteen years of determined endeavour, Çréla Gour Govinda Swami fulfilled the instruction of his most beloved spiritual master and opened the magnificent Çré Çré Kåñëa-Balaräma Mandir. Lord Jagannätha, Baladeva and Subhadradevé, came of Their own accord, as Çréla Prabhupäda prophesied, and this temple now attracts many thousands of people to Kåñëa consciousness. In the çästras it is stated that the earth or plot of land where a sädhu stays becomes glorified land, vasundara adhanya. The fact that at least two pure Gauòéya Vaisnava sädhus have stayed on this Bhuvaneçvara land in a thatched mud hut has made it a mahä-tértha. Unfortunately on 28 July, 2018 the Government, in an act of profound ignorance, destroyed the mud hut, which was Çréla A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupäda’s bhajan-kutir and Çréla Gour Govinda Swami Mahäräja’s samadhi. Çréla Gour Govinda Swami Mahäräja’s siddha-deha has been brought to safety in the Småti-mandira, which is close to the beautiful Çré Çré Kåñëa-Balaräma Mandir. In this small book we make an attempt to present the glories of Çré Bhuvaneçvara Dhäma as a humble offering to our most beloved spiritual master Çréla Gour Govinda Swami Mahäräja and all gurus in our gauòéya-guru-varga – past, present and future. Your servants,
@ Tattva Vicara Publica
Srì ksetra . Dhāma
Jagannätha Puré Dhäma is known as Çré Kñetra. Çré Devé is the svarüpa-çakti, Kåñëa’s internal potency. Therefore, that dhäma which is glorified by the presence of the çré-çakti is known as Çré Kñetra. ‘Çré’ means sarva-lakñmémayé äàçiné rädhikä, Çrématé Rädhikä, who is the source of all çaktis. All goddesses of fortune in Vaikuëöhapur are expansions of Rädhikä. And the 16,108 wives of Kåñëa – Rukmiëé, Satyabhämä, Jämbhavaté, etc. – are all expansions of Rädhäräëé. They are aiçvarya-mayé, full of opulence. The gopés of Vrajabhümi are also expansions of Rädhäräëé, so Rädhäräëé is äàçiné, the source. The lakñmés are aiçvarya-mayé, whereas Rädhäräëé is mädhurya-mayé, full of sweetness. Therefore, those who are followers or devotees of mädhurya-rasa can see that Çré Kñetra is the kñetra in which Rädhäräëé’s mädhurya-rasa is manifested. Only such mädhurya-rasa bhaktas can see it; others cannot. That is why Jagannätha Puré is known as Çré Kñetra. And Mahäprabhu stayed there because He had assumed rädhä-bhäva. Upon seeing Jagannätha He would see Çyämasundara and think, 1
Chapter 1 “O beloved of My heart!” Therefore that kñetra which is glorified and influenced by Rädhäräëé’s mädhurya-rasa is known as Çré Kñetra. In Vaiñëava-tantra it is mentioned, mathurä dvärakä-lélä yäù karoti ca gokule néläcala sthitaù kåñëa stä eva racati prabhuù “Whatever léläs of Çré Kåñëa are manifest in Gokula, Mathurä and Dvärakä are all found in Néläcala, Çré Kñetra.” If you have the vision, you can see all the léläs there. When Mahäprabhu stayed there He saw Våndävana. When He saw Caöaka-parvata He said, “Oh Govardhana!” When He saw the sea, “Oh! It is the Yamunä.” When He saw the garden called Jagannätha-vallabha, “Oh! It is Våndävana.” Mahäprabhu saw all of Kåñëa’s léläs there in Çré Kñetra. In the Utkäla-khaëòa of the Skanda Puräëa, which is the largest Puräëa, Çréla Vyäsadeva has described the special characteristics of Çré Kñetra, Jagannätha Puré Dhäma. This kñetra is very beautiful and wonderful. It is daça-yojana-viståta, ten yojanas in diameter – that means eighty miles. It is situated on the shore of the ocean and is known as tértharäja, the king of all places of pilgrimage. At the middle portion there is a néla-parvata, a blue mountain. ‘Acala’ also means mountain, therefore it is also called Néläcala. Çré Bhagavän says, “That kñetra which is situated on the northern side of the ocean and the southern side of the river Mahänadé, in Orissa, is very famous throughout the world.” Çréla Vyäsadeva has mentioned that if one visits Jagannätha Puré Dhäma he will get the result of visiting all térthas. For one who has been to 2
Śrī Ksetra-dhāma . Jagannätha Puré Dhäma there is no need to go to any more places of pilgrimage.
This Kñetra Is Supremely Purifying This kñetra is parama pävana, supremely purifying. And some also call it daçävatära kñetra, the kñetra of the ten incarnations: Ména, Kacchapa, Nåsiàha, Vämana, etc. Kåñëa, who is lélä-puruñottama – the enjoyer of innumerable pastimes – eternally resides there as arcä-avatära, the deity form. Therefore it is also known as Puruñottama Dhäma. And He is Jagannätha, the master of the three worlds. Therefore His dhäma is known as Jagannätha Puré Dhäma.
The Entrance to Çaìkha-kñetra Puré Dhäma begins from Bhuvaneçvara, also known as Ekämrakänana. From Bhuvaneçvara it goes up to Candrabhägä (Konark), where the sungod is worshipped in the Sürya-mandira. This dhäma is very confidential. It is durläbha kñetra, difficult even on the part of Lord Brahmä to attain. Because the form of this kñetra is like a conchshell, with the stomach portion sunk into the sea, it is also known as Çaìkha-kñetra. The head portion is towards the western side, where the gate is guarded by Nélakaëöha Çiva. There, Çiva is known as Bhuvaneçvara Liìgaräja and Kñetrapäla, the protector of the dhäma. Bhuvaneçvara is the entrance through which one can go to this kñetra.
Sri Nityänanda-Räma’s Merciful Strength Lord Nityänanda has merciful strength, kåpä-bala. His merciful strength is required. Unless one gets the merciful strength of 3
Chapter 1 Nityänanda Balaräma one cannot get out of this extremely fearful and dangerous situation of material existence. No, it is not at all possible. It is like a very deep, dark well. Närada Muni has said this. Everyone should be very, very careful and pray for the merciful strength of Lord Balaräma or Lord Nityänanda, Gaura-Nitäi or Kåñëa-Balaräma.
This is a Special Temple This is a very special temple. The ‘Bhuvaneçvara Temple’ is a Kåñëa-Balaräma Temple, so this mercy is available here. You will not get this anywhere else. Especially at this Kåñëa-Balaräma Temple, Balaräma is very, very influential. In other places you will find that Rädhäräëé is there. In Våndävana, Prabhupäda also opened a Kåñëa-Balaräma Temple, but Kåñëa, Rädhäräëé and the sakhés are there. Rädhäräëé is very influential in Våndävana. All say “Jaya Rädhe!” Nobody says anything else, you see. Rädhäräëé is very influential in Våndävana; even Kåñëa is not as influential there. Although Çréla Prabhupäda constructed a KåñëaBalaräma Mandir in Våndävana, Balaräma is not so influential; Rädhäräëé is. However, because there is no Rädhäräëé here in Bhuvaneçvara in the Kåñëa-Balaräma Mandir, Balaräma is more influential.
This Opportunity is Given Here! So this opportunity is given here! Only at this Kåñëa-Balaräma Mandir, here in Bhuvaneçvara, nowhere else in the world! You will never find it anywhere else! This is special; it is unique. Çréla Prabhupäda’s unique temple. His last founded temple. Çréla Prabhupäda has extracted all the mercy and poured it here. Yes! 4
Śrī Ksetra-dhāma . This gives you an opportunity to get the merciful strength of Lord Balaräma-Nityänanda, and become strong to get out of this very dangerous and fearful situation of material existence, which is compared to a very deep dark well. There is no other way.
6 The main entrance of the LiĂŹgarĂ¤ja Temple, Bhubaneswar
Srì ksetra .
Çréla Prabhupäda’s book distribution is båhad-mådaìga pracär. That pleases Çréman Gauräìga very much. Kåñëa has said to Arjuna, “No-one is as dear to Me as he who preaches My message.” It is Çréman Mahäprabhu’s mission to spread and preach Kåñëa consciousness. That is doing good to others; doing good to the soul, doing good to the body and doing good to the mind. But doing good to the soul is the best paropakära. That is the only paropakära that Mahäprabhu intended. bhärata-bhümite haila manuñya janma yära janma särthaka kari’ kara para-upakära “One who has taken his birth as a human being in the land of India [Bhärata-varña] should make his life successful and work for the benefit of all other people.” (Caitanya-caritämåta, Ädi-lélä 9.41)
Chapter 2 One who is born in India as a human being, should first make his life perfect by becoming Kåñëa conscious, being fixed in Kåñëa consciousness, and then do paropakära, do good to others. That means inculcate this Kåñëa consciousness unto others. Those who are devoid of this consciousness are suffering, and suffering. This is the only paropakära that Mahäprabhu has intended. One, who does so, is an Indian. An Indian can do it. Mahäprabhu’s India is not limited with the geographical boundaries. It is based on tattva-vicära. One, who is fixed in Kåñëa consciousness and who inculcates it unto others who are devoid of Kåñëa consciousness, is an Indian. That is the real identification of being an Indian. That is what Mahäprabhu is saying. Thus, become an Indian! Then you can make your life perfect, janma särthaka kari’.
When Gurudeva First Came to the Donated Land When I first came to this land here, there was nothing. It was all dark, no electricity, no residence nothing, just jungle all over. There was a very small mud hut. So I was staying there alone, lighting a lantern at night, chanting Hare Kåñëa, and cooking my own food. I stayed there, in that solitary place. There were many, many ghosts. So when I chanted Hare Kåñëa, they all fled. When you chant Hare Kåñëa, then Kåñëa is there. So if Kåñëa is there then gradually everything will be there. You will get everything.
It Became a Tértha Because of Prabhupäda My Guru Mahäräja came here when it was jungle. For the first time I brought electricity and one water pipe to that mud hut where my Guru Mahäräja stayed in for seventeen days. He did not go to the Government Guest House that I had arranged for him. He refused, “No, I will not go. I will stay here.” There were 8
Bhuvaneśvara - the Entrance to Śrī Ksetra . no arrangements here, no modern facilities; nothing was here. He chanted Hare Kåñëa and spoke kåñëa-kathä for seventeen days. Many people came; thousands, and thousands of people came. This land became purified. What was duñkåté here was all finished because a sädhu came. Because Prabhupäda stayed here it became purified land, a tértha – a place of pilgrimage. So from that day it began to develop. At that time also, my Guru Mahäräja said, “This will be the heart of the city.” And now it has become like that. He had such foresight. He could see things clearly. Janané kåtartha vasundhara adhanya, isn’t it? Devotee: I don’t know that one Mahäräja. Çréla Gour Govinda Swami: janané kåtartha vasundhara adhanya. That plot of land becomes very, very glorified land if a sädhu stays there. Vasundara means this earth or plot of land. Wherever a sädhu stays, it becomes glorified land, vasundara adhanya. And janani kåtartha that means the mother who has given birth to such a sädhu, who has carried such a sädhu in her womb is a real mother, janané sa. She is a real mother. Others who are producing children who eat only stool, çukaré-sama, are like hogs. They are not mothers. Sükari, the hog produces so many children. All eat stool. So if you produce such children that eat stool, you are a hog, you are not a mother. If you carry a sädhu in your womb then your motherhood is perfect; you are a real mother. In the heavenly planets, the higher planetary systems they dance and chant, and beat kettledrums because a sädhu is going to take birth. Such a mother is here now, so they all dance and chant, because his service is so dear to the Lord. na tathä me priya-tama ätma-yonir na çaìkaraù na ca saìkarñaëo na çrér naivätmä ca yathä bhavän (Çrémad-Bhägavatam 11.14.15) 9
ISKCON Çré Çré Kåñëa-Balaräma Temple, Bhuvaneçvara
Chapter 2 Kåñëa says that to Uddhava, “O Uddhava, you are so dear to Me. Ätma-yonir, (Brahmä who is like a son, who is produced from Him), is not as dear, çaìkara, Lord Çiva is not as dear to Me – na ca saìkarñaëo, Saìkarñaëa is not as dear to Me, na çrér, Lakñmé, the goddess of fortune, (who is always there in the heart of the Supreme Lord) is not as dear to Me and I Myself am not as dear to Me, O Uddhava, as you are.” A sädhu is so dear. So when a sädhu comes the denizens of the higher planetary systems rejoice and dance. They sing, they dance, beat kettledrums and play all the musical instruments, because he is so dear. Lord Brahmä and Lord Çiva are both pleased.
Lord Çiva Invites Çréla Prabhupäda Lord Çiva invited my Guru Mahäräja here to Bhubaneswar. In Båhad-Bhägavatämåta (1.3.54), Lord Çiva, who is vaiñëavänäà yathä çambhuù, the greatest Vaiñëava, says: païca-bhautika-dehä ye martyaloka-niväsinaù bhagavad-bhakti-rasikä namasyä mädåçäà sadä “Although a sädhu-vaiñëava, who relishes devotional service to the Lord, has taken birth in this material world in a material body composed of five gross elements, still he is worshipped by me, Lord Çiva. I am not so dear to the Lord as he is.” So, when Prabhupäda developed some sulkiness, abhimäna, that stopped him from coming to Orissa, Lord Çiva repeatedly requested him, “Please, Bhaktivedanta Swami, please come here.” At last, he accepted. He came to Çiva-kñetra, the entrance 12
Bhuvaneśvara - the Entrance to Śrī Ksetra . to Puruñottama-kñetra, Çré-kñetra, Jagannätha Puré Dhäma. Prabhupäda came and thought to build a Kåñëa-Balaräma Temple here. Now his desire has taken shape. One who comes to this kñetra, first must pass through the entrance. Then he can enter into the nabha, middle portion, and see Jagannätha. Lord Çiva welcomes you at the entrance.
Lord Çiva Is the Guardian of the Dhäma Çréla Prabhupäda did not think to build a temple in Jagannätha Puré. He wanted to construct one at the entrance, in Bhuvaneçvara Dhäma. This is significant. Mahäprabhu entered Çré-kñetra through this same gate. He visited the Liìgaräja Temple of Lord Çiva. He and the devotees did kértana and danced there. They bathed in Bindu-sarovara, the place where Çivajé called all the celestial rivers to gather. Mahäprabhu taught how Lord Çiva is a great devotee. Çiva is kñetra-päla, the guardian of the dhäma. Before entering, you must see him and ask his permission. Otherwise you cannot enter. So one should beg his permission. And Çivajé will welcome the devotee with folded hands, saying, “Please come and see Jagannätha.” In Mathurä-kñetra there are nine kñetra-palas, Çivas. Those who do Mathurä-Våndävana parikramä visit those Çiva temples and beg permission to enter and to circumambulate the dhäma. It is an important principle. If you avoid Lord Çiva, you commit offence because he is a Vaiñëava. None of your dhäma-väsa, residence in the dhäma, and parikramä, circumambulation, will be fruitful because of that aparädha. Among the nine Çivas of Vraja is Gopéçvara Mahädeva. The gopés themselves offer worship to Lord Çiva because he is a Vaiñëava. If he showers his mercy, then one can receive Kåñëa. The poet Kåñëadas writes, jaya jaya gopéçvara våndävana mäjha. 13
Chapter 2 So we should pay respect to that very powerful devotee. Çiva is äçutoña, easily satisfied. He has a magnanimous heart. He even accepts that which everyone else has rejected. He is known as Bhutanath, the lord of ghosts. The ghosts, demons, yakñas and räkñasas all come to Lord Çiva. Poisonous snakes are ornaments on his body. He is a very wonderful personality. What happened to Dakña when he disrespected Lord Çiva? His head was cut off. It was vaiñëava-aparädha. Pay respect to Lord Çiva. Beg for his mercy: “Please grant me kåñëa-bhakti. Please shower down your mercy, O Vaiñëava.”
Kedar Gauri Water The climate here is very nice, and so is the water. Kedar Gauri water from Bhuvaneçvara is especially famous. Çréla Prabhupäda took that water every day while he was here and had some relief for his health. During his last days, when he was very ill in Våndävana, he asked for that water, so we sent some. Devotee : He was drinking the water here or from somewhere else when he was in Bhubaneswar? Gour Govinda Swami: We were bringing Kedar Gauri water here daily. It is in old Bhuvaneçvara near the famous Liìgaräja Temple. Many other temples are there as well with many Çiva liìgas. Kedäreçvara is one of the Çiva liìgas. Gauri is his wife. That temple is known as Kedar Gauri. There is a well in the temple compound and people take water from there. It is very good for the stomach. Excerpt from a darçana with Çréla Gour Govinda Swami, Bhubaneswar, 13 March 1991.
Was First Spoken in Bhuvaneśvara nigama-kalpa-taror galitaà phalaà çuka-mukhäd amåta-drava-saàyutam pibata bhägavataà rasam älayaà muhur aho rasikä bhuvi bhävukäù (Çrémad-Bhägavatam 1.1.3)
Çrémad-Bhägavatam is the ripened, sweetest nectarean juicy fruit of the Vedic tree, nigama-kalpa-taror galitaà phalaà. Now that this juicy fruit of the Vedic tree has fallen here and çukamukhäd amåta-drava-saàyutam – it has come out from the lips of Çukadeva Gosvämé, who is çré-çuka, Rädhäräëé’s parrot. Çuka means parrot. Generally a parrot puts its beak into the ripest fruit, and being touched by the parrot the fruit becomes much sweeter. It is therefore said, çré-çuka uväca. Çré means ‘Çrémati Rädhäräëé’. Having come out from çuka-mukhäd, the lips of Çukadeva Gosvämé, the Çrémad-Bhägavatam has become much sweeter.
Rädhäräëé’s Parrot When Rädhä and Kåñëa manifested Their léläs here five thousand years ago, Rädhäräëé had a parrot that used to sit on Her left hand palm, and Rädhäräëé would feed him pomegranate seeds. Rädhäräëé was always singing kåñëa-näma, glorifying Kåñëa, and the parrot was listening. When Rädhä and Kåñëa wound up Their lélä and went back to Their eternal abode, Goloka Våndävana, They ordered him, “Parrot, you stay here and speak Bhägavata!” So the parrot stayed here. The parrot’s life and soul was hearing bhägavata-kathä, kåñëa-kathä. After Rädhä and Kåñëa had left the parrot felt restless, “Where is my life? Where is my kåñëa-kathä? Where is bhägavata-kathä? How can I survive without it?” Then an aerial voice was heard, “Çivajé is speaking Bhägavata in Kailäsaparvata, his abode.” Bhuvaneçvara, Ekämra-känana is also Çivajé’s abode. In the past there was a mango tree here that was so straight and tall it spread far and wide covering this whole area. Therefore that place is known as Ekämra-kñetra. Eka-ämra-kñetra: eka means ‘one’ and ämra means ‘mango’. Çivajé was speaking Bhägavata in that place.
Relishing it in the Association of Rasika-bhaktas One-day Çivajé’s wife Pärvaté-devé requested Çivajé to speak bhägavata-kathä. Seeing Pärvaté-devé’s interest Çivajé agreed but on the condition that only Pärvaté-devé would hear. ÇrémadBhägavatam is such a nectarean, sweet mellow that only the rasikabhakta, one who has developed taste can relish it, äsväde rasikeçaù. That relishing is heightened in the association of rasika-bhaktas. Without such relishing the mellow will never come out. Çivajé drove everyone away. No one could stay in that kñetra.
Śrīmad-Bhāgavatam Was First Spoken in Bhuvaneśvara
The Parrot Was Listening to Çivajé Then that parrot flew to the branch of a nearby tree and sat listening to Çivajé speaking. Pärvaté was interested to hear vraja-lélä kahäné from the Tenth Canto, but Çivajé started speaking from the First Canto. Pärvaté was hearing, uttering, “Hmm, hmm, hmm.” Pärvaté thought, “From the First Canto to the Tenth Canto is so far.” After some time as she was falling asleep, she thought, “When the Tenth Canto begins I will wake up.”
Çré-suka Is Rädhäräëé’s Parrot The parrot was hearing and he was uttering, “Hmm, hmm, hmm.” After a while Çivajé saw that Pärvaté was sleeping so who was saying, “Hmm, hmm, hmm? Someone else is here.” Then he saw the parrot sitting in the tree. “I drove everyone away. Who is this parrot listening to Çrémad-Bhägavatam?” Çivajé stood up with his trident in his hand and angrily tried to drive the parrot out. The parrot was flying away and Çivajé was chasing after him. The parrot flew to Badarikäçrama. Near Badarikäçrama is Çamyäpräsäçrama, Vyäsadeva’s äçrama. At that time Vyäsadeva was speaking ÇrémadBhägavatam to his wife. Vyäsadeva’s wife was hearing with her mouth open, “Aaah-aaah-aah.” The parrot flew straight into her open mouth and into her womb, and that is where he stayed. Later he came out as Çukadeva Gosvämé. Therefore çré-suka is Rädhäräëé’s parrot. Otherwise who can speak Bhägavata? Çukamukhäd amåta-drava-saàyutam.
One Who Has Heard Becomes Immortal When Vyäsadeva saw Çivajé so angry, running after the parrot, he asked, “Oh Çivajé, why are you angry? 17
Chapter 3 “I was speaking Bhägavata only for Pärvaté and that parrot was sitting in the tree listening. So I have to kill him!” “Why will you kill him? What will happen to one who has heard and tasted the amåta, the sweet nectarine mellow of Bhägavata? He becomes immortal, so how can you kill him? Be pacified, O Çivajé, be pacified.” Then Çivajé became pacified and returned to his narration. That parrot stayed in the womb of Vyäsadeva’s wife and later came out as Çukadeva Gosvämé. Therefore, çuka-mukhäd amåtadrava-saàyutam pibata bhägavataà rasam älayaà muhur aho rasikä bhuvi bhävukäù – Çrémad-Bhägavatam has come out from the mouth of çré-suka, Çukadeva Gosvämé, so it has become much sweeter. Excerpt from a lecture by Çréla Gour Govinda Swami 21.7.95 in Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
Ekämraka-kñetra TEXT 307
tabe prabhu äilena çré-bhuvaneçvara gupta-käçé-väsa yathä karena çaìkara “Thereafter the Lord went to Çré Bhuvaneçvara, known also as Gupta-käçé, where Lord Çaìkara resides.” A description of the holy place Çré Bhuvaneçvara is found in various literatures like Svarëädri-mahodaya, Ekämra Puräëa, Skanda Puräëa, and other Sanskrit Puräëas. In those literatures this place is addressed by various names like Bhuvaneçvara, Ekämraka-kñetra, Hemäcala, Svarëädri-kñetra.
Chapter 4 Being requested by some sages, Vyäsa Bhagavän revealed the glories of the rarely attained Ekämraka-kñetra. This place has been known as Ekämraka-kñetra because long ago there was a huge mango tree there. There are ten million Çiva-liìgas and eight térthas at this place. This place is superior to Väräëasé and is more dear to Çambhu, the best of the Vaiñëavas. In Orissa, on the shore of the southern ocean, there is a river named Gandhavaté that flows east. This river is non-different from the Ganges. The transcendental abode named Ekämraka-tértha is situated on the bank of this most sacred river. This place is more pleasing than Kailäsa. The length and breadth of this place are three yojanas (twenty-four miles). Eight miles of this place is worshippable to the demigods, and two miles of this place was covered by the shade of that mango tree. Since time immemorial at this place pious persons have taken bath, chanted mantras, performed sacrifices, offered oblations, performed abhiñeka, offered worship, offered prayers, accepted prasäda garlands, heard the Puräëas, served the lotus feet of the Lord’s devotees, and executed the nine forms of devotional service.
The Supreme Brahman in the Form of a Liìga In the Svarëädri-mahodaya it is stated that Lord Puruñottama is the maintainer of this place. The eternal Supreme Brahman is eternally present at this place in the form of the liìga “Tribhuvaneçvara.” According to the statement, liìgyate jïäyate yasmät, the Supreme Brahman resides in the state of Orissa in the form of a liìga within a sacred gold mountain surrounded by the demigods. Since Näräyaëa personally protects this place with a cakra and club in His hands, He is the kñetra-päla, or protector of this place.
The Glories of Bhuvaneśvara & Bindu-sarovara
Lord Çré Ananta Väsudeva Personally Protects this Place
It is further stated in the Svarëädri-mahodaya that Lord Çré Ananta Väsudeva personally protects this place with a cakra and a club in His hands. Pious activities performed without first taking darçana of Çré Ananta Väsudeva yield no results. Only those who have unflinching devotion for Lord Çré Ananta Väsudeva are able to attain the mercy of Çré Bhuvaneçvara, who is very dear to Ananta Väsudeva.
Bhuvaneçvaré Bhagavaté Visits Ekämraka-tértha
When Bhuvaneçvaré Bhagavaté heard from the mouth of Çambhu the glories of Ekämraka-tértha, which is superior to Väräëasé, she expressed a desire to visit that place. Çambhu then told Bhuvaneçvaré, “You first go there alone, and I will meet you there later.” Having received her husband’s permission, she rode on her lion carrier and soon arrived at Svarëädri. When she arrived there, she saw that it was indeed more pleasing than Kailäsa. She also saw a great liìga emanating white and black effulgence. Bhuvaneçvaré began to worship that great liìga with all ingredients. One day after Bhuvaneçvaré had gone to another forest to pick flowers, she returned and saw one thousand cows as white as jasmine flowers come out of a lake and begin to lavishly bathe that great liìga with milk. After circumambulating the liìga, they returned to where they had come from. When she saw the same incident on another occasion, she took the form of a cowherd girl and began to follow those cows. She passed fifteen years in this way. While wandering in that forest one day, two young demon brothers named Kåtti and Väsa became captivated by the unprecedented beauty of that cowherd girl and expressed to her their self-destructive, wicked intentions.
The Two Demons Kåtti and Väsa Saté immediately disappeared from the sight of the two demons and remembered the lotus feet of Çambhu. As soon as Bhagavaté remembered Mahädeva, he immediately took the form of a cowherd boy and appeared before the cowherd-girl form of Saté. Saté, in the form of a cowherd girl, offered obeisances to Çambhu, who had taken the form of a cowherd boy. Mahädeva said, “O Saté, I understand why you remembered me. There is no need to feel anxiety. By the will of the Supreme Lord these two demons have expressed wicked intentions to you to invite their own ruination. Let me explain their history to you in detail. There was once a king named Drumila who performed many sacrifices and thereby pleased the demigods. The demigods gave him the benediction that he would have two sons named Kåtti and Väsa, who would not be killed by any weapons. So now, by the will of the Supreme Lord, you will have to kill those two sinful demons.” Being ordered by her husband, Saté began to wander about within the forest in her form as a cowherd girl and within a short time she met those two demons. To deceive them, Saté said to the two demon brothers, “I can fulfill your desires, but I have a condition. I will become the wife of he who can carry me on his shoulder.” On hearing Saté’s statement, the two intoxicated brothers began to quarrel between themselves. Then Saté in her form as a cowherd girl placed her two feet on the shoulders of the two brothers and assumed the form of Viçvambharé. Who has the power to carry the heavy burden of Viçvambharé? By the weight of Saté, the two demons were crushed and destroyed. This Puräëic incident concludes by stating that since that time Saté and Çambhu, the husband of Saté, left their golden temple in Käçé and have been living in this Ekämraka forest. (Caitanya-bhägavata, Antya-khaëòa 2.307, with purports by Çréla Bhaktisiddhänta Sarasvaté Öhäkura Prabhupäda)
. Śankara-vāpī & Bindu-sarovara Bhuvaneçvaré’s Thirst TEXT 308 sarva-tértha-jala yathä bindu bindu äni’ ‘bindu-sarovara’ çiva såjilä äpani
“Çiva brought drops of water from all the holy places and created the lake known as Bindu-sarovara.” After killing the two demons Kåtti and Väsa by crushing them under her feet, Bhuvaneçvaré in the form of a cowherd girl fell asleep with an intense thirst. To quench Bhuvaneçvaré’s thirst, Mahädeva pierced a mountain with the tip of his trident and created a well. This well became renowned as Çaìkara-väpé, Lord Çiva’s well. Yet Bhuvaneçvaré desired to
Chapter 5 drink water from a properly established reservoir. Çambhu thus sent his bull carrier to bring water from all the holy places and to invite Brahmä to establish that reservoir by performing a sacrifice. Being invited by the bull carrier, Brahmä and other demigods came to this place and offered their obeisances to Bhuvaneçvara. The bull then brought waters of the Mandäkiné and other sources from heaven; he brought waters from Prayäga, Puñkara, Gaìgä, Gaìgädvara, Naimiña, Prabhäsa, Pitå-tértha, Gaìgä-sägara-saìgama, Payoñëé, Vipäçä, Çatadru, Käveré, Gomaté, Kåñëä, Yamunä, Sarasvaté, Gaëòaké, Åñikulyä, Mahänadé, and other sources from earth; and he brought waters from the milk ocean and other sources from Pätäla. When Bhuvaneçvara saw all the térthas assembled there, he took up his trident, pierced a mountain, and said, “I have decided to create a lake at this place. All of you offer one drop of water into this lake.” After the térthas followed the order of Çambhu, Lord Janärdana and the demigods headed by Brahmä took bath therein. Bhuvaneçvara and his followers also happily entered into those waters. Bhuvaneçvara then said, “Now two pure reservoirs of water, Çaìkaraväpé and Bindu-sarovara, have been established. If one takes bath in Çaìkara-väpé, one will attain the same features as mine, and if one takes bath in Bindu-sarovara, one will attain my abode.”
Lord Ananta Väsudeva Blesses His Dear Çaìkara
Thereafter the topmost Vaiñëava Çambhu offered his obeisances to Janärdana and said, “O Puruñottama, please reside with Ananta as two Deities on the eastern bank of this lake and take the positions of my controller and the protector of this abode.” Since then Lord Ananta Väsudeva has been blessing His dear Çaìkara by giving him His remnants and residing on the eastern bank of Bindu-sarovara as Çambhu’s controller and the protector of this abode. Thus Bhuvaneçvara Çambhu is worshipped by offerings of Çré Çré Ananta Väsudeva’s remnants.
. Bhuvaneśvara Establishes Śankara-vāpī & Bindu-sarovara
The Essence of All Térthas In the Svarëädri-mahodaya it is stated that this Bindu-sarovara is also known by the name Maëikarëé, and it is the essence of all térthas. If a person takes darçana of Çré Ananta Väsudeva after taking a bath in this essence of all térthas Maëikarëé, he will certainly go to Vaikuëöhaloka. By giving charity to brähmaëas and Vaiñëavas at this place one obtains a hundred times the fruits obtained at other holy places, and by offering oblations here to the forefathers with the remnants of Çré Ananta Väsudeva the souls of one’s forefathers obtain inexhaustible satisfaction. Taking a bath in this Bindu-sarovara is equal to taking a bath at all holy places. By taking darçana of Çré Ananta Väsudeva after taking bath, one attains unlimited fruits. Festivals like Çré Çré Ananta Väsudeva and Çré Çré Madana-mohana’s Candana-yäträ and boat pastimes are held in this Bindu-sarovara. The ancient temple of Çré Ananta Väsudeva is still present today on the eastern bank of Bindu-sarovara. This temple is decorated by fine art and architecture. The Deity of Çré Çré Ananta Väsudeva Viñëu was established in this large temple beautified by fine art and architecture by Çré Bhavadeva Bhaööa, a resident of Siddhala-gräma.
The Glories of Bhuvaneçvara’s Prasäda In the Sixth and Seventh Chapters of the Svarëädri-mahodaya, Mahädeva says, “O Brahmä, you should come with the other demigods to Ekämraka forest and faithfully worship the ancient liìga with various transcendental ingredients. After the completion of the worship you should faithfully honour his remnants.” After hearing the order of Mahädeva, Brahmä asked, “O Maheçvara, we do not know your glories. The sages say that the remnants of a liìga should not be honoured. Therefore how can we accept those remnants?” Vyäsa said, “Although the remnants of a liìga are not to be accepted,
Chapter 5 Çré Bhuvaneçvara is not a liìga, he is the eternal Supreme Brahman. Statements that prohibit one from honouring Çiva’s remnants are not applicable to Bhuvaneçvara. The demigods honour the remnants of Bhuvaneçvara to cross the material ocean. Foodstuffs offered to Bhuvaneçvara should be honoured with the understanding that they are transcendental. As far as the acceptance of Bhuvaneçvara’s remnants is concerned, there should not be any discrimination whether one is a brähmaëa, kñatriya, vaiçya, çüdra, or outcaste, otherwise one will certainly go to hell. On receiving Bhuvaneçvara’s prasäda, one should immediately honour it. Bhuvaneçvara’s prasäda is never contaminated by contact with impure living entities. One should distribute this prasäda to the demigods, forefathers, and brähmaëas. The result one obtains by giving charity in Kurukñetra during the solar or lunar eclipse is attained by distributing the remnants of Bhuvaneçvara. Whether it is dry, stale, or brought from a distant place, simply by honouring Bhuvaneçvara’s prasäda one is delivered from all unwanted habits. By honouring Bhuvaneçvara’s prasäda one attains the result of seeing, worshipping, meditating on, or hearing about Viñëu. There is a possibility of taking birth again after drinking nectar, but there is no rebirth for one who honours Bhuvaneçvara’s prasäda. By seeing Bhuvaneçvara’s prasäda one’s desires are fulfilled, by touching it to one’s head one’s sinful reactions are destroyed, by honouring it one counteracts the reactions of eating non-vegetarian food, by smelling it the sins committed in one’s mind are destroyed, by seeing it one’s vision is purified, by smearing it on one’s limbs the body is purified, by eating it to one’s full satisfaction one attains the result of observing an Ekädaçé without water, and by honouring it with full respect one attains the devotional service of Viñëu.”
Even the Demigods Beg
For Bhuvaneçvara’s Remnants When the sages inquired further, Vyäsa said, “In the Brahmäëòa Puräëa, Brahmä said to Närada, ‘What to speak of human beings,
. Bhuvaneśvara Establishes Śankara-vāpī & Bindu-sarovara even the demigods headed by Brahmä accept human forms and beg for Bhuvaneçvara’s remnants. There is no consideration of rules and regulations or auspicious or inauspicious times in the eating of Bhuvaneçvara’s prasäda. If one accepts Bhuvaneçvara’s prasäda that has been touched by a most fallen person, one attains the abode of Viñëu. Those who criticize Bhuvaneçvara’s prasäda by comparing it to the ordinary prasäda of a Çiva-liìga certainly go to hell. Gauré, the greatest Vaiñëavé, cooks Bhuvaneçvara’s offerings, and the eternal Supreme Brahman eats it. Therefore there is no consideration of any contamination in it because of contact with impure living entities. You should know that it is completely transcendental. If the remnants of Çré Ananta Väsudeva and the mahä-mahä-prasäda of Çré Bhuvaneçvara is touched by the mouth of a dog or brought from a place where nonvegetarian foods are kept, it is to be accepted by even the best of the brähmaëas. By eating the remnants of this transcendental liìga one attains Lord Viñëu’s shelter, which is rare for even personalities like Brahmä and Indra. Those who blaspheme persons who eat such mahäprasäda will continue to live in hell for as long as the sun and moon shine in the sky. Whether one has taken bath or not, simply by honouring Bhuvaneçvara’s mahä-prasäda one becomes purified externally and internally. With His thousand mouths even Anantadeva is unable to describe the glories of this mahä-mahä-prasäda, which is the remnants of Çré Ananta Väsudeva’s remnants. One can please Bhuvaneçvara simply by hearing the glories of this prasäda, and if Bhuvaneçvara is pleased Govinda is also pleased.’”
Bhuvaneçvara Does Not Independently Accept Any Service
Everyday after the completion of Çré Çré Ananta Väsudeva’s worship and offering, Çré Bhuvaneçvara accepts his own worship and offering. This system is still current in Bhuvaneçvara. Apart from this, he teaches Viñëu’s devotional service to the people of the entire world while setting the example of giving up material enjoyment for the pleasure of Kåñëa
Chapter 5 by his own behaviour of not riding on the chariot or going out during the Candana-yäträ or boat festival but offering these conveyances and various other enjoyable ingredients to his eternal Lords, Çré Çré Ananta Väsudeva and Çré Çré Madana-mohana. Whenever it is mentioned that Çré Bhuvaneçvara rides on an airplane or chariot, it is to be understood that the pleasure of Çré Çré Madana-mohana and Çré Çré Ananta Väsudeva was the purpose of all such occasions. The päëòäs (priests) of Bhuvaneçvara call Çré Çré Madana-mohana the pratinidhi, or “representative,” of Bhuvaneçvara. In this context the word “representative” does not mean subordinate as it is normally understood in the relationship between a king and his representative. According to the consideration of servitorship, or çakti-tattva, Çré Bhuvaneçvara does not personally accept any items of enjoyment but offers them to his only Lord, the supremely independent Çré Madanamohana, who is the source of all energies and the proprietor of all enjoyable objects. In other words, because he does not independently enjoy but rather gives enjoyment to his Lord, his Lord is addressed as his “representative.” Rather than accept worship for himself, Bhuvaneçvara accepts worship on behalf of his Lords, Çré Madana-mohana and Çré Ananta Väsudeva. Even if he ever does accept any service for himself, he accepts it as a servant of Çré Madana-mohana or Çré Çré Ananta Väsudeva. He does not independently accept any service.
The Deity of Çré Madana-mohana The Deity of Çré Madana-mohana situated in Çré Bhuvaneçvara is not two-armed but is four-armed. On Madana-mohana’s upper left hand there is an impression of a deer, on His upper right hand there is an impression of an axe, His lower left hand displays the sign of fearlessness, and His lower right hand displays the sign of awarding benediction. Çré Madana-mohana, Çré Govinda, a five-headed Mahädeva, Çré Ananta Väsudeva’s vijaya-mürti, a four-armed Harihara mürti, and Çré Çälagräma are worshipped in a temple south of the original Bhuvaneçvara Temple.
. Bhuvaneśvara Establishes Śankara-vāpī & Bindu-sarovara
The Çré Bhuvaneçvara Temple Among the committee members who look after the service of the Çré Bhuvaneçvara Temple are Çréyukta Priyanätha Caööopädhyäya, a lawyer from Cuttack; Çréyukta Gaìgädhara Chaudhuré, a landlord from Puré district; and Çréyukta Gopäla Prahararäja, another lawyer from Cuttack. This committee has employed a manager. The name of the present manager is Çréyukta Lachman Rämänuja däsa. The manager takes care of the income and expenditure for the various services in the Bhuvaneçvara Temple with the help of the four following head päëòäs: Jagannätha Mahäpätra, Näräyaëa Makadama, Dämodara Säntarä, and Sadaya Mahäpätra. As a patita-pävana mürti is established within the lion gate of the Çré Jagannätha Temple for the benefit of fallen souls outside the varëäçrama system, there is also a patita-pävana mürti within the lion gate of the Çré Bhuvaneçvara Temple. Within the lion gate there is a market known as Änanda-bazaar. As in the Puré Änanda-bazaar, items like prasäda are also bought and sold here. Like Jagannätha prasäda, the prasäda here is not contaminated by contact with impure living entities. After crossing the lion gate there is a Garuòa-stambha, on the top of which a bull and Garuòa are situated. As in the Jagannätha Temple there also is a Deity of Nåsiàhadeva at the entrance here. This four-armed Deity of Nåsiàhadeva is in a peaceful mood. In His upper right hand He holds a cakra, in His upper left hand He holds a conch, and in His lower two hands He holds the Vedas. Çré Lakñmédevé is sitting on His lap. South of the original temple is Bhuvaneçvara’s kitchen. There is an order that the rays of the sun and moon should not fall on it. Brähmaëa päëòäs from three hundred sixty families cook here. The deity of Çré Bhuvaneçvara within the main temple is a combined form of Çré Hari and Hara. The päëòäs show everyone this Çré Bhuvaneçvara deity, which has a black and white form. The form of Çré Bhuvaneçvara is shaped like a cakra and has impressions of Gaìgä, Yamunä, and Sarasvaté as well as the ten incarnations beginning with Matsya and Kürma.
Chapter 5 The wonderful artistic work of Bhuvaneçvara Temple attracts the attention of common people who come for darçana. After seeing the artistry and architectural work of the Bhuvaneçvara Temple, the Çré Ananta Väsudeva Temple, and the many other temples in Bhuvaneçvara, one can realise how advanced Indian art was at one time. The Bhuvaneçvara Temple is one hundred sixty-five feet tall. This temple is situated on a huge stone slab three hundred yards south of Bindu-sarovara. The dimensions of the temple are five hundred twenty by four hundred sixty-five feet. Apart from this, there is a twenty-eight foot exterior hall north of the temple. The main hall measures two hundred thirty-five feet. The temple walls are seven foot five inches thick. There are large gates on the four sides of the temple. The eastern gate is the largest of the four and is called the Siàha-dvära, or the lion gate. There are two large lions on the two sides of the entrance. Within the courtyard there is twenty-foot long, four-foot high stone slab wall. This unbreakable stone wall was built to protect the temple from outside attack. The Deity of Çré Nåsiàhadeva is situated on one side of this wall. There are many small Çiva temples within the western courtyard. Among those temples there is a twenty-foot tall temple. This temple is older than the main temple. The altar of this temple is five feet below the ground level of the temple. It is said that the original Çiva-liìga is situated here. Even after the main temple was built the original liìga was not transferred from here. There is a temple of Bhuvaneçvaré in one corner of the western courtyard. On one side of the expansive stone slab found after one enters the Siàha-dvära, there is a temple of Gopäliné, Saté’s form as a cowherd girl. Although the ground level of the Gopäliné temple is lower than the ground level of the main temple, it is at the same level as the original liìga. There are six stone steps west of the Gopäliné temple. Above those steps and below Bhuvaneçvara’s kitchen there is a deity of Våñabha, the bull carrier. The bhoga-maëòapa, or hall where offerings are made, is situated directly in front of the Bhuvaneçvara temple. Behind the hall is the nätya-mandira (the hall where drama, dance, and kértana are performed), behind the nätya-mandira is the jagamohana (the area directly in front
. Bhuvaneśvara Establishes Śankara-vāpī & Bindu-sarovara of the central altar), behind the jagamohana is the main temple, and within this is the garbha-gåha, where the deity is situated. According to the conclusion of Räjä Räjendraläla Mitra, the bhoga-maëòapa was built during Kamala Keçaré’s rule, which lasted from A.D. 792 to 811. But other archeologists say that the Gaìgä dynasty King Narasiàhadeva, who built the sun temple at Konark, built the offering hall in the twenty-four years of his rule. By reading the inscription found on the door of the nätya-mandira one can understand that Mahäräja Kapilendradeva, who conquered Karnataka, arranged to donate a vast tract of land for the service of Bhuvaneçvara. According to the opinion of many archeologists this nätya-mandira was built many years before the time of Kapilendradeva. Räjä Räjendraläla Mitra said Çälinékeçaré’s queen built this nätya-mandira between A.D. 1099 and 1104, but many archeologists disagree with this. On the right side of the entrance to the deity room there is a inscription that says that Narasiàhadeva built the Konark sun temple and its entrance. The nätya-mandira and the entrance of the Bhuvaneçvara temple are certainly the glorious work of that valiant Gaìgä dynasty king. Since the name of that king’s daughter is mentioned in that inscription, many people think that the Gaìgä dynasty king’s daughter built it. Some people guess that this king’s daughter has been described in the Mädalä-paìji calendar as Çälinékeçaré’s queen. The expertise, artistry, and architectural work in the construction of the jagamohana are superb. The roof of the jagamohana, like the roof of the offering hall, is shaped like a pinnacle. This roof is supported by four giant thirty-foot-tall stone pillars. Left of its southern entrance is a rectangular room decorated with adequate artistic work, but the builder of this room could not complete the work. There are a few brass deities within this room. They are Bhuvaneçvara’s vijaya-mürtis, which are taken out during festivals. The Bhuvaneçvara temple is one hundred sixty feet tall from the ground to the kalasa, but since the deity room is two feet lower than ground level, the eastern courtyard is two to three feet below that. So at one time the height of the dome must have been one hundred sixty-five feet.
Chapter 5 Apart from the Liìgaräja Çré Bhuvaneçvara Temple and the Çré Ananta Väsudeva Temple, there are many other temples situated in the four directions within Bhuvaneçvara. It has already been stated that the Bhuvaneçvara temple is 160 feet tall from the ground level to the kalasa. The Ananta Väsudeva temple is 60 foot tall. The Rameçvara temple is 78 feet tall, Yameçvara is 67 feet, Räjäräëé is 63 feet, Bhagavaté is 54 feet, Särédeula is 53 feet, Nägeçvara is 52 feet, Siddheçvara is 47 feet, Kapileçvara is 64 feet, Kedäreçvara is 46 feet, Paraçurämeçvara is 38 feet, Mukteçvara is 35 feet, and Kopäri is 35 feet tall. Many people think that the Bhuvaneçvara Temple is older than the Jagannätha Puré Temple and that the artistic work of the Puré Temple is an imitation of the Bhuvaneçvara Temple. Räjä Räjendraläla Mitra said that King Yayäti Keçaré came from Magadha, drove away the Yavanas, and reestablished Hindu religion over the ruins of the Buddhist religion. The duration of Yayäti Keçaré’s rule extended from A.D. 474 to 526. Construction of the Bhuvaneçvara Temple and the jagamohana began near the end of Yayäti Keçaré’s rule. Yayäti Keçaré could not complete the construction work. Although his descendent Sürya Keçaré ruled the kingdom for a long time, he did not try to complete the temple. His heir, Ananta Keçaré, again started the temple construction. The Bhuvaneçvara Temple was eventually completed during the reign of Laläöendu Keçaré in 588 Çakäbda (A.D. 666). Regarding this, Räjä Räjendraläla Mitra has quoted the following verse: gajäñöeñum ite jäte çakäbde kérti väsasah präsädam akarod räjä laläöenduç ca keçaré But some archeologists do not agree with the statement of Mitra Mahäçaya. They say that the stone inscription is similar to the unverified handwritten verses found that describe the construction of the Jagannätha Temple and that there is no historical truth in it. They further say that the description Räjä Räjendraläla Mitra quoted from Jagannätha’s Mädalä-païji calendar is a futile attempt by the päëòäs,
. Bhuvaneśvara Establishes Śankara-vāpī & Bindu-sarovara who are ignorant of historical facts, to prove that this holy place is more ancient than it actually is. The exact date of the construction of the Bhuvaneçvara Temple and jagamohana is found in a stone inscription carved at the time of that construction. The famous Anaìga-bhéma, who is said to be the builder of the Çré Puruñottama Temple, is also described in that stone inscription to be the builder of the Bhuvaneçvara Temple. Thirty-four years of Anaìga-bhéma are described in that stone inscription. In the stone inscription of Cäteçvara and in the royal inscription on a copper plate of the second Narasiàhadeva the names of two persons called Anaìga-bhéma, or Aniyaìka-bhéma, are found. The first Anaìga-bhéma was the fourth son of Cauòa Gaìgä. He ruled the kingdom for ten years. He conquered Orissa and built the temple of Çré Puruñottama. The second Anaìga-bhéma was the grandson of the first Anaìga-bhéma and the son of Räjaräja. He ruled the kingdom for thirty-four years up to A.D. 1253. Since the stone inscription in the Bhuvaneçvara temple mentions thirty-four years in connection with Aniyaìka-bhéma, the son of Räjaräja, some archeologists ascertain the second Aniyaìka-bhéma, or Anaìga-bhéma, as the actual builder of the Bhuvaneçvara Temple. This second Aniyaìka-bhéma built many large temples in Cuttack and many places in the districts of Puré and Gaïjäma.
The Temple of Ananta Väsudeva
Is the Most Ancient Temple in Bhuvaneçvara We have already discussed something about the temple of Ananta Väsudeva, situated on the eastern bank of the Bindu-sarovara in front of the middle ghäöa. This temple is one hundred thirty-one feet long and one hundred seventeen feet wide. The main hall is ninety-six feet long and twenty-five feet wide. Adjacent to the main temple is the jagamohana, behind that is the nätya-mandira, and behind that is the bhoga-maëòapa. From ground level to the kalasa, the temple is sixty feet tall. Inside the nätya-mandira is a deity of Garuòa made of black stone. The Deity of Ananta Väsudeva Viñëu is situated within the main
Chapter 5 temple. This temple of Ananta Väsudeva is the most ancient temple in Bhuvaneçvara. This is widely accepted by even the archeologists. No pilgrim visits the temples of deities subordinate to Çré Väsudeva without first taking darçana of Ananta Väsudeva Viñëu, the Lord of all. This practice is current in Bhuvaneçvara even today. We have already learned from the verses composed by the poet Väcaspati Miçra and inscribed on a stone attached to the wall of the Ananta Väsudeva Temple that Bhavadeva Bhaööa built the temple of Ananta Väsudeva and Bindu-sarovara, which is situated in front of the temple. Väcaspati Miçra wrote a book called Nyäya-sücé-nibandha in 898 Çakäbda (A.D. 976). It is not improper to consider his dear friend Bhavadeva Bhaööa as his contemporary. Therefore some archeologists conclude that the temple of Çré Ananta Väsudeva was built in the tenth century.
Bindu-sarovara Bindu-sarovara is thirteen hundred feet long, seven hundred feet wide, and sixteen feet deep. The four banks of this sarovara, or lake, are covered with stone slabs. There is an island built of stone in the middle of Bindu-sarovara. The island is 100x100 feet. There is a small temple in the northeast corner of the island. The festival Deity of Ananta Väsudeva is brought here during the snäna-yäträ. The Deity is then bathed by streams of water squirted out of fountains surrounding that temple. During the snäna-yäträ, in other words, during the rainy season, this Bindu-sarovara becomes the residence of many large crocodiles.
Svayambhu-Vana Was a Place for Ascetics Western historians like Starling, Hunter, and Cunningham, as well as archeologists of India like Räjä Räjendraläla Mitra have described Bhuvaneçvara as a principal Buddhist center. Other archeologists of India, however, have through argument and evidence like stone inscriptions found in various temples of Bhuvaneçvara and descriptions
. Bhuvaneśvara Establishes Śankara-vāpī & Bindu-sarovara in ancient Puräëas like the Mahäbhärata demonstrated that there is no evidence to substantiate the claim that Bhuvaneçvara was a principal center for Buddhists during the time of Lord Buddha. The evidence of Buddhism found in Khaëòagiri and Udayagiri are from a much later time than that of Lord Buddha. Those who advertised that the elephant cave was a Buddhist cave have been proven completely wrong, because it has now been established as belonging to the Jains. The glories of the Orissan King Kharbel Bhupati, who was a follower of the Jain religion, are found on a stone inscription within this elephant cave. But there is no evidence or proof of the exact date when this Jain Kharbel established his capitol at Bhuvaneçvara. The Mahäbhärata, Vana-parva, Chapter 114 states that after the confluence at Gaìgä-sägara comes the sacred Vaitaraëé River in Kaliìga. Yäjapura, where Brahmä performed a sacrifice, is on the bank of this river. After that comes Svayambhuvana, and then comes Mahävedi, which is near the ocean and which is renowned as Puruñottama-kñetra. After that comes Mahendra Mountain, which is situated in Gaïjäma district and which is known as the abode of Paraçuräma. The above-mentioned name Svayambhu refers to Çambhu, or Mahädeva. This is the opinion found in the ancient commentary on Mahäbhärata known as Durgaöärtha-prakäçiné. Since a long time this Svayambhu-vana was a place for ascetics to undergo austerities. It is stated in the Skanda Puräëa, Utkala-khaëòa: ittham etat purä kñetraà mahädevena nirmitam tatra säkñäd umä-käntaù sthäpitaù parameñöhinäyad etac chämbhavaà kñetraà tamaso näçanaà param “This sacred place was created long ago by Mahädeva. Brahmä personally established the husband of Pärvaté at this place. Since then this place has been known as the destroyer of ignorance and a favourite place of Çambhu. This place is also known as Ekämraka-vana or Ekämraka-kñetra.”
Chapter 5 Elsewhere in the Skanda Puräëa, Utkala-khaëòa, it is stated: sa vartate nélagirir yojane ‘tra tåtéyake idam tv ekämraka-vanaà kñetraà gauré-pater vidhuù catur deha sthito ‘haà vai yatra nélamaëi-mayaù tasyottarasyäà vikhyätaà vanam ekämrakähvayam “Ekämraka-kanana, which is very dear to the husband of Pärvaté, is situated two yojanas north of Néläcala in the state of Orissa. This Ekämraka-kñetra is the Svayambhu-vana described in the Mahäbhärata, Vana-parva, and many thoughtful persons have concluded that this place is much older than the time of Buddha.”
Where Can One Perpetually Worship the Supreme Personality of Godhead?
A description of Çré Bhuvaneçvara deva is found in the Kapilasaàhita. Long ago Lord Viçveçvara (Çiva) of Käçé told Devarñi Närada that he would not reside in Käçé any longer and that Käçé would soon be destroyed because the atheists overwhelmed with mundane knowledge were creating disturbances there. Religious principles would no longer remain, and everyone would become irreligious. Moreover, Käçé would gradually become crowded, and it would become difficult to perform austerities without disturbance. Although it was a fact that Mahädeva painstakingly established Käçé for the pleasure of Pärvaté, she was no longer inclined to stay there because of the disturbances created by the atheists. Where, therefore, was the place where one could sit and perpetually worship the Supreme Personality of Godhead? After hearing these statements from Çambhu, the best of the Vaiñëavas, Devarñi Närada said that there was a famous mountain, Néla-çaila, situated on the shore of the saltwater ocean. North of this mountain is the most pleasing Ekämraka-kanana. Väsudeva, the Lord of Lakñmé, resides in that solitary forest with Ananta. That place is most confidential. On hearing Närada’s reply, Mahädeva left Käçé and came to Ekämraka-
. Bhuvaneśvara Establishes Śankara-vāpī & Bindu-sarovara vana with Pärvaté. After arriving at this sacred place, Mahädeva said to Çré Hari, “I have come to Your shelter. Please give me a place to stay near Your lotus feet.” When Çré Väsudeva heard the appeal of Çambhu, the topmost Vaiñëava, He said, “O Çambhu, I will gladly let you stay here, but you have to promise that you will never return to Käçé.” Çaìkara then replied, “How can I leave Käçé forever? My beloved Jähnavé (Gaìgä) and Maëikarëikä, the aggregate of all holy places, are situated there.” Väsudeva said, “O Çambhu, here in front of Me there is Maëikarëikä, which is also known as Päpanäçiné. The river GaìgäYamunä that emanates from My lotus feet flows southeast of Me. There are many other confidential térthas here.” Çaìkara then replied, “I promise that I will not leave Your lotus feet and go anywhere, even to Väräëasé.” After speaking these words, Çambhu stayed south of Viñëu in the form of a liìga. That dark bluish liìga glows like a crystal and is renowned as Tribhuvaneçvara, or Bhuvaneçvara. A païca-kroçé (ten mile) Bhuvaneçvara parikramä is performed in the month of Kärtika. The parikramä starts from Varähadevé, goes through Dhavalagiri, Khaëòagiri, Udayagiri, around the Bhuvaneçvara railway station, and eventually returns to the Varähadevé Temple. Bhuvaneçvara is situated 272 miles from Howrah on the BengalNagpur railway line. The Bhuvaneçvara temple is two miles from the Bhuvaneçvara station. The road is most beautiful, being covered on both sides by trees that grow in the mountains, particularly the kuïcilä, or Nux Vomica. No conveyance other than bull ox carts is generally available, but buses and motorcars can drive on the road. There are two dharmaçäläs in Bhuvaneçvara. On the bank of Bindusarovara, a Calcutta Marwari named Hazarimala has built a new large dharmaçälä. The other dharmaçälä was built by one Räya Bahadur Hargovinda Viçveçvaralala. Pilgrims can stay for three days in those dharmaçäläs. There is a charitable hospital, a telegraph office, and a post office. There is an open market every Monday and Thursday. Like Jagannätha prasäda, the prasäda of Çré Ananta Väsudeva and Bhuvaneçvara is sold. (Caitanya-bhägavata, Antya-khaëòa 2.308, purport by Çréla Bhaktisiddhänta Sarasvaté Öhäkura Prabhupäda)
Chapter 5 TEXT 309 ‘çiva-priya sarovara’ jäni çré-caitanya snäna kari’ viçeñe karilä ati dhanya “Realising that the lake was dear to Çiva, Çré Caitanya eagerly took bath therein and made it glorious.” TEXT 310 dekhilena giyä prabhu prakaöa çaìkara catur-dige çiva-dhvani kare anucara “Thereafter the Lord went to see the manifestation of Çaìkara, whose followers were glorifying him in all directions.” TEXT 311 catur-dige säri säri ghåta-dépa jvale niravadhi abhiñeka haiteche jale “There were rows of ghee lamps in the four directions, and the Çiva-liìga was being continuously bathed with water.” TEXT 312 nija-priya-çaìkarera dekhiyä vibhava tuñöa hailena prabhu, sakala vaiñëava “The Lord and all the Vaiñëavas were pleased to see the influence of the Lord’s dear devotee Çaìkara.”
. Bhuvaneśvara Establishes Śankara-vāpī & Bindu-sarovara TEXT 313 ye caraëa-rase çiva vasana nä jäne hena prabhu nåtya kare çiva-vidyamäne “Çiva forgets to dress in the ecstasy he relishes by serving the lotus feet of that Supreme Lord who was now dancing before him.” TEXT 314 nåtya-géta çiva-agre kariyä änanda se rätri rahilä sei gräme gauracandra “After joyfully dancing and chanting before Çiva, Gauracandra passed that night in that village.” (Caitanya-bhägavata, Antya-khaëòa 2.309-2.314)
Liìgaräja Temple, Bhuvaneçvara
How Siva Came to Bhuvaneśvara TEXT 315
sei sthäna çiva päilena yena-mate sei kathä kahi skanda-puräëera mate
“I will now narrate the Skanda Puräëa description of how Çiva came to this place.” TEXT 316 käçé-madhye pürve çiva pärvaté-sahite ächilä aneka käla parama-nibhåte “Çiva and Pärvaté had previously lived for a long time in a solitary place at Käçé.”
Chapter 6 TEXT 317 tabe gauré-saha çiva gelena kailäsa nara-räja-gaëe käçé karaye viläsa “Then Çiva went to Kailäsa with Gauré, and the human kings began to rule Käçé.” TEXT 318 tabe käçéräja-näme hailä eka räjä käçépura bhoga kare kari’ çiva-püjä “There was one king named Käçiräja, who worshipped Çiva as he enjoyed the opulence of Käçé.” TEXT 319 daive äsi’ kälapäça lägila tähäre ugra-tape çiva püje kåñëe jinibäre “By providence, he became bound by the ropes of time and began worshipping Çiva through severe austerities so that he could defeat Kåñëa in battle.” The topics of Sudakñiëa, the King of Käçé, are described in the Çrémad-Bhägavatam, Tenth Canto, Chapter Sixty-six as follows: While Lord Baladeva was visiting Nanda’s Vraja, King Pauëòraka of Karüña, encouraged by fools, announced that he was the real Väsudeva and informed the Supreme Personality of Godhead Väsudeva that no one other than he himself was Väsudeva, and therefore Çré Kåñëa should give up both the name and the symbols of Väsudeva and take shelter of Pauëòraka, otherwise He should fight with him. When Ugrasena
How Śiva Came to Bhuvaneśvara and the members of his royal assembly heard Pauëòraka’s foolish boast, they all laughed heartily. Çré Kåñëa told Pauëòraka’s messenger that He would soon make that foolish king drop his artificial symbols like the Sudarçana cakra that he was presently carrying and his body would be eaten by dogs after it fell on the battlefield. Thereafter, when Kåñëa came near Käçé, Pauëòraka immediately led his army on to the battlefield with enthusiasm, and his friend Käçiräja followed him for support. Just as the fire of universal devastation burns everything in the four directions, Çré Kåñëa began to destroy the armies of Pauëòraka and Käçiräja with His weapons. Kåñëa then told Pauëòraka that He would force him to relinquish the falsely assumed name of Väsudeva, otherwise if He did not wish to fight He would surrender to Pauëòraka. After speaking these words, Kåñëa destroyed Pauëòraka’s chariot with a sharp arrow and beheaded Pauëòraka with His Sudarçana cakra. He then severed the head of Käçiräja from his body, threw it into Käçé, and returned to Dvärakä. Since Pauëòraka dressed like Çré Hari and always remembered Kåñëa, he attained liberation. When the queen, children, and relatives of Käçiräja saw his severed head, they began to cry. Thereafter, with a desire to take revenge on his father’s killer, Sudakñiëa, the son of Käçiräja, began to perform severe austerities to please Mahädeva. When Mahädeva became pleased with his austerities and desired to give him a benediction, Sudakñiëa requested the means to kill his father’s killer. Mahädeva instructed him to worship the Dakñiëägni fire according to the injunctions of the abhicära ritual. After the sacrifice was completed, a formidable fiery form appeared from the sacrificial fire pit with a fiery trident in his hand. When that demon was sent to Dvärakä, the residents of Dvärakä became frightened and approached Kåñëa, who was engaged in playing chess. Çré Kåñëa gave them His assurance and ordered Sudarçana cakra to destroy the demon created with the help of Mahädeva. When, by the influence of Sudarçana cakra the fire created by the abhicära ritual was checked, it returned to Väräëasé and burned the priests and Sudakñiëa to ashes. Sudarçana cakra then entered Väräëasé, burned the entire city, and returned to Kåñëa.
Chapter 6 TEXT 320 pratyakña hailäçiva tapera prabhäve ‘vara mäga’ balile, se räjä vara mäge “By the influence of his austerity, Çiva appeared before him and said, ‘Ask for a benediction.’ The King then asked for the following benediction.” TEXT 320 eka vara mägoì prabhu, tomära caraëe yena muïi kåñëa jinibäre päroì raëe “O Lord, I desire one benediction from you. I wish to defeat Kåñëa in battle.” TEXT 322 bholänätha çaìkarera caritra agädha ke bujhe ki-rüpe käre karena prasäda “The characteristics of Bholanätha Çaìkara are unfathomable. Who can understand what form of mercy he bestows or on whom he bestows it?” TEXT 323 täre balilena,—“räjä, cala yuddhe tumi tora päche sarva-gaëa saha ächi ämi “He said, ‘O King, you go and fight. I will follow you with my associates.’” 44
How Śiva Came to Bhuvaneśvara TEXT 324 tora jinibeka hena kära çakti äche päçupata astra lai’ muïi tora päche” “Who has the power to defeat you when I am supporting you with my Päçupata weapon?” TEXT 325 päiyäçivera bala sei müòha-mati calila hariñe yuddhe kåñëera saàhati “Being encouraged by Çiva, the foolish King happily went to fight Kåñëa.” TEXT 326 çiva calilena tära päche sarva-gaëe tära pakña hai’ yuddha karibära mane “Çiva and his associates followed him with the intention of fighting on his behalf.” TEXT 327 sarva-bhüta-antaryämé devakénandana sakala våttänta jänilena sei-kñaëa “The son of Devaké, who is the Supersoul of all living entities, immediately understood the entire situation.”
Chapter 6 TEXT 328 jäniyä våttänta nija-cakra-sudarçana eòilena kåñëacandra sabära dalana “Knowing the situation, Kåñëacandra released His Sudarçana cakra to destroy them all.” TEXT 329 käro avyahati nähi sudarçana-sthäne käçéräja-muëòa giyä käöila prathame “No one can escape the wrath of Sudarçana. It first went and cut off the head of Käçiräja.” TEXT 330-333 çeñe tära sambandhe sakala väräëasé poòäiyä sakala karila bhasma-räçi väräëasé däha dekhi’ kruddha maheçvara päçupata-astra eòilena bhayaìkara päçupata-astra ki kariba cakra-sthäne cakra-teja dekhi’ paläila sei-kñaëe çeñe maheçvara-prati yäyena dhäiyä cakra-bhaye çaìkara yäyena paläiyä “Because of that king’s offence, the Sudarçana cakra eventually burnt the entire city of Väräëasé to ashes. When Maheçvara saw 46
How Śiva Came to Bhuvaneśvara Väräëasé burn, he became so angry that he released his formidable Päçupata weapon. But what will the Päçupata weapon do before the Sudarçana cakra? It immediately fled away when it saw Sudarçana’s prowess. Sudarçana eventually went after Maheçvara, who fled away in fear of the cakra.” In the Çrémad-Bhägavatam (10.66.42) it is stated: dagdhvä väräëaséà sarväà viñëoç cakraà sudarçanam bhüyaù pärçvam upätiñöhat kåñëasyäkliñöa-karmaëaù “After burning down the entire city of Väräëasé, Lord Viñëu’s Sudarçana cakra returned to the side of Çré Kåñëa, whose actions are effortless.” TEXT 334 cakra-teje vyäpileka sakala bhuvana paläite dik nä päyena trilocana “The power of Sudarçana was felt throughout the entire world, so the three-eyed Çiva had no place to escape.” TEXT 335 pürve yena cakra-teje durväsä péòita çivera haila ebe, sei saba réta “Çiva thus fell into a predicament similar to when Durväsä previously suffered under the prowess of Sudarçana.”
Chapter 6 For a description of this incident, one should see ÇrémadBhägavatam, Ninth Canto, Chapter Four. TEXT 336 çeñe çiva bujhilena,—“sudarçana-sthäne rakñä karibeka hena nähi kåñëa vine” “Çiva ultimately realised, “There is no one other than Kåñëa who can protect me from the wrath of Sudarçana.” TEXT 337 eteka cintiyä vaiñëavägra trilocana bhaye trasta hai’ gela govinda-çaraëa “After thinking in this way, the three-eyed topmost Vaiñëava went in fear to take shelter of Govinda.” TEXT 338 “jaya jaya mahäprabhu devakénandana jaya sarva-vyäpé sarva jévera çaraëa “All glories to the Supreme Lord, Devaké-nandana! All glories to the all-pervading Lord and shelter of all living entities!” TEXT 339 jaya jaya su-buddhi ku-buddhi sarva-dätä jaya jaya srañöä, harttä, sabära rakñitä
How Śiva Came to Bhuvaneśvara “All glories to You, the bestower of both good and bad intelligence! All glories to the creator, maintainer, and annihilator of all!” TEXT 340 jaya jaya adoña-daraçi kåpä-sindhu jaya jaya santapta-janera eka bandhu “All glories to You, the ocean of mercy, who does not find faults in others! All glories to the only friend of all suffering souls!” TEXT 341 jaya jaya aparädha-bhaïjana-çaraëa doña kñama’ prabhu, tora lainu çaraëa” “All glories to You, who removes one’s offenses and gives one shelter! Please forgive my offense. I surrender unto You.” TEXT 342 çuni’ çaìkarera stava sarva-jéva nätha cakra-teja nibäriyä hailä säkñät “On hearing Çaìkara’s prayers, the Lord of all living entities stopped Sudarçana’s attack and appeared before him.” TEXT 343 catur-dike çobhä kare gopa-gopé-gaëa kichu krodha-häsya-mukhe balena vacana 49
Chapter 6 “Surrounded by the cowherd boys and girls, the Lord slightly smiled as He spoke in anger.” TEXT 344 “kene çiva, tumi ta’ jänaha mora çuddhi eta-käle tomära e-mata kene buddhi “O Çiva, you certainly know My prowess. How then did you develop such a mentality after all this time?” TEXT 345 kon kéöa käçéräja adhama nåpati tära lägi’ yuddha kara ämära saàhati “Who is this insignificant, fallen king, Käçiräja? You fought with Me for his sake?” TEXT 346 ei ye dekhaha mora cakra sudarçana tomäre o nä sahe yähära paräkrama “You saw My Sudarçana cakra, whose prowess even you cannot tolerate.” TEXT 347-348 brahma-astra päçupata-astra ädi yata parama avyartha mahä-astra ära kata
How Śiva Came to Bhuvaneśvara sudarçana-sthäne käro nähi pratikära yära astra täre cähe karite saàhära “Great infallible weapons like the brahmästra and päçupatästra are powerless before Sudarçana. When such weapons are defeated, they desire to kill their wielder.” TEXT 349 hena ta’ nä dekhi ämi saàsära-bhitara tomä’-bai ye ämäre kare anädara” “It appears that there is no one within the world who disrespects Me more than you.” TEXT 350 çuniyä prabhura kichu sakrodha uttara antare kampita baòa hailäçaìkara “After hearing the Lord’s angry words, Çaìkara began to tremble in fear.” TEXT 351 tabe çeñe dhariyä prabhura çré-caraëa karite lägila çiva ätma-nivedana “Then Çiva grabbed hold of the Lord’s lotus feet and began to speak with full surrender.”
Chapter 6 TEXT 352-353 “tomära adhéna prabhu, sakala saàsära svatantra haite çakti ächaye kähära pavane cäläya yena sükñma tåëa-gaëa ei mata asvatantra sakala bhuvana “O Lord, the entire world is under Your control. Who has the power to become independent? The people of the entire world are controlled by You like dry grass is carried by the wind.” In the Çrémad-Bhägavatam (10.63.44) it is stated: taà tvä jagat-sthity-udayänta-hetuà samaà prasäntaà suhåd-ätma-daivam ananyam ekaà jagad-ätma-ketaà bhaväpavargäya bhajäma devam “Let us worship You, the Supreme Lord, to be freed from material life. You are the maintainer of the universe and the cause of its creation and demise. Equipoised and perfectly at peace, You are the true friend, Self, and worshippable Lord. You are one without a second, the shelter of all the worlds and all souls.” One should also discuss the Mahäbhärata, Çänti-parva, Chapter 43, verse 16 and Anuçäsana-parva, Chapters 147148. In the Kaöha Upaniñad (2.2.8 and 2.3.1) it is stated: tasmin lokäùçritäù sarve tad u nätyeti kaçcana—“In Him all the worlds are situated. No one can surpass Him.”
TEXT 354 ye karäha prabhu, tumi se-i jéve kare hena kebä äche ye tomära mäyä tare 52
How Śiva Came to Bhuvaneśvara “O Lord, a living entity acts in whatever way You direct him. Who has the power to surpass Your illusory energy?” TEXT 355 viçeñe diyächa prabhu, more ahaìkära äpanäre baòa bai nähi dekhoìära “O Lord, somehow or other You have given me a false ego, and as a result I do not recognise anyone as superior to me.” False ego is produced from the mode of ignorance. By the will of the Supreme Lord, the guëa-avatära Mahädeva is invested with the power of destruction. Therefore the unauthorised philosophies propounded by the impersonalist Käçiräja, the commentator Çrékaëöha, who was a follower of the çaiva-viçiñöädvaita philosophy, and other impersonalists like Apyayi Dékñita have been completely refuted in the Çruta-prakäçikä commentary on Çré-bhäñya by Çré Sudarçanäcärya, the servant of Çré Rämänuja. Yet while raising its head later on the philosophy of çaivaviçiñöädvaita was out of misfortune smashed into pieces by the weapon of Sudarçana in the form of the çuddha-viçiñöädvaita philosophy. mäyävädam asac-chästraà pracchannaà bauddham ucyate mayaiva vihitaà devi kalau brähmaëa-mürtinä “In the Age of Kali I take the form of a brähmaëa and explain the Vedas through false scriptures in an atheistic way, similar to Buddhist philosophy.” The activities mentioned in this verse describe the mission of the predominating deity of the false ego. But Çré Viñëusvämé, who was engaged in the service of the Supreme Lord, took shelter at the lotus feet of Çré Rudra, his spiritual master, in such a way that he restored the spiritual ego in place of all forms of mundane false ego.”
Chapter 6 TEXT 356 tomära mäyäya more karäya durgati ki karimu prabhu, muïi asvatantra mati “Your illusory energy bewilders me. O Lord, what shall I do? I have no independence.” It is stated: ‘mäyädhéça’ ‘mäyä-vaça’– éçvare-jéve bheda – “The Lord is the master of the potencies, and the living entity is the servant of them. That is the difference between the Lord and the living entity.” Therefore even though Lord Çiva is addressed by the name Bhagavän, he is a subordinate devotee of the eternal Lord Viñëu.
TEXT 357 tora päda-padma mora ekänta jévana araëye thäkiba cinti’ tomära caraëa “Your lotus feet are my only life and soul. I will live in the forest and remember Your lotus feet.” TEXT 358 tathäpiha more se laoyäo ahaìkära muïi ki kariba prabhu, ye icchä tomära “Still You invest me with false ego. What can I do, O Lord, that is Your desire.” In the Çrémad-Bhägavatam (2.10.12) it is stated:
How Śiva Came to Bhuvaneśvara dravyaà karma ca kälaç ca svabhävo jéva eva ca yad-anugrahataù santi na santi yad-upekñayä “One should definitely know that all material ingredients, activities, time and modes, and the living entities who are meant to enjoy them all, exist by His mercy only, and as soon as He does not care for them, everything becomes nonexistent.” And in the Çrémad-Bhägavatam (10.88.3) it is stated: çivaùçakti-yutaùçaçvat tri-liìgo guëa-saàvåtaù vaikärikas taijasaç ca tämasaç cety ahaà tridhä “Lord Çiva is always united with his personal energy, the material nature. Manifesting himself in three features in response to the entreaties of nature’s three modes, he thus embodies the threefold principle of material ego in goodness, passion, and ignorance.”
TEXT 359 tathäpiha prabhu, muïi kailuì aparädha sakala kñamiyä more karaha prasäda “Still, O Lord, I have committed an offense. Please forgive me and bestow Your mercy on me.” TEXT 360 e-mata kubuddhi mora yena ära nahe ei vara deha’ prabhu haiyä sadaye “O Lord, kindly give me the benediction that I may never develop such evil mentality again.”
Chapter 6 TEXT 361 yena aparädha kailuì kari’ ahaìkära haila tähära çästi, çeña nähi ära “I was punished appropriately for the offense I committed under the influence of false ego.” TEXT 362 ebe äjïä kara prabhu, thäkimu kothäya tomä’—bai ära vä baliba kära päya” “Now, O Lord, please instruct me. Where should I reside? Who can I ask other than You?” TEXT 363 çuni’ çaìkarera väkya éñat häsiyä balite lägilä prabhu kåpä-yukta haiyä “On hearing Çaìkara’s words, the Lord smiled and spoke to him with compassion.” TEXT 364 çuna çiva, tomäre diläìa divya-sthäna sarva-goñöhé saha tathä karaha payäna “Listen, Çiva, I am giving you a divine place. Go and live there with your associates.”
How Śiva Came to Bhuvaneśvara TEXT 365 ekämraka-vana-näma-sthäna manohara tathäya haibä tumi koöi-liìgeçvara “The name of that enchanting place is Ekämraka-vana. You will reside there as Koöé-liìgeçvara.” TEXT 366 seha väräëasé-präya suramya nagaré sei-sthäne ämära parama gopyapuré “That place is as pleasing as Väräëasé. I also reside there in a most confidential place.” TEXT 367 sei sthäna çiva, äji kahi tomä’-sthäne se puréra marma mora keha nähi jäne “O Çiva, today I revealed to you the glories of that place. No one else knows the secrets of that place.” TEXT 368 sindhu-tére vaöa-müle `néläcala’ näma kñetra-çré-puruñottama-ati ramya-sthäna “On the shore of the ocean beneath one banyan tree is the most enchanting place named Néläcala, which is also known as Çré Puruñottama-kñetra.” 57
The glories of Çré Puruñottama-kñetra (Jagannätha Puré) are described in the Padma Puräëa, Kriyä-yoga-sära, Eleventh Chapter, as follows: lavaëämbho-nidhes tére puruñottama-saàjïakam puraà tad brähmaëa-çreñöha svargäd api su-durlabham “On the shore of the saltwater ocean is the sacred city named Puruñottama. O best of the brähmaëas, it is more difficult to attain than even heaven.” svayam asti pure tasmin yataù çré-puruñottamaù puruñottamam ity uktaà tasmät tan näma-kovidaiù “Because the divine Personality of Godhead is directly present in that city, it is called Puruñottama by those who are expert knowers of names.” kñetraà tad durlabhaà vipra samantäd daça-yojanam tatra-sthä dehino devair dåçyante ca catur-bhujäù “O brähmaëa, that rarely achieved holy district measures ten yojanas on all sides. The embodied living beings who reside there are seen by the demigods as having four arms.” praviçantas tu tat kñetraà sarve syur viñëu-mürtayaù tasmäd vicäraëä tatra na kartavyä vicakñaëaiù “Everyone who enters that holy district assumes a form like that of Lord Viñëu. Those who have discrimination need not be concerned at all about the truth of this.” caëòälenäpi saàspåñöaà grähyaà tatrännam agrajaiù
How Śiva Came to Bhuvaneśvara säkñäd viñëur yatas tatra caëòälo ‘pi dvijottamaù “Even if the food of that place has been touched by a caëòäla, it may be accepted by superior persons. Because Lord Viñëu Himself is in that food, even such a caëòäla is counted among the best of the twice born.” tatränna-päcikä lakñméù svayaà bhoktä janärdanaù tasmät tad annaà viprarñe daivatair api durlabham “The cook who has prepared that food is Lakñmé, and the enjoyer of that food is Lord Janärdana Himself. Therefore, O sage among the brähmaëas, that food is difficult for even the demigods to obtain.” hari-bhuktävaçiñöaà tat pavitraà bhuvi durlabham annaà ye bhuïjate martyäs teñäà muktir na durlabhä “That food, the remnants of Lord Hari, is purifying and is rarely achieved in this world. For mortals who eat it, liberation is not at all difficult to achieve.” brahmädyäs tridaçäù sarve tad annam ati-durlabham bhuïjate nityam ädåtya manuñyäëäà ca kä kathä “That food is very difficult to obtain for all the demigods headed by Brahmä. Whenever they get it, they eat it with great respect. What to speak then of ordinary mortals?” na yasya ramate cittaà tasminn anne su-durlabhe tam eva viñëu-dveñöäraà prähuù sarve maharñayaù “If someone’s heart does not take pleasure in that rarely obtained food, all the great sages call him an enemy of Lord Viñëu.”
Chapter 6 pavitraà bhuvi sarvatra yathä gaìgä-jalaà dvija tathä pavitraà sarvatra tad annaà päpa-näçanam “As the Ganges water purifies the entire earth, O brähmaëa, so that food purifies all places and destroys all sins.” tad annaà komalaà divyaà yadyapi dvija-sattama tathäpi vajra-tulyaà syät päpa-parvata-däraëe “O best of the brähmaëas, although that divine food is very tender, it acts like a thunderbolt in shattering one’s mountain of sins.” pürvärjitäni päpäni kñayaà yäsyanti yasya vai bhaktiù pravartate tasminn anne tasya su-durlabhe “One whose sinful reactions earned from previous lives have been eradicated develops devotion for that difficult to obtain food.” bahu-janmärjitaà puëyaà yasya yäsyati saìkñayam tasminn anne dvija-çreñöha tasya bhaktiù pravartate “And someone whose pious reactions earned over many lifetimes have become depleted also develops devotion for that food, O best of the brähmaëas.”
TEXT 369 ananta brahmäëòa käle yakhana saàhäre tabu se sthänera kichu karite nä päre “At the time of the annihilation of the unlimited universes, that place remains intact.”
How Śiva Came to Bhuvaneśvara TEXT 370 sarva-käla sei sthäne ämära vasati prati-dina ämära bhojana haya tathi “I eternally reside at that place, and I eat there every day.” (Caitanya-bhägavata, Antya -khaëòa 2.316-2.370, with purports by Çréla Bhaktisiddhänta Sarasvaté Öhäkura Prabhupäda)
Lord Jagannätha Temple, Jagannätha Puré
Auspicious Place in the World TEXT 371-372 se sthänera prabhäve yojana daça bhümi tähäte vasaye yata jantu, kéöa, kåmi sabäre dekhaye catur-bhuja deva-gaëe ‘bhuvana-maìgala’ kari’ kahiye ye sthäne
“By the influence of that place, all living entities – even the animals, insects, and worms – who live within ten yojanas1 of that place are seen by the demigods as having four arms. That place is said to be the most auspicious place in the world.” 1. One yojana equals eight miles. Thus ten yojana equals eighty miles or 128 km.
Chapter 7 TEXT 373 nidräte o ye sthäne samädhi-phala haya çayane praëäma-phala yathä vede kaya “The Vedas declare that by sleeping at that place one obtains the results of samädhi, and by lying down there one obtains the results of offering obeisances.” TEXT 374 pradakñiëa-phala päya karile bhramaëa kathä mätra yathä haya ämära stavana “By wandering about that place, one obtains the result of circumambulation. Every word spoken at that place is a prayer offered to Me.” TEXT 375 hena se kñetrera ati prabhäva nirmala matsya khäile o päya haviñyera phala “The influence of that place is so sanctified, that one attains the result of eating haviñya rice even by eating fish.” It is stated [in the Manu-saàhitä]: matsyädaù sarva-mäàsädas-tasmän matsyän vivarjayet –“One who eats fish is considered to have eaten all forms of meat. Therefore one should not eat fish.” According to this scriptural statement, one who eats fish incurs the sin of eating the flesh of all types of living entities. Therefore since fish is most abominable, it must not be eaten.
The Most Auspicious Place in the World
Haviñya rice, or boiled sunned rice and ghee, is most pure. It is not abominable in any way. One’s contemplation on Mukunda always remains strong while living in Çré-kñetra even if one eats extremely abominable foods, for the living entity there loses the sinful desire to eat abominable foods like fish, and the remnants of Lord Viñëu appear to him as relishable and more sanctified than haviñya rice. Misguided inhabitants of the ten yojana abode of the Lord who do not understand the purport of the Puräëas have openly introduced the practice of eating foods like dry fish. If they renounce the eating of abominable foods like fish, they will be able to chant the name of Hari. Although haviñya rice is in the mode of goodness, it is not equal to transcendental mahä-prasäda. By honouring transcendental mahä-prasäda one attains pure devotional service to Kåñëa.
TEXT 376 nija-näme sthäna mora hena priyatama tähäte yateka vaise, se ämära sama “That abode, which bears My name, is very dear to Me. Everyone who resides there is equal to Me.” TEXT 377 se sthäne nähika yama-daëòa-adhikära ämi kari bhäla-manda-vicära sabära “Yamaräja has no jurisdiction to punish anyone of that place. I alone judge the pious and impious activities of everyone there.”
Chapter 7 TEXT 378 hena se ämära puré, tähära uttare tomäre diläìa sthäna rahibära tare “I am giving you a place to stay north of that abode of Mine. The place north of Néläcala within the ten yojana area is Bhuvaneçvara.” TEXT 379 bhukti-mukti-prada sei sthäna manohara tathä tumi khyäta haibä ‘çré-bhuvaneçvara’” “That enchanting place awards material enjoyment and liberation. You will be renowned there as ‘Çré Bhuvaneçvara’.” The phrase bhukti-mukti-prada is explained as follows: After people attain material enjoyment or liberation they become suitable candidates for worshipping the Supreme Lord. Another reading for bhukti-muktiprada is bhakti-mukti-prada, or “the bestower of liberation in the form of devotional service.” In this case, devotional service will be considered an adjective, as devotional service alone is the actual liberation of the living entities.
TEXT 380 çuniyä adbhuta puré-mahimäçaìkara punaùçré-caraëa dhari’ karilä uttara “After Çaìkara heard the wonderful glories of Jagannätha Puré, he again grabbed hold of the Lord’s lotus feet and spoke.”
The Most Auspicious Place in the World TEXT 381 çuna präëa-nätha, mora eka nivedana muïi se parama ahaìkåta sarva-kñaëa “O Lord of my life, I have one request. I am always extremely proud.” TEXT 382 eteke tomäre chäòi’ ämi anya sthäne thäkile kuçala mora nähika kakhane “Therefore it will never be good for me to live away from Your association.” TEXT 383 tomära nikaöe thäki sabe mora mana duñöa-saìga-doñe bhäla nähika kakhana “I have a desire to reside near You. It is never good to remain in bad association.” TEXT 384 eteke ämäre yadi thäke bhåtya-jïäna tabe nija-kñetre more deha’ eka sthäna “Therefore, if You consider me Your servant, please give me a place to stay in Your own abode.”
Chapter 7 TEXT 385 kñetrera mahimäçuni’ çré-mukhe tomära baòa icchä haila tathä thäkite ämära “After hearing the glories of Your abode from Your lotus mouth, I have developed an intense desire to live there.” TEXT 386 nikåñöa haiyä prabhu, sevimu tomäre tathäya tileka sthäna deha’ prabhu, more “I will serve You as a menial servant. O Lord, please give me a tiny place.” TEXT 387 kñetra-väsa-prati mora baòa laya mana” eta bali’ maheçvara karena krandana “I desire to live in Your sacred abode.” After speaking these words, Maheçvara began to cry.” TEXT 388 çiva-väkye tuñöa hai’ çré-candra-vadana balite lägilä täìre kari’ äliìgana “The moon-faced Lord was pleased with Çiva’s words. He then embraced Çiva and spoke as follows.”
The Most Auspicious Place in the World TEXT 389 “çuna çiva, tumi mora nija-deha sama ye tomära priya, se mohära priyatama “Listen, Çiva. You are equal to My own body. Anyone who is dear to you is also dear to Me.” The meaning of the phrase mohära priyatama can be understood from Çréla Jéva Gosvämé’s following statement in the Bhakti-sandarbha (216): çuddha-bhaktäùçré-guro çréçivasya ca bhagavatä saha abheda-dåñtià-tat-priyatamatvenaiva manyante “Whenever the scriptures describe the spiritual master and Lord Çiva as being nondifferent from Kåñëa, pure devotees understand that this is because of their being most dear to Çré Kåñëa.”
TEXT 390 yathä tumi, tathä ämi, ithe nähi äna sarva-kñetre tomäre diläìa ämi sthäna “I am present wherever you are. There is no doubt about it. I am giving you a place in all of My abodes.” TEXT 391 kñetrera pälaka tumi sarvathä ämära sarva-kñetre tomäre diläma adhikära
Chapter 7 “You will be the sole maintainer of My abodes. I authorise you to do this.” Because after Mahädeva received a place to reside in Ekämrakakñetra he prayed that he be allowed to live wherever the Lord stays, Mahädeva was appointed the maintainer of all of Viñëu’s abodes.
TEXT 392 ekämraka-vana ye tomäre dila ämi tähäte o paripürëa-rüpe thäka tumi “You reside to your full satisfaction in the Ekämraka-vana that I gave you.” TEXT 393 sei kñetra ämära parama priya sthäna mora préte tathäya thäkibe sarva-kñaëa “That place is most dear to Me. Always reside there for My pleasure.” TEXT 394 ye ämära bhakta hai tomä’ anädare se ämäre mätra yena viòambanä kare” “If one of My devotees disrespects you, he simply creates disturbance for Me.” Mahädeva was instructed to live in Bhuvaneçvara-kñetra to his full satisfaction. No devotee of Viñëu should disrespect him. Anyone who
The Most Auspicious Place in the World does so will fall from the devotional service of the Supreme Lord. This benediction was given to Mahädeva.
TEXT 395 hena mate çiva päilena sei sthäna adyäpiha vikhyäta-bhuvaneçvara-näma “In this way Çiva obtained that place. Even today that place is celebrated by the name Bhuvaneçvara.” TEXT 396 çiva-priya baòa kåñëa tähä bujhäite nåtya kare gauracandra çivera säkñäte “Gauracandra danced before Çiva to reveal that Çiva is most dear to Kåñëa.” The spiritual master and Mahädeva are both extremely dear to the Supreme Lord. The devotees of Çiva have obtained the service of the eight-armed Supreme Lord. But those who consider demigods like Çiva to be independent commit an offence at the feet of the Supreme Lord.
TEXT 397 yata kichu kåñëa kahiyächena puräëe ebe tähä dekhäyena säkñäte äpane “Whatever Kåñëa spoke in the Puräëas was now directly demonstrated.”
Chapter 7 TEXT 398 ‘çiva räma govinda’ baliyä gaura-räya häte täli diyä nåtya karena sadäya “Lord Gaura clapped His hands as He continuously danced and chanted, ‘Çiva, Räma, Govinda!’” TEXT 399 äpane bhuvaneçvara giyä gauracandra çiva-püjä karilena lai bhakta-vånda “Gauracandra personally visited Bhuvaneçvara with His devotees and worshipped Çiva.” In his book Saìkalpa-kalpa-druma, Çré Viçvanätha Cakravarté Öhäkura has written as follows: våndävanävani-pate jaya soma-somamaule sanandana-sanätana-näradeòya gopéçvara vraja-viläsi-yugäìghri-padme prétià prayaccha nitaräà nirupadhikäà me “O protector of Våndävana, all glories to you! O husband of Pärvaté, O you whose head is decorated with the moon and who is worshipped by sages like Sanaka, Sanandana, Sanätana, and Närada! O Gopéçvara, I pray that you bestow upon me uninterrupted, unalloyed love for the lotus feet of the divine couple, who enjoy pastimes in Vraja.” Ignorant people who do not understand either Mahädeva’s glorious service to Kåñëa or the actual purport of some Puräëic incidents think
The Most Auspicious Place in the World that Çiva is worshipped as the supreme controller by viñëu-tattvas like Räma and lakñmés like Sétä, and therefore Rudra is certainly the independent Supreme Lord and Lord Viñëu is subordinate to the Supreme Lord Rudra. Some people consider that Viñëu is equal to Rudra or that Viñëu is another name of Rudra, and they thus try to synthesise without authority. But all Vedic literatures have refuted their philosophy as follows: yas tu näräyaëaà devaà brahma-rudrädi-daivataiù samatvenaiva vékñeta sa päñaëòé bhaved dhruvam “A person who considers demigods like Brahmä and Çiva to be on an equal level with Näräyaëa is to be considered an offender, or päñaëòé.” In the Mahäbhärata narration regarding Upamanyu it is said that Çré Kåñëa performed austerities to please Rudra for the sake of Jämbavaté’s son and that all the demigods and Viñëu emanated from Rudra. But where is the justification for this conclusion? The understanding of those who conclude in this way without realising the actual purport of the scriptures is extremely crude. The reason for this is that the scriptures describe that when Rudra was fighting on behalf of King Bäëa, he was defeated by Viñëu and he then glorified Viñëu as the original Personality of Godhead. He was also bewildered by Mohiné, saved from the hands of Våkäsura, and delivered from the sin of killing a brähmaëa. The reason why Lord Viñëu sometimes displays the pastime of worshipping Rudra is described in the scriptures as follows: In the Siddhänta-ratna, Third Päda, texts 22, 23, 26, 27 it is stated: “By displaying the pastime of worshipping His own form as Rudra, Lord Viñëu taught the worship of Rudra not to His own sincere devotees but to the insincere living entities who desire religiosity, economic
Chapter 7 development, sense gratification, and liberation. This fact has been confirmed by the Lord Himself when He spoke in the Näräyaëéya to Arjuna as follows: ‘O Arjuna, I am the soul of the universe. My worship of Rudra is worship of My own Self. Whatever I do, common people follow. Examples set by Me should be followed. That is why I worship Rudra. Viñëu does not offer obeisances to any demigod. I worship Rudra, considering him to be My own Self. I am the indwelling Supersoul of the entire universe. I worship My own partial expansion, Rudra, who is nondifferent from Me as molten iron is nondifferent from fire. I have set the standard that the demigods headed by Rudra should be worshiped. If I did not set the example of worshipping Rudra, then people would not follow that standard. Therefore I teach the worship of My servants through My personal behaviour. There is no one greater than or equal to Me. Therefore, since I am the greatest, I do not worship anyone. But since Rudra is My partial expansion I display the example of worshipping Rudra and other demigods to teach ordinary people.’ In this connection Brahmä told Rudra that Viñëu alone is the Supersoul of everyone including Brahmä and Rudra. He said, ‘Lord Viñëu is the Supersoul of you, me, and all other embodied living entities. No one can restrict Him within the confines of their mundane knowledge.’ “If simply because Çré Rämacandra displayed the pastime of worshipping Lord Çiva to teach the worship of that great Vaiñëava, Çiva should be considered the Supreme Lord and Rämacandra should be considered subordinate, then since Çré Rämacandra worshipped the ocean, the ocean should also be considered the Supreme Lord. It should be understood that whenever the associates of the Supreme Lord have enacted the pastime of worshipping demigods, their purpose was to teach the worship of the demigods, who are subordinate to Viñëu. It is the pastime of the Lord’s associates to teach, ‘all demigods are subordinate to Viñëu,’ yet such worship should never be accepted as the ultimate conclusion. Lord Viñëu is certainly the controller of everyone. His activity of maintaining the universe, like Brahmä’s activity of creation and Rudra’s activity of annihilation, and His interaction with the demigods is just like a king’s interaction with thieves. Actually
The Most Auspicious Place in the World Brahmä and Rudra create and annihilate only after being empowered by Viñëu. Therefore Lord Viñëu is certainly eternally worshippable to all the demigods headed by Brahmä and Rudra.” It further stated in the Siddhänta-ratna, Third Päda, texts 13-14: “In the Skanda Puräëa it is stated that Lord Viñëu kept some names like Näräyaëa for Himself, and He gave some names like Brahmä and Rudra to the demigods. As a king gives villages other than his own capitol to his ministers and servants for their residence, the supremely independent Personality of Godhead Viñëu also gives names other than a few special ones to the demigods for their use. “Rudra is known for deriding the desire for liberation and for having a fierce form. Therefore it is stated in the Çrémad-Bhägavatam (1.2.26): mumukñavo ghora-rüpän hitvä bhüta-patén atha näräyaëa-kaläùçäntä bhajanti hy anasüyavaù ‘Those who are serious about liberation are certainly nonenvious, and they respect all. Yet they reject the horrible and ghastly forms of the demigods and worship only the all-blissful forms of Lord Viñëu and His plenary portions.’” It has already been shown by quoting Vyäsadeva’s words and it has been proved by quoting the Puräëic incident mentioned in Çré Caitanyabhägavata that Çré Bhuvaneçvara should not be seen as a fierce form of Rudra or as an ordinary liìga. In the consideration of pure Vaiñëavas, Çré Bhuvaneçvara is most dear to Kåñëa and is therefore nondifferent from Kåñëa. The Çré Rüpänuga Vaiñëavas consider Çré Bhuvaneçvara in the form of Çré Gopäliné-çakti and pray to him for the service of the divine young couple, Çré Çré Rädhä-Govinda.
TEXT 400 çikñä-guru éçvarera çikñä ye nä mäne nija-doñe duùkha päya sei saba jane 75
Chapter 7 “Those who do not follow the teachings of the Supreme Lord, who is the instructing spiritual master of all, suffer miseries because of their own faults.” TEXT 401 sei çiva-gräme prabhu bhakta-vånda-saìge çiva-liìga dekhi’ dekhi’ bhramilena raìge “In that abode of Çiva, the Lord and His associates happily wandered about seeing the Çiva-liìgas.” Of the deities situated within the walls of the temple, Ekämrakaçiva is situated at the base of the mango tree and is facing west. North of the mango tree is a Çiva-liìga named Ugreçvara, who is the chief of eleven hundred thousand liìgas. Beyond him is Viçveçvara-liìga. West of Gaëanätha are Nandé and Mahäkäla. These two were worshipped by Citragupta, so they are also known as Citragupteça. Nearby is Sabareçvara-liìga. In the southwest is Laòòukeçvara Çiva, the chief of nine hundred thousand liìgas. Near him is Çakreçvara Çiva. Bindu-sarovara, Ananta Väsudeva, Puruñottama, Padaharä, Tértheçvara, and Bhuvaneçvara, who is the combination of eight forms, are found in the first of eight concentric rings. Kapila-kuëòa, Päpanäçana-kuëòa, Maitreça, and Väruëeça are situated in the second ring. Beyond this is Päpanäçana-tértha. South of Päpanäçana-kuëòa is Éçäneçvara Çiva. Northwest of him is Yameçvara-liìga. Gaìgeçvara-liìga is situated in the third concentric ring. Gaìgä and Yamunä flow a short distance northeast of there. In the Satya-yuga, Gaìgä and Yamunä flowed there slowly with a desire to see Bhuvaneçvara and offered prayers to Bhuvaneçvara by chanting mantras from the four Vedas. When Bhuvaneçvara was satisfied by their prayers and asked what they desired, they expressed their desire to live eternally in Ekämraka-kñetra. Çré Bhuvaneçvara then awarded them a place in
The Most Auspicious Place in the World the southeast. By taking bath in these two térthas – Gaìgä and Yamunä one attains devotional service to Viñëu, the result of taking bath in the Gaìgä and Yamunä. There is also a place known as Devé-pada-tértha in this third ring. We have already described the Puräëic incident regarding this Devé-pada-tértha. The beautiful lake that Pärvatédevé created after killing the two demons Kåtti and Väsa is renowned as Devé-pada-tértha. By taking bath in that Devé-pada-tértha and worshipping Gopäliné on the eighth day of the waxing moon in the month of Phälguna one attains one’s desired results. Southeast of this tértha Çré Lakñmédevé established a liìga in a temple constructed by Viçvakarmä. That liìga is known as Lakñméçvara. In the fourth ring, Koöé-tértha and Koöéçvara are situated. When the demigods attempted to construct temples in Bhuvaneçvara, Çré Bhuvaneçvara ordered them through a voice in the sky to perform a sacrifice in the northeast corner. When the demigods followed his order by constructing temples, establishing deities, performing fire sacrifices, and offering prayers, Bhuvaneçvara was pleased and decided to give them a benediction. The demigods then prayed that their sacrificial pit would become a tértha, and their desire was fulfilled. This place is renowned as Koöé-tértha. By taking bath in this Koöé-tértha, one attains the supreme destination. In the fourth ring, the Çiva-liìga known as Svarëa-jaleçvara is situated. This Svarëa-jaleçvara-liìga is situated 70 dhanu, or 280 cubits (a cubit is about a foot and a half), northeast of Bindu-sarovara. Near this liìga there is a kuëòa, the water of which is used for bathing the liìga. There is a Svarneçvara-liìga within that kuëòa. Sureçvara-tértha, which measures 200 cubits in diameter, is situated four hundred cubits northeast of Bhuvaneçvara. Sureçvara Mahädeva is situated there. Nearby are Siddheçvara, Mukteçvara, Svarëa-jaleçvara, Parameçvara, Ämrätakeçvara, Brahmeçvara, Megheçvara, Kedäreçvara, Cakreçvara, Viçveçvara, and Kapileçvara. By worshipping these liìgas one attains devotional service to Viñëu. Southeast of Siddheçvara is the famous Kedäreçvara, a Çiva-liìga that faces south. East of Siddheçvara is Cakreçvara Çiva, and beyond that is Yajïeçvara, or Indreçvara, Çiva.
Chapter 7 The demigods worshipped that liìga out of devotion to Viñëu and had Viçvakarmä construct a temple. As a result, Bhuvaneça (Viñëu) became pleased and gave them the benediction that this liìga would be known as Siddheçvara, because Çiva, who is very dear to Viñëu, was directly present in that liìga and would award perfection in the worship of Viñëu. Siddhäçrama, which awards perfection, is situated 800 cubits from the Siddheçvara-liìga. Near Siddhäçrama is Mukteçvara Çiva. Near Mukteçvara is Siddha-kuëòa, and south of Siddha-kuëòa is Puëyakuëòa. South of Siddheçvara is Kedäradeva, with Gaurédevé situated by his side. Near Gaurédevé is Gauré-kuëòa. Since Himälaya worshipped that liìga, it became known as Hema-kedära. Streams of crystal clear water emanate west, south, and north of this liìga. In front of this selfmanifested liìga is a Bhava-péöha. Near this Bhava-péöha there are three Rudra-liìgas – Çänti-çiva, Çänta-çiva, and Daityeçvara – who were worshipped by the Maruts. Hiraëyakaçipu heard a voice from the sky say, “Worship Daityeçvara-çiva, who is generally worshipped by the Daityas and who is situated west of Siddheçvara.” East of Siddheçvara is Indreçvara, who was worshipped by Indra. In the fifth concentric ring there is Brahmeçvara-liìga and Brahma-kuëòa, which appeared during the sacrifice performed by Brahmä. Four hundred forty cubits northeast (a little southeast) past Kåtti-Väsa is Gokarëeçvara. Suñeëa and Gokarëäsura worshipped this liìga. Near this liìga are Utpaleçvara and Ämrätakeçvara liìgas. In the sixth ring Megheçvara-liìga is situated. Since this liìga, which is 6800 cubits northeast of kalpa-våkña, was established and worshipped by the clouds (megha), this liìga became renowned as Megheçvara. West of Megheçvara is Bhäskareçvara-liìga, which was worshipped by Bhäskara, the sun-god. Mahädeva and Sürya are perpetually worshipped six thousand cubits past this place. Three thousand two hundred cubits west of Bhäskareçvara is Kapäla-mocanaçiva. In the seventh ring is Aläbu-tértha. When one brähmaëa friend of Indra performed austerities for one thousand years of the demigods, Bhuvaneça became pleased with him and awarded him the benediction that his begging bowl and waterpot (made of aläbu, or squash) would transform into a tértha. When the Lord touched that waterpot, it turned into a divine lake. South of this lake is Auttareça. Auttareçvara is
The Most Auspicious Place in the World situated west of Kedäreçvara. This three-eyed liìga is effulgent, marked with the impression of the moon on his forehead, decorated with a garland of planets and stars, smeared with the ashes from a funeral pyre, decorated with snakes, endowed with a fierce face, and naked. Near this Auttareçvara-liìga there are three witches who are fond of flesh and blood, who are fully intoxicated, who have crooked reddish eyes, and who are fond of singing and playing instruments. It is heard that Vasiñöha and Vämadeva live at this place. Near this place there is a liìga named Bhémeça, who takes away everyone’s fear. In the eighth ring there is a Räma-kuëòa, also called Açoka-jhara, which appeared from the Açvamedha (horse) sacrifice. Within this ring are liìgas like Rämeçvara, Séteçvara, Hanumadéçvara, Lakñmaëéçvara, Bharateçvara, Çatrughneçvara, Laveçvara, and Gosahasreçvara.
TEXT 402 parama nibhåta eka dekhi’ çiva-sthäna sukhé hailäçré-gaurasundara bhagavän “When Çré Gaurasundara saw a temple of Çiva in a most solitary place, He became joyful.” TEXT 403 sei gräme yateka ächaye devälaya saba dekhilena çré-gauräìga mahäçaya “Lord Gauräìga visited all the temples in that place.” (Caitanya-bhägavata, Antya-khaëòa 2.371-2.403, with purports by Çréla Bhaktisiddhänta Sarasvaté Öhäkura Prabhupäda Prabhupäda)
The Glories of
ŚrĪ Bhuvaneśvara and Bindu-sarovara
réla Prabhupāda did not think to build a temple in Jagannātha Puré. He wanted to construct one at the entrance, in Bhuvaneśvara Dhäma. This is significant. Mahāprabhu entered Çrī-kṣetra through this same gate. He visited the Liṅgarāja Temple of Lord Śiva. He and the devotees did kīrtana and danced there. They bathed in Bindusarovara, the place where Śivajī called all the celestial rivers to gather. Mahäprabhu taught how Lord Çiva is a great devotee. Çiva is kṣetra-pāla, the guardian of the dhāma. Before entering, you must see him and ask his permission. Otherwise you cannot enter. So one should beg his permission. And Śivajī will welcome the devotee with folded hands, saying, ‘Please come and see Jagannātha.’” — Excerpt from Chapter 2 Śrīla Gour Govinda Swami Mahārāja
TAT T VA V I C A R A P U B L I C AT I O N S
Śrīla Prabhupāda did not think to build a temple in Jagannātha Purī. He wanted to construct one at the entrance, in Bhuvaneśvara Dhāma. This...
Published on Sep 8, 2018
Śrīla Prabhupāda did not think to build a temple in Jagannātha Purī. He wanted to construct one at the entrance, in Bhuvaneśvara Dhāma. This...