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Entrepreneurship, Innovation and Initiatives

ISSUE 6, 1/2015

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ISSUE 6

TVERGASTEIN

9/2015

Editorial board: Kaja Aas Ahnfelt, Piper Donlin, Jonathan Frænkel-Eidse, Despina Gleitsmann, Kaja Elise Gresko, Vendula Hurníková, Charlotte Lilleby Kildal and Marcela Oliveira Svoren, Sean Michael Thompson. Design: Magnus Wittersø Front page photo: Rikke Grytemark Brekke Printer: Grøset Trykkeri Circulation: 1000 Editorial review finished: 30th of June 2015 Date of publication: 15th of September 2015 ISSN number (online): ISSN 1893-5834 ISSN number (print): ISSN 1893-5605 Tvergastein has two annual issues and is distributed for free at UiO, NMBU and several other locations. A digital version can be found at our webpage: www.tvergastein.com We would like to extend our sincere gratitude and thanks to Rikke Grytemark Brekke & Magnus Wittersø for lending us their photographs as well as to our sponsors: UiO Energi, Kulturstyret, Arne Næss Chair, and The Centre for Development and the Environment (SUM). Address: Tvergastein, co/SUM, Postboks 1116 Blindern 0317 OSLO E-mail: tvergastein@sum.uio.no Web: www.tvergastein.com Facebook: facebook.com/tvergastein Twitter: @tvergastein Tvergastein accepts submissions in two categories: Shorter op-ed pieces (2,000 - 5,000 characters) and longer articles (10,000 20,000 characters), in either English or Norwegian.


CONTENTS

·8· Leaving the Box — Tvergastein Board of Editors

· 28 · LONG LIVE JEANS! — Jonathan Frænkel-Eidse

· 12 · Bærekraft som Konkurransefortrinn — Inger Solberg

· 34 · A Dizzying Spin on Green Growth — Ingun Grimstad Klepp and Tone Skårdal Tobiasson

· 20 ·

· 42 ·

Thinking beyond

Samarbeid er lik bærekraft, Om

the Box

entreprenørskap og sterke fellesskap

Karina Standal

Anniken Fjelberg

4


CONTENTS

· 48 ·

· 78 ·

The Lung of Phnom Penh

Music for Change

Maya Laitinen

Maria Daniela Ricaurte

· 54 · Gambiarra: Repair Culture — Felipe Fonseca

· 86 · Samfunnsansvar som driver for ny vekst — Øystein Hagen, Mads Bruun Høy og Jeppe Sondov · 64 · Beyond the Garden Fence — Annelies Zwaan

· 70 · Living with Zero Waste

· 94 ·

KAKIWIN TUTUNAKU: Welcome to

Kaja Ahnfelt

the Hill with Three Hearts — Itzel Anahí López Laínez

5


CONTENTS

· 110 · To Think Outside the Box, Go out of the Building — Torill Bye Wilhelmsen

· 100 ·

LO C AL I N I T I AT I V E S — Question & Answer Feature · 118 · Fremtidslandet og ideene som skaper det — Helga Øvsthus Tønder

· 106 · Regenerative Entrepreneurship : Entrepreneurship for Our Complex World — Eric R. Sannerud

· 122 · Design as a Dialogical Process: A Social Dialogue Tool to Perform Innovation in a Complex Environment — Luciano Tardin & Marcus Vinícius Fonseca

6


CONTENTS

· 126 ·

· 148 ·

SUM 25th Jubilee

The Elitization of Space through Tourism Development in Nicaragua

Master’s Students Feature

Anna G. Sveinsdóttir

Editorial Board

· 152 · · 128 ·

Grønne reiser og

Teaching Solutions: Innovation in Academia?

klimakrisens alvor

Interview with Dan Banik

Torbjørn Tumyr Nilsen

Sean Michael Thompson · 158 · State Entrepreneurship and · 132 ·

Innovation in China

Happy Anniversary, SUM!

Marius Korsnes

Heidi Bade

· 164 · · 134 ·

Reflections on the Program,

Practicing, Not Just Preaching

my Thesis, and your Country

Ingerid Salvesen

Beck Roan

· 142 ·

· 166 ·

Sustainable Development Reconsidered.

Contributors to Issue #6

The Science, the Profit and the Class Society:

A Case of Genetic Modification of Food

Editorial Board

Marija Holm Radovanovic

Call for Papers — Thanks to the Contributors

7


EDITORIAL

Entrepreneurship, Innovation and Initiatives

8


TVERGASTEIN BOARD OF EDITORS

Within recent years, there has been much talk about the serious environmental and social problems our current status quo poses. The discussions around how to solve these issues spans from eating locally to subsidizing electric cars, education campaigns to installing solar panels. This being said, the environmental movement tends to demonize the private sector for their “profit over people” mentality and there is often a tension between economic profitability and social and environmental concerns. In addition, entrepreneurship and innovation are often related to trends in technology, which sceptics associate with the dangers of Pandora´s box; as we get caught up in the novelty of the new, we forget to acknowledge the potential consequences of our new creations. As an interdisciplinary journal on the environment, Tvergastein has addressed the issues of the food system, transportation systems, adaptability and climate change. In this issue, we have chosen to take on the more overarching themes of innovation and entrepreneurship. As the Centre for Environment and Sustainability celebrates its 25th year, it seems appropriate to have a discussion on the newly emerging trends and ideas within Norway and across the globe. Innovation, as Webster’s dictionary describes it, is the creation of a new idea, method or device. This definition pinpoints the controversy and difficulties this issue aims to address - while some feel that new technologies can solve our current woes, others point to redefining the system completely. Which opens more questions; is a redefinition enough? Is growth ever truly green? Is innovation simply a new means of consumption? In this respect we have been challenged by what it means to ‘leave the box’. Does it mean to leave capitalism and scrap the old system? Or should it rather be a process of reframing practices within the current system? We at Tvergastein believe that “leaving the box” is a means of describing this flight from the conventional - whether that means a new spin on current modes of consumption, as we will see in Jonathan Eidse’s interview with Sandya Lang of Nudie Jeans, or completely reinventing the way we consume, as is seen in Kaja Ahnfelt’s interview with Bea Johnson, the ‘queen of the zero-waste life’. What began as an exploration of current projects and initiatives became a discussion about what entrepreneurship really entails, and the role of different players in these changes. Our contributors offer a range of diverse perspectives spanning many disciplines. From Skårdal and Klepp’s analysis of the circular economy in the clothing industry, to the new face of free online learning, MOOC, as described in Sean Thompson’s interview with researcher Dan Banik, Karina Standal’s analysis of new developmental theories and their ability to foster gender equality, to Daniela Ricaurte’s look at communicating sustainability at music festivals across Norway, it is clear that the times are changing. While their means and motives may be different, all acknowledge that a new way of doing things is necessary to confront the environmental and social issues the global community faces.

9


10


TVERGASTEIN BOARD OF EDITORS

Credit: ERWIN HASSELBRINCK 11


Credit: EH - VISITNORWAY.COM 12


Bærekraft som konkurransefortrinn

INGER SOLBERG

Kreativitet og nyskaping krever at noen

I en verden som står overfor store sosiale og

tør å utfordre det etablerte og «tenke utenfor

miljømessige utfordringer gir det mening å styrke norsk

boksen». Dette krever initiativrike hoder,

næringslivs mulighet til å bidra. Behovet for omstilling gir

risikovillige ledere og åpne bedriftskulturer

oss en mulighet til å skape et bedre og grønnere samfunn.

som gir rom for nye ideer, forskning og

Oljen har hatt enorm betydning for Norges velstand

utprøving. Verden står overfor store klima-

de siste førti årene. Nå må vi legge om den klassiske

og samfunnsutfordringer med overforbruk

økonomiske veksten i en mer bærekraftig retning.

av ressurser. Gullalderen går mot slutten for

Sameksistens og overføring av kunnskap fra petroleumsbransjen til andre næringer kan legge fundamentet for den nye verdiskapingen.

olje- og gassbransjen, og Norge trenger nye bein å stå på. «Når forandringens vind blåser, går noen i skjul mens andre går ut for å bygge vindmøller», sier et kinesisk ordtak. Innovasjon Norge setter nå sterkt fokus på bærekraft som konkurransekraft for å styrke norsk næringsliv.

NHO-sjefen satte på sin årskonferanse fokus på samarbeid med internasjonalt perspektiv kontra regional konkurranse:

I 2014 kom alvoret. Olje- og gassprisen ble halvert og

- utviklingen av Norge handler om å ruste oss for

Norge fikk en økonomisk «wake-up call». Dette var også

verdensmesterskap, ikke kretsmesterskap.

året da trusselen om klimaskiftet ble tatt på alvor av de fleste. President Obama og president Xi Jingping signerte en historisk avtale om reduserte utslipp. Statsministeren

Hva kan Innovasjon Norge gjøre?

og sentralbanksjefen var i sine årstaler samstemte: «Landet

Vi i Innovasjon Norge mener det er helt nødvendig,

vårt går fra særstilling til omstilling. Vi må bli bedre på

og viktig omdømmemessig, at norsk næringsliv spiller

nyskaping, og vi må ruste Norge for fremtiden. 2014 ble

på lag og utvikler bærekraftige løsninger for å utnytte

året hvor hele landet forstod hvor sårbar norsk økonomi er,

det enorme markedspotensialet samfunnsutfordringene

og behovet for en grønn omlegging engasjerte langt utover

representerer. Vi kan gjennom lån, tilskudd og garantier

de klassiske naturvernmiljøene.

redusere risikoen som følger med bedriftenes investeringer i grønne, ansvarlige og bærekraftige forretningsmodeller. 13


BÆREKRAFT SOM KONKURRANSEFORTRINN

Ved hjelp av åpen innovasjon og vinn-vinn samarbeid kan

i fremtiden. Vi må fornye det offentlige og sørge for

store og små bedrifter løfte hverandre. Gjennom våre

en grønnere vekst. Det er ingen hvilepute at vi ikke er

etableringstilskudd skal Innovasjon Norge stimulere til

i akutt krise akkurat nå, det er en fantastisk mulighet

etablering av flere bærekraftige gründere, nye bedrifter for

for å posisjonere landet vårt for et nytt skifte som vi vet

klimavennlige grønne løsninger og samfunnsansvarlige,

kommer på verdensbasis. Dette skiftet, eller megatrenden,

sirkulære varer og tjenester.

blir ofte referert til som den «sjette utviklingsbølge» i verdensøkonomien – bærekraftbølgen, som følger etter

Kreativitet og nyskaping

informasjonsteknologibølgen og tidligere økonomiske

Evnen til å tenke nytt og innovativt er i dagens samfunn et

perioder dominert av andre teknologiske nyvinninger

viktig konkurransefortrinn og en økonomisk driver for de

som dampkraft, elektrisitet og romfart. Norge er godt

fleste bedrifter. Med utfordringene og markedsmulighetene

posisjonert og den overordnede megatrenden bør

vi nå står ovenfor blir evnen til å kunne omstille seg enda

være et bærende prinsipp for utviklingen av norsk

mer vesentlig. Konkurransen er stor, og utviklingen går

innovasjonspolitikk fremover.

raskt. Det stilles stadig krav til økte forbedringer, fornyelser og opplevelser knyttet til varer og tjenester. Kompetanse

Innovasjon Norges forretningsmodell for

og tjenester utgjør ofte en viktig del av produktet, dette

bærekraft

krever kontinuerlig samspill, nytenking og læring. Hva

Store utfordringer representerer store muligheter.

som motiverer og demotiverer har mye å si for videre

Asia, USA, EU og andre internasjonale markeder

prestasjoner. Det har blitt vanlig å skifte jobb oftere enn

skriker etter klimavennlige, økonomisk levedyktige og

før, og læring overføres fra den ene organisasjonen til den

samfunnsansvarlige løsninger.

andre. For å holde på de beste medarbeiderne er bindinger

Norge trenger nye bein å stå på, og Innovasjon Norge

gjennom følelsesmessig tilhørighet, identifisering,

har fokus på bærekraft som konkurransekraft. Vi må

belønning og involvering viktige faktorer. Innovative

likevel tillate oss å ta ett og ett steg på veien. Kunnskap

organisasjoner preges ofte av frihet til å utvikle nye idéer,

fra næringer som ligger langt fremme kan overføres til nye

klare mål, lekenhet, debatt, risikotoleranse, motiverende

områder. Men hva legger Innovasjon Norge i bærekraft? Vi

ledere, involvering og en flat struktur med åpne og frie

har valgt å legge FNs definisjon til grunn: «En bærekraftig

kommunikasjonsmuligheter.

utvikling imøtekommer dagens behov uten å ødelegge muligheten for at kommende generasjoner får dekket

Bærekraftbølgen er den nye samfunnstrenden

sine behov». For å tydeliggjøre hva vi legger i begrepet

Bærekraft er en sterk trend, og verdiskapingen i samfunnet

og hvordan det kan brukes praktisk for å skape lønnsom

har opp igjennom årene vært drevet av ulike trender.

innovasjon, har vi utviklet en forretningsmodell for bærekraft (se bilde).

Nå er det bærekraftbølgen som skyller over oss og som vil bli en driver for økonomisk utvikling.

Bærekraft skal være med på å skape bedriftens konkurransefortrinn. Det er vårt mål. Ut fra markedsbehov og dialog med kunden må bedriften finne sin forretningsmodell. Den må være økonomisk, miljømessig

Markedet internasjonalt leter etter lønnsømme

og sosialt bærekraftig. For å være bærekraftig holder det

bærekraftige løsninger som kan åpne muligheter og gi

ikke bare å være i front miljømessig og å ha akseptabel

konkurransefortrinn for de som er kreative.

økonomi, dét kaller vi grønn vekst. Det holder heller ikke å

Diskusjonene om hvor lenge vi kan leve av oljen

bare koble miljø og det sosiale, økonomi er en viktig driver.

blir sekundært fra et innovasjonsperspektiv. Vi vet vi

For å differensiere seg kan bedriftene velge ulik størrelse på

må skape nye arbeidsplasser, revitalisere eksisterende

boblene miljø, sosialt og økonomi, men alle tre må ivaretas

primærnæringer, investere for å løfte frem nye næringer,

for at forretningsmodellen skal være bærekraftig.

og sikre en annen fordeling av Norges eksportinntekter 14


INGER SOLBERG

leier skiene når vi er på vinterferie og laster ned musikk på Spotify eller Apple. Vintagevesker og brukt design med støtte til veldedige formål er siste mote. De som leder utviklingen og trendene i ulike bransjer må ta større ansvar. Markedet er bevisste, og etterspørselen går i retning av ansvarsfull etisk opptreden og «ekte» opplevelser. Sidestrømmer fra tradisjonelle næringer brukes kreativt for å produsere nye produkter. Fra bioøkonomiens ståsted er utvikling av råvarer som input i nye industrier et spennende område, bambusklær og cellulose kan for eksempel være en annen kilde for tekstil. Det skjer mye spennende i norsk næringsliv om dagen. Gjennom å besøke bedrifter og samle ideer fra land og strand fikk Innovasjon Norge, gjennom «Drømmeløftet», innblikk i dagens situasjon. En rekke prosjekter har fått støtte gjennom virkemiddelapparatet. Gjennom miljøteknologiordningen har flere bedrifter vokst seg globalt konkurransedyktige innen nye produksjonsmetoder som avfallshåndtering, helseteknologi, kvalitet i sjømatnæringen og fornybar energi. Holdningsendring tar tid, men vi ser allerede fremveksten av mange spennende, nye måter å sette sammen aktiviteter på som gir verdi for kundene og samfunnet. Internasjonale konsumenter er villige til å Innovasjon Norges forretningsmodell for bærekraft.

betale mer for matprodukter som er “rene” og trygge.

Credit: VISITNORWAY.COM

Etiske og økologiske produkter er i vekst internasjonalt, og norske leverandører må henge med. Turister og bevisste innbyggere som er opptatt av kultur og ekte opplevelser

Digitalisering, sirkulær økonomi og nye

viser seg å være mer attraktive og legger igjen mer penger

forretningsmodeller

enn andre. Gjennom digitale medier kan nærhet til kunden

Nye kommunikasjonsplattformer gir grobunn for nye

oppnås på helt nye måter, for eksempel ved opplevelser på

forretningsmodeller og mulighet for å kommunisere og

YouTube før du reiser.

involvere konsumenten i innovasjonsprosessene på en helt

Resirkulering vil ikke løse miljøutfordringene, og vi kan ikke bare fokusere på å gjøre vår levemåte «grønnere», men også se på hva som er sosialt ansvarlig.

annen måte enn tidligere. Digitalisering, delingsøkonomi, sirkulær økonomi og nye forretningsmodeller oppstår ofte gjennom dialog med kunden og forståelse for kundebehov og forbrukeratferd. Store bedrifter kan ha nytte av å åpne opp forretningsmodellene sine, eller å utvikle ny teknologi i mindre gründermiljøer. Få ting er mer risikofylt enn å

Det skjer mye spennende innen grønn vekst

hvile på laurbærene og melke markedet med en utdatert

og reduksjon av miljømessig fotavtrykk. Ressursene

forretningsmodell for lenge.

er begrenset, og vi må ta bedre vare på dem. Store

Folk leser blogger og kjøper varer og tjenester via internett. Delingsøkonomien er en interessant trend, folk

skip resirkuleres og fartsreduksjon på frakteskip eller

betaler for å byttelåne biler, leiligheter, hytter, klær, vi

preppemaskiner i skibakken, er andre eksempler på 15


BÆREKRAFT SOM KONKURRANSEFORTRINN

Resirkulering vil ikke løse miljøutfordringene, og vi kan ikke bare fokusere på å gjøre vår levemåte «grønnere», men også se på hva som er sosialt ansvarlig.

16


INGER SOLBERG

økonomisk innsparing med miljømessig gevinst.

virkemiddelapparat, fred og sosial stabilitet. Det vi må få

Næringslivet blir stadig oftere pekt på som en del av

på plass nå, er en klar strategi og retning for hvor vi ønsker

løsningen på vår tids store og små utfordringer i samfunnet

å gå, hva det vil koste oss og hvordan vi skal nå de målene

og miljøet. Bedrifters jakt på profitt blir akseptert som en

vi setter oss.

positiv drivkraft når den anvendes til fellesskapets beste.

Norsk næringsliv er generelt sett innovativt, selv om

I stedet for å være yndet syndebukk, blir næringslivet

det finnes innovasjonsstatistikk som kan tolkes i en annen

invitert til å bidra. Fokus på svinn og kasting av mat

retning. Dette gjelder ikke minst EU-kommisjonens

fra restauranter, butikker og husholdninger er et annet

Innovation Union Scoreboard, en komposittindikator

eksempel på at bærekraftige løsninger kan gi positiv effekt

som i 2015-utgaven fortsatt rangerer Norge som nr.

både miljømessig, sosialt og økonomisk. Folkehelse,

17 i Europa. Men SSB, NIFU og andre har vist at

kosthold, trening, matproduksjon, transport og grønt

denne indikatoren ikke fanger opp den reelle norske

reiseliv er andre eksempler.

innovasjonsevnen. Innovasjon Norge samarbeider allerede

Offentlig sektor er allerede godt i gang med utvikling

godt med Statistisk sentralbyrå, Norges forskningsråd og

av smarte byer – bygg, transport, avfallshåndtering, energi,

relevante forskningsmiljøer om den videre utviklingen av

digitalisering. Norge er langt fremme. Hvordan kan vi

norsk innovasjonsstatistikk og vil ta initiativ til å utvikle

styrke hverandre gjennom et tettere innovasjonssamarbeid?

en mer helhetlig presentasjon av norsk innovasjonsevne

Internasjonalt samspill med enighet om felles mål og

som kan sammenlignes med andre land. Fundamentet

samarbeid på tvers av offentlig sektor, privat næringsliv og

for valg av riktig medisin fremover er en diagnose av egne

forskningsinstitusjoner er et viktig virkemiddel.

forutsetninger, virkelighetsoppfatning og premisser for innovasjon.

Norge trenger nye bein å stå på Norsk skaperkraft er summen av alt vi får til på hvert nes,

Anbefalinger fra Innovasjonstalen 2015 og

hvert tun og hver by over hele landet. Det er fristende

Drømmeløftet

å sitere Gro Harlem Brundtland – ”alt henger sammen

Hva skal til for at Norge skal få nye bein å stå på? I sin

med alt”. Det internasjonale markedet er ikke opptatt av

Innovasjonstale i mai 2015 kom Anita Krohn Traaseth,

vårt nasjonale fokus på kommunegrenser, men av kvalitet,

administrerende direktør i Innovasjon Norge, med seks

integritet, grønt, teknologi, rent, demokrati, kunnskap

anbefalinger til norsk næringsliv

og stabilitet. Norge er et lite land, med et begrenset antall 1. Vi må prioritere

hoder og marked. Vi kan ikke gjøre alt eller tro at markedet vil gjøre de rette valgene for oss. Vi har blitt vant til å tro at vi kan være best i klassen. Vi skal være mest miljøvennlige,

Vi har et stort behov for å bygge nye landslag der Norge

mest distriktsvennlige, ha de beste arbeidsbetingelsene, de

allerede har komparative fortrinn internasjonalt. Vi er

beste velferdsordningene, den korteste arbeidstiden, den

godt skodd for å være en viktig leverandør av løsninger på

lengste ferien og den beste lunsjen. Blir det automatisk

de syv samfunnsutfordringene EU har definert gjennom

slik også for kommende generasjoner? Nei, politikerne må

forsknings og innovasjonsprogrammet Horizon 2020,

ha mot til å utfordre forestillingene våre. Innovasjon har

herunder blant annet helse, bærekraftig matproduksjon,

mange og krevende ansikter. Det handler om å ta risiko,

ren energi og effektiv ressursbruk.

om å lede i ukjent terreng, og å stille spørsmål til etablerte

Det er ingen konflikt mellom generelt gode

sannheter og maktstrukturer for å etablere nye. Landets

rammebetingelser og målrettede virkemidler.

ledere må tørre å gjennomføre de grepene som må til for at

Langtidsplanen for forskning identifiserer fem tematiske

vi skal klare omstillingen. Innovasjon Norge er optimister

satsinger, dette bør også gjenspeiles når vi ønsker å

på norsk næringslivs vegne. Norske arbeidstakere er godt

kommersialisere våre forskningsresultater angående ny

utdannede og kreative, vi har mange innovative bedrifter,

kunnskap til nye bedrifter, arbeidsplasser og næringer. For

sterke klynger, et velutviklet velferdssystem, et avansert

å tiltrekke oss internasjonale investeringer til Norge, må vi 17


BÆREKRAFT SOM KONKURRANSEFORTRINN

investere og innovere mer i dagens rammebetingelser slik at

reduseres til innkjøp av nye teknologiske løsninger. Når

tradisjonelle industrier kan bli grønne og fornybare.

vi snakker om digitalisering i det offentlige handler det

Vi bør ta utgangspunkt i vårt internasjonale

først og fremst om forståelsen for kravet til endring og

omdømme som vektlegger bærekraftige og miljømessige

innovasjon i eksisterende arbeidsprosesser, samarbeidskultur

forhold, for eksempel vår posisjon innen det maritime

og kompetansebehov for å være relevant for kunder og

og ren energi. Vi har også de beste forutsetningene fra

brukere.

landbruk- og marin sektor for å lykkes med å posisjonere oss inn i den nye bioøkonomien, og vi kan bygge nye

4. Vi må synliggjøre, tilgjengeliggjøre og forenkle

næringer rundt velferdsteknologi, medisin, finans og

offentlige tilbud til dem som vil skape og endre

utdanningsteknologi. Det er nødvendig at vi omdisponerer og innretter allerede 2. Vi må satse på oppstart av helt nye bedrifter

tilgjengelig kapital og rammevilkår for å støtte opp under

Aldri før har entreprenørskapslysten vært større i Norge!

det næringslivet og de arbeidsplassene vi vil ha fremover.

Andelen som mener entreprenørskap gir høy status har

Alt fra kommunenes førstelinjetjeneste til næringshager,

steget fra 59 til 83% i perioden 2003-2014. Utvikling av

inkubatorer, etableringsstipend og Skattefunn må

både store og små bedrifter er viktig. Det etableres altfor

kommuniseres godt ovenfor relevante målgrupper.

mange enkeltmannsselskaper uten potensiale for vekst

Nærings- og fiskeridepartementet jobber også med et felles

eller ambisjoner for annet enn å dekke egen lønn. For å

språk.

profesjonalisere og realisere vekstpotensialet i næringer som

Innen forskning er det nødvendig med en

består av mange små aktører, må vi styrke våre etablerte

kulturendring. Det er viktig å bygge stolthet rundt evnen

klynger og opprette nye på tvers av bransjer. Samarbeid er

til å kapitalisere på de kloke hodene, og til å konkurrere

den nye konkurransekraften.

internasjonalt, med norske løsninger, kunnskap og produkter.

3. Vi må innovere og omstille mer i det offentlige 5. Vi må nyttiggjøre oss av all arbeidskapasitet i landet

Den offentlige innkjøpskraften representerer rundt 400 milliarder årlig som kan benyttes til å skape innovasjon i samspill med private leverandørbedrifter. Vi har et

Arbeidsledigheten er fortsatt lav, men den øker og vil øke.

skrikende behov for å omstille og innovere offentlige

Vi må få flere av dem som faller utenfor inn i arbeidslivet.

tjenester. Ifølge nasjonalregnskapet økte andelen

Økt forståelse og satsning på sosialt entreprenørskap

offentlige årsverk fra under 17% i 1970 til nesten 29%

er en del av løsningen, mulighetene befinner seg i et

i 2013. Utviklingen i offentlige årsverk er preget av

overlappingsfelt mellom offentlig, frivillig og privat sektor.

at visse omsorgstjenester som tidligere ble utført av

Bærekraft og skalèrbarhet er like viktig her som i rent

familiemedlemmer, i økende grad har blitt overtatt av

kommersielle bedriftsetableringer, og de har det samme

kommunale tilbud. I tillegg har alderssammensetningen

potensialet for vekst internasjonalt.

og medisinsk utvikling ført til at behovet for omsorgs- og sykehustjenester har steget. Den fremtidige utviklingen

6. Omstillingen vi står ovenfor krever først og

i offentlig forvaltnings størrelse avhenger i hovedsak av

fremst modig lederskap

hvorvidt den store økningen i disse tjenestene vil fortsette, og ikke minst hvor innovative vi er i videreutviklingen av

Lederskap må tas hos våre politikere, bedriftsledere,

tjenestene.

partssamarbeidsaktører og folket. NHO-sjefen sa det på

Det er behov for et stort løft av digital kompetanse.

følgende måte i sin årstale: «Faren ved å blande fornuft

Teknologiens rolle i utviklingen av innovasjon i offentlige

og følelser er at vi lar være å gjennomføre ting vi egentlig

tjenester må ikke undervurderes, og dette må ikke

er enige om. Vi må la politikerne forvalte den tilliten vi 18


INGER SOLBERG

har gitt dem ved urnene – også når det innebærer å skjære gjennom for fellesskapets beste». Ekstra upopulære valg må tas, og vi må la våre politikere kompromisse mer enn vi er vant til. Vi i Innovasjon Norge har lagt inn et nytt gir. Vi lover å bidra med alt vi kan, alt vi er og kan bli for norsk næringsliv fremover. Norge har den kompetansen og forutsetningene som skal til for å klare omstillingen, og gjøre en forskjell hele veien, også utover egne landegrenser. Vi skal heie høylytt på våre kunder, for de representerer den lille prosentandelen av norsk befolkning som tør å gå foran, og som er så naive at de tror de kan endre verden med sine løsninger og produkter.

REFERENCES Innovasjon Norges: Innovasjonstalen og Drømmeløftrapporten 2015, Innsats nr 1, 2015 og Årsrapport 2014 FN/FNs Global Compact: “The Global Compact asks companies to embrace universal principles and to partner with the United Nations. It has grown to become a critical platform for the UN to engage effectively with enlightened global business.” – UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon Horizon2020(EU): “A challenge-based approach …will cover activities from research to market with a new focus on innovation-related activities, such as piloting, demonstration, test-beds, and support for public procurement and market uptake.” Innovasjon i offentlige anskaffelser (DIFI): «… markedet (kan) stimuleres til å utvikle nye løsninger som gir en mer effektiv bruk av ressursene og bedre løsninger for brukerne.» Eksempel fra OECD: “The governments adhering to the Guidelines aim to encourage and maximise the positive impact MNEs can make to sustainable development and enduring social progress.” Ny blåblå eierskapsmelding: «På klima- og miljøområdet … i denne sammenheng er næringslivets rolle sentral og spørsmålet om hvordan det enkelte selskap kan bidra til å nå målene som er satt.» Anbudsdokumentet fra NFD i juni 2014 for gjennomgang av virkemidlene for innovasjon og verdiskaping: «Innovasjon og verdiskaping er ikke de eneste målene for norsk næringspolitikk. Andre målsettinger er arbeidsplasser og bosetting i hele landet, bærekraft…» Statsminister Erna Solberg sin tale ved lanseringen av rapporten «A better climate for growth»: «Vi må bruke markedet i miljøets tjeneste. Gode ideer må omsettes i lønnsomme virksomheter.» 19


THINKING BEYOND THE BOX: Addressing Afghanistan’s  Gender Inequality and Energy  Poverty the ‘Barefoot’ way KARINA STANDAL

Energy and energy security plays a vital role in the

As a positive example of successfully integrating

environmental and development challenges we face today.

gender and environmental concerns to provide energy

Energy is one of the most important aspects of everyday life

access in rural Afghanistan, this article will draw on a

across cultures and geography. We need energy for cooking,

particular solar energy project that has applied the Barefoot

heating, production and transport to name a few. Most of

approach.2 The Barefoot approach has a strong conviction

the world’s energy use comes from fossil fuels that cause

in empowering women as agents of sustainable change in

detrimental effects to human health and the environment

rural communities. By prioritizing women to be trained

through pollution, and the more developed we become

as Barefoot Solar Engineers (BSEs) with the responsibility

the more energy we use. Still, about 1.3 billion people lack

and capacity to install and repair the solar technology in

electricity and 2.6 billion use traditional fuels for cooking,

their village, the gender perspective in the Barefoot project

which has negative effects on health, income opportunities

is the mainstay of the project’s sustainability. Further, it

and education.1 This article puts focus on the importance

innovatively addresses the challenges of structures and

of integrating and understanding the concept of gender

perceptions that create inequalities and hinder development

relations in our measures to solve the challenge of energy

in the first place.

poverty. Firstly, it would seem unrealistic to imagine any solutions without the contribution of half the population.

The Global Challenge of Energy Poverty and

In many parts of the world that is however sadly the case

Gender Inequality

as women are often excluded from decision-making at the

The unsustainable pattern of fossil energy use is not

family, community and policy-level. Secondly, development

just limited to the West or urban areas, but also rural

challenges, such as energy poverty, are precisely born out

communities in the South. In fact lack of adequate and

of inequality and hence solutions to these problems need

modern energy solutions causes about 4.3 million deaths

to address one of the main historical and contemporary

annually through indoor air pollution.3 That is many

features of inequality, namely gender inequality, in order to

times higher than Malaria or HIV related diseases. Not

find a sustainable result.

to mention the negative health effects of carrying heavy 20


Photo: BAARD HENRIKSEN, PER SOLLERMAN

Credit: NORWEGIAN CHURCH AID 21


THINKING BEYOND THE BOX

Energy is one of the most important aspects of everyday life across cultures and geography. loads of firewood causing everything from spinal injuries to

fix to the causes of unequal gender relations such as

premature births.4 Further, lack of energy and poverty often

women’s confinement to the home and lack of educational

go hand in hand, both at national and rural level.

possibilities. Lack of energy only exaggerates them. In

The absence of modern energy technologies affects

Afghanistan however, the training of women as BSEs seems

women and men differently. Providing and using

to have made the provision of modern energy work as a

household energy is most often women’s responsibility.

catalyst for challenging perspectives of women’s abilities

Indoor air pollution also mainly effects women and small

and their participation in public and private decision-

children as they are the ones spending time in the kitchens.

making.

In addition children (very often girls) need to spend their time helping their families to gather fuelwood, and

Critical Reflections on Past and Present: Women,

Kerosene lanterns emit toxic particles making it difficult to

Development and Nature

use for doing homework. As the below quote shows gender

The idea of bringing women in the forefront in addressing

and sustainable development are not two separate entities,

our development and environmental challenges is not

but two sides of the same coin:

new. Focus on women was manifested in the Women in Development (WiD) in development thinking and

...the responsibility to provide firewood for cooking

policy in the early 70s arguing for women as the missing

a meal may lead a woman, when faced with a firewood

link to development and integration of women into

shortage, to plant a tree, but it may also lead her to pull up a

the global economies. WiD pointed to modernization’s

wooden fence and burn it, to argue for the purchase of a fuel

marginalization of poor rural women, in the South, but

efficient stove, to insist on the purchase of charcoal, to delegate

did not question women’s subordination in the global

fuelwood collection to a younger woman in the household...

capitalistic system or in terms of power relations, but

these responses depend on the bargaining position, within the

emphasized poverty as the “villain”.6 Later, another

household, of individual women.

movement was formed under the banner of Women,

5

Environment and Development (WED) and EcoIt also reveals that lack of energy is as unsustainable as

feminism emerged in the 70s. Similar to WiD’s ideas of

overuse of energy. Aiding the implementation of renewable

women special role in development, WED and Eco-

energy solutions is therefore not just important in our

feminism perceive women as the natural protectors of

“energy-hungry” Western consumer societies, but it is also

the environment as an extension of their reproductive

a prerequisite for development in many rural communities

role.7 Especially, Vandana Shiva has been seen as one of

in the South. However, there is no easy technological

the champions of this direction in development thinking. 22


KARINA STANDAL

Eco-feminism and the WED movement have been heavily

all of the development policy discourses discussed above.

criticized for their essentialist perspective of women.

It sincerely focuses on women and has an essentialist view

Especially, Cecile Jackson unpacked the idea that women

of women as “worthy” beneficiaries who will share the

“naturally” care for the environment, by showing that

gains and increase well-being naturally. Simultaneously it

women’s relationship with nature is very much dependent

is an instrumental approach, but born out of alternative

on their social status, rights and responsibilities in their

development it questions underlying economic, social

family and community. Many women and men lack

and political structures, and it tries to actively change the

the privilege to bond with nature as their everyday life

gender relations of the women beneficiaries in its projects.

depends on unsustainable use of the natural environment

Originating from the Barefoot College in India, the vision

they live in.9 Development thinking has later been greatly

of the Barefoot Approach is to help poor remote rural

influenced by Gender and Development (GAD), and

communities in acquiring and administering solar electricity,

post-structural critiques of feminist and development

by training local people as BSEs:

8

theory, emphasizing how women’s role in society is related

The Barefoot College has demystified technologies and

to gender relations and the need for a holistic approach

decentralised their uses by transferring the access, control,

to understanding difference and power in development.

management and ownership of sophisticated technologies

These critiques’ deconstruction of power relations and

to rural men and women, who can barely read and write.12

questioning of underlying social, economic and political

Since 2005, the development organization Norwegian

structures made their recommendations difficult to

Church Aid in collaboration with the Barefoot College has

implement. Perhaps therefore, the remains of WiD live

aided the implementation of solar energy in remote rural

very happily and continue to speak for a very instrumental

villages in Afghanistan. The solar electricity was set up

way of understanding gender equality (and development),

with the implementation of Solar Home Systems (SHS)

which is not aligned with understanding gender equality

that delivered electrical current to households for lighting

as an intrinsic value (such as feminism). A good example

purposes and sockets for electrical appliances such as TV

can be seen in the girl effect10 with its slogan “it only takes

and radio. By the summer of 2007 the NCA solar project

a girl.” Give a girl education and a loan for a cow and she

had solar electrified 917 households in 21 villages in the

will reap the benefits of income and respect, enter village

provinces Badakhshan, Faryab, Bamiyan, Uruzghan and

politics, boost the national economy, and thus make a

Daykundi and new villages are continuously in the process of

better world.11

implementation. The total numbers of trained BSEs were 25,

Notwithstanding their powerful and strong messages,

whereof 7 were women and 18 men. NCA made an effort to

this is simply not enough to tackle the deep underlying

ensure that several of the solar engineers they recruited were

causes of resource and gender inequality. Giving a girl (a loan

women using the rhetoric that women BSEs could enter

for) a cow will help distribution somewhat, but it does not

houses for repairs even when the households’ men were on

tackle the reasons why she is born as poor, without access

long term migration.13

to modern and adequate energy, and as the less preferred

Just four years before the project started Afghanistan

gender. And the national economy she is aspired to boost

was seen as the worst country in the world to be a woman.

through women’s income production are all molded on the

Suffering both from 30 years of violent conflict and the

ideas of economic growth and capitalist societies, regardless

country’s lack of resources in everything from food, energy,

of their contribution to our planet’s unequal wealth

healthcare and education, the added cultural and political

distribution and environmental problems. As discussed next

restrictions put on women by the Taliban (and Afghan

there is a need to think differently in order to move forward

society in general) had devastating effects on women and

in the attempts to address the relations of power at play.

girls. In this context the Barefoot approach was applied in an effort to promote use of environmentally friendly modern

Engendering Solar Electrification in Afghanistan

energy and gender equality.

The Barefoot approach seems to both defy and incorporate 23


THINKING BEYOND THE BOX

The introduction of solar electricity did not just challenge gender roles in unequal gender relations, but also positively influenced the relation between women and men.

Thinking beyond the Box: New Ideas of

When you are sitting for long years at home [Taliban era]

Women’s Abilities

and you could not see anybody. You do not have confidence in

To understand the impact of the Barefoot approach on

yourself and do not know how to talk to [other people], because

the access to environmentally friendly energy and gender

you have not seen people. But when you go and receive training

relations of the Afghan beneficiaries, let us consider the

and know about this [solar energy technology] and other things

narratives of two Barefoot Solar Engineers, Soraya and

you get your confidence. You know how to talk and how to

Shukrullah.14 Soraya was selected for BSE training by her

solve problems.16

community and accepted to go with her husband as one of the first woman BSEs in Afghanistan. In order to do the

Soraya was the first woman in her village to be invited

training she had to leave 3 of her children at home during

to participate in meetings in the village council. In several

her six month stay in India, but she was allowed to bring

of the project villages, women’s councils where formed

her smallest baby (1,5 years) with her. It was evident from

through a National program and the women BSEs were

both her and other BSEs that separation from family and

included as members due to their insights and knowledge

community was very hard physically and emotionally. In

after the training. In Soraya’s village the traditional custom

many ways the changes in the women BSEs status and

of keeping the village council exclusively for men persisted,

respect from the community was derived from being strong

but after the Solar projects she claimed men respected

enough to handle this separation, in addition to being

women more and now she and other women could join the

technically able to bring light to their communities:

meetings and be heard if they wanted to raise issues that were important for the community.17

I now have the ability to repair the electricity and give the people light. That’s why the people respect me a lot…Earlier

The fact that women returned from India with knowledge

people thought that women cannot do anything. But when

played a role in (re)forming men’s, women’s and communities’

I went there (India) and learned and came back, the people

perception on women’s capabilities as expressed in a meeting of

talked together and said she is a very strong lady and she has

a men village council:

done good service for the people.15

We used to think our women were a little stupid, but now we see of TV Afghan women in the Loya Jirga and we

Soraya said she had gained confidence after her

have a woman governor in Bamiyan and they are just like our

training, not just because of acquiring technological

women. This encourages our women and the education of our

knowledge, but also because engaging with people

daughters becomes important.18

improved her verbal skills after experiencing monotonous everyday life during the Taliban era and their restrictions on women’s movement:

24


KARINA STANDAL

Credit: CARINA STANDAL

The introduction of solar electricity did not just

taqiyah20 and had the title Mullah, educated 14 years in a

challenge gender roles in unequal gender relations, but also

Pakistani madrasa. During our conversation he expressed

positively influenced the relation between women and men

astonishment and joy of his experience going to Barefoot

in the household because, as Soraya describes, it provides

College with his sister:

opportunities to fulfil the standards of keeping a good home and being a good mother:

I used to think women should stay at home. Now I think that our community is clear in their mind that women can

…it has changed because most of the women, if the men

do everything. Women are more independent now... When

need something for example their clothes or other things they

we (him and his sister) went to India there were women from

wash at night. And the relation is also getting better between

many countries there, Gambia, Sierra Leone, Cameroon…

husband and wife, because she can make everything on time.19

Then I thought girls can do anything and serve their country. For me this was a new thought. The girls were very young and

One of the men BSEs, Shukrullah, articulated the

good at learning…. When I saw the other girls in Tilonia I

almost revolutionary change of perception concerning

saw that women and men are equal in this and that women

women’s capabilities and role in society that prevailed

have capabilities21 (Interview 15.07.07).

among my men informants after the NCA project implementation. His background and physical appearance

As mentioned, all the men I interviewed consistently

(unlike the other men BSEs) fitted well into Western

said their perceptions on women’s capabilities had changed.

stereotypes of Afghan men. He had a full beard, wore

Men BSEs who trained with a female partner or observed 25


KARINA STANDAL

other women training in India, were especially impressed as

local women would certainly present a different outcome.

they thought technology was incomprehensible to women.

Firstly, the sustainability of the project would be greatly

They also emphasised that it was very good that women

jeopardized as the cultural context makes it difficult to

have knowledge about things like solar energy and by

repair equipment in houses where men migration occurs.

that could “provide services to the people”, contributing

Further, it would send a message to the beneficiaries that

the change of women’s role to the larger context of

community driven projects did not need to consider or

Afghanistan’s process of community and state-building.

include women. Finally, it would not have presented

The changes in perception of women’s capabilities

the powerful role-model of Afghan women able to do

and roles outside the traditional boundaries of marriage

technological repairs and doing “service for their country”.

and motherhood also transcended to perceptions of the

Fighting for girls’ education in Afghanistan is a long and

value of girls’ and women’s education. Shukrullah said he

arduous battle and it needs all the positive examples it can

planned to send his wife to finish school.22 His wife had

get. The Barefoot approach exemplifies how thinking in

only finished grade 10 and the plan was that she would

terms of gender relations open up for multiple benefits

finish grade 12. Since the school was a good distance from

instead of merely providing women a resource to make

the village, she and their baby son were moving to relatives

everyday life easier (within their confinements of home and

during her studies. Several informants reported that older

reproductive role).

girls went for “education migration” in order to follow

The innovative ideas of the Barefoot approach goes a long way to solve rural communities’ problems by building on their knowledge and abilities, addressing their need for resources and challenging unequal structures of power relations.

higher education than that provided by village schools. This was a privilege among a few more affluent families and their aspirations seemed to be linked to economic opportunities later in form of work migration. Despite the Taliban’s ban on education for older girls, Islam values education and women have the responsibility for bringing their children up as good Muslims, making an educated mother positive. Promoting women and girls’ education in

It is not difficult to argue that for true development to

Muslim countries has been forwarded by Islamic rhetoric

happen these issues need to be addressed simultaneously.

of this kind.23 Conclusion Considering the narratives described above implementing solar electricity using the Barefoot approach in Afghanistan has had positive effects on the women beneficiaries’ access to decision-making and education as it opened up a space for women to act outside the traditional gender roles in their families and communities. These positive effects have undoubtedly not been distributed equally to all beneficiaries as other factors of social identities and statuses are also at work. Further, the project cannot take all the honor of any positive change occurring. Girl’s education and women’s political participation has been high on the agenda in Afghanistan since the 2001 invasion. There is also a great difference geographically when it comes to women’s role in society. Still, imagining this project without the training of 26


KARINA STANDAL

REFERENCES 1 Clancy, Joy; Winther, Tanja; Matinga, Margaret & Oparaocha, Sheila (2011). Gender Equity in Access to and Benefits from Modern Energy and Improved Energy Technologies. Gender Equality and Development, World Development Report 2012. ISSN 0163-5085. 2 http://www.barefootcollege.org/ 3 WHO fact sheet N°292 4 Akbar, Sameer, Barnes, Douglas, Eil, Andrew and Anastasia Gnezditskaia (2011), ‘Household cookstoves, environment, health and climate change: A new look at an old problem’. World Bank. 5 Jackson, Cecile (1993): “Doing What Comes Naturally? Women and Environment in development”, World Development 21 (12), p. 1958 6 Peet, Richard & Hartwick, Elaine (1999): Theories of Development. Guilford Press, New York, p.182 7 Peet, Richard & Hartwick, Elaine (1999): Theories of Development. Guilford Press, New York, p.189 8 Jackson, Cecile (1993): “Doing What Comes Naturally? Women and Environment in development”, World Development 21 (12), p. 1958 9 Standal, Karina (2008): Giving Light and Hope in Rural Afghanistan. The Impact of Norwegian Church Aid’s Barefoot Approach on Women Beneficiaries. University of Oslo, p. 43 10 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WIvmE4_KMNw&noredirect=1 11 http://www.girleffect.org/ 12 http://www.barefootcollege.org/barefoot-approach/ 13 Standal, Karina (2008): Giving Light and Hope in Rural Afghanistan. The Impact of Norwegian Church Aid’s Barefoot Approach on Women Beneficiaries. University of Oslo, p. 91 14 All names are fictional to protect the informants’ identities. 15 Standal, Karina (2008): Giving Light and Hope in Rural Afghanistan. The Impact of Norwegian Church Aid’s Barefoot Approach on Women Beneficiaries. University of Oslo, p. 90. 16 Standal, Karina (2008): Giving Light and Hope in Rural Afghanistan. The Impact of Norwegian Church Aid’s Barefoot Approach on Women Beneficiaries. University of Oslo, p. 60 17 Standal, Karina (2008): Giving Light and Hope in Rural Afghanistan. The Impact of Norwegian Church Aid’s Barefoot Approach on Women Beneficiaries. University of Oslo, p. 116 18 Standal, Karina (2008): Giving Light and Hope in Rural Afghanistan. The Impact of Norwegian Church Aid’s Barefoot Approach on Women Beneficiaries. University of Oslo, p. 90 19 Standal, Karina (2008): Giving Light and Hope in Rural Afghanistan. The Impact of Norwegian Church Aid’s Barefoot Approach on Women Beneficiaries. University of Oslo, p. 90 20 Muslim male headwear, believed to be worn by the Prophet Muhammad and often used for religious reasons. 21 Standal, Karina (2008): Giving Light and Hope in Rural Afghanistan. The Impact of Norwegian Church Aid’s Barefoot Approach on Women Beneficiaries. University of Oslo, p. 93 22 Standal, Karina (2008): Giving Light and Hope in Rural Afghanistan. The Impact of Norwegian Church Aid’s Barefoot Approach on Women Beneficiaries. University of Oslo, p. 94 23 Moghadam Valentine (2003): Modernizing Women. Gender and Social Change in the Middle East. Lynne Rienner Publishers, Colorado. 27


INTERVIEW

LONG LIVE JEANS! Prolonging product longevity Interview with Sandya Lang, CSR Manager at Nudie Jeans

JONATHAN FRÆNKEL-EIDSE

28


Credit: NUDIE JEANS

29


LONG LIVE JEANS!

That the primary purpose of a business is to

What key challenges have emerged as Nudie steps

render profit is in most circles axiomatic. Yet

outside of industry-norms?

Nudie Jeans has a different take. Their raison d’être, as CSR Manager Sandya Lang explains,

When we turned to organic in 2008 we were well on the

is to maximize product sustainability while

way but then the economic crisis came. We were quite

producing cool products (though they do not

small at the time and couldn’t press the supplier so hard

seem to complain when this in turn results in

to make organic only for us. Other brands were not

greater profit).

demanding organic cotton, so this made it uneconomical for the suppliers to provide to us. This is why it took so

What do you see as the key issues in the

long to establish an organic cotton line in 2012.

fashion/apparel industry relating to social and environmental sustainability?

Today it is much easier to demand this of our suppliers, as we are a larger business. But since we have grown and

I think that the key issues for us and other brands in

set the standards quite high in terms of sustainability, it is

general is finding sustainable materials, to develop the

a challenge to find a supplier to collaborate with. It’s not

concept of recycling or reuse of the materials, challenges

difficult to find a T-shirt supplier, but to find a good one

relating to the transparency in the supply chain, as well as

is another thing. We try to choose the factories where we

to control and map your suppliers.

have the most possibilities to develop with. The mindset of the factory in terms of sustainability and CSR is becoming

Describe what you see as Nudie’s role as an

more and more important to us when we choose a new

innovator with relation to these?

supplier.

We are actively working with all of the above issues. For

Do you believe that the average Nudie customer

example, with regards to sustainable materials we have

knows/cares about all this? Is this a business model

transformed our whole denim collection to organic cotton,

that draws customers? Or is it idealism?

initiated several recycling projects where we have tried to prolong the life of the garment, or recycling programs

I think that some do, yes, but that a lot of people don’t

that recycle jeans into rugs, or recycle the cotton fiber into

know until they buy a pair of jeans. Customers who are

a new pair of jeans. With regards to transparency in the

in our shop the first time may be surprised that everything

supply chain we have a production guide on our website.

is organic. Many customers are very interested in this

Many fashion companies publish a supplier list online

subject and buy our jeans just because they are organic and

which is usually quite boring spreadsheets that makes no

sustainable. Others have no clue at all. We haven’t pushed

sense for anyone else. We wanted to take this further than

it too much in the advertisement of our products. If you

the rest of the gang, so we made sure that our consumers

just come in the shop, you will quickly see that we sell

could actually find information that they are looking for.

organic jeans and Fair Trade T-shirts, but I don’t think that

So we created an interactive map over the countries that we

the customers in general think of us as an eco-store, they

have production in, where you can click and see how much

look at us as a brand that delivers good, cool products. In

we are producing in each country by percentage, as well as

terms of expectations people have about us, I think that we

the suppliers in these countries. If you click on the supplier

actually exceed ourselves.

you can get more information about them including a summary of the last audit made there - presenting both the

Do you believe Nudie would be the success it is

positive and negative aspects of this supplier.

today if it did not take the same path with regards to sustainability?

30


JONATHAN FRÆNKEL-EIDSE

I think that if we removed everything that we have worked

The consumer needs to provide a lot of pressure. For now

with the last years, I would say that the product would not

we have organic denim jeans and many other products

stand out as much. Maybe the average customer doesn’t

as well. But there has not been much pressure from the

know much about it, but I think that it is paying off.

consumers to do all this. The initiative to make everything organic has come from ourselves, from the inside. If

An analysis of our production guide, for example, found

consumers start asking for this, and transparency and social

that there was a connection in clicks on the guide and

sustainability of other companies it will count for a lot.

subsequent sales. Similarly, some people thought that the whole program with recycling and repairing jeans was a

What I am hearing is that there doesn’t seem to

bad idea and would stop people from buying new ones.

be a lot of demand for this type of product, so this

But we have found that this is not the case, as they are both

may take some time to change the whole industry?

repairing and buying new ones as they come into the shop. We are also tying the customer to us with this service. So it

Yes, you can see some brands providing just a small sample

is very good for business, actually.

of organic. This is obviously better than nothing. Brands have responsibility to provide products that consumers

Nudie remains a privately owned company. To

can buy that are sustainable, but consumers have a

what degree does this allow Nudie to pursue the

responsibility to ask and question. If more and more people

course it has taken?

were to ask, take a stand and refuse to buy something then maybe it will have an effect. We, on the other hand, do not

Of course, it gives us a lot of freedom to do what we want,

leave the customers the choice to choose something else.

not only in CSR but in other aspects. The owners are also

Everything is organic, so they have to buy it if they want to

working on a daily basis here in the office, so whenever

buy a Nudie product. I don’t think anybody will say that

we have decisions to make, it is easy to make them. This

this is bad. Nobody will say that they would rather have a

is not the case for all companies. The whole idea from the

conventional denim product.

start has been to be a sustainable company. If we were a publicly traded company the decision making process may

Organic cotton, Fair Wear Foundation membership,

have been longer if there were a board and shareholders

transparency, “cradle-to-grave” product

involved. Maybe this model didn’t make all the difference,

responsibility - this all seems a bit over the top.

but it certainly made us more flexible.

But then again, is it enough? Can we consume our way out of unsustainable relations with the planet

Do you believe that the Nudie model can be

and one another?

replicated by the established corporate apparel industry? Do you believe that it has already

The most sustainable action, of course, would be to have

affected the industry? How to do this? Consumer

no business at all, to stop making jeans altogether. Now

pressure, industry voluntarism or regulation?

that we are here, we are trying to do the best that we can do. We don’t encourage the consumers to buy a lot of

There are certainly companies that can learn from us (and

products, we prefer them to buy a pair of high quality jeans

we can learn from them). But when you have a regular

and wear them for a long time, and repair them, and wear

business model it might be more difficult to do the

them again. Finally, when they can’t wear them anymore,

things that we are doing now because of the shareholders

they hand them in and get a discount on a new pair. We

opinions. So I think that in some ways, our model can be

are of course a normal company as well, and have normal

replicated, but on the other hand, maybe it is easier for

practices. So we are a part of the regular fashion industry,

other brands to not copy us but to find another way that is

but we want to have better standards.

more suitable for them. 31


LONG LIVE JEANS!

Imagine a future when what Nudie does today is the industry-norm. What is then left to do? Even as we try to do our best in terms of sustainability, this is a never ending job. The suppliers and ground floor conditions, the materials, the recycling of the product into something else, chemicals use and employing a circular economic model to name a few. In these terms we have a long ways ago. We have performed a broad product assessment so that we know where in the process we have the greatest environmental impact and are creating strategies for reducing these. So I don’t think we can ever just sit down and be happy. We will always apply more pressure to do better.

32


JONATHAN FRÆNKEL-EIDSE

Credit: NUDIE JEANS 33


Credit: SARAH LAZAROVIC 34


A Dizzying Spin on Green Growth

INGUN GRIMSTAD KLEPP & TONE SKÅRDAL TOBIASSON

Everyone is cheering for green growth. That should

consumption of non-renewable energy, water and land.3

arouse suspicion or at least some healthy skepticism. What

Rather bleak for everyone, in other words.

makes growth green? Or more specifically, what makes

The Nordic Council of Ministers (NCM) has just

it green enough so it reduces the environmental impacts

released a report “Norden – velkledd i et rent miljø,

overall and not just a little greener than any other growth?

handlingsplan for bæredyktig tekstil og mote” (“The

And last but not least: when is the circular economy

Nordic region – well-dressed in a clean environment,

actually a solution to a problem and not just a new way of

an action plan for sustainable textiles and fashion”)4. Its

spinning in circles even faster?

ambition is for the Nordic region to lead the way. But the

We work with garments and textiles. This is an area

report is not very specific and it does not take into account

where growth in production and consumption has been

that the many good intensions and initiatives led by other

rapid, simply explosive. The import of apparel to Norway

countries have not led to real reductions in environmental.5

has increased by 67% the last 20 years, and has reached

As a preliminary mapping for the action plan, we were

15 kilos per capita per year.1 The value of what we buy,

commissioned by the NCM to gauge the on-going

however, has declined during this period from 6.6% to

sustainability-focused initiatives in the Nordic countries

5.4% of our total household expenditures. Clothes have

and the major international ones.6 The vast majority of

become cheaper. We buy more, but it costs less.

the on-going initiatives are all about recycling and reusing

2

The dominant model for production and consumption

commercially, and various forms of “green growth”. The

of clothes is what so cleverly has been called “fast fashion”,

issue, however, is that the initiatives attack the problems

an expression stolen from the “fast food” phenomenon.

where there is least to gain. Much centers around the fact

This involves the accumulation of profit based on

that the businesses involved want to appear “the greenest

increasingly standardized, globally mass-produced goods;

in the class”, but the result is nonetheless that things are

with low margins and a high tempo. This also includes

at a stand-still. In the last 30 years the resource efficiency

emission of harmful chemicals, unethical working

in the textile industry has increased by 30%7, which of

conditions, problems with animal welfare, and a high

course is top of the pops, but growth in consumption 35


A DIZZYING SPIN ON GREEN GROWTH

has overshadowed this reduction. Not quite so top of the

are more well-dressed today than you were then. But we

pops. And neither the new action plan from the NCM nor

agree with Thorstein Veblen10:

ongoing initiatives will change this.

A fancy bonnet of this year’s model unquestionably

Circulating materials becomes necessary when we

appeals to our sensibilities today much more forcibly than

must share the resources of the Earth, and are part of the

an equally fancy bonnet of the model of last year; although

solution towards a sustainable society. Innovation Norway’s

when viewed in the perspective of a quarter of a century, it

Drømmeløft is also based on this perspective, but the

would, I apprehend, be a matter of the utmost difficulty to

success of both these action plans is dependent on a good

award the palm for intrinsic beauty to the one rather than

understanding of what green growth is. Much of what is

to the other of these structures.

cheered for in the name of a circular economy, is a dance around the golden calf, and the calf ’s name is not the

This he wrote in “The Theory of the Leisure Class” in

environment - but growth, and the results are increased

1899, but it is equally applicable today. It is not possible

environmental impacts.

to measure any aesthetic improvement within the past 20

In the UK the authorities and finally the industry have

years. Clothing has become more bountiful, but not better.

for some time tried to clean up the industry. They have

They last for a shorter time and cost less.

received awards and they have tried to move mountains.

If we go back even further in time, to Veblen’s

Despite numerous meetings, good intensions and miles of

contemporaries or even predecessors, apparel was the

reports, we haven’t seen real concrete or verifiable results.8

most valuable thing people owned. They had few and

The environmental pressures are increasing, if not as fast

more expensive garments, not to mention that they were

– there still is an increase and not a decrease.9 The trend

incredibly good at styling and reuse11,12. The fashion and

has not been reversed even though this was the actual goal.

media industries have stolen this from us, along with the

The dominant theme, which is continuous green growth

confidence that we can make our own clothes. The lack of

and circular economy, with everyone singing this solution’s

confidence in our own knowledge and our own appearance.

praise, has simply not been even close to solving the

If we compare how satisfied people are today with how they

problem. What is actually being applauded is that we (the

look, with for example. 1985, satisfaction has decidedly

rich Western world) can continue to become both greener

declined if we use body image as a measuring stick.13 We

and richer without having to change our course. And why

can therefore talk about a resource-economic downturn.

should we, as long as we’ve been able to pull wool over

We are spending more and more of the Earth’s resources to

everyone’s eyes?

be increasingly less satisfied with our appearance. Growth

Recently we were at a major conference in the Azores

has been in kilograms, but neither in dollar value nor in

where natural fibers were the theme - but where it became

satisfaction. No matter how much these clothes circulate,

almost laughably visible that much of the on-going

they do not solve the basic problem; that they should never

“innovation” is completely aimless. Here we learned about

have been produced.

cotton that behaved like wool, linen that behaved like cotton - because? Has someone requested or asked for

LCAs – counting what counts

these products? Using raw materials as we know them, but

A lot of work has gone into developing tools for

in a better way, so that they come into their own, was not

comparisons of the environmental impacts of different

on the agenda. Is it because everyone thinks that “new” is

fibers and processes in the production of textiles. And we

infinitely better than the “old, proven”, that works. If it

mean a lot. The most used method is called LCA, which

ain’t broken, don’t fix it.

stands for Life Cycle Assessment14, or: Look out Caution Ahead. When it comes to finding ways to substantiate

Growth, yes, but in what?

“green growth” (quotation marks needed), LCAs can easily

20 years ago, around 1985, we spent less than half the

be misused and basically scientifically prove that a fiber or

current amount of money on clothing. You may think you

a material is more environmentally friendly than another. 36


INGUN GRIMSTAD KLEPP & TONE SKÅRDAL TOBIASSON

This because they only measure impact from “farm to gate”

goal, while people actually having, using and enjoying

rather than what they say they are supposed to: follow

their clothing more, is not. It is rather a problem! If

the entire life-cycle .They also use industrial measures on

your children inherit clothes from their cousins ​​it is not

nature, which is never a good idea, for example land-use

considered a transaction of economic value, but if you buy

as a constant negative16. Variations of LCAs go further, for

them at Fretex, you are contributing to “green growth”.

example EP & L (Environmental Profile & Loss statements)

From an environmental perspective however, inheritance

which major international consortia are now cheering

is top of the pops, and not to mention: it is this form of

onward. It is of course useful to know how great the

“reuse” which actually makes a difference. Collecting and

environmental impact of various products are. But just as

selling used clothing is primarily about exports to poorer

important as production, is the way in which they are used.

countries, and does not replace new purchases. Increasing

15

Until now, LCAs on textiles have been made on the

collection assumes that someone else wants to use the

basis of knowledge about production and raw materials.

growing mountain of hardly used clothing we are amassing.

But most people will understand that comparing paint

For some product groups, such as T-shirts, this market is

measured in liters does not give a good measure of

simply glutted. The world does not need one more slightly

environmental impact. A better measurement is 10 years

used T-shirt. Not a new one either, for that matter.

with a painted wall. How long commodities last, is crucial

Recycling of clothing is actually worse. To recycle

to the environmental impact over time. Clothes can be

the “factions,” as they are called in waste language, they

produced as disposable products (or hardly used, as many

must be clean. That is why sorting is the first step of

clothes end up in flea markets with the price tag on), or

recycling. Plastics and paper are easy to sort. But clothes

they can last for centuries. Without taking life-span into

are made of all kinds of materials, synthetic, organic,

the environmental account, these calculations end up

cellulose, natural, metals and problematic, even dangerous

raving mad. We need better products that last longer, not

chemical-additives. Thus recycling is difficult. In practice

more equally bad ones with slightly lower environmental

it is a question of down-cycling. What is produced in the

impact. It is like sending more airplanes into the air with a

other end, are simple things like wipes, though research is

little less polluting fuel, but with just as many empty seats.

rampant and new yarns from discarded clothes are said to

But. Again. It is all about, as we understand this,

be just around the corner. That corner has been a very long

using figures and analysis to glorify corporations’ simple

corner – and we are still waiting. Instead of developing new

(or simplistic) “choice” of innovative materials which

methods for recycling, efforts could however be directed

are mostly based on oil or for a quick replacement that

towards clothes remaining in use longer. Then the volume

immediately seems better. But, without asking questions

would go down (immediate environmental savings) and

about why or what really is improvement. The big winner

durability, fit and flexibility would go up.18 It is not difficult

in LCAs so far is recycled polyester. Nice thinking... but

to make clothing and textiles that last 10 or 100 times

there is an incredible number of clothing and textiles that

longer than what is common today. Our ancestors knew

will not be used if made in this material, simply because

the score. We, however, believe that “fast fashion” makes

it does not have the user characteristics that most people

us happier, and as long as we pass our apparel on to the

enjoy and demand.

recyclers, everything is fine.

Full speed in a circle, but at a stand-still

Mari Grinde Arntzen writes in the book Perfect:19

Both NCM’s action plan and most of the ongoing

“In recent years, a third expression [in advertising] has

initiatives in the Nordic countries have focused on reuse

appeared. ETSP - Ethical Selling Proposition. Consumers

and recycling. In many areas this is obviously17 a good and

follow the news. We buy too much, and things are

important perspective. But, when it comes to clothing,

produced in inhumane and environmentally damaging

this is a dead end. That apparel changes hands through sale

ways. Too high and problematic consumption damages

of used clothing, has become a political and commercial

nature and people. So, in order to drown out the bad 37


A DIZZYING SPIN ON GREEN GROWTH

taste in the mouth, the prime focus has shifted. For us

the most toxic pollutants in history. Unfortunately, it is

to continue to buy stuff, even though we know about

still out there, also in Norway’s clean nature, as it takes

consumption’s dark side, advertising is focusing on

forever to disappear. And it testifies to that we should not

consumption that “does well”. Buy a pair of shoes, and

compromise on these issues. In its time it was all part of

we give away a pair to someone in need. (...) The trick is

the applauding choir wishing for innovation and progress.

to give a sense of action that does good. That what you

Quick results. Increased productivity. Hooray. Until the

are doing is ethically correct. Thus, you can buy the same

consequences became obvious. Our DDT concept is about

amount, with good conscience. ETSP keeps the buying

Design Destined for Trash - our modern head-ache. And

desire intact, and the consumer is derailed from the fact

according to our proposal to the NCM (recently presented

that high consumption is unnecessary and causes harm.” So

as a separate report in Tema Nord series) DDT should be

the focus is still growth in volume, not in value.

replaced by W2W (Wonderful to Wear). Clothing we use over and over again.

Replace DDT with Wonderful 2 Wear

The project KRUS (“Crimp”), which is funded

Instead of thinking about clothes as waste and use as

by the Norwegian Research Council’s program for

recycling – it is possible to turn things around and upside

biological enterprise, has a sizable pot of money to delve

down, by paying attention to what we want to own in our

into these issues. When NCM in their action plan, and

wardrobes. What has value? Which garments do we own

Innovation Norway (through their Dream for the future –

and use over and over again? How can clothes help us feel

“Drømmeløftet”), do not ask the big question, we become

beautiful, confident and happy, what can help us to take

worried. Is green growth about volume and a dizzying spin

part in society, active, and what items are we so fond of

in terms of “circular economy”? Or is it actually about

that we do not want to part with, ever? So that we actually

value and prolonged use – and services linked to this?

do not need to go shopping for something new.

Our ambition is that by examining how a local

We are often asked: but can businesses make money?

commodity that is indigenous to Norway (namely wool),

The question’s obvious answer is: No, it does not pay off.

we may be able to use this as a point of departure to develop

What is profitable is not paying workers, not purifying

valuable and lasting apparel. We believe this change will

wastewater, not taking into account animal welfare and

benefit people, and give them more self-confidence and a

children’s right to a livable life. Many earn good money by

sense of belonging.

ignoring these issues. To pay it the true cost and to take

But the question is whether the forces that control

into account the environment and ethics, is expensive no

the market, dare take up the glove that has been cast. This

matter where things are produced.

applies to both the commercial and political stake-holders.

This certainly sounds like the death toll for trade as we

Do they want to keep the consumer dizzy, or do they dare

know it. It goes to the core of growth. Growth is the credo

to stop, and do something that really makes a difference?

of our economy. But: in the food sector, the focus on local food and alternative distribution channels has contributed to an alternative to the standardized, mass-produced and generally tasteless on offer. The big chains have been forced to take in exciting small stake-holders with food that actually tastes or has value in terms of connection to the local place, the history, or is associated with good welfare for the humans and/or animals who have helped in production. Ethics and animal welfare resonate in the media. It has been possible to choose, if you wish. What do we mean by replacing DDT with lasting and beautiful clothes? We all know that DDT is one of 38


INGUN GRIMSTAD KLEPP & TONE SKÅRDAL TOBIASSON

REFERENCES

10 Veblen, T. (1899). The Theory of the Leisure Class:

1 SSB 2013: Forbruksundersøkelsen, 2012 Publisert: 17.

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Utenrikshandel med varer. Tabell: 08812: Utenrikshandel

11 Klepp, I. G., & Laitala, K. (2015a). Consumption

med varer, etter varegruppe (tosifret SITC), land og

studies; The force of the ordinary. In Fletcher, K. & Tham,

transportmåte (tonn) Hentet 11.4.2014, fra https://www.

M. (Eds.), The Routledge Handbook of Sustainability and

ssb.no/tabell/08812

Fashion. London: Routledge.

2 SSB. (2013).Tabell 10235: Utgift per husholdning per år,

12 Klepp, I. G., & Laitala, K. (2015b). His mother’s dress

etter vare- og tjenestegruppe. Hentet 4.2.2015, fra ttps://

- Growth in the number of clothes. In Strandbakken, P. &

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Gronow, J. (Eds.), The Consumer in Society - A Tribute to

inTable=UtgHusVare&KortNavnWeb=fbu&PLanguage=0

Eivind Stø (pp. 311-334). Oslo: Abstrakt forlag.

&checked=true

13 Kvalem, Ingela Lundin; von Soest, Tilmann; Træen,

3 Fletcher, K. (2008). Sustainable fashion & textiles:

Bente & Singsaas, Kjetil S (2011). Body evaluation and

Design Journeys. London: Earthscan.

coital onset: A population-based longitudinal study.

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norden-velklaedt-i-et-rent-miljoe_handlingsplan-for-

10.1016/j.bodyim.2011.02.001 .

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14 ISO 14040. (2006). Environmental management - Life

5 Fletcher, K. & Tham, M. (Eds.) The Routledge

cycle assessment - Principles and framework. Geneva:

Handbook of Sustainability and Fashion. London:

International Organization for Standardization.

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15 Laursen, S. E., Bagh, J., Hansen, J., Jensen, O. K.,

6 Klepp, I.G. mf. 2015 (in press). Sustainable textile

& Werther, I. (1997). Environmental assessment of

initiatives and suggestions for a Nordic Roadmap. Tema

textiles. Life cycle screening of the production of textiles

Nord rapport.

containing cotton, wool, viscose, polyester or acrylic fibres

7 Worldwatch Institute. (2011). Vital signs 2011: The

Miljøprojekt nr. 369. Copenhagen: Miljøstyrelsen. Miljø-

trends that are shaping our future. Washington, DC:

og Energiministeriet and Made-By (2011). Environmental

Worldwatch Institute.

benchmark for fibres (Condensed Version). In L. Brown &

8 Langley, E., Durkacz, S., & Tanase, S. (2013). Clothing

Wilmanns Environmental (Ed.), (2 ed., Vol. 2011, pp. 7).

longevity and measuring active use. Banbury, Oxon:

Santa Barbara: MADE-BY.

Wrap. Turley, D. B., Horne, M., Blackburn, R. S., Stott,

16 Kviseth, K, & Tobiasson, T.S. (2011). Pulling Wool over

E., Laybourn, S. R., Copeland, J. E. (2010). The role and

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clothing: final report to the Department for Environment,

18 Laitala, K., & Klepp, I. G. (2013). Bare mote?

Food and Rural Affairs (Defra), (pp. 141). London, UK

Materialitetens betydning for klærs levetid. In P.

and Carbon Trust (2011). International Carbon Flows -

Strandbakken & N. Heidenstrøm (Eds.), Hinsides

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symbolverdi - Materialiteten i forbruket (pp. 145-167).

9 European Environment Agency (2014). Environmental

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19 Artnzen, M.G. (2015). Perfekt – Skapelsen av det

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plettfrie mennesket (p. 110). Forlaget Manifest. 39


40


Credit: ERWIN HASSELBRINCK 41


Samarbeid er lik bærekraft: Om entreprenørskap og sterke fellesskap ANNIKEN FJELBERG

Hva betyr setningen: “Samarbeid er den nye konkurransen”? Grammatisk er den kontradiktorisk og den henger ikke på greip. Men samarbeid på kryss av næringer og profesjoner er nøkkelen til nye og innovative løsninger som kan sikre et bærekraftig samfunn. Coworking representerer en ny måte å samlokalisere næringer på, som gjennom deling av kompetanse og erfaring bidrar til en mer bærekraftig framvekst av nye virksomheter. Flere virksomheter enn noensinne samlokaliseres for å oppnå synergier seg imellom, og dermed få tilgang på det mulighetsrommet som eksisterer slik at de kan forløse de kreftene som skal til for å lykkes.

42


Samfunn i endring

sammen for å dele tjenester som tid, plass, kunnskaper og

Begrepet bærekraft tok Norge som en stormvind da det

ferdigheter eller penger. Disse ulike samarbeidsformene

kom med Brundtlandrapporten på 1970-tallet. Det

appellerer til gründere som ønsker å skape nye produkter,

inntok en sentral plass både i politikken og ikke minst i

tjenester, eller bedrifter, og dermed vokser trenden om

skoleverket. I dag er begrepet nesten fraværende på alle

coworking frem. Mange i dag har hørt om Cross-Sector

arenaer, og i en del miljøer blir det endog oppfattet som

innovation, hvilket betyr hvordan en bransje i samarbeid

bakstreversk og gammeldags. Administrerende direktør

med en annen bransje kan få et nytt perspektiv, og dermed

i OsloTech, Karl-Christian Agerup, kommenterte nylig

kan løse nye problemer som man ikke hadde verktøy for å

Drømmeløftet til Innovasjon Norge1. Agerup skrev at de

løse tidligere fordi man får flere nye perspektiver på samme

elementene han mener er avgjørende for økt nyskaping

problemstilling. I krysningspunktet mellom ulike bransjer

”drukner i begreper som visjon, innovasjon, bærekraft,

oppstår noe nytt. Samarbeid genererer trippel klokskap, og

omstilling, skalerbarhet, forenkling, modighet osv.” Betyr

helt nye løsninger.

dette at ordet bærekraft har mistet sitt opprinnelige Rom for deling

innhold? Som coworker mener jeg at bærekraft tvert i mot

Siden mye skal endres på kort tid, må vi gjennom det

er moderne. Det fremtvinger naturlige iboende krefter

mange omtaler som et ”jordskjelv” i de fleste næringer.

i mennesket, holder prinsippet om at sammen kan vi

Wikipedia forklarer Earthquake engineering som følgende:

klare det meste høyt og forståelsen av at vi ikke bare

”A properly engineered structure does not necessarily have

har oss selv og vår egen virksomhet å ta hensyn til. I

to be extremely strong or expensive. It has to be properly

tillegg til dette har coworking den perfekte formen for

designed to withstand the seismic effects while sustaining

å takle omstillingstakten nåtidens kunnskapssamfunn

an acceptable level of damage.”2 Vi er i dag vitne til en

krever. Konsepter som coworking og klynger i

økende ustabilitet og kortsiktighet i verdenssamfunnet,

kunnskapsøkonomien er altså levedyktige over tid og

både innen politikken og i økonomien. Vi er tvunget

bærekraftige så det holder!

til å respondere raskt på den økende endringstakten

Kommunikasjonsbransjen har alltid vært preget av

i både klimatiske- og økonomiske rammer. I en slik

hard konkurranse, aktører med spisse albuer og store egoer.

virkelighet vil fleksibilitet og samarbeidskompetanse være

Det er ikke uten grunn at TV-serien ”Mad Men” med sine

overlevelsesfaktorer.

makt- og grådighetsfortellinger fikk så mange seere.

Et godt coworkingspace kjennetegnes av at det evner

Etter mange gode år ser vi i dag at store

å skape nettopp en slik bærekraftig struktur gjennom tiltak

kommunikasjonshus snubler eller faller fordi de ikke har

som fremmer samarbeid og utvikling. En undersøkelse

klart endringstakten i samfunnet. Paradigmeskiftet til

gjort av Wix og Officevibe forteller at 91 prosent av

delingsøkonomi er vanskelig for en bransje som har vært

coworkerne sier de har bedre interaksjoner som coworkere.

bygget på suksessrike enkeltindivider og store penger. Dette

Dette støttes også av forskeren Dr. Robert Cialdini som

gjelder ikke bare her til lands, det er en wake-up-call for

viser at vi liker mennesker bedre dersom vi samarbeider

mesteparten av verden. I en tid hvor kommunikasjon,

med dem.3 I tillegg er det dokumentert at samarbeid bedrer

budskapsformidling og kulturuttrykk er viktigere enn noen

økonomiske resultater. Det er altså god grunn til å tro at

gang, er det essensielt at bransjen evner å omstille seg.

samarbeidsformen vil nå også andre næringer fremover.

Delingsøkonomi handler om å dele på ressursene på en fornuftig måte, enten gjennom produktservice-systemer,

Gi så skal du få

hvor man leier ut produkter eller tjenester som ikke er i

Coworking krever åpenhet og initiativ, og mange vil hevde

bruk til andre mot betaling, gjennom gjenbruksmarkeder,

det krever spesielle personligheter. Jeg mener dette ikke

hvor produkter man ikke lenger har bruk for selges til

stemmer og tror arbeidsformen først og fremst handler

andre, eller gjennom samarbeidsformer, hvor mennesker

om å endre tankemønster. At vi beveger oss mot en større

med sammenfallende behov eller interesser kommer

kollektiv bevissthet i tillegg til å ha fokus på egen vinning. 43


ANNIKEN FJELBERG

Samarbeid genererer trippel klokskap, og helt nye løsninger.

44


Credit: HANS PETTER SMEBY/NYTT ROM

45


SAMARBEID ER LIK BÆREKRAFT: OM ENTREPENØRSKAP OG STERKE FELLESKAP

Mange fikk med seg Gene Marks’ artikkel ”Why I Don’t

som enkelt gjør coworkerne i stand til å betale hverandre

Want to Have Coffee With You” i sosiale medier i vår4,

for tid, tjenester eller produkter de utveksler seg imellom.

hvor han uttaler at han kun vil bruke tiden sin på å drikke

Systemer som dette har dukket opp i mange samfunn over

kaffe med folk han kan gjøre business med på en eller

hele verden de senere årene, slik som for eksempel den

annen måte, eller som han skylder en tjeneste. Ingen andre.

digitale valutaen bitcoin.

Slik ”what’s in it for me”- mentalitet er et hinder for at flere lykkes som gründere. Han har et poeng i at det er viktig

Ungt blikk

for oss gründere å prioritere tiden vår riktig, men det er

I fremtiden tror jeg unge mennesker i større grad enn

også viktig å finne balansen mellom bruk av tid til åpen

tidligere vil være mentorer for de mer erfarne, fordi

utforskning i gründerrollen og det å utelukkende jobbe

unge mennesker hjelper oss å finne vei i nytt terreng.

100 prosent fokusert mot eget mål. Personlig opplever jeg

Mentorrollen, en rolle som har eksistert i næringslivet i

at mennesker som åpner opp, er nysgjerrige og rause har

alle år, er i endring fordi næringslivet er i full forandring.

mer å bidra med både i egne og andres prosesser enn de

I coworkingspaces og start-up hub’er over hele verden

som velger ikke å være det. Dette understøttes av Øyvind

utvikles det virksomheter som en konsekvens av nye behov

Kvalnes ved Handelshøyskolen BI, som i en artikkel i DN i

i nye markeder og tverrsektoriell tenkning, av ny teknologi

februar skrev at folk som deler kunnskap er bedre rustet til

og av helt nye samarbeidsformer på tvers av geografi og

nyskapning enn de som holder ting for seg selv.5

faglig kompetanse.

En smart gründer ber ikke bare om å få tilgang på

Det skapes behov som aldri tidligere har eksistert.

andres kompetanse, men byr på seg selv og sin kunnskap

Det er ikke lett å være mentor for noen du ikke forstår

til de rundt seg. Og de aller smarteste begynner med å

hva driver med, og det er ikke nødvendigvis lenger sånn at

gi selv, før de ber om noe fra andre. Cialdini kaller dette

mentoren er senior til den man er mentor for i ett-og-

for gjensidighetsprinsippet, og definerer det som ”den

alt. Stadig høyere endringstakt gjør at mentorstanden

universelle regelen vi mennesker følger i alle kulturer om at

sannsynligvis også vil inkludere unge mennesker i langt

man er følelsesmessig forpliktet til å gi noe tilbake etter å

større grad i fremtiden, og at mentor-relasjonen utvikler

ha mottatt selv.”6

seg til å bli mer gjensidig. At det fremover handler om kunnskapsutveksling og læring for både mentor og adept.

Rollemodeller og mentoring

For noen måneder siden ble Ut: Studentbyrå lansert.

Jeg vil påstå at det ligger økt bærekraft i å ha rollemodeller

Det er et byrå av, for og med siste-års bachelorstudenter

rundt seg som man kan hente inspirasjon og læring

fra de største kreative høyskolene i Oslo-området. Per i dag

fra når man er gründer. Dette forutsetter at det finnes

har piloten hatt over 100 studenter gjennom fire kreative

rollemodeller som tar seg bryet med å dele. Under ”She-

”cuper” for store selskaper som Oslo Konserthus, Statoil og

konferansen” på Latter den 8. mars i år ble grunnlegger av

Telia Sonera. På hver ”cup” stiller et mentorlag fra relevante

Forskerfabrikken, Hanne Finstad, tildelt rollemodell- og

fagmiljøer, og innsatsen til disse mentorene oppleves som

inspiratorprisen ”She 2015.” Ett av hennes budskap var at

svært verdifull for studentene.

vi alle er rollemodeller enten vi er oss det bevisst eller ikke.

I tillegg ser man et tydelig mønster i at både mentorer

Jeg liker å kalle mennesker som Finstad forbilder. Folk som

og oppdragsgivere blir inspirert av studentene fordi de har

motiverer og inspirerer andre til å våge å gå nye veier, tro på

et annet perspektiv.

egne drømmer, og realisere store, hårete mål.

Erfaring er ikke alltid en fordel, noen ganger kan erfaring faktisk være til hinder for innovasjon.

I coworking tas rollemodeller og mentoring på alvor. Selv om langt fra alle som jobber på denne måten er ferske gründere, opplever vi alle et behov for mentoring fra tid til annen. Flere fungerer som rollemodeller og forbilder for hverandre, og for å stimulere til deling og samarbeid mellom

Det er derfor Ut: Studentbyrå planlegger et

disse er det utviklet en egen valuta (cwash = coworking cash)

”mentorprogram” hvor erfarne kan komme med 46


ANNIKEN FJELBERG

problemstillinger til unge, nyutdannede studenter, de som

blitt mine venner.”

ikke vet at noe ikke kan gjøres, og at næringslivet på den

Som medgründer og med flere års erfaring fra

måten kanskje får skråblikket som trenges inn i gamle,

coworking er min påstand at utsagnet ”Samarbeid er

fastlåste problemstillinger og tenkemåter.

den nye konkurransen” ikke bare er logisk og sant – det fungerer også i praksis. Mitt råd er derfor at du bør by

Kreativitet er den nye oljen

på kunnskapen din, og samarbeide i utstrakt grad med

Om du ønsker deg penger, råd eller nettverk, er det alltid

gamle og nye forbindelser – selv om det noen ganger

en god idé å snakke med andre underveis. Ta kontakt med

virker krevende å finne tid. Det bygger ikke bare opp deg

ditt forbilde og be om et råd. Og dersom du er så heldig

og ditt firma, men det bidrar også til en mer bærekraftig

å være forbilde for noen som tar kontakt med deg, vær

gründerstand i et land som sårt trenger noe annet enn olje

raus! Det gir ”god karma” og bidrar til en mer bærekraftig

å bygge sin fremtid på. Og på 657 Oslo er vi overbevist om

gründerstand. Du skal selvsagt ikke by på mer enn du

at kreativitet er den nye oljen.

har å gi, men jeg anbefaler deg å gå den ekstra milen som noen ganger kan kjennes litt lang. Samfunnet trenger det, gründere trenger det, og det er ikke usannsynlig at du noen ganger også vil nyte godt av det selv, uten at du nødvendigvis vet det på forhånd. Fra Gründerpulsen til Innovasjon Norge den 13. mars ser vi et bilde hvor Halvor Gregusson i Rocketfarm møter en investor. Om de drakk kaffe eller ikke vet jeg ingenting om, men møtet resulterte uansett ikke i cash. Likevel var det i følge Gregusson det beste møtet han noensinne har vært i fordi han da forsto hvordan investoren tenker. Enda godt at investoren tok seg tid til det møtet. Noen ganger er det forbilledlig å ta seg tid til et møte, selv om man ikke forventer å få noe igjen for det

REFERENCES

umiddelbart. Raushet og bærekraft er to ord som oftere

1 Agerup, Karl-Christian (2015): http://e24.no/

og oftere brukes i samme setning. Flere unge bedrifter

kommentarer/spaltister/kronikk-kritiserer-droemmeloeftet-

overlever når de får hjelp i form av tid, råd eller penger i

man-ser-ut-til-aa-ha-skapt-ett-offentlig-orakel-som-skal-

startfasen av de som er kommet lenger enn dem selv. Også

definere-hvordan-man-kommer-seg-videre-i-livet/23458065

de tradisjonsrike, store konsernene har noe å lære av denne

2 Wikipedia (2015): https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/

type bærekraft i en tid hvor nyvinninger og innovasjon

Earthquake_engineering

har mye fokus, og det er viktigere enn noensinne å være

3 Harvard Business Review (2013): The Users (and

lettbent og fremoverlent.

Abusers) of Influence”, July-August 2013 Issue, https://hbr.

Samarbeidskompetanse og nettverksbygging er en

org/2013/07/the-uses-and-abuses-of-influence

av de viktigste komponentene i forhold til bedrifters

4 Marks, Gene (2015): “Why I Don’t Want to Have Coffee

bærekraft i dag, og coworking som metode byr på nettopp

With You”, Entrepreneur Magazine, 30 March 2015.

dette. Det er i denne konteksten slagordet ”Samarbeid er

http://www.entrepreneur.com/article/244370

den nye konkurransen” ble unnfanget. Andreas på 657

5 Kvalnes, Øyvind (2015): “Kunnskapsdelerne”, Dagens

Oslo sa det slik til en gruppe besøkende: ”Her jobber jeg

Næringsliv, 08.02.2015, http://www.dn.no/meninger/

med mitt eget selskap ved siden av mange likesinnede

debatt/2015/02/08/2052/Ledelse/kunnskapsdelerne

bransjekollegaer. Vi ser på hverandre som kollegaer, men

6 Harvard Business Review (2013): “The Users (and

de samme menneskene er noen ganger mine partnere og

Abusers) of Influence”, July-August 2013 Issue, https://hbr.

andre ganger mine konkurrenter. Og mange av dem har

org/2013/07/the-uses-and-abuses-of-influence 47


‘If you have nothing left but air, can you use it to build?’

MAYA LAITINEN

Under the Khmer Rouge a quarter of the country’s citizens

during hot days. They also help drain excessive rainwater

were killed, cities were abandoned for years and all land-

and floods during the monsoons. In addition, three market

ownership papers were burned. Only recently Cambodia

areas are situated where city roads cross the structure.

has begun to rebuild and plan into the future. Yet most

The living units must be light tensile structures to avoid

people cannot claim their right to their own land, only

exceeding weight limitations. When a house is hanging

their house.

from the sky, a vertical hierarchy is developed. ‘Sky ladders’ go through the centre of the home. By heating the air

In 2007 Boeung Kak Lake was bought by an investment

inside an enclosed mylar membrane, the hot air rises and

company, which forced the 4,000 families living nearby

creates an ascending lift.

to abandon their homes. Between 2008 and 2013 the lake which was an important part of the natural drainage system

The structure offers an alternative typology in the city,

was filled with sand and is today a desert land. Due to

where levels are constantly moving and people inhabit

pressure from the World Bank, the displaced communities

a floating life. Creating a cooler environment and shade

have been given 12 per cent of the filled lake land. The

from the strong sun, plants can grow freely on the ground,

project proposes an alternative site where residents receive 3

inviting people into the Lung of Phnom Penh.

per cent of ground space but 15 hectares of the sky. The site punctures the new development on the lake with a public green park under floating balloons. This ‘green line’ connects important areas in the city to function as an essential ‘High Line’ for Phnom Penh. Pools provide water for the plants and residents during droughts while also creating a cool environment and natural ventilation system 48


49


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53


Gambiarra: Repair Culture

FELIPE FONSECA

Maker culture, the so-called revolution bringing digital fabrication technologies to the common citizen, has gained a lot of ground in the last few years. Maybe too much, in fact. We can of course ignore those people who are only, as always, surfing the current wave of hype. They seldom have any clue of the ideas they are selling themselves with anyway. But it also feels as though everybody else is talking about maker culture. Those words are even being uttered by people who have always been opposed to what they should mean. Or is it me? Did I get it wrong all the way?

54


The first time I read about a “maker culture”, it was a sort

acceleration towards the end of industrial age, celebrity

of relief. I had finally found - or so I thought - a way to

author-speakers are now talking about a “new industrial

explain a number of initiatives some of us in Brazil had

revolution”3. In the same direction, the Obama

been involved in for some years already. Framing those

administration is reportedly planning to pour one billion

things as “making” enabled us to mix critical thinking

dollars4 to set up 15 “manufacturing innovation hubs”5

with DIY (as brilliantly put by Matt Ratto on “critical

with the goal of sustaining industrial growth. As if the

making” ), proposing a sort of creative engagement

centuries oriented by industrial paradigms didn’t bring

that escaped the dead-ends of tedious market-driven

enough harm to the world already. Sure, one cannot deny

innovation. A culture of conscious makers could recognize

the improvements brought about by industry - especially in

and promote alternative solutions and new perspectives for

terms of driving scientific development and its implications

everyday problems, valuing distributed and collaborative

in food, transportation, health and communications.

approaches and seeking the common good. It would help

At the same time, though, we have seen some aspects

overcome traditional institutions and their clogged circuits

of contemporary life go in a totally wrong way. Think

of information. Local, cooperative formations would

for instance about waste and pollution, inequality,

challenge the logics of global industrial capitalism, treating

disintegration of cultures and social ties, permanent global

every human being - or small group, however loose it was

war and many other consequences of the industrial age.

- as potentially creative and productive. Industrial products

I’m not sure we should even be trying to promote a new

that suffered of planned obsolescence would be repaired

industrial revolution if those aspects are not carefully taken

as armies of amateurs used the internet to share digital

into account. And judging by the prevailing discourse

models of replacement parts. New kinds of meaning and

within the current breed of maker culture, I’m not sure

engagement would evolve, influenced by such approaches

they are.

2

to material and cultural expression. Possibilities emerging

When the maker culture becomes eminently entrepreneurial, we should wonder what mechanisms are set in motion.

from the free software and hacker movements would finally evert the world of things. And yet, we ended up in a world of newbie geeks assembling prefabricated kits of 3D printers, with which hipster designers-to-be (often the new-geeks themselves) can melt lots of plastic - which is hardly recyclable - into

It may as well be the old capitalist drive to turn the

prototypes of new products, hoping to become rich and

critique itself into the gears of its own reinvention gaining

famous. Most such prototypes will never be used for

ground. Could we ever escape that path?

anything at all, but their creators will nonetheless spam all

It was 2002 when a group of people in Brazil first

over Facebook, Twitter and Instagram trying to convince us

discussed the ideas that eventually led to the creation of

they are building our (better, in a way no one can specify)

MetaReciclagem.6 In the first projection of those shared

future. Who knows, they may be invited to do a TED talk

cyberpunk dreams, we would use the internet to gather

or raise some bucks on Kickstarter. Or at least become

local groups to work with the discarded PCs we saw piling

consultants for an international NGO willing to develop

up everywhere. Once repaired and put back to work using

“technologies for education”.

free and open source software, those computers could then

And there we go. Forget about hackers getting blisters

be configured as nodes in autonomous wireless networks

in their hands as they struggle to become carpenters. Those

that promised digital communications beyond the

times are gone. Sadly, the most important skill in the

constraints and market limitations of corporate internet.

maker culture these days seems to be keeping a spreadsheet

Never mind the fact that at that time none of us had ever

on Google drive with a business plan and a consistent

touched a Wi-Fi card, and only a couple had any working

strategy for social media PR. Numbers everywhere.

experience with free/open source software. We were

In more general terms, instead of portraying an

opening up those magical black boxes with our own hands 55


GAMBIARRA: REPAIR CULTURE

Credit: JOHANNA AOIFE 56


FELIPE FONSECA

and changing the way they worked. And it felt great. It was

a newborn child - and proceed by inviting neighbors,

a group of passionate explorers of new possibilities, however

relatives, friends and acquaintances to help out, often with

remote those might seem. I don’t think we set up a lot of

their own hands. The result is an autonomous, iconoclast

those Utopian networks, but by decomposing the steps that

and celebratory sociability that is abundant and productive.

would bring us there we managed to accomplish a lot.

Gambiarra refers to all kinds of improvised solutions to

We were of course following the huge tidal changes

concrete problems that appear when one doesn’t have

taking place by the turn of the millennium. Some of us had

access to the proper tools, materials, parts or specific

been dragged into the dot-com bubble (the first one, still in

knowledge to perform a given task. It is all about repairing

the last century) with hopes of infinite creative challenges,

or re-purposing objects that seemed to be of little use but

only to end up finding office doors closed with locks

end up acquiring new value out of tacit, applied creativity.

after stocks imploded. Others were involved with urban

I sometimes call it “everyday innovation”. The Spanish

demonstrations against WTO and corporate globalization.

designer Victor Viña draws a parallel between gambiarra,

The second edition of the World Social Forum7 in 2002

jugaad and bricolage.8 These are cultural practices which are

offered some of us glimpses of hope in a world otherwise

naturally tactical, deeply rooted in the essentially human

still paralyzed by 9/11. Despite the bad times, within

and widely available ability of understanding objects

MetaReciclagem it felt as if faith, good intentions and hard

with one’s mind and hands, and then taking action over

work would allow us to create better futures. Whatever

such objects. They see the world as abundant in potential

that meant. Our part, it seemed by then, would start by

solutions instead of precarious or scarce in resources.

gathering every Saturday in a warehouse in the southern

Some years into this game, I had already heard of

part of São Paulo to repair discarded computers.

and even visited a number of the projects which for over

MetaReciclagem turned from an idea into a distributed

a decade had been proposing and implementing similar

group, and then onto a methodology that was open to be

ideas. In particular European hacklabs were rooted into

appropriated by whoever wished to, anywhere. At some

a social context that I could relate to. People involved

point, a network of about half a dozen self-managed

with these hacklabs stemming from an activist context -

MetaReciclagem labs in different regions of Brazil would

squatters, hackers, engaged artists, even critical theorists

receive donated PCs, make them useful again in some way

- talked of other possibilities for contemporary living, of

and then give them away to social projects and movements.

cultural diversity and common good reaching far beyond

Some of us were also invited to advise on and implement

the tired mechanisms of a market economy ruled by

public policies related to information technologies and

big media. They promoted networked politics that were

society. At some point MetaReciclagem came to be

radically inclusive. They strove to fight cognitive capitalism,

explained in such an elastic definition as a loose network

consumerism and alienation. DIY was the norm, as well

promoting the “critical appropriation of technologies for

as copyleft and consensus-based decision-making. In that

social change”. During that evolution, we discovered a

context, free and open source software was not only an

number of groups, people and initiatives in other parts of

efficient way to organize the production of knowledge

the world that acknowledged the huge potential of using

but also a cultural and critical take on the pervasiveness

discarded equipment and free/open source software to

of relationships mediated only by economic values. That

address both the uneven distribution of and the enclosure

universe made a lot of sense to our projects and political

of knowledge into information technologies.

momentum in Brazil as well.

Our own contribution to this context was related,

The same can’t easily be said of formations that

we found some time later, to the way our actions were

would emerge later on, even ones inspired by the very

deeply informed by Brazilian cultural practices such as

same context. A symbolic example is the transformation

gambiarra and mutirão. Mutirão is the sort of collective

performed by the hackerspace movement, translating

dynamics that takes place when we Brazilians need to find

and transporting the largely underground practices of

solutions - say, building an extra room to accommodate

(basically) European hacklabs to a wider public first in 57


The maker movement is a trend in which individuals or groups of individuals create and market products that are recreated and assembled using unused, discarded or broken electronic, plastic, silicon or virtually any raw material and/or product from a computer-related device 1

58


Credit: MARCO ESTRELLA 59


GAMBIARRA: REPAIR CULTURE

the US and later in the rest of the world. The association

were still trying to find out what it was that we wanted to

of hackerspaces with what came to be known as a

accomplish in those lost, sometimes frustrating Saturdays

“maker culture” gave me, as said above, an amazing first

- someone shared a link in our e-mail discussion list. It

impression. Indeed, while reading Cory Doctorow’s

pointed to a project in the UK called Lowtech12. Associated

Makers - first published in 2009 - I was pleased to recognize

with Access Space13 a digital arts centre in Sheffield that

practices, methods and aspirations that felt similar to ones

used exclusively discarded computers and Linux to carry

common within the MetaReciclagem network in Brazil.

its activities, Lowtech offered valuable insights that were

I also noticed essential differences in the world portrayed

definitely incorporated into our practices. It wasn’t before

by Doctorow’s novel, such as the central role attributed to

half a decade later during an edition of Futuresonic

commercial modes of operation. But I eventually dismissed

(now FutureEverything14) in Manchester that I had the

the relevance of these nuances, treating them as result of

opportunity to get acquainted with James Wallbank, the

particular cultural biases.

British artist who ran Access Space and created Lowtech.

9

We then started an open-ended conversation - that is still

It seems however that the current breed of maker culture has completely surrendered to market forces.

taking place today - about machines, hands, skills, scents and futures. When I met James again a couple of years ago in Finland for the Bricolabs programme during the Pixelache

I won’t even start discussing the prevalence of

festival15 he was promoting the Refab Space. This was

proprietary operating systems inside the laptops (and

his own take on setting up a lab with digital fabrication

smartphones, tablets, etc.) of today’s so-called makers.

equipment - some of it donated from local factories that

Let’s try to focus on the bigger picture. Not only did

were moving abroad. Instead of buying into the holy

the hackerspace movement give room to somewhat

grail of maker culture, James was curious about the actual

domesticated practices of commercial entrepreneurship ,

potential of using those technologies that were becoming

but their close and often submissive relationship with

increasingly available. He told me the laser cutter was a

models such as MIT’s Fablabs brought along a vocabulary

real workhorse. On the other hand, the 3D printer was - if I

packed with terms stemming from the industrial age.

remember James’ words correctly - the least useful and most

In 2008, Bre Pettis wrote an article for 2600 magazine

complex of this type of equipment. Nevertheless, it still had

promoting hackerspaces and technologies of digital

an indirect role for Refab Space as it attracted talented people

fabrication. In this three-page long rant, Pettis mentions

wanting to have the chance to explore new possibilities.

10

“prototypes” or “prototyping” over 20 times. As already

But there was something else there. I wanted to ask

noticed by Gabriel Menotti, the prototype is to an extent

James what he made of the whole maker culture concept.

the opposite of the Brazilian gambiarra.11 The prototype,

Unfortunately, I can’t tell what he would have replied16

as an object, wouldn’t have an existence on its own – it

as the idea of a culture of repair suddenly struck me

would only be a sort of rehearsal for “proper” products to

as too important to be overlooked and I was lost in

be mass-produced at some point in the future. In itself, a

daydreaming. Why had the maker culture become

prototype is already a piece of waste. On the other hand,

concerned only with industrial methods - prototyping

gambiarra is about finding multiple concrete solutions,

future mass-produced objects?

often by re-purposing two different objects to perform a

What would be the concrete outcomes of a number of success-eager young talents spitting out objects made out of melted plastic, hardly - if ever recyclable, everywhere in the world?

task none of them were originally built to. In the context of a contemporary society struggling for sustainability, meaning, creativity and value, gambiarra seems to have more to offer than the weak existence of layers and layers of plastic-made prototypes. Back in the beginning of MetaReciclagem - when we 60


FELIPE FONSECA

Doesn’t the planet have enough useless objects made of plastic already? Of course, a repair culture isn’t just about repairing things. We could try to find a better way to define a culture of reuse, repair and re-purposing. But proposing repair the physical act of mending things in order to extend their lifetime or else turning them into something else of use - as a core value sounds good enough for a current need: criticizing the path apparently taken by maker culture that is addicted to novelty, becoming consequently toxic, unsustainable, superficial and alienating. In a sense, repairing may be rooted in tradition the same way startup making is related to novelty. Indeed, a number of makerspaces and fablabs sound all too anxious to reach an abstract future, often at the cost of discarding any sort of tradition. Repair culture, on the other hand, is nothing new. It has evolved with human history since thousands of years before the industrial revolution. In fact, it was only recently that repairing objects came to be regarded as something society as a whole and any person individually should avoid. But if we agree with that, something very important is being taken from us: the exercise and accumulated knowledge of matching everyday problems and the countless solutions available for them. There would be hipster designers everywhere, but the fundamental divide between makers and mere users would linger, or even increase. In other words, a renewed industrial sector, now distributed and even more dynamic, is planning to take creativity away from our everyday lives. We cannot afford to lose that. Perhaps we could start by shifting the focus away from “what valuable new thing can I come up with that will make me famous/rich/sexy”. Repairing things as a cultural trend is inextricably related to organic food, natural birthing, cultural diversity, upcycling, sustainable mobility, urban farming, fair trade, culture of peace and digital commons. Repair culture, in that sense, is not a mere side effect of the development of industrial societies. On the contrary, it is one of the very few distributed and consistent niches of resistance against the transformation of all human creativity into quantifiable commodity. I reckon it’s not hard to pick a side on this matter.

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GAMBIARRA: REPAIR CULTURE

REFERENCES Doctorow, Cory (2009). Makers. New York: Tom Doherty Associates, LLC. Fonseca, Felipe Schmidt (2014). Redelabs: Laboratórios Experimentais em Rede. Master thesis. Unicamp, Labjor. Maxigas (2012). Hacklabs and Hackerspaces: tracing two genealogies, in Journal of Peer Production [online] Vol. 2: Bio/Hardware Hacking. URL: http://peerproduction. net/issues/issue­2/peer­reviewed­papers/hacklabs­andhackerspaces/. Menichinelli, Massimo (2013). “Policies for Digital Fabrication”. [online]. URL: http://www.openp2pdesign. org/2013/fabbing/policies­for­digital­fabrication/. Menotti, Gabriel Gonring (2010). “Gambiarra: the prototyping perspective”. [online]. URL: http://medialab­ prado.es/article/gambiarra. Pettis, Bre (2008). Hacker Perspective: Bre Pettis, in 2600 [online], vol. 25, N 4. ISSN 0749­3851. Ratto, Matt (2011). Critical Making, in Open Design Now. Amsterdam: BIS Publishers. Viña, Victor (2012). “DIY in Context: From Bricolage to Jugaad”. [online]. URL: https://pt.scribd.com/ doc/98988556/DIY­in­Context­From­Bricolage­to­Jugaad 62


FELIPE FONSECA

1 Techopedia (2015). “Maker Movement”. (online). - URL:

9 http://craphound.com/category/makers/

http://www.techopedia.com/definition/28408/maker-

10 http://peerproduction.net/issues/issue-2/peer-reviewed-

movement (Retrieved 23 June 2015).

papers/hacklabs-and-hackerspaces/

2 http://criticalmaking.com/

11 http://medialab-prado.es/article/gambiarra

3 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Makers%3A_The_New_

12 http://lowtech.org/

Industrial_Revolution

13 http://access-space.org/

4 http://wohlersassociates.com/blog/2012/03/national-

14 http://futureeverything.org/

network-for-manufacturing-innovation/

15 http://www.pixelache.ac/festival-2013/bricolabs-

5 http://www.fastcodesign.com/1671864/obama-name-

programme/

checks-3-d-printing-calls-for-15-innovation-hubs

16 After reading a draft of this text, Wallbank told me he

6 http://rede.metareciclagem.org

resigned from Access Space and opened a shop in Sheffield

7 [Procurar no domínio en.wikipedia.org] en.wikipedia.

dedicated to maker culture. He is excited with the way

org/wiki/World_Social_Forum

youngsters are curious with “remaking, reuse, crafting and

8 https://pt.scribd.com/doc/98988556/DIY-in-Context-

making” these days.

From-Bricolage-to-Jugaad 63


64


Credit: ANNELIES ZWAAN

Beyond the Garden Fence

ANNELIES ZWAAN

65


BEYOND THE GARDEN FENCE

By bringing food production into the city, it not only allows people greater understanding and access to food, it also minimizes transportation of crops, provides greater levels of freshness and puts the control of food creation back into the hands of the community, ultimately benefitting us all.

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ANNELIES ZWAAN

It will come as a surprise to no one, that our lives have

home to the first urban farm in New Zealand, Agropolis

changed dramatically over the past century. Many of these

Urban Farm, named to combine the words metropolis and

changes have been revolutionary and highly important,

agriculture. Started in October 2013, the farm is located

granting freedoms to people of different races, genders,

in the heart of the city, a heart which is mostly vacant lots

ages and socio-economic backgrounds. And yet, over the

still, as 80% of the CBD’s buildings had to be demolished

past several decades there has been a slow, steady leaning

following the quakes. This has presented an unprecedented

back to examine the ways in which we are living. Part of

opportunity within the city, as there are currently large

this has been thanks to the internet and the accessibility

amounts of space for such initiatives to stake a claim.

to observe and comment beyond our own backyards but, for some, it has also been a gut level response to the idea

Like many urban farms, the key purpose of Agropolis is

that we are moving too far from the roots of our natural

to reconnect the city with its food and provide a space

world. This has driven many initiatives surrounding ideas

within the city that fosters community and learning. Not

of simplifying, enriching and de-consuming our lives,

only does this mean food is closer to its end destination,

but it begs the question of whether these (mainly) small

and hence fresher, it also helps support the local economy

enterprises can really change the perpetual motion of

and gives people closer, healthier options for sourcing their

modernization?

food. This is the crux for most of the urban farm fervor. As populations increase, there is a huge demand on the

One such idea is that of Urban Farming, which is hailed as

food production complex and people are becoming more

an innovative way to grow food within cities to help deal

aware of the many issues surrounding the lack of clarity

with issues of scarcity, hunger and the current demand

about where our food actually comes from and how it is

on our traditional food system. Like many new initiatives

produced. By bringing food production into the city, it

responding to the issues of our modern world, urban

not only allows people greater understanding and access to

farming hits a lot of great words. Green, local, fresh,

food, it also minimizes transportation of crops, provides

seasonal, sustainable. But in fact, urban farming isn’t a new

greater levels of freshness and puts the control of food

idea at all, it’s actually how cities first began to spring up,

creation back into the hands of the community, ultimately

as a collection of people living by farmed land and trading

benefitting us all. For Agropolis, given its context as a

as we progressed from hunter gatherer societies to agrarian

sight of growth in a city where residents are frustrated by

peoples. Yet technology and city planning has pushed

the slow rate of reconstruction, it also serves as a beacon

farming further and further from its consumers and today

of hope. This has lead to a lot of ground level support for

the vast majority of our food takes great journeys to get

Agropolis and has shown that the ordinary citizens are

from the ground to our mouths. However, the renewal of

ready and willing to make such an enterprise work.

urban farming is already so popular that many cities in the world have variations of urban farms scattered across

But, sadly, the creation and running of Agropolis, and

them (in fact New York City claims to have over 700 food

many other urban farms, is not a simple as would be

producing farms within the city limits). But what happens

hoped. To begin with, the ground of the site is comprised

when we look beyond the garden fence and examine

of rubble left over from the demolition process with any

the current state of urban farming, its difficulties and its

number of toxins contained within it. This presents the

potential?

challenge of growing above ground, which is entirely possible but not preferable. Secondly, there is the fact that

As a New Zealander based in Christchurch, ideas like

the farm has a temporary license to occupy which means,

urban farming are the bread and butter of conservation at

at any point, they could be given 30 days notice in which

the moment. This is a result of the devastating earthquakes

to clear out. So not only do they need to plant above

that occurred here in 2010/11 and the opportunities that

ground, they also need to make sure everything on site is

rebuilding the city has created. In fact, Christchurch is

transportable and movable. Thirdly, there is huge pressure 67


BEYOND THE GARDEN FENCE

on resources and funding, as the cost of the rebuild sits

there is actually a lot of big unused space but bureaucracy

at an estimated $30 billion, which is well beyond any

has made it difficult to utilize these spaces as the officials

contingency money set aside for such occasions.

in charge don’t want to be liable for unknown risks. At the same time as this, the local council has created a food

This means that money usually set aside by city councils

resilience plan to try and increase access to food within

and government to foster new projects and innovative

the city and hence, be seen to back these initiatives. This

ideas, simply is not available. For some urban farms

is a classic example of policy makers wanting to be seen to

this may not be an issue, if a single person or group of

support innovation but not wanting or being able to take

people are creating the farm as a means of livelihood. But

on the trials that entail.

Agropolis has always been set up as a community-based spaced and, as such, is run primarily by volunteers. This

These challenges are by no means unique to Agropolis

does mean that running costs are relatively low but it

Urban Farm. However, they do raise the question of

also means that no one has that added aspect of financial

whether growing in urban centers is in fact the revolution

interest to help spur on the project.

it’s being touted as. Aiming to bring food closer to the people is an incredibly worthwhile pursuit but what

The flip side worth noting is that perhaps we are simply

does this translate to in reality? Will it mean that other

paying to little for our fruit and vegetables and, if we want

enterprising families can no longer generate profit from

farming to be able to move away from huge monocultures,

their own more rural farms as they have to add the cost of

we may need to get used to paying more for our food.

transport onto their food? Do cities have the space to make

Whilst many people will dislike such a suggestion, the

such ideas work? And will urban farms consistently need to

price we currently pay for fruit and vegetables is vastly out

rely on funding, as they cost more to set up than traditional

of sync with the real cost of producing quality food. Only

farms, with city land prices and the extra infrastructure

a few hundred years ago, when growing was generally on

needed to grow in such a non typical way, therefore

smaller, more local farms, households would spend an

draining money away from other equally worthy projects?

average of half their income on food. Now, despite the so-called advances in technology, a lot of people feel that

Another question is whether urban farming is really

spending even a third of their income on food is far too

that much different or any more beneficial than the

much. But growing food is an incredibly difficult job,

already established convention of traditional and/or

not just physically, but also in terms of the amount of

community gardening. Many urban farms rely on at least

learning involved in creating a productive farm and this

some volunteer power to support their growing and it is

is something that has lost its monetary value. If we could

important to consider the impact of this. For one thing,

learn to revalue our food perhaps some of the barriers of

it’s a sign that many urban farms aren’t able to sustain

urban farming would be let down.

themselves financially in the same way you would expect of a more traditional farming model. It also has the potential

However, there is also the huge and ongoing challenge of

to be drawing people in from surrounding suburbs which

space. Most typical farms are financially viable because they

is great in terms of cross-suburban socializing but less

can produce at volume but urban farming so far is generally

great when you consider the fuel required to make such

relegated to small lots or rooftops, which potentially

journeys. Going further is the fact that growing in the city

increases the amount of human input required whilst

is generally more difficult than within suburban or rural

minimizing the food outcomes. Many proposed or actual

areas because of the lack of quality soil and useful volumes

urban farms tackle this by building up rather than out,

of space which begs the question of whether it is simply

both making the most of land footprints and helping side-

not the right solution.

step issues of sunlight that can come into play with farming in built up areas. Frustratingly, within Christchurch CBD,

However, one of the most important lessons learnt so far 68


ANNELIES ZWAAN

Credit: ANNELIES ZWAAN

at Agropolis is that it is hugely important to have time to

climates or cultures. And whilst crate growinghas been

experiment and trial ideas in order to find the best ways in

successful so far, we may well find down the track that

which to work. To any vegetable grower this is probably old

it is too time consuming and there is a simpler or less

news and common sense but most funders and councils are

demanding way we could be working. This reflects one

so concerned with results that gaining long-term support

of the important lessons of the century post-industrial

can be difficult. Part of this stems from the ingrained idea

revolution, which is, one size does not fit all.

that failures are bad and outcomes are all that matter, but

There are many things we can learn from one another and many ideas that transcend borders but this doesn’t mean that urban farming, or any other new green initiative, will save the world.

another part is the fear that supporting such ideas would be wasting money on a passing fad. But over the past year and a half the gardens have tried many ways of growing and are finally seeing some success with growing that produces quality vegetables whilst still being transportable and above ground. To do this they

There are still many turns in the road ahead for Agropolis

trialed different versions of raised bed and crate gardening

and urban farms worldwide as they try to work through

ideas to come to the eventual solution of growing in reused

the problems of stepping outside the confines we place on

flower bulb crates with the soil held by coffee sacks. These

the world around us. But, this is ultimately the challenge of

sacks are then cut into for planting and can then help hold

any initiative that dares to question the status quo as urban

water and act as a mulch whilst the plants are growing. This

farming does. It is the challenge to find a way to bridge the

is by no means the only solution and Agropolis intends

gap between grass roots movement and an accepted part

to continue experimenting but it does serve to highlight

of daily life. It is the challenge to crave a space in which to

the importance of having time to try new ideas before

try thing out, fail and fail some more but then, hopefully,

championing them as the answer.

succeed where others haven’t before. It is the challenge to question what we see in front of us and it is the challenge

For example, this system of growing is currently working

to convince those in power that a better future is possible

for Agropolis but who is to say it’d work in other countries,

and is worth fighting for. 69


INTERVIEW

LIVING WITH ZERO WASTE A Utopian Dream or the Way of the Future?

Interview with Bea Johnson

KAJA AAS AHNFELT

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Credit: NICOLE MARKWALD

By following 5 R’s of Refuse, Reduce, Reuse, Recycle and Rot, Bea produces one glass of yearly waste.

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LIVING WITH ZERO WASTE: A UTOPIAN DREAM OR THE WAY OF THE FUTURE?

Imagine being handed a jar of glass on the first

took two years for us to go from living in a large home to

of January. During the following year, you are

choosing a more environmentally - friendly way of living.

to produce no more waste than what can you can fit into that tiny space. Impossible you say?

The first year, we moved into an apartment with only the

I asked Bea Johnson, the French-Californian

necessities and stored the rest -that’s where we learned that

Queen of Zero Waste, how she does it.

living with less allowed us to live more. The second year, we bought a house half the size of the previous one, we let

Bea Johnson, a ‘Zero Waste Guru’, settled in California,

go of 80% of our belongings (including those that we had

produces one jar of waste on a yearly basis. As the author of

stored) and then our voluntary simplicity opened time to

the book and the blog “Zero Waste Home”, she has since

educate ourselves on environmental issues - that’s when we

2008 been dedicated to live a zero waste lifestyle together

decided to change our ways for the sake of our kids future.

with her family. To most of us, producing zero amounts of waste is an incomprehensible idea, and to lead such a

I imagine that the transition to a living with Zero

radical life may seem as an exaggerated attempt to leave

Waste on a daily basis is quite challenging. What

the system. As I dig deeper into the matter of Zero Waste

have you found to be the main barriers?

it becomes evident that this concept is no longer utopian talk of the future. In different corridors to Bea’s simplistic

Our biggest challenge was finding balance, figuring out

home, bureaucrats, working in the European Commission

what worked for us and what did not. There were no books

(EC), are now setting out a strategy to let Europe achieve

or blogs on how to do Zero Waste when we started in

a Circular Economy with Zero Waste by 20201. From a

2008. So I googled alternatives and tested many recipes

state point of view, defining waste as a resource may be a

and how-to’s. But I eventually got too wrapped up into

way to create jobs, move the European economy out of

homemaking: At one point, I was making cheese, bread,

stagnation, as well as a way to stop resources depletion

yogurt, soy milk, butter and so on. Some of these ideas

and environmental degradation. I talked to Bea Johnson

were too extreme, too time consuming, and we later

to hear what is in it for her. In the context of a home

dropped them for the sake of simplicity. For example, we

economy, what does it actually mean to lead a Zero Waste

realized that there was no need for us to make bread if we

life? And how can we as individuals contribute to drive this

could buy it unpackaged either directly from the bakery

international agenda to help protect the environment?

or from the bakery bins. Since 2009, we have Zero Waste on autopilot in our home. It is easy and natural for us. We

The practical challenge of producing Zero Waste

found that for Zero Waste to be sustainable in a household, one has to adopt alternatives that fit his/her schedule, are

So Bea, how do you define Zero Waste?

feasible in the long run, and suit his/her regional customs.

The Zero Waste lifestyle is about reducing as much

Can you describe some routines or tasks that

household waste as possible while living simply. It translates

exemplify this lifestyle on a daily basis?

into a life based on experiences (lots of fun activities) instead of stuff. Contrarily to what most people think,

Because we use the term Zero Waste to describe our

Zero Waste is also not about recycling more, but less, by

lifestyle, many people picture me spending my day

preventing waste from being created in the first place with

homemaking or working at reducing my waste. This could

the application of the 5R’s - Refuse, Reduce and Reuse, we

not be further from the truth. I work a full time job. Zero

have very little to Recycle and Rot!

Waste actually depends much on what we do outside the

It is downsizing that triggered our rethinking. Our

home: When we refuse freebies, when consuming only

transformation was not overnight, but rather gradual. It

what we need, when we’ve replaced anything disposable 72


KAJA AAS AHNFELT

Credit: NICOLE MARKWALD 73


LIVING WITH ZERO WASTE: A UTOPIAN DREAM OR THE WAY OF THE FUTURE?

for a reusable alternative, and when we shop second hand

living waste-free meant, what we were doing and, why we

and in bulk, that’s when we can stop waste from coming

were doing it.

into our homes in the first place. I go to a thrift store twice

Some people said our lifestyle was too extreme and not

a year for our clothes and to a bulk food store once a week

realistic. But how could it be unrealistic if I am living it?

with a shopping kit (cloth bags for dry goods, and glass jars

Others said that we were not doing enough because we

for wet ones), but on a daily basis, all it requires is cooking

occasionally fly, eat meat once a week and use toilet paper.

simple meals from the ingredients that I can source

I must say that had I heard about a Zero Waste family

unpackaged and/or in bulk.

8 years ago, I too would have thought to myself: «These people are nuts, I’m sure they are hippies or she is a stay at

Contrary to common beliefs, you demonstrate that

home mom who spends her days homemaking to reduce

to live sustainably can be the opposite of dull and

their waste». So I am not surprised by the criticism that we

restrictive. You also write on your blog that leading

received. I expected it going into it because we live in a very

a Zero Waste life has changed your life in general

consumerist society and our story made people reflect on

for the better. How is this so?

their own shopping habits and sometimes shattered their way of thinking.

We found that Zero Waste is nothing that we would have

However, we’re not telling anyone how to live their lives, we’re just sharing how we live ours, and hope to inspire others.

expected it to be, it is not just good for the environment: Overall it has also made us healthier, and it saves us an incredible amount of time and money! What I love most of the lifestyle is the simple life, and how much closer it has brought my family. Voluntary simplicity has changed our

With time, and thanks to the press, we changed those

daily routine in these ways: It has greatly simplified our

misconceptions associated with the Zero Waste lifestyle and

cleaning -picking up the house only takes a few minutes

gave a face to this way of life. The term Zero Waste became

each day. It makes our housework and professional work

accepted and the critics died down: people realized that we

much more efficient. It has allowed us to play more -

are not hippies, but that we live a normal, simple, modern

simple living focuses on experiences versus stuff - and

life, based on experiences instead of things.

spend more time. It has even allowed us to travel more by being able easily to rent our home when we’re gone, our

Early movers - Transitioning out of the box

minimalist wardrobes fit in carry-ons, which then funds

While the European Commission trust the market to

vacation and family getaways! In the end, it’s all good!

drive the transition to a zero waste economy, Bea Johnson

And I wish everyone realized and enjoyed the great hidden

demonstrates that we don’t need to hold our breath and

benefits of this lifestyle.

wait for radical change. As an early mover she has already received enough media coverage to inspire thousands of

Comparing you with people I know who have turned

people to take a stance against needless waste. By speaking

vegan, I know that although being a pioneer may be

at universities, corporate events and conferences all over the

stimulating, challenging status quo can be tough

globe, she has become a «guru» and spokesperson for the

socially as people may feel criticized by your choices.

zero waste lifestyle. She is, as the New York Times stated,

How did you experience ’leaving the box’?

“The Priestess of Waste-Free Living”.

When we first exposed our lifestyle to the general public

In which ways do you see Zero Waste as an

through my blog and then the media: The term Zero Waste

important step to build a sustainable future?

was, at the time, only used to describe industrial practices, not home economics. So we received a lot of negative

As Jeffrey Hollender, CEO of Seventh Generation, said

comments from people who did not understand what

it himself: “Zero Waste is the mother of environmental 74


KAJA AAS AHNFELT

nobrainers” - as quoted in The Story of Stuff. It has

discourage waste reduction.

become evident that the Earth‘s resources cannot sustain

- Offering curb side pick-up of compostable and reusable

our society’s consumption. Reducing Waste is important

materials. This is going beyond recycling.

because it’s not only good for the environment (waste of

- Banning packaging (I found that it’s unnecessary!)

resources going to landfills, which release toxic compounds

- Supporting the opening of bulk stores

in the air and the ground), it also greatly improves one’s

- Inspiring citizens to adopt waste-free lifestyles.

standard of living! Also, if Zero Waste has greatly improved my family’s life, I can only imagine how wonderful it

Do you see the Zero Waste movement as a new

would for a civilization to adopt it as a whole. Just imagine

’green’ trend, or do you think it is the way of the

what it would be like if our society shifted from focusing

future?

on “having” to focusing on “being”, as my family has! Zero Waste is not a trend, it’s a necessity! How do you see the importance of individuals in supporting a sustainable future?

To find out more about the nitty gritty details of living a Zero Waste life, visit Bea Johnson’s blog: http://www.zerowastehome.

Some people say that individual actions do not matter,

com/

I on the contrary, believe that change starts at home because shopping is voting: each purchase that we, consumers, make has the power to support either a sustainable practice or an unsustainable one.

REFERENCES 1 European Commission – Environment (2015): ”Moving Towards a Circular Economy.” (online). –URL: http://eurlex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?qid=14153524998 63&uri=CELEX:52014DC0398R%2801%29. (Retrieved 23 June 2015).

It is our purchasing decisions that lead the manufacturing world. Furthermore, if you’re not happy with a product or its packaging, let your voice be heard! Send a letter, an email or the packaging back to the manufacturer to propose alternatives. My book has already inspired the launch of hundreds of blogs, the opening of bulk stores and the implementation of Zero Waste alternatives all over the world. Plastic bans are also passing everywhere, France banned disposable tableware, and San Francisco just banned the sale of plastic bottles. How do you see the role of policies though in building a Zero Waste society? Many policies can aid our society shift towards Zero Waste, here are 5 examples that come to mind: - Abolishing incinerators. They depend on a constant stream of waste, release toxins in the air, burn valuable resources including compostable and recyclable ones, and 75


76


Credit: ERWIN HASSELBRINCK 77


MUSIC FOR CHANGE How music festivals contribute to green innovation

MARIA DANIELA RICAURTE

78


In a time of social, political and economic

Innovative implementations at festivals

transformations towards greater sustainability,

At the Hove festival in Tromøya, south of Norway, the

is there room for hedonistic, waste producing

attendants could sell their waste and get the chance to

events? The answer is yes. Events such as

win a backstage tour (Figure 1). This means that every

music festivals might have a more positive

soda bottle, pizza box, and even used snus could be sold

impact than we think. Despite their generating

at the environmental stands. Not only that, but campers

waste and using energy to operate, they are a

could actually exchange their used and packed tent for an

place where music, culture and environmental

early access to the bus back home. Hove aims at providing

sustainability can meet.

innovative ways to challenge and motivate their attendees into becoming environmentally responsible.

Music festivals are part of a wider range of events known as

Hove is home to a solar-powered camp (Figure 2). This

business events. This means that the internal management

camp is composed of small and cozy wooden houses that

of the festival can be compared to that of any particular

have enough room for beds and storage. The little houses

business. In fact, business events have been accepted as part

offer some light and outlets to charge electronic devices. If

of the economical market of several countries. In Australia,

a guest chooses to stay at this camp, all they need to bring

for example, there was a total of $17.4 billion3 spent by

are their clothes and personal items. The guests at this

people attending business events, making them competitive

camp in the summer of 2014 thought it was a great idea to

and successful.4

have a little more comfort than a regular tent. Additionally,

The positive outcome of a well-planned and creatively

these houses can be used again, unlike most tents that are

managed festival can be impressive.5 This is why many

abandoned on site after the festival (Figure 4). While living

music festival managers began incorporating sustainable

in the solar-powered cabins, the guests may indirectly

experiences and environmental communication in their

learn about solar energy and relate it to a comfortable and

events. Festivals all over the world are becoming greener

enjoyable stay. Hove also rents environmentally friendly

each year through the use of creative ideas: from happy-

camp chairs to reduce the consumption of new chairs at

hour trash collection, to solar powered camps.

the camp and reuse materials when making the chairs.

Working with festivals is like working on a blank canvas,

These chairs are made out of used wooden pallets and

there is room for creativity since this is an unexplored area.

have a minimal environmental impact in comparison to

These events are lucky to have the power to influence not

traditional metal camping chairs.

only their attendees, but also their stakeholders, providers

The list of authors who have researched sustainability

and sponsors. By adopting sustainability in every choice

at festivals might not be long, but festivals can base their

they make, music festivals can have a significant impact in

sustainability agenda on a few core proposed strategies.

all the areas surrounding the event.

Some common points include: organic catering, renewable

Historically, festivals would only focus on

energy, transportation, environmental information stands,

“traditionally green” strategies such as recycling, or might

collaboration with sponsors and suppliers, efficient waste

not have considered the environment at all. At present

management, among others. There is no clear set of rules

times there is more room for innovation when it comes

and limitations for festivals to work with yet and therefore

to incorporating sustainability within the music festival.6

most strategies will be exploratory in nature.

Music festivals have a big environmental impact that goes beyond the days in which they take place.7 Unfortunately,

Why does this matter?

festival managers don’t have an extensive written record of

Music festivals are not going to disappear. They are a space

what strategies to fix or help avoid these impacts; this leaves

of enjoyment and creativity and cultural events have always

room for creative and original ideas.

been a part of human history. They can be transitioned into

79


There is great potential to implement sustainability initiatives within the festival that influence the broader community beyond the festival bounds 1

80


Credit: MARIA DANIELA RICAURTE 81


MUSIC FOR CHANGE

tools to communicate sustainable living. The atmosphere

comply with the environmental standard set by the festival.

allows for innovative ideas to break through the minds of

Music Festivals can affect the way other businesses work,

young festival attendants. It’s only a matter of choosing an

and even enforce policies regarding sustainable event

appropriately targeted strategy to incorporate sustainability

planning. At the Øya Festival, there was a continuous fight

into the event.

towards sustainable merchandise procurement. This festival

Let’s take The Burning Man as an example of

managed to convince their suppliers to become organic and

untraditional cultural events. The Burning Man festival

green to participate at the event.

takes place every year in Nevada’s Black Rock Desert,

For now, music festivals that are interested in

USA. Here, an organized group of creative minds plan and

becoming beacons of sustainability should be innovative

set up a “temporary metropolis dedicated to community,

and learn from their mistakes. It is also important that they

art, self-expression, and self-reliance” . But what makes

report and share between similar events in order to find

this event so unique? First of all, it is filled with cultural

support and implement ideas that have worked. Music

explosions of all shapes and sizes. From gigantic sculptures

festivals have the advantage of already being popular and

to musical performances, this event attracts an incredible

enjoyable events, which will only help environmental

array of artists. To participate in this event the attendees

practices become engaging as well!

8

must be aware of the established set of rules that make the Burning Man a festival that leaves no trace in its natural

REFERENCES

arena. Therefore, the organizers have established a set of 10

1 Brooks, S., O’Halloran, D., and Magning, A. (2007).

principles to make the festival work under the conditions

Rock on!: Bringing strategic sustainable development to

of the desert.

music festivals. Blekinge Institute of Technology, Sweden.

Among Radical Inclusion and Communal Effort, the

2 Brooks, S., O’Halloran, D., and Magning, A. (2007).

most environmentally relevant principle at Burning Man

Rock on!: Bringing strategic sustainable development to

is Leaving No Trace. At this festival the community is

music festivals. Blekinge Institute of Technology, Sweden.

expected to value the environment and therefore they must

3 Deery, et al (2005). “National business events study”.

commit to leave the desert in the same or better state than

Altona, Victoria: Common Ground.

they found it. The festival hosts around 68,000 people

4 Mair and Jago (2010). “ The Development of a

and is very committed to the restoration of its location.

conceptual model of greening in the business events

During the days following the event, there is a team that

tourism sector”, Journal of Sustainable Tourism,

carefully searches the area to ensure there is no impact from

18:1, 77-94.

its visitors. The attendants to the festivals must contribute

5 Jones, M. (2014). “Sustainable Event Management A

during their visit and so far, they have been successful in

Practical Guide”. Routledge, NY.

leaving no impact.

6 Jones, M. (2014). “Sustainable Event Management A Practical Guide”. Routledge, NY.

Working upwards

7 Brooks, S., O’Halloran, D., and Magning, A. (2007).

Music festivals may have the ability to shape certain

Rock on!: Bringing strategic sustainable development to

decisions that their partners take. For example, in the

music festivals. Blekinge Institute of Technology, Sweden

Norwegian context we find the case of Øya festival that was

8 Burningman.org. Burning Man Project (2015).

able to persuade their textile partner into delivering t-shirts

“Philosophical Center” <http://burningman.org/culture/

made with organic cotton. Again, they have the benefit

philosophical-center/>

of being one of the biggest festivals in Norway and are therefore able to push towards an environmental minimum from their sponsors and stakeholders. When it comes to food, Øya asks of its guest restaurants to procure organic menus as well as making vegetarian options. Since it is a contextually important event, Øya’s partners are willing to 82


MARIA DANIELA RICAURTE

The potential of music festivals to leverage their role as leaders of social and cultural trends has only been recently recognized 2

Credit: MARIA DANIELA RICAURTE 83


Credit: MARIA DANIELA RICAURTE 72


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SAMFUNNSANSVAR SOM DRIVER FOR NY VEKST テ郎STEIN HAGEN, MADS BRUUN Hテ郎, JEPPE SONDOV

86


Trippel er et innovasjonsprogram designet rundt

Her spiller design en sentral rolle – form og funksjon i

hypotesen – Kan samfunnsansvar være en driver

grønn forening.

for ny vekst? Vi utvikler forretningskonsepter for grønn vekst i matbransjen, og svarer til

Sammen kan vi bidra til å løse flokene

de tre bunnlinjene – People, Planet, Profit.

Noen utfordringer er så store at det må flere til for å løse

Scandinavian Design Group har initiert og

dem. Vi kaller denne type utfordringer floker. En slik

ledet prosessen fra innsikt til konseptutvikling

floke finnes i storhusholdningen (matbransjen) og handler

til eksperimentering og implementering, men

om hvordan vi får ned matavfall, bidrar til menneskers

matbransjen selv er pionerene i dette arbeidet.

helseutfordringer og samtidig skaper verdi for så mange

Sjelden setter en hel verdikjede seg ned, og

aktører som mulig.

legger interessekonflikter og posisjonering til

I Trippel jobber nå aktører som TINE, Nortura og

side for å skape nye konsepter som gagner alle.

Lerøy sammen med Studentsamskipnaden i Oslo og

Det er krevende arbeid, men problemstillingen

Akershus (SiO), Nordic Choice Hotels, Forsvaret, Norsk

rundt matsvinn og grønn vekst er av en slik

Gjenvinning og sosiale entreprenører som Kompass og Co

karakter at ingen kan løse den alene.

og Food Studio, for å sammen løse opp i denne floken. Slikt tverrsektorielt samarbeid er en krevende prosess

For å finne genuint nye svar, må vi lære noe

med stor potensiell fallhøyde. Aktører fra tre sektorer

nytt først

forsøker å komme på samme side av bordet og se sine

Innovasjonsarbeid starter med å bringe frem ny innsikt. I

roller i et samfunnsperspektiv, ikke bare som bedrifter eller

Trippel ser vi på hele verdikjeden innen storhusholdning

organisasjoner, men som samfunnsaktører. Med design

for å finne udekte brukerbehov, utfordre etablerte

og innovasjonsmetodikk som tilnærming jobber vi nå

sannheter og for å kartlegge diskontinuiteter. Alt for å

’hands-on’ med å skape konsepter som skal være en del av

oppdage nøkkelinnsikter som låser opp nye mulighetsrom

løsningen for matsvinn og bærekraftig vekst i matbransjen.

for innovasjon og provoserer fram nye svar. Maksimér læring – minimér risiko

Nøkkelinnsikter er analysen og en ’sensemaking’ av data som er samlet inn fra observasjon, intervjuer og andre

Gjennom pågående eksperimenter og videre gjennom

undersøkelser.

implementeringsfasen finner vi ut om det er mulig å løse

Konseptutviklingen bygger videre på nøkkelinnsiktene

opp i flokene. For å lære maksimalt og risikere minimalt

og følger logikken om å utvikle utenifra og inn – altså

gjøres raske og billige eksperimenter for å teste våre

fra brukerens/kundens perspektiv og tilbake til hvordan

hypoteser og sjekke om markedet reagerer slik vi tror. Ingen

industrien og aktørene kan gjøre kundens hverdag bedre,

lab-eksperimenter eller skrivebordsøvelser, bare virkelige

enklere, grønnere og mer meningsfull – og ikke minst

situasjoner med ekte mennesker.

lønnsom. Nøkkelinnsiktene identifiserer små og store ”jobber” som kunden og sluttbruker skal ha gjort, altså

KUTT

behov som man med denne kunnskapen kan utvikle

Flere av konseptene i vår portefølje denne våren adresserte

konsepter for å møte. Et eksempel på en slik nøkkelinnsikt

problemstillingen med best før merking og matsvinnet

er; Folk ønsker å ta grønne valg, men de synes det er

knyttet til dette. I matbransjens verdikjede er det påvist at

vanskelig.

det er forbruker som kaster mest mat (70% av alt avfall). Og det er blitt en etablert sannhet at det er forbrukeren

Muligheten her ligger i at folk har et behov for å gjøre noe og at man kan hjelpe til med grønne tjenester eller løsninger som gjør det enkelt for dem.

sin feil at det er slik. Kanskje er dette en naturlig følge av hvordan verdikjeden er ”designet”? En leverandør som produserer en gitt mengde mat, med en gitt holdbarhet selger denne til neste ledd i verdikjeden og har da per definisjon null svinn (med mindre feilproduksjon eller 87


SAMFUNNSANSVAR SOM DRIVER FOR NY VEKST

Credit: KUTT GOURMET 88


ØYSTEIN HAGEN, MADS BRUUN HØY, JEPPE SONDOV

deler av råvaren ikke blir fult ut utnyttet). Dette fratar

restaurantene blir låst på innkjøpssiden fordi de skal kunne

dog ikke leverandørene ansvaret rundt i hvilken bulk eller

tilby den samme, lange menyen fast over lang tid, uten å

forpakning og størrelse de selger sine varer. Har neste ledd

vite hvilke retter gjesten vil velge. Derfor må restauranten

forutsetning for å selge alt dette? Eller vil de brenne inn

ha alt til enhver tid, og med dét et stort potensial for svinn.

med for stort lager?

Dersom vi snur dette på hodet og sier at restauranten

Dette er problemstillinger vi har diskutert mye. Etter

velger hva man skal spise, så blir valget som gjest enkelt

hvert som varen kommer utover i kjeden og nærmere

– skal jeg gå dit i dag eller ikke? Innsikt fra feltarbeid

forbruker nærmer varen seg siste forbruksdag og ”faren” for

blant studenter ga oss sterke signaler om at tradisjonelt

at maten blir kastet øker. Systemet er ”designet” slik at vi

restauranttilbud ikke er det de lenger tenner på.

produserer opp en mengde mat som settes på en hylle eller

Studenter ønsker ikke flere valg, de har for mye å tenke

på en buffet, så håper vi at nok kunder kommer og plukker

på allerede, og hvis de stoler på avsender så vil de gjerne

dette opp og konsumerer det før det går ut på dato. I frykt

at avsender tar valget for dem. KUTT har et high-end

for å gå tom, rundes estimater opp og vi ender opp med

uttrykk og en stram og fin profil, noe vi mente ville skape

svinn. Dataene i denne kjeden er langt i fra perfekte, og vi

tryggheten kunden trengte for å akseptere at det kun var

produserer derfor mye mer enn det som konsumeres.

én rett hver dag. Null valg. I tillegg var det også kun 200

I Trippel ser vi hele veien til andre bransjer for å hente

porsjoner hver dag (sikrer null svinn). Når det er tomt, så

inspirasjon, og spesielt konseptet rundt forbruksutløsende

er det tomt.

verdikjeder (consumer-triggered-valuechains) har gitt

Konsekvensen av denne tilnærmingen er at kokken

verdifull innsikt . Si at du skal kjøpe en splitter ny bil i

må være kreativ hver dag og at restauranten er friere på

dag, når får du den egentlig? Svært ofte er bilen bestilt og

innkjøpssiden og kan handle i ”spot” markedet, altså

betalt før den blir produsert. Kunden har forpliktet seg til

kjøpe varer som har kort holdbarhetsdato og som ellers

å ”konsumere” før vi produserer. Dette er samme prinsipp

ville stått i fare for å bli kastet. For kunden kan dette også

som Dell Computers ble store på for ti år siden – kunden

medføre at de spiser mer variert enn de ellers ville gjort om

bestiller og betaler, så settes datamaskinen sammen etterpå.

de skulle velge selv. Dette kombinert med arbeidskraft fra

Er dette et tankesett vi kan lære noe av i matbransjen?

Kompass & Co, en sosial entreprenør og Trippel-deltaker

Vi ser allerede at mat mer og mer blir levert som en

som gir ungdom arbeidserfaring og en mestringsarena, gjør

tjeneste gjennom matkasser og abonnementer. Men vi

at kostnadene kommer på et nivå som gjør at studenter

tror vi kan gjøre mer for å designe en enklere situasjon for

med en begrenset lommebok kan få gourmetmat de har

forbrukerens bevisste forbruk. Mange av våre konsepter

råd til, hver dag. I alt dette ligger det flere aspekter av

handler om å redesigne verdikjedens ulike ledd. Derfor

samfunnsansvar. For eksempel at studenter er fremtidens

etablerte vi merkevaren KUTT, som en felles overbygging

ledere, borgere og samfunnsbyggere og at vi som samfunn

på disse konseptene.

er tjent med at de får med seg mest mulig kompetanse

Prinsippet med KUTT er å kommunisere til kunder

ut fra årene som student. Eller at de yngre og litt

som ønsker å velge bærekraftig at vi bruker det som ellers

vanskeligstilte ungdommene får en ny mestringsarena og

ville blitt kuttet bort, altså en ”hele dyret” tankegang – at vi

yrkeserfaring, som igjen bygger stolthet og selvtillit og

kutter svinn og avfall, at vi kutter CO2 og at forbrukeren

setter dem i stand til å igjen bidra positiv i vårt samfunn.

kan kutte ned på sin gnagende samvittighet.

Og til slutt at vi setter fokus på at bevisst forbruk kan designes og derfor være den forandringen vi vil se i vårt samfunn.

KUTT Gourmet Et uttak av KUTT er Studentsamskipnadens eksperiment med pop-up restauranten KUTT Gourmet – Gourmetmat som studenter har råd til. Hypotesen her var at studenter ønsker å ta bærekraftige valg, vi må bare gjøre det enklere for dem. Vi ville redesigne den tradisjonelle verdikjeden der 89


SAMFUNNSANSVAR SOM DRIVER FOR NY VEKST

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テ郎STEIN HAGEN, MADS BRUUN Hテ郎, JEPPE SONDOV

Credit: KUTT GOURMET 91


SAMFUNNSANSVAR SOM DRIVER FOR NY VEKST

Credit: KUTT GOURMET 92


ØYSTEIN HAGEN, MADS BRUUN HØY, JEPPE SONDOV

Eksperimentet med KUTT Gourmet ble rigget som en

planlegger vi alltid for suksess. Denne visjonen deler vi med

pop-up restaurant på Blindern våren 2015, og holdt åpent

våre samarbeidspartnere, som alle ønsker å bidra til å forme

i 3 uker. Erfaringene og innsikten fra denne perioden

en mer bærekraftig matbransje. De som ikke er med strever

evalueres i disse dager og konseptet justeres slik at det kan

fortsatt med problemet.

skaleres og etableres på permanent basis. Her er noen av

Floker av størrelsen som matsvinn og grønn vekst løses ikke alene.

erfaringene vi har gjort oss etter eksperimentet: • Kø ved åpning • Brandet KUTT appellerer og får frem budskapet

Gjennom å samle aktører fra ulike sektorer, og en grundig

• Studentene omfavner samfunnsansvarsdimensjonen

innovasjons-og designprosess med nøye eksperimentering

• Studentene stoler på avsender

og testing, kan vi klare å finne løsninger på store

• Studentene syntes det var deilig å slippe å velge en rett

samfunnsutfordringer. Flere konsepter fra porteføljen vil du

• 200 porsjoner ble solgt ut hver dag i perioden

se i markedet i løpet av de neste året. Først ut er KUTT og

• Uforutsigbarheten når det gjelder råvarer gjør det

KUTT Gourmet som vil være en naturlig del av matilbudet

krevende for kokken

for studenter som ønsker å ta bærekraftige matvalg.

• Noe ustabilitet på tilgangen til råvarer

Konseptet rulles ut på Blindern og andre campuser i Norge fra høsten av.

Disse læringspunktene illustrerer hvordan vi jobber med en innovasjon- og designtilnærming – utenifra og inn: Vi eksperimenterer først med den delen som treffer kundene for å sjekke om de forstår konseptet og om det vil ha det. Når vi har en større sikkerhet rundt det, jobber vi oss bakover i verdikjeden for å greie å levere det kundene vil ha på en effektiv måte. Kort fortalt er dette prosessen for testing av konsepter: 1. Vil de ha det? 2. Greier vi å levere det slik de vil ha det? 3. Greier vi å levere det slik de vil ha det, og skape lønnsomhet? KUTT Gourmet er ett av konseptene i Trippels portefølje dratt frem av SiO sammen med Kompass & Co og Matvett, med støtte fra leverandørene i nettverket. Konseptet viser hvordan vi kan forsøke å løse opp i en stor floke ved å eksperimentere i et mikrounivers først, for å lære mest mulig før man skalerer. Flere av våre andre konsepter skal gjennom samme prosess utover høsten. Framtiden skapes av de som tør å ha en mening om den Å ta på seg store utfordringer innebærer alltid en risiko for å ikke lykkes. Vi mener dog bestemt at oppsiden ved å lykkes er større enn risikoen for å mislykkes. Derfor 93


KAKIWIN TUTUNAKU Welcome to the Hill with Three Hearts

ITZEL ANAHÍ LÓPEZ LAÍNEZÇ

94


Easily described as a paradise, Sierra Norte is a tropical highland region localized at the north of Puebla in Mexico, that holds both cultural and natural treasures and is home of a thriving ecotourism enterprise proudly owned and managed by indigenous women. This initiative not only aims to provide eco-friendly accommodation or to delight visitors with their culinary arts; the local ecological knowledge transmitted to their guests lets them enjoy the region with respect so that future generations have the same privilege. What could be better than to experience a place through the culture of its native inhabitants?

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KAKIWIN TUTUNAKU: WELCOME TO THE HILL WITH THREE HEARTS

I went back to my homeland, Puebla, to do fieldwork as part of the objective for my master thesis focused on indigenous ecological knowledge. Not so long ago, in my college years, I heard of a place called Huehuetla, situated at Sierra Norte, and chose it as a study case. As I was making arrangements and looking for a place to stay, I became aware that regardless of the sensitivity towards tourism, this peaceful community lacks facilities to receive visitors. I didn’t know it then, but the answer to my search for accommodation would present itself as I was on my way to Huehuetla, with very happy consequences. From Puebla, there’s only one bus line that takes you to the farthest towns of Sierra Norte. To Huehuetla, it’s a five hour trip; at first, as the bus goes through the city, the outskirts and through a landscape of mostly maize field crops, pasture lands and a few scatter villages, the trip doesn’t seem very promising. But then, as my “derrière” was feeling as if my seat was made of stone, the bus began to go uphill and the landscape changed to a rewarding lush of green: we were going through mountains, alongside steep cliffs and misty canyons, being introduced to a region full of history both from before and after the arrival of the Europeans, a region that is the home of a friendly people. All of the sudden, I forgot the trip`s previous hours and my weariness and let myself enrapture with the scenery and immerse my senses in the environment. As we were approaching Huehuetla, a sign by the road caught my attention: it announced an ecotourism center called Kakiwin Tutunaku, the hill with three hearts, and to my relief, it offered accommodations. This would prove a double stroke of luck: not only was I to have a place to stay but this place also happened to belong to an organization named Taputsama Talakxtumit, seeking equity, run only by women from the Totonac ethnic group. Not even in my wildest dreams did I hope to encounter a place and organization who has committed itself to the “mission to preserve and improve our environment by creating decent jobs for our people. We do so by offering our visitors and guest, besides accommodation, walks and guided tours through our region, workshops about our culture and last but not least, a tasty way to get to know us: our traditional food.” That night, with a roof over my head, I indulged 96


ITZEL ANAHÍ LÓPEZ LAÍNEZ

myself with the latter. Before the Europeans` arrival, the Sierra Norte of Puebla was settled by various ethnic groups: Nahuas, Totonacas, Otomis and Tepehuas. Nowadays the inhabitants in Huehuetla are mostly Totonaca- speaking people who live along with other ethnic groups, including European descendants, that despite a long history of repression, discrimination and impoverishment still preserve a key feature of their ancestral ways: collective work. The Kakiwin Tutunaku initiative was founded in 2002 by 35 Totonac women and a year later, with the help of the consultancy Yoltli A.C. they started to build an “eco” hotel that for now has two cozy cabins, one hostel, a learning center and a restaurant. This ongoing project has interesting eco-technologies like a cistern to catch the rainwater, a sewage water treatment facility and they make their own compost with waste coming from the kitchen, which is later used to nourish their gardens. Today, relating their work to a permaculture philosophy, 58 organized women share work and profits from the ecotourism center. In the 1980’s1 a group of Nahua indigenous from Cuetzalan, a town not very far from Huehuetla, founded Tosepan Titataniske, meaning “together we’ll win”. It was based on the same principles that would later inspire the women in Huehuetla, and has been thriving to become a pioneer in organic coffee production in Mexico2 and has created the first eco hotel entirely owned and run by indigenous women. In addition, Cuetzalan is the region`s most popular tourist destination, from home and abroad, due to their qualification as “pueblo mágico” (magic town), a program of the Mexican tourism ministry aiming to promote and develop small towns around the country.3 Under the same principles and basics, the two cooperatives started their projects with funds provided by Mexican institutions, to buy land (ironically, land that used to be theirs) and build the hotels. Women received training on hotel and restaurant management; in addition they were qualified to be environmental promoters to know how to collect rain water, to classify waste and to identify species of local trees for a better use of natural resources. It may

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KAKIWIN TUTUNAKU: WELCOME TO THE HILL WITH THREE HEARTS

seem like common sense, but there are specific studies on tourism that confirm that “ecotourism as a mechanism for achieving local conservation and development goals, is more successful when the projects prioritize local involvement and control”4. Proof of this are the ongoing projects Kakiwin Tutunaku in Huehuetla and the consortium Tosepan Totataniski in Cuetzalan. Their common objectives to empower women, enhance local knowledge, ennoble culture and preserve the environment have had further positive response in the region. In recent years several municipalities at Sierra Norte have stood against international interventions on their territory, known by locals as “death projects” (mainly put forth by mining and hydroelectric companies).5 People in this region are well aware of their bonds to the environment; most of them have chosen to live as their ancestors did, believing in the preservation of their natural environment and devoted to the spirit that has provided all their needs for countless generations. The fate of these “death projects” is still uncertain but the outcry of the locals keeps spreading warning messages and the echo can be heard all along Sierra Norte of Puebla. My stay at Kakiwin Tutunaku turned into an unexpected discovery for my research; during those compelling days I witnessed the powerful effect of collectiveness through the team-hearted work of those Totonac women. The struggles they faced right from the beginning due to society´s rejection of a project run only by women, the long process they underwent so that men allowed them to work and not to mention the lack of tourist promotion from the local authorities.6 Their work and commitment has set an example among other women in this region an outside. (Illustration 4. Making dinner on the ecological wooden stove. Photo: Itzel Lopez) For me it was not only a knowledgeable experience, I enjoyed delicious traditional food and the nicest cups of orange leaf infusion made on an ecological wooden stove. It was an opportunity to learn about the use of herbs and plants, to listen to their legends and appraise the caring hospitality of Totonac women who are the core of that 98


ITZEL ANAHÍ LÓPEZ LAÍNEZ

chain of people protecting what they love the most. In the end, aren’t care and respect the best elements needed for a sustainable enterprise? REFERENCES 1 Zeppel, H. (2006): Indigenous Ecotourism: Sustainable Development and Management. Oxforshire. Ecotourism Series No. 3 CABI. p. 94 2 Toledano, V.M.; Ortiz-Espejel, B. (2014): México, regiones que caminan hacia la sustentabilidad. Puebla. Universidad Iberoamericana Puebla. p. 90 3 SECTUR (2015): “Magic Towns” [online].-URL: https://www.sectur.gob.mx/pueblos-magicos/ (retrieved 4 April 2015) 4 Joy Mathews, E. (2002): Ecotourism: Are current practices delivering desired outcomes? A comparative case study analysis. MA Dissertation. Faculty of the Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University. 5 Ramirez Cuevas, Jesús dir. “Sierra Norte por la vida”. Cooperativa Tosepan Titataniske. 2014 Documental. 6 Yolistli, Xasasti. Kakiwin Tutunaku. Puebla, April 11, 2009.

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QUESTION & ANSWER FEATURE

FROM SMALL STRE AMS TO A BIG RIVER 1. WHAT IS THE INITIATIVE AND WHAT ISSUE IS IT ADDRESSING?

2. IN WHAT WAYS IS YOUR INITIATIVE LEAVING THE BOX?

GRØNNE JENTER 1. Grønne jenter (meaning green girls) is a pink lifestyle

2. The idea of ​​the blog evolved as we tried to answer the

blog with a green heart. We are ten girls in our twenties

following questions: how do we communicate sustainability

blogging about our successful and not so successful attempts

to people who do not really care about the environment?

to be concerned world citizens. Fashion, traveling, food

We found out we should unite two worlds which are

and hobbies - it is all touched with a green pen. We believe

really not compatible. Lifestyle and fashion blogs are often

that concrete examples can inspire people to make more

associated with high levels of consumption. We wanted

sustainable lifestyle choices. And, we try to demonstrate that

to use the blog genre to reach out to young girls with

it is fun, and even cool, to care about the environment.

environmental messages!

GRUTEN 1. The idea is about using coffee grounds in innovative

2. The core of Gruten and our aim is to care for the

and useful ways. Coffee brewing process produces a lot

environment through promoting the good use of the

of coffee waste. Only in Oslo, around 10 tons a day! The

resources that we already have around us. We pick up coffee

Coffee grounds contain several nutrients and they have

grounds from coffee shops and bakeries in Oslo and use

good qualities that humans, plants and animals can benefit

it to produce Grutensåpa, an organic coffee scrub soap.

from. In Gruten we upcycle coffee grounds, which would

Gruten has hit a nerve and received quite a lot of interest

otherwise go straight to the bin, to new sustainable products

because the concept is easy to grasp and people can relate to

to create awareness and practical knowledge around using

it since «everyone» in Norway drinks coffee.

coffee waste for creative and useful purposes. 100


QUESTION & ANSWER FEATURE

O N E E A RT H D E S I G N S 1. Our award winning solar grill SolSource is the future way

2. SolSource reaches temperatures up to 350 and it is more

of cooking. It is powerful, clean and fuel-free, and you can

than 90% energy efficient. In comparison, photovoltaics

grill without any charcoal or gas. In the long-term, our goal

(solar cells) can only utilize around 20% of the sun’s energy.

is to go to provide this in developing countries, where our

We are creating a new era for solar energy!

vision is to meet the challenges of deforestation and indoor smoke pollution.

KO M PA S S O G C O 1. Kompass & CO creates jobs for youth in the age between

2. We combine social and green innovation while we at the

15-25 who in some way or another does not find their

same time produce sustainable products needed in society.

place in society. We turn these jobs into arenas of mastery

We work along principles of a circular economy, which means

for the youth to build competence, take responsibility for

that our products do not harm the environment. We are for

themselves and others, and build skills which are needed in

example making furniture out of pallets, giving them a new

society. We focus on building skills within three areas: Food,

life instead of letting them be burnt. Kompass & CO sees gold

Redesign and Urban Farming.

where others see garbage. We see resources and opportunities where others see problems, costs and challenges.

EPLESLANG 1. Epleslang is a start-up and social enterprise founded

2. At Epleslang people with disabilities and young people

in 2012 in Oslo. We produce and sell a premium quality,

who are looking for work experience are responsible for the

natural apple juice made from unused and wasted apples,

harvesting of all the gardens and the bottle labelling. We

harvested from private gardens around the city with the help

provide work experience because we believe everyone can

of those most in need of a job. So when you drink Epleslang

take part and contribute.We love to work with a product

you might be enjoying the ‘fruit’ of your neighbor’s garden.

built on both social and environmental values, whilst preserving the best that nature has to offer. Combining all these untapped resources – that’s what makes Epleslang unique!

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QUESTION & ANSWER FEATURE

AGE OF ENLIGHTENMENT 1. We have a created a fashion brand to address and shed a

2. We have used organic cotton and tencel as materials for

light on the problems the fashion industry is facing, as the

our collection, and named our clothes after people that have

second worst industry within environmental pollution after

made the world more enlightened, such as Eva Joly, Gro

fossil fuel. Our first goal was to show that ethical fashion

Harlem Brundtland, Richard Dawkins and Savitribai Phule.

could be just as desirable as high-end fashion, and to target

Today only 2% of the world cotton production is organic.

the typical decision makers to nudge them into a greener

Fair payment, good working conditions and the right to get

way of thinking. Now our goal is to find a way to move the

organized in workers unions are a great struggle. By using

industry as a whole as we think that the change needs to

organic and fairtrade cotton we are leaving the traditional

come from within the industry.

box. However we are aware that the world does not need more clothes which leaves us with a lack of motivation to produce more. The clothes that are being sold must be long lasting and made out of organic materials.

SYKKELKJĂ&#x2DC;KKENET OSLO 1. Oslo Bike Kitchen is a community development and

2. We use the bicycle as a medium not only for learning and

environmental initiative. Our purpose is to teach members

empowerment, but also to create a social meeting space that

of the community about basic bike repair and maintenance

bridges generational gaps, ethnic backgrounds, languages,

through hands-on, DIY courses and outdoor public events.

sexual orientations and political affiliations. We view the

Neglecting your bike can lead to costly repairs. If people

bike-repair community as a common denominator to bring

took better care of their bikes, the number of bikes being

people together and create social cohesion, not to mention a

thrown away could be reduced. We also organize Bike

necessary building block for a thriving bike culture.

Rescue Dugnads with housing associations to ensure ownerless bikes get new homes.

BLINDERN STUDENTHAGE 1. Blindern Student Garden possesses a beautiful piece

2. We contribute to diminishing our ecological footprints

of land at the University of Oslo campus, that we run

a tiny bit, by aiming to let the resources go full-circle. For

by organic principles. The work in the garden is based

example we compost our waste, limiting the amount of

on dugnad - unpaid, voluntary community based work

energy required from other sources. Other good side-effects

managed by the students. Our work is quite hands-on,

from our work could be that the students learn more about

growing food and spending time together.

growing food, that they become more aware of what they put in their grocery carts as well as gaining more respect towards what lies behind the work put into producing food, so that they might throw away less food. 102


QUESTION & ANSWER FEATURE

PA N T E R I N G 1. The initiative is working on implementing a public

2. The initiative is addressing a problem that up until now

system for recycling of bottles and cans (“pant”) that aims

has been ignored in Norway, and solves it in an easy and

to make it easier. The “pantering” is a sort of cup holder

playful way.

attached to public trash bins, so people can put bottles and cans there instead of in the trash, while people gathering them for recycling can easily collect them without having to look through the trash. By this we wish to make the process of gathering bottles and cans easier, increase recycling and at the same time spread environmental and social conscience.

ENGL A ST - Imagine a green Filipstad 1. The project by Arkitektur- og designhøgskolen i

2. The project challenges people’s ideas of a box. From

Oslo in collaboration with Bymøljøetaten and Plan- og

the outside the container seems limited by its natural four

Bygningsetaten focuses on Filipstad’s current landscape and

corners and walls, confining everything inside. Going inside

its potential future development. The main objective is to

however, the world appears infinite, endless, as the limited

show the transformation of an industrial area through an

physical space is transformed into a never ending space. The

Urban-Landscape Architecture project. Inside a 12 meter

mirrors allow people to leave the box by giving the illusion

long container the walls are lined with mirrors, reflecting

that opportunities are eternal.

planting beds of blue, purple and white flowers. While the container reflects the industrial ambient of Filipstad, the interior symbolizes the future possibilities for an environmentally friendly development of the area.

FO OD STUDIO 1. Food Studio is a collective of professionals who believe

2. Using a collaborative approach, Food Studio

in good and honest food. They collaborate closely with

makes people think of their environmental impact by

specialists in the food industry, ranging from foragers and

demonstrating basic lifestyle modifications: reducing waste

farmers to designers and innovators. Through practical,

by throwing away less; consuming less meat and more wild

simple, and interactive learning experiences, Food Studio

fish or game; being aware of the entire life cycle of animals

challenges the daily way we think about and work with

and the provenance of protein; using more resources directly

food and hopes to communicate inspirational and feasible

from nature through foraging; and alike. These tactics

solutions that individuals can make on a daily basis.

are taught with a holistic consciousness and strong visual expression, making Food Studio’s work both theoretically unique and visually identifiable. 103


QUESTION & ANSWER FEATURE

Pantering — Credit: Niklas Barre

Food Studio — Credit: Svein Gunnar Kjøde

104


QUESTION & ANSWER FEATURE

One Earth Designs — Credit: Torbjørn Buvarp

Epleslang — Credit: Alex Asensi

105


REGENERATIVE ENTREPRENEURSHIP: Entrepreneurship for Our Complex World ERIC R. SANNERUD

By now, we are all familiar with the concept of

One, by this definition who is not a social entrepreneur?

social entrepreneurship.

Oil companies make money by providing energy. Retailers

Companies, organizations, and individuals have flocked

provide consumers with stuff they think they want.

to the social entrepreneurship space in search of a new

Political parties do it all for the good of their citizens.

paradigm for doing business. TOMS Shoes, Wood from

Clearly, such a broad definition is problematic by allowing

the Hood, and MyRain are a few examples of successful

for too wide an interpretation. Two, it is too general to

social enterprises. There is an extensive list of resources,

be practical. How does a student, entrepreneur, visionary,

groups, conferences, degrees, and awards dedicated to it.

mid-career professional, retiree begin to engage with an

The biggest players in regular old entrepreneurship are

idea so broad?

moving in. On Twitter, the hashtag “#socent” is used more

These are the challenges Regenerative Entrepreneurship

than 100 times an hour.

seeks to address by laying out a clear definition as well as

Such proliferation of an idea can have a downside. In its

defined characteristics and practices.

meteoric rise, social entrepreneurship’s being pulled to cover many different bases. What does it really actually

Defining Regenerative

mean? Try Googling for a definition and you will find that

Accepting that entrepreneurship is a well understood

nearly every one of the resources, groups, conferences,

word, if vague in its own right, we will start by defining

degrees, and awards defines it slightly differently.

Regenerative. Using the medical dictionary, we find the

The best general definition floating around the internet

following: “To generate or produce anew; especially: to

seems to be this:

replace a body part by new growth of tissue.”1 The most important characteristic of this definition is

Social entrepreneurship is doing well while doing good. This definition has two challenges.

what it implies. First, regenerative assumes a systemic lens. Replacing a part implies that there is a whole that the part belongs to. It focuses on action without pointing fingers. It does not explicitly state the old system is broken. It simply 106


implies that intervention is needed. Producing anew does

There is no well-trod road to follow. Only through repeated

not leave room for old ways to stay.

attempts will a regenerative entrepreneur hack their way

One of the best essays on what we could describe as

through the complexity to a truly systemic solution.

Regenerative Entrepreneurship is “Solves for Pattern”

This third characteristic knocks most of the current host

by Wendell Berry.2 To apply this definition quickly - a

of organizations out of the running: honest accounting.

regenerative solution is one that, as Wendell Berry would

A regenerative solution achieves the high, high bar of

say, ‘solves for pattern’. It solves not just the symptom but

producing a solution without creating a new problem

the disease.

in the process. Oil companies, retail, politicians take no responsibility for the negative externalities of their

Take food waste. The social entrepreneur seeks to compost more of our food waste. A Regenerative Entrepreneur addresses the root causes of food waste such as consumer behavior change and processing inefficiencies.

actions unless forced to by law. Additionally, Regenerative Entrepreneurs must fairly pay themselves, their employees, and their suppliers. No regenerative solution succeeds off the backs of shorted suppliers, underpaid laborers, or founders without a home. Getting even more specific, here is a selection

Or think about renewable energy. A social entrepreneur

three of the many practices of Regenerative

helps existing energy companies diversify their portfolio. A

Entrepreneurs.

Regenerative Entrepreneur seeks to shift not only the source

Ask why 5 times, or more. This simple action can lead to

of energy but also the control of the energy source, does not

deep new insights and surface root causes.

assume the same private ownership model is the right way.

In order to learn by doing, a Regenerative Entrepreneur must employ the philosophies of the Lean Start Up meth-

Regenerative Entrepreneurship seeks to address

odology. Principle among these is the idea to test as many

root challenges with new techniques for a

assumptions in your proposed solution for the least risk.

systemic impact.

Another practice under experiential education is 30%

Now lets get more specific. The three characteristics

ideas. This practice is translated from the field of design

of Regenerative Entrepreneurship are systemic lens,

where there is a principal called “30% Drawing”. You draw

experiential education, and honest accounting.

out a concept to 30% and seek feedback and check in.

Regenerative Entrepreneurs must employ a bi-focal

The power here is creating a pause to take a deep breath

systemic lens while viewing challenges. First, they must

in the middle of the race. The 30% drawing is enough

go wide. What are the sums of inputs and outputs to this

for the designer and the client to have a good idea about

challenge? What connected aspects have been left out

where the design is and is not going. It is significantly less

of the discussion? Second, now that they have a broad

risky than bringing in a 100% design for initial review.

understanding of the system challenges they go deep to

For regenerative entrepreneurs they can run a “30%

seek the root causes.

Organization”. Adopting this mindset leads to a lot more ideas, half-baked though they may be. But since they are

Reading a textbook does not make you any type of entrepreneur.

only 30% of the way in - not too much time has been wasted in creating them, but at the same time, they have been thought about enough to have substance to reflect on.

Regenerative Entrepreneurs learn by doing through extensive experiential education. Internships, failed

Questions to help identify a Regenerative

start-ups, and new projects, rapid iteration. Regenerative

Entrepreneur:

Entrepreneurs seek to address issues not yet addressed.

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REGENERATIVE ENTREPRENEURSHIP: ENTREPRENEURSHIP FOR OUR COMPLEX WORLD

1. If your organization is successful, what has changed about the issues you are seeking to address? 2. Does your organization succeed through providing treatments for the symptom or solutions for the disease? 3. Why? Why? Why? Why? Why? By more narrowly defining its tenets than social entrepreneurship, Regenerative Entrepreneurship is more able to facilitate the development of a distinct community of changemakers. Regenerative Entrepreneurshipâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s distinct definition allows for curriculum development, clarifies what organizations are truly pursuing a better world, and ultimately holds the potential to shift paradigms.

108


ERIC R. SANNERUD

REFERENCES 1 Merriam-Webster. Merriam-Webster, 2015. Web. 05 May 2015. 2 Berry, Wendell. “Chapter 9.” Solving for Pattern. N.p.: North Point, 1981. N. pag. Print. 109


TO THINK OUTSIDE OF THE BOX, GO OUT OF THE BUILDING

TORILL BYE WILHELMSEN

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Credit: CATHRINE DOKKEN 111


TO THINK OUTSIDE OF THE BOX, GO OUT OF THE BUILDING

Creative thinking is a prerequisite for innovation. As an entrepreneur and founder of the Walking Movement I believe in the power of developing fresh ideas while walking.

112


TORILL BYE WILHELMSEN

Innovation is often defined as the process where new ideas

etc. Together these initiatives are nudges that slowly change

are implemented in a business, an organization or the

the way the society operates, because we incorporate these

society. Ideas alone are not enough to make an innovation,

changes into our daily lives. It may be that slowly, our

it´s the implementation and actual improvement that

culture will change, adding more value to our lives through

matters. You can easily spot entrepreneurs and change-

more sustainable and environmentally friendly lifestyles.

agents, it´s often people starting sentences off with “What

Critics say that these are sub-cultures, and small niches,

if…”. They are dreamers, visionaries - but most of all doers

but every revolution starts small.

that believe that anything is possible even with very little

According to government records, 80 percent of

resources. I have always admired entrepreneurs that start

Norwegians aren’t getting enough activity.1 Much like

off with a creative idea and goes on to create something

the U.S., many people work in offices, and the average

Credit: CATHRINE DOKKEN

valuable for other people that solve a problem, meet a need

time sitting is more than 9 hours a day. The problem with

or changes their behavior.

this trend is that sitting dulls creativity, and this has real

Innovation and entrepreneurship are related to almost

business impacts. The loss in productivity from sitting

all areas, including nature and environmental problems. I

all day have been valued by the Norwegian Directorate

trained as a resource economist and many of the problems

of Health at 239 billion Norwegian kroner a year (which

we worked with, like pollution, are very old problems. It

equals 28 billion USD) - the equivalent of the Norwegian

is forward-thinking, good solutions that are lacking, and

oil fund in 2013.2

that is when we need both intrapreneurs, who work inside

Entrepreneurs often work themselves into the

existing organizations, and entrepreneurs, who want to

ground. Many people leave corporate jobs and become

improve the status quo by setting up a new business. Many

entrepreneurs to pursue a life with more freedom, but even

small business owners do things differently and provide

as self-employed they find themselves working long hours

new answers to environmental problems - even if it is on a

in front of the computer trying to solve problems - and it

small scale. Some examples are inventors of electric bikes,

often feels like a waste of time. And with very good reason;

more stylish helmets, organic jackets that will last for

sitting is counterproductive. Getting outside to take a

generations, solid walking boots that will serve you for life

walk is proven to bolster creative thinking.3 Walking will 113


114


Credit: CATHRINE DOKKEN 115


TO THINK OUTSIDE OF THE BOX, GO OUT OF THE BUILDING

also improve your memory and ability to concentrate.4

walking had real business and health benefits, and I started

Entrepreneurs need to know how to utilize that fact, and

Fjellflyt AS with a mission to help entrepreneurs, business

that´s why I started the Walking Movement. On a global

owners and workers “walk the talk” so that they achieve

scale we want to address rising public health issues, falling

these results.

productivity and need for innovation.

In quiet lodges and mountain farms in Norwegian

In the Walking Movement, we’re encouraging

National Parks with breathtaking nature, we host retreats

entrepreneurs and their employees to go for short walks

for entrepreneurs with Walkshops, yoga and local food.

between 2-20 minutes throughout the workday. As a first

Participants are entrepreneurs that want to build a healthy

step towards better ideas, stronger health and more profits,

lifestyle and profitable business. My customers are mainly

the Walking Movement is encouraging employees and

small business owners of lifestyle businesses. Walkshops,

entrepreneurs to take a walk while they solve a problem,

on the other hand, are largely attended by organizations

brainstorm, have a walking meeting, a Walkshop®, or as I

who want to provide an opportunity for their employees to

like to call them “a workshop with legs”, with their team

learn on their feet. At one event, focused around the link

or listen to an audio lecture. The Walking Movement is

between movement and innovation, we had 130 people

innovative because it is directly targeted at changing the

participate. Walkshops are an alternative to traditional

culture at the workplace to fight the negative consequences

seminars and conference sessions, where the participants

of prolonged sitting, and get the positive effects from

walk while they discuss a topic. The Fjellflyt community

taking walks.

has grown organically by word of mouth, online marketing

When I got the idea for Fjellflyt AS, I was working

and a great deal of media coverage in national press. This

as head of business in a municipality, and I realized that

proved to be a powerful mix that created momentum and

many entrepreneurs were struggling with taking care

kickstarted the community.

of themselves while starting their own business. At the

When entrepreneurs walk, they get more creative

same time, I was dealing with this exact problem. The

ideas and avoid the negative effects of sedentary behavior

combination of long work hours, travelling and being a

like sitting. Now thousands of people are walking more

new mom led me to burnout, and I quit my job to get

and reaping the benefits. In the long term I can see the

some headspace and create a healthier work environment

movement turning into a walking revolution at workplaces

for myself. This made me realize that a computer can be

all over the world.

replaced when it´s broken, but you can’t just order a new body online. We need to take care of ourselves to protect

For more about Torill Bye Wilhelmsen and the Walking

our productivity and our creativity.

Movement, visit http://fjellflyt.no

From here, I began to think about what it was that gave me the most creative thoughts and renewed my energy. It turned out to be taking walks. To test what worked best, I started experimenting; I walked on and off paths, went fast and slow, and even ran into trees. But it wasn’t until Mia Keinänen, a researcher, interviewed me for her research on walking and thinking that I learned about the scientific results that prove the benefits of walking for being more productive and creative. This was a big turning point, because I learned how movement aids learning by stimulating neurotransmitters in the brain. Movement helps the brain connect the dots. We all know that walking reduces stress and increases the level of hormones that are good for us - but we don´t act on it. Then I knew why 116


TORILL BYE WILHELMSEN

Credit: CATHRINE DOKKEN

REFERENCES 1 Norsk Friluftsliv (2015): [online]. - URL: http://www.norskfriluftsliv.no/?file=5733 2 Sandberg T. (2014, March 29): Prisen for stillesitting: Slappinger koster 239 mrd i året, in Dagsavisen, March 29 2014, [online]. - URL: http://www.dagsavisen.no/innenriks/prisen-for-stillesitting-slappinger-koster-239-mrd-i-året-1.284794 3 Wong, May (2014): Standford study finds walking improves creativity, Standford Report, April 24, 2014 [online]. – URL: http://news.stanford.edu/news/2014/april/walking-vs-sitting-042414.html Berman, M. (2012): Berman on the Brain: How to Boost your Focus, in Huffpost Living, March 4 2014, [online].-URL: http://www.huffingtonpost.ca/marc-berman/attention-restoration-theory-nature_b_1242261.html 117


Fremtidslandet og ideene som skaper det HELGA ØVSTHUS TØNDER

Entreprenørskapets plass i Norge

lik utfordringer som finnes andre steder i verden. I

I Norge ser vi etter hvordan vi skal overleve etter oljen. Vi

etterdønningene av finanskrisen bestemte Ashoka i Irland

har to parallelle diskusjoner: én handler om innovasjon,

seg for å storslått prøve noe nytt. De ville løfte hjemlandet

en annen om velferdsstaten. Samtidig begynner Norge

sitt ut av en vanskelig situasjon, og bestemte seg for å gjøre

å bli kjent med en ny type entreprenør: den sosiale

det gjennom import. Ikke av varer, men av ideer.

entreprenøren. En gründer med to tanker i hodet

Ashoka er et globalt nettverk av over 3000 sosiale

samtidig. Hen er opptatt av samfunnsinnovasjon, og tar

entreprenører, kalt Ashoka Fellows. Alle disse har satt unike

i bruk tradisjonelle forretningsmodeller for å sette ideene

ideer ut i livet, og bidratt til positiv endring innen blant

sine ut i livet.

annet miljø, helse, utdanning og økonomi. Ashoka i Irland

Sosialt entreprenørskap har på verdensbasis blitt

ville plukke de mest overførbare praksisene og introdusere

kjent som et kraftfullt verktøy for å møte kjente og nye

dem i Irland for å skape endring.

samfunnsutfordringer i verden. Mikrofinans er et godt

I mars 2012 sparket Ashoka Irland i gang Change

eksempel. Fattige hadde inntil ganske nylig ikke tilgang

Nation. De samlet ledere fra offentlig, privat og ideell

til å ta opp lån, og Muhammad Yunus, som introduserte

sektor. De møtte entreprenørene bak ideene, og lærte om

produktet, ble møtt med skepsis. Nå er det en selvfølge

de nye løsningene. Her begynte prosessen med å dyrke

for enhver bank med respekt for seg selv å ha tilbud

etterspørsel og utvikle strategier for hvordan løsningene

tilpasset denne kundegruppen. Yunus’ innovasjon førte til

skulle spres internt i Irland.

systemendring. Ideene som skaper endring

I Norge ligger vi i startgropen når det gjelder denne typen entreprenørskap, delvis fordi staten har vært garantist

Totalt 50 ideer ble bragt til Irland, med hjelp av Ashokas

for vår sosiale trygghet i en årrekke. Det er den fremdeles,

globale nettverk. En av entreprenørene var den første i

men med en verden i rask endring, klarer ikke alltid dagens

Norge som ble valgt inn i nettverket: Hanne Finstad med

system å hamle opp med de nye utfordringene raskt nok.

Forskerfabrikken. Med blikk på fremtidens arbeidsmarked,

Det kan den sosiale entreprenøren.

delte hun med irene hvordan hun lærer barn og unge real- og teknologifag på en engasjerende måte. Hanne ønsker å vekke

Søken etter bedre løsninger

barn og unges interesse for fagområdene, og tilbyr forskning

Intet er nytt under solen, eller i hvert fall ytterst sjelden.

og teknologi som et fritids- og kulturtilbud på lik linje med

Utfordringene vi møter her hjemme, er som regel

andre fritidsaktiviteter som musikk, dans og sport.1 118


Arbeidsledighet er et problem i Irland som ellers i

Irland, ville vise potensialet i sosialt entreprenørskap for å

Europa. For å gi et nytt blikk på løsninger kom etablerer

løse samfunnsutfordringer. Samtidig søkte de å inspirere

av IQ Consulting, Ashoka Fellow Norbert Kunz. Byrået

flere til å ta ansvar for problemene de ser foran seg, og gjøre

hans fokuserer på sosial innovasjon og forretning, og

noe med dem. Det finnes i dag 1400 sosiale foretak

tilbyr rådgivningstjenester for marginaliserte målgrupper.

i Irland, som ansetter rundt 25000 mennesker.5

Gründer Kunz etablerte byrået fordi han opplevde at

Næringen er i vekst.

mange arbeidsledige og under-sysselsatte mennesker har

I sosialt entreprenørskap er spredning et

gode forretningsinstinkter. Det de mangler er en god

suksesskriterium. I Ashoka, verdens eldste og største globale

forretningsplan og god nok kreditthistorie til å få tilgang til

nettverk av sosiale entreprenører, er spredning så viktig at

opplæring og finansiering. I Tyskland har deres individuelle

vi måler det. Entreprenørene som er valgt inn i nettverket

coaching, opplæring og tilbud om kontorfellesskap ført

har satt ut i livet innovative løsninger innenfor blant

til etableringen av 1500 bedrifter, hvorav 70% fortsatt er

annet miljø, helse, økonomi og utdanning. Hele 91% av

i drift etter 3 år.2 IQ sine metoder har vært med å forme

disse ideene er kopiert av andre organisasjoner.6 En vanlig

den første tyske mikrofinansmodellen og en endring i

entreprenør prøver å beskytte seg mot at noen stjeler ideen

profesjonsutdanningen i Tyskland. Dette ble i sin tur

deres. For en sosial entreprenør er det derimot et tegn på

inspirasjonen for utviklingen av Tysklands nasjonale

suksess hvis deres idé viser seg å være så god at andre vil

mikrofinanssystemer, som forvalter over € 100m per år.

kopiere den.

Prinsippet om deling av ideer, som Irland tok i bruk når de satte i gang Change Nation, er også grunnsteinen

Fremtidslandet

i den tredje av de 50 de løsningene som ble presentert for

Norge går nye problemer i møte som vi kun ser konturene

irene. Entreprenør Sascha Haselmayer oppdaget at når de

av i dag: flere fattige barn, manglende integrasjon i

store byene i verden skal finne løsninger på problemene de

arbeidsmarkedet, flere unge arbeidsuføre og ungdommer

sliter med, velger 90% å gjøre dette i en lukket prosess.

som dropper ut av skolen. Samfunnsutfordringene bør

3

Sascha opplevde at muligheten til å hente inn innovative

også få plass i innovasjonsdebatten. Gir vi de sosiale

løsninger fra andre steder var begrenset, og startet derfor

entreprenørene plass, så kan vi få frem bærekraftige

Citymart. Organisasjonen hjelper byer med åpenhet rundt

løsninger. Noen vil vokse frem lokalt, mens andre

problemene sine – slik at det globale og lokale markedet

kan hentes inn fra andre land. Slik kan vi ruste oss for

har mulighet til å lytte, handle og investere. Til nå,

fremtiden med borgere som står klare for å møte nye

gjennom de 90 utfordringene som er lansert av Citymart,

utfordringer med innovative løsninger.

har byer oppdaget mer enn 10.000 nye løsninger, og skalert allerede utprøvde sosiale innovasjoner i nye kontekster.

REFERENCES

Per dags dato har 52 byer over hele verden implementert

1 http://changenation.org/index.php/solutions/solution/

og delt metoden, inkludert London, Paris, Barcelona, San

scientist-factory

Francisco, Boston, Santiago, Mexico City, Fukuoka og

2 http://changenation.org/index.php/solutions/solution/

Cape Town.

iq-consult

4

3 http://changenation.org/index.php/solutions/solution/ Ingen verdi uten spredning

citymart.com

18 av de 50 ideene fra Change Nation er i dag satt ut i

4 http://www.citymart.com/#inspiring-solutions-to-

livet i Irland, og flere er på vei. Landet har de siste årene

transform-cities

bygd seg opp et omdømme som en foregangsnasjon innen

5 Coleman, Alison (2014) : Ireland Leading the Charge

samfunnsinnovasjon. Målet med Change Nation var ikke

With Social Entrepreneurship, Forbes, 04.10.2014, http://

bare å vise frem gode ideer, men å involvere mennesker og

www.forbes.com/sites/alisoncoleman/2014/04/10/ireland-

midler på tvers av sektorer i et prosjekt som handlet om

leads-the-charge-with-social-entrepreneurship/

å gjøre Irland bedre, sammen. Initiativtakerne, Ashoka

6 http://uk.ashoka.org/sites/uk.ashoka.org/files/Ashoka_ UK_booklet_digital_0.pdf 119


Vanlige entreprenører gjør alt for å beskytte seg mot at noen stjeler ideene deres. En forutsetning for suksess er et vedvarende behov i markedet, og å være størst er best. En sosial entreprenør opererer med de samme forretningsmodellene, men gjør alt for at ideene deres skal spre seg. De jobber for at behovet for deres produkter og tjenester skal forsvinne – så raskt som overhodet mulig.

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Credit: MAGNUS WITTERSØ 121


DESIGN AS A DIALOGICAL PROCESS: A Social Dialogue Tool to Perform Innovation in a Complex Environment

LUCIANO TARDIN & MARCUS VINÍCIUS FONSECA

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Credit: DESIGN COUNCIL UK

Thinking through Design

scientific approaches to design.2 From the creativity flux

Design’s history is also the history of the systematization

inherent in design process, to the increasing complexity

of the designer’s creative process. If we focus on recent

of the situation in which design took place, the design

academic and professional debates and publications, as in

model partitioned the process in key steps that represent

common sense and media, we will be able to identify a

movements toward interaction and intervention.

continuous growth of its meanings and connections with

Fruit of an evolving process, the “Double Diamond”

different ideas and practices, revealing a subtle amplitude in

model proposed by the Design Council3 synthesizes the

practices and definitions.1

evolution of these multiple reflections about project activity

This emergent status of design in the 21st Century is

in design. This model is formed by four different phases.

to be noted as something important.

Discover, Define, Develop and Deliver. The model is custom-made to each applicable situation, considering a

In this contemporary scene, design is presented as part of innovation, sustainability and growth agendas.

variation of resources and restrictions typical of a specific human-centred approach, inserted in a complex web of relationships. Design and Complexity

In this sense, design is an integrative activity, capable of extending knowledge through human experience.

Approaches to complex problems in design were

The design process is a series of events, actions and

originally formulated by Horst Rittel4 in the sixties, a

proceedings, to be followed in order to reach a specific

period in time where project methodology in design was

objective, result or goal. This process is being optimized as

an object of great interest.

a goal of its own. Among many other contributions, lies

According to Rittel, complex problems are a class

the work, Systematic Methods for Designers, by L. Bruce

of problems in a badly formulated social system, where

Archer who was the head of the Design Research Unit at

information is confused, situations wherein clients

the Royal College of Art (1964). His publications can be

and decision-makers have conflicting values, and

considered pioneering examples of design methods and

where ramifications throughout all the social systems 123


DESIGN AS A DIALOGICAL PROCESS: A SOCIAL DIALOGUE TOOL TO PERFORM INNOVATION IN A COMPLEX ENVIRONMENT

are extremely complicated. Design problems are

precision of planning escapes its own planned action. This

“indeterminate” and “complex” because of the fact that

paradox, that involves planning and acting, is inherent

design does not have a specific goal, other than what

to the existence of every organization. And in this way,

the designer defines as such. The objective of design is

the awareness of the incompleteness of comprehension

potentially universal in its scope. Design Thinking can be

appeals to the development of a form of acting and

applied to any area of human experience. We therefore

managing, which is much more integrated, alive and

understand that the centrality of the human factor

intelligent. In this sense, project methodology in design

demands a process that precedes the objective intentionality

presents itself as a form of approach that is capable of

that characterises product development. It claims a focus

proposing a formulation of interventions. This evolves

on human emotions, desires and interactions. This view

into a continuous prototyping process of the relation and

frees the project perspective from the limitations of a

functions of organizations in society, based on a dialogical

program based on preconceptions about behaviour, that

process, co-created.

when added to an ideation process, capable of transcending the limits imposed by previous experiences, is able to make

Design as Dialogue

the innovation process dynamic.

An approach to the reality of social and productive

The continuous complexity of life, that permeates

organizations, in complex, open and permeable systems,

all culture, is being discussed in different arenas and with

demands an equally complex thinking process. This occur

different focuses. In common is the attempt to reinaugurate

when different understandings are harmonized and when

the comprehension of reality in order to continuously

they meet, it generates a dynamic formulation. According

transpose barriers imposed by the very approach/

to Morin, two consequences arise from the idea of an

investigative method, be it scientific or no, but with a

open system:

strong Cartesian, disjunctive thought influence.

“The first is that the laws of the organization of life are not those of balance, but of imbalance, recovered

Organizations as Complex Systems

or compensated, of stabilized dynamics... The second

Organizations, understood as complex systems have as

consequence, maybe even greater, is that intelligibility of

characteristics non-linearity and self-organisation. We can

the system must be found, not only in itself, but also in its

think about these characteristics using the three causalities

relation to the environment and that this relation is not

implied in the productive process of the organisations, as

one of simple dependence, it is itself a part of the system.”

proposed by Morin5: linear causality, circular causality and

A co-created design, dialogued, is based on

recursive causality – three distinct ways of approach. These

the emphasis of an initial project stage of empathy

causalities develop in complexity, starting from a linear,

construction. This stage determines the moment in

deductive causality, insufficient to understand and manage

which dialogue is established, through the suspension

a complex organization. However, that is objectively related

of suppositions6 by which we observe and formulate our

to the realization of tasks, the transformation of material

ideas. This can be a way out for the incompatibilities and

into products, and, in a first analysis, the very definition of

gridlocks generated by any and every social activity.

a productive system. Another approach is circular causality,

The dynamics of the contemporary market challenges

retroactive, based on an interaction between its products/

the reflection about the adequacy of understanding gained

services with its environment, in a continuous process of

throughout time and the envisioning of the future. In the

feedback. Finally, in recursive causality, the product is the

future, we may be able to consider the non-existence of

producer of the production process. In this last causal logic,

externalities to our actions. And in its stead, see a network

the processes are constantly shaped by its own results.

of continuous implications that once understood as an

This understanding of recursive causality exposes the

extension of project activity, will bring us closer to a

management process in as much as it puts in perspective

sustainable practice.

the fact, provable through systematic observation, that the 124


LUCIANO TARDIN & MARCUS VINÍCIUS FONSECA

REFERENCES 1 Buchanan, Richard (1992): “Wicked Problems in Design Thinking”. Design Issues, Vol. 8, No. 2 pp. 5-21. The MIT Press. 2 Bayazit, Nigan (2004): “Investigating Design: A Review of Forty Years of Design Research”. Design Issues: Vol. 20, No. 1 MIT Press., 3 Design Council: Eleven lessons: managing design in eleven global companies. Desk Research. 5 November 2007. 4 Op. cit. Buchanan, Richard. 5 Morin, Edgar (2011): Introdução ao Pensamento Complexo. Porto Alegre: Sulina. p.22. 6 Bohm, David (2005): Diálogo. São Paulo: Palas Athena. 125


25 25 YEARS WITH SUM

WITH SUM

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5 EDITORIAL BOARD

As University of Oslo’s Centre for the Environment and Development (SUM) celebrates its 25th year, it seems only fair to acknowledge the work of the master’s students in the program, Culture, Environment and Sustainability, which SUM has housed since 2003. The aim of the CES master’s programme is to provide students with knowledge and critical insights into the socio-cultural, political and scientific challenges of achieving sustainable development at both the local and global level. The research undertaken by SUM students spans a broad range of themes related to sustainability, including ethics, culture, development theory, poverty, business and consumption. The articles that follow are an assortment of writings from former students of CES. While some chose to focus on the projects they undertook during their theses, others reminisce on their experiences at SUM. Keeping the theme of this issue in mind, the editorial board saw this as an opportunity to highlight the innovative projects of SUM while getting a glimpse at what paths students take after graduating. Several have left Norway to work abroad, including Anne Sveinsdottir who is now a PhD student at the University of Denver and Beck Roan who works as an attorney in the US. Others have stayed in Norway, now working in the private and public sectors. The pieces chosen as features reflect this diversity of research interests and the impressive array of paths taken by SUM graduates.

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Teaching Solutions – Innovation in Academia SEAN MICHAEL THOMPSON

At the University of Oslo’s Centre for the Environment

evolve from the standard classroom course from

and Development (SUM), Professor Dan Banik sat down

the past years?

with Tvergastein in order to discuss his recent Massive Open Online Course (MOOC). Titled “What Works?”,

Several years ago I was in charge of the development

the course is designed to take a look at success stories from

studies modules at the social sciences faculty, and after a

the world of development. Holding permanent and visiting

long term of talking about everything that didn’t work

positions at the University of Malawi, the University of Oslo,

the students got up and said “could you please in this last,

Stanford University and a university in Beijing, Professor

final, special lecture – what we want you to do – could

Banik is uniquely positioned in being able to experiment

you highlight some of the success stories; could you give

with using MOOCs as a way to provide high-quality

us hope? Is there anything that works out there? Does

education to students in different corners of the world.

anything have an impact? We want to work for the UN,

Our interest in this topic for our current issue stems

the World Bank; we want to work for NGOs – all you’ve

from the belief that MOOCs, with their ability to reach

said – you’ve highlighted things that don’t work, so...” I

thousands of students, are an example of innovative

thought it was a very profound observation. I did that final

solutions being applied to problems in development. In

talk and I tried to highlight positive stories, but I ended

addition to purely environmental factors such as cutting

up going back to the negatives – I was arguing against

down on air traffic – since the lectures are online and not in

myself. So I talked to some of these students, and we

person – MOOCs could serve countries where traditional

had a brainstorming session discussing this. Several years

universities and educational institutions have had difficulty

later I came up with this idea for the SUM course which

keeping up with demand. Apart from the MOOC as

I’ve offered for the last three years on Success Stories in

an educational medium, the course subject is solution-

International Development – and that attracted the usual

oriented in its approach to developmental problems.

twenty to twenty-five student crowd, from SUM and other

In this interview we discuss innovation within a

university departments. Then I realized that this really has

changing academic landscape, as well as academia’s role

potential.

in telling success stories. Professor Banik shares thoughts How did the organization of the MOOC look like?

on how a new approach could possibly change not just the academic side of development, but the way in which development projects are funded and executed.

Doing a MOOC is in many ways challenging, it’s not like a regular course – you have to first persuade people.

First, we just want to start off with some

Well, the other challenging aspect is of course the topic

background. So how did the idea of the MOOC 128


INTERVIEW

- Could you highlight some of the success stories; could you give us hope? Is there anything that works out there?

Interview with Dan Banik 129


TEACHING SOLUTIONS – INNOVATION IN ACADEMIA? INTERVIEW WITH DAN BANIK

itself – so what works? I’m not aware of any other course

Works?” MOOC and MOOCs in general address the

that has been given on this topic. So that was one thing,

issue of sustainability as far as mass education and

and not everybody is comfortable talking about the success

democratizing education are concerned?

stories, the promising practices, because as you may know most academics are extremely cautious. They’re very careful,

Well that’s the beauty of a MOOC, is that you have firstly

they’re – they like to be critical and independent, but they’re

a global classroom – with minimal energy you are reaching

not very good at coming up with solutions or – the fear

out to quite a lot of people. But it’s also the other way

that by generalizing something to be a success they may be

around, that these

criticized. So there were those challenges, but once we were

more the logistical and the practical challenges of doing it.

people from all nooks and corners of the world are having access to world-class lecturers that they would not normally have access to.

How has the feedback been so far?

So I think there’s a realization here at SUM, and I think

at the University of Oslo the President agrees, that on

The feedback so far has been extremely positive, I was

certain occasions it may be well worth it to invest in these

impressed by the feedback – I was fairly nervous the first

big MOOCs rather than a course with 25 students. My

week, you know? Because I’ve never done this before, none

personal thing is that I think MOOCs are extremely good

of us have done it, and I was worried that the topic itself

at being supplementary to existing courses. I’m still not

wouldn’t be very popular. MOOC as a form of teaching

sold to the idea entirely. I don’t like the idea of education

is of course very well established, I mean it’s been going

simply being based on the MOOC model. I don’t see

on since 2008. But I wasn’t sure how the response would

how we can escape the normal classroom, or do away

be, about “What Works?”. Whether we’d be criticized for

with it totally. However I do see many interesting ways

being naive. So I was extremely worried – not worried – I

in which we can make the classroom even more exciting.

was anxious, and I was relieved the first week when we got,

We can make the experience more dynamic; the learning

I think almost a thousand responses, just when we asked

experience. And a MOOC is just super in that connection.

people to introduce themselves and tell us about the topic.

I would still really like to have my 25-50 or 60 students

able to get through those and we convinced these people that you could talk about anything that you want, as long as it falls within a broad category of success, then it was much

One of the big criticisms of the MOOCs is that

that I often have in Political Science and I would like them

people don’t really complete. And I saw this year a lot of

to be a part of this community.

people sign up, they would watch one video, and they

In terms of sustainability I’ve been experimenting

would forget that something was going on. There is a lot of

with these techniques for a long time, in terms of different

psychology. When I give a course or when I give a talk at

kinds of software. But I do think that we should be using

the university, or at schools, I’m not worried about who’s

video content in much the same, you know MOOCs are

taking notes or who wasn’t showing up for class, I’m not

just great ways of – to give you an example I have a 5 year

really worried about that. If I see half the class empty then

operation with Malawi now – I’m not always going to be

I’d be worried. But in a MOOC you have to keep thinking

in a position to travel all the way to Malawi. I do travel a

about ways of getting students back in class, so my team

lot, but I really want to cut back on that and one way we’re

and I had devised all these sorts of bonus materials, it

going to try to experiment is actually to record some of my

wasn’t just a course.

lectures on a stick, on a USB stick and maybe just send it by DHL because they won’t be able to download these

Our theme for this issue of Tvergastein is Leaving

huge files. And then that stick could just be put into a large

the Box – towards creative ideas addressing

screen and they could see my talk. I mean there are some

sustainability. So in light of this, how does “What

trade-offs obviously; everybody wants you to be there in 130


SEAN MICHAEL THOMPSON

I want there to be a balance between all the challenges we have in terms of development, and the successes, the promising practices.

person, and the discussions you have with someone after the break or after the classes, you can’t replace that – but as a second best option we have the opportunity, we have the technology now to involve a lot of people who otherwise would not be able to travel. And so I see that as a new way in which we could all contribute towards offering courses

I want to know how we have learned from previous lessons.

that involve people from all over the world. So I like the

What were the mistakes and, you know, and what is

technology but I’m still not sold to the idea that it’s only

working and why? I’m not really worried about whether

that version of technology that’s going to work. I would

something that is working in one place can be replicated

like to see how we could mix and match. I would like to

elsewhere. I’m just interested in knowing why it’s working.

see how we could use it as a supplement.

Who’s benefiting from it? And great, are there some lessons to be learned? Maybe we could take it and do some

Where will the “What Works?” idea lead?

comparative studies. So you know both from a research student point of view but also from a communication,

In terms of what I would like to do, I’m really playing

dissemination kind of view. I think this kind of an effort

around with a new idea. That is, I have this portal;

would be really interesting.

whatworks/development.org. At the moment it’s exclusively So there is a discourse that needs to be balanced?

based on the MOOC, but what I want to do is to create an online presence and an interactive experience, where one part of the experience is the MOOC or something

There is a growing awareness already because of this course

similar or a course that we offer. Another component

and because of this movement that there is a need to create

would be gathering information, together aligning

a balance between all the challenges – and I’m perfectly

ourselves with Facebook and Twitter pages. We collect

aware of the challenges, the magnitude of challenges, of

and we assemble, it’s like a repository of knowledge, of

poverty and health and all of that, and yet I feel the need

“What Works?”. So publications, research, media articles,

to correct the balance by providing the alternative stories

that our volunteers, our teams of students submit on

and I think that is where we should be. We shouldn’t

their own, and we moderate that and somewhere filter

tilt the scale in favor of one, but try to maintain the

and somehow categorize this according to environment,

balance. And I think if we are able to do that, we would

development, poverty reduction, country-wise, whatever.

be much more credible as an institution, as researchers, as

And the idea there is that if you as a student want to do

students, because we are not just saying “give us money

a thesis on one of the topics you could go in there, get a

or give us funding, we do the study and it doesn’t work,

lot of information, maybe some contacts, and then you

we need more”. We’re actually saying “listen, some of this

already have something to start with and you don’t have to

is actually working” but these are the challenges. So we

start from scratch. The same thing would be with research

need to continue. That’s the story I want to tell. Not like

projects. So I’m interested in providing that kind of a

a lot of the NGOs often do. It’s like “nothing is working,

knowledge base. Thirdly, I’m also interested in much more

there’s a lot of extreme poverty there, we need more of

interactive sessions with, you know, video content coming

your money”. So it’s this guilty conscience-based kind of

from the field, so I would like to see, explore ways in

a funding mechanism. I always want to avoid that. I don’t

which the UN, World Bank, civil society, NGOs, citizens,

want organizations or institutions to treat people who

organizations upload stuff that, we of course carefully filter,

fund them as naive. They should know that they’re taking

in terms of quality, etc., how they talk about success stories.

a decision based on a careful review of the data, of the

I’ve been using the term movement for a while, I sound

evidence. That something’s been done. And if something

extremely activistic, but that’s really what I want to create.

hasn’t been done then maybe one will end up not funding that organization. But I think that’s a risk we have to take. 131


Happy Anniversary SUM! HEIDI BADE

ABOUT THE AUTHOR: Heidi Bade holds a Master’s degree from the Centre for Development and the Environment. She wrote her Master’s thesis on Norway’s REDD+ partnership with Guyana entitled “Aid in a rush”. She now works as an advisor at the Norwegian Agency for Development Cooperation, Norad.

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Centre for Development and the Environment

in Afghanistan or river salmon habitats in Canada. We

(SUM) is a popular 25 year-old: The

learned how civil society pushed Nike to change their

newly launched e-course “What works in

labour conditions.

international development” attracted more

I believe this focus on real world cases rather than

than 6000 applicants.

internal academic debates is a key asset at SUM.

Being inter-disciplinary, SUM research is able to ask more relevant questions.

SUM also hosts an exclusive master’s program consisting of only 20 students selected from all parts of the world. The students are not only selected based on their merits, but also their diversity. The result is a mixed group with varied

Students and professors are not caught up in endless

educational backgrounds and work experience.

academic debates, which, I suspect very few outside academia really care about. Instead, we are encouraged to

Diverse group, diverse sets of skills

ask questions that are relevant in the actual world. In my

I believe this mixture is key to the success of the program.

experience, this helped me write a master´s thesis that was

During my three years of bachelor studies at the University

accessible and interesting to the outside world. I believe

of Oslo, my classmates and I were a rather homogenous

it makes research at SUM useful, relevant and up to date.

group in terms of experience and worldview. It was very

Therefore, while SUM is getting older, it will always be

comfortable, and there was very little friction. At SUM,

young in spirit.

suddenly many of my perceptions were challenged. Our class had a sanitation expert, an Italian world traveller and Arctic expert, a Brazilian who had worked in the private sector and me who had very little work experience at all. There were students from Vietnam, Ethiopia, Germany, Indonesia, and Kvamsøya, Norway. What united us was a common desire to push our societies in a greener direction. At SUM we learned how. We were taught about international negotiations by acting them out. I performed as the U.S delegate and I remember how the small island states convincingly despised me. We learned how businesses might be both part of the solution, and the problem.

We studied the development in consumption patterns taught by a man who was energy self-sufficient in his ecohouse on Nesodden. Not least, we learned to understand the complex climate systems and the scenarios we must prepare ourselves for in the future. Real world problems We always focused on specific, real-world cases, never on theoretical debates. We learned of solar power projects 133


The greatest unanswered question is no longer whether and how our ecosystems and societies will be affected by global environmental change, but rather of which, as the last years of stalemate in the international climate negotiations is a testament, and what to do about it.

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Practicing, Not Just Preaching INGERID SALVESEN

ABOUT THE AUTHOR: Ingerid Salvesen is a journalist and a scholar of environment and development issues. She holds a bachelor degree in journalism from Oslo University College, and completed a masterâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s degree at Centre for Environment and Development in November 2014. She has worked for several media outlets, covering mainly international affairs. She is currently a freelance journalist at Kverna Media. She has broad editorial experience with, among others, Die Welt, Dagens NĂŚringsliv, NRK Dagsnytt 18 and NTB.

135


PRACTICING, NOT JUST PREACHING

How do we mitigate and adapt to climate change? How

social movement theory, I analyzed findings for each of the

do we transform our societies to become more sustainable

two groups exclusively, as well as across both cases. Such

and resilient? Who gets to decide how and when?

a comparison enabled insight into not only the formation and the results of the Transition Movement in Norway

Frustrated by the lack of agreement or substantial change at the global and national levels, the founders of a rather new community-based social movement called Transition Movement claim that it is collective local action that must and 1 can “change the world”.

in general, but also into local variations and the factors explaining these variations. The examination of ‘energy-related’ consumption was conducted through studying three consumption practices with significant energy and environmental consequences, and the norms embedded in these practices: a) buying imported food in the supermarket; b) driving a car to and from work and spare time activities; c) regularly buying

The movement aims to mobilize action in communities

new clothes and throwing old ones away. These practices

worldwide to address what they call ‘the twin challenges’

were chosen for both pragmatic reasons (these are the main

of climate change and depletion of cheap energy. Their

practices that both groups engage with) and because of their

approach is unconventional in that it is not based on

relevance (the majority of the energy use of, and greenhouse

information-campaigns for the public nor lobbying or

gas emissions from, modern household consumption comes

protesting politicians or institutions; instead they simply

from food and transport and housing.5 I will argue that the

launch activities in their local areas. These are both directed

Transition Movement represents an interesting angle from

towards reducing carbon emissions from the communities

which to explore the critique of current consumption and

involved, and towards fostering public engagement and

energy saving policies in the global North and to look for

empowerment around climate change. The movement

alternative recipes.

seeks to institutionalize new low-carbon social practices

First then, a look at these policies and their critique.

and social norms and thus contribute to a transition to

Although the last decades have seen significant gains in

low-carbon economies. Their key rationale is: “If we wait

energy efficiency through technological innovation, the total

for the governments, it’ll be too little, too late. If we act as

energy demand and use has only increased in most modern,

individuals, it’ll be too little. But if we act as communities,

industrialized societies— outweighing the efficiency gains.6

it might just be enough, just in time”. Community action

Policymakers have responded to the challenge by attempting

is seen as “the missing piece”.

to promote less energy-intensive consumption, emphasizing

2

The movement has grown rapidly across the

approaches like providing information to the public. The

world, receiving increasing attention from scholars and

results, however, have so far been few. Several scholars7 argue

policymakers. It is both criticized for being politically naïve

that the lack of success is due to the narrow view of social

and utopian3 and cheered for providing alternative and

change underlying contemporary consumption and energy

innovative ways for engaging citizens in reducing carbon

savings policies, being based on simplistic linear models of

emissions. In my master thesis, I examined the mechanisms

human behavior: The assumption that ‘information leads to

through which the two biggest Transition groups in Norway

change in attitude leads to change in action’ has been largely

(Omstilling Sagene and Bærekraftige Liv på Landås) have

rejected by research on sustainable consumption, which

formed, how they have mobilized participants, and whether

suggests that also social, material, cultural and institutional

participation in the groups has contributed to an increased

factors influence our consumption patterns and choices.8

uptake of alternative and less energy-intensive consumption

From this perspective, energy-related consumption will not

practices – and if so, how. I also discussed questions of

change if approached only at an individual level, because

why the groups have, or have not succeeded in mobilizing

it is embedded in a larger system of social norms, cultural

participants and/or in changing participants’ everyday

values, material conditions and institutional infrastructure.

4

consumption practices. Applying social practice theory and

This is where Seyfang et al see the potential of civil 136


INGERID SALVESEN

society, including grassroot social movements like the

how the groups have emerged as a response to a perceived

Transition Movement, as a change catalyst. The authors

modernity crisis and common grievance of climate change

argue that “behavior change will likely occur in the context

and over-consumption. What the OS and BLL do is to

of changing values, lifestyles, and cultural norms modulated

put forward an alternative framing of climate change as

through social contexts, including social movements”.9 The

not only a challenge, but also an opportunity – a call to

Transition Movement indeed seeks to implement a method

create better, happier and safer communities. They offer

that differs from what the last decades of consumption

individuals an opportunity to feel as part of the solution,

and energy savings policies have been based on. It claims

not only the problem. Following Swensen15 and Norgaard16,

that instead of information- and awareness-campaigns, it is

such a framing holds potential in mobilizing people around

creating changes in everyday practices that will lead to not

a shared grievance of feeling powerless in confrontation with

only reduction in carbon emissions, but also to a sustained

troubling information. Instead of directing their actions

change in attitudes and norms.10 Thus the movement works

towards the state or firms, they direct their action towards

to involve people in local community activities to try to

their own communities. Their outcome should thus not

collectively change social practices around energy-related

be measured in terms of effect on governmental policy or

consumption.

support, as other strands of social movement theory would

Yet scholars have questioned the ability of such a

do, but more in form of their potential effect on broader

movement, excluded from positions of economic and

cultural transformation within their communities, in line

political power, to transform complex industrial economies

with NSM theory.

and systems through merely providing examples. The

Thus, the second part of my inquiry was to investigate

11

influence of individual choice in industrialized societies is

if their activities contribute to form new norms and

clearly limited by a range of systemic factors, including the

practices, and thus have the potential to actually reduce

configuration of cities, transport systems, energy and water

energy-related consumption. From a social practice theory

supply systems, as well as housing and product designs, to

(SPT) perspective, practices consist of three interrelated

name some.12 Also, the development of a mass movement

elements: the social (norms and meanings), the material

for less carbon consumption is challenging in modern

(infrastructure and technology) and the individual

societies where citizens not only enjoy consumer lifestyles,

(cognitive and embodied knowledge and competences).

but the economy and their everyday lives are so dependent

Changing a practice depends on breaking the links

on it.13 Moreover, many have raised questions of whether

between, and/or changing one or more of the elements

‘the local’ is the right scale to confront problems of global

constituting a practice. From an SPT perspective, changing

nature.14

practices can thus be done by introducing more low-carbon

Thus in addition to examining whether the TM groups

technologies or objects into the practices (addressing the

engage and mobilize citizens in questions of low-carbon

material), integrating into the practices new norms and

living and climate change in a novel way, we also need

ideas promoting sustainability (addressing the social),

to examine whether the groups actually do contribute to

and/or exposing individuals to learning (addressing the

the change towards less energy intensive consumption

knowledge and competences of the individual). Spreading a

practices as they promise. Concerning the first question

practice involves processes of social learning and creation of

- the formation of the groups and the engagement of

communities of practices. Further, combining insights from

citizens - I found that both groups of study did manage to

SPT and social movement theory show that movements can

engage people who have not been particularly involved in

facilitate this social learning by creating alternative places

environmental issues or volunteer work before. Both groups

for it to happen, acting as ‘communities of practice’ and

share a broad motivational framing that does not include

consequently challenge mainstream norms and practices

only environmental or local gains, but also social and

through collectively innovating alternative practices.

personal gains for the participants.

I operationalized the concept of change in practices

New Social Movement (NSM) theory can help explain

through examining the distribution and uptake of two 137


PRACTICING, NOT JUST PREACHING

alternative practices for each of three different current

out to a broader segment of the public than at present.

practices in the two respective groups (a) growing your own

The other is that although succeeding in addressing social

food or buying local/ecological instead of buying imported

and competence aspects of energy-related consumption,

food, b) biking or using collective transport instead of

the groups to a lesser degree address the material and

driving a car, c) exchanging or repairing instead of buying

infrastructural aspects. My research shows that the groups

new clothes). I found that participation in the groups in

do create change by supporting and teaching each other

varying degrees address the constituting elements of the

how to act to reduce the energy use and carbon emissions

six alternative consumption practices, and consequently

of their everyday life, but as of today only to a certain

that participation has in many cases led to an increased

point. Barriers noted by participants show that material and

uptake of the alternative practices within both groups. This

infrastructural aspects of the alternative practices still limits

has happened mainly through strengthening social norms

their uptake. If these barriers are not addressed, the practice

promoting the practices and facilitating learning through

will likely remain at its present level.

social participation. Thus the groups largely succeed in

I found that alternative practices spread through

addressing the social element of the practices, and to an

processes of social and participatory learning within

almost as great extent the competence element; however the

Transition Movement groups, which act as communities

activities to a lesser extent address the material element of

of practice. The Transition Movement facilitates this

the practices. I found that the more that the activities of the

learning by creating alternative places for it to happen;

groups address all three elements of the practice, the more

for collectively inventing and enacting alternative

participants engage in it. Barriers noted among participants

consumption practices and norms. These places turn

for increasingly engaging in the alternative practices are then

questions of everyday consumption, by mainstream society

also mainly of the material kind.

largely viewed as private actions, into collective actions

The Transition groups thus seem to represent a novel

enacted in the public sphere. In this way, the work of

way of socially organizing in the face of environmental

TM is also political. Through learning from and engaging

change in a Norwegian context. Their emphasis on specific

each other, the groups are demonstrating an original way

and practical action alternatives connected to everyday

of engaging citizens in reducing the energy intensity of

life in the local community differs from the more state-

their consumption. In many ways it is the opposite of

centric politics of the more established environmental

what energy efficiency and consumption policies have

movement, emphasizing methods of advocacy and

prescribed the latter years. Instead of trying to persuade

information campaigns. The TM also seems to enact a

with information and plead to the individual’s morality,

broader motivational framing for mobilization purposes,

the groups engage their participants through offering

engaging people as much on issues of quality of life, sense

specific action alternatives that are both perceived as fun,

of community in the neighborhood and doing something

social and convenient. As importantly, they generate a

joyful and practical—as on environmental concerns. I will

sense of meaning for participants through framing the

argue that this is where some of the potential of TM seems

participants as part of the solution. The groups thus

to lie in a Norwegian context. Norwegian consumption and

translate troublesome information of over-consumption and

energy saving policies have been criticized for focusing too

climate change into specific, local action alternatives, where

much on economic motives of saving money and too little

participants are framed as the solution—not simply the

on social, material and cultural aspects of behaviour.17 The

problem. The results are communities that strengthen the

TM groups counter this. The Norwegian environmental

engagement of individuals in less energy intensive practices,

movement has been criticized for being narrow, moralistic

and to various degrees also increase the uptake of some of

and academic,18 and for having little relevance for people’s

these practices.

everyday lives.19 The TM groups counter this as well.

The groups are in an early phase and it remains to be

The challenge of both groups however, if they were

seen how they develop. Despite their current shortcomings,

to create an even larger change, is dual. One is to reach

ignoring these groups, who are successfully engaging citizens 138


INGERID SALVESEN

in reducing the energy load of everyday practices, would be unwise. In a country like Norway, where a unanimous political goal is to increase energy savings and reduce greenhouse gas emissions - and where the number of participants in the established environmental movement has been decreasing - scholars and policymakers should perhaps devote more attention to the Transition groupsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; approaches.

139


PRACTICING, NOT JUST PREACHING

REFERENCES 1 Rob Hopkins is co-founder of Transition Network and the initiator behind the first Transition group, Transition Town Totnes. 2 Rob Hopkins is co-founder of Transition Network and the initiator behind the first Transition group, Transition Town Totnes. 3 Trapese (2008): “The rocky road to a real transition: The transition town movement and what it means for social change.” Report. Trapese popular education collective. [online] –URL: http://trapese.clearerchannel.org/resources/rocky- road-a5web.pdf (Retrieved 25.02.2014). 4 Reeves, A., Lemon, M. and D. Cook (2013): “Jump-starting transition? Catalysing grassroots action on climate change.” Energy Efficiency 7: 115-132 5 EEA (2012): “Consumption and the Environment - 2012 Update. The European Environment. State and Outlook 2010.” Copenhagen: European Environment Agency. [online]. –URL: http://www.eea.europa.eu/publications/consumption-andthe-environment-2012 (Retrieved 16.10.2014). 6 Wilhite, H., Shove, E., Lutzenhiser, L. and W. Kempton (2000): “The legacy of twenty years of energy demand management: We know more about individual behavior but next to nothing about demand.” in Jochem, E., Sathaye, J. and D. Bouille (eds): Society, behaviour and climate change mitigation. London: Kluwer Academic Publishers. 7 Shove, E., Lutzenhiser, L., Guy, S., Hackett, B. and H. Wilhite (1998): “Energy and social systems” in Rayner, S. and E. Malone (eds): Human choice and climate change. Ohio: Battelle Press. Hargreaves, T. (2011): “Practice-ing behavior change: Applying social practice theory to pro-environmental behaviour change”. Journal of Consumer Culture 11(1): 79-99. 8 Shove, E., Lutzenhiser, L., Guy, S., Hackett, B. and H. Wilhite (1998): “Energy and social systems” in Rayner, S. and E. Malone (eds): Human choice and climate change. Ohio: Battelle Press. 9 Seyfang, G., Haxeltine, A., Hargreaves, T. and N. Longhurst (2010): “Energy and communities in transition – towards a new research agenda on agency and civil society in sustainability transitions”. CSERGE Working Paper 2010/13. Norwich: 140


INGERID SALVESEN

The Centre for Social and Economic Research on the Global Environment, University of East Anglia. 10 Hopkins, R. (2013): The power of just doing stuff. How local action can change the world. Cambridge: Green Books 11 North, P. (2011): “The politics of climate activism in the UK: A social movement analysis.” Environment and Planning 43: 1581-1598. 12 Wilhite, H., Shove, E., Lutzenhiser, L. and W. Kempton (2000): “The legacy of twenty years of energy demand management: We know more about individual behavior but next to nothing about demand.” in Jochem, E., Sathaye, J. and D. Bouille (eds): Society, behaviour and climate change mitigation. London: Kluwer Academic Publishers. 13 Monbiot, G. (2006): Heat: How to stop the planet burning. London: Allen Lane. 14 Brown, J. and M. Purcell (2005): “There’s nothing inherent about scale: Political ecology, the local trap and the politics of development in the Brazilian Amazon” Geoforum 36(5): 607-624. 15 North, P. (2011): “The politics of climate activism in th UK: A social movement analysis.” Environment and Planning 43: 1581-1598. 16 Smith, A. (2011): “The Transition Town Network: A review of current evolutions and renaissance”. Social movement studies: Journal of social, cultural and political protest 10(1): 99-105. 17 Swensen, E. (2012): “Tid for ei revitalisering av miljøengasjementet.” Tvergastein. Interdisciplinary Journal of the Environment 1: 19-23. [online]. –URL: http://tvergasteinjournal.wordpress.com/2012/05/24/issue-1/ 18 Nordgaard, K. (2011): Living in denial: Climate change, emotions and everyday life. Cambridge: MIT Press 19 Karlstrøm, H., Ryghaug, M. and K. Sørensen (2013): “Towards new national policy instruments for promoting energy efficiency”. Working Paper. Trondheim: Department for the interdisciplinary study of culture, NTNU.

141


SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT RECONSIDERED The Science, the Profit and the Class Society: A Case of Genetic Modification of Food

142


MARIJA HOLM RADOVANOVIC

ABOUT THE AUTHOR: Marija Holm Radovanovic is a climate and energy advisor for Hedmark County Council. She holds a Master of Science in evolutionary biology and ecology (Uni of Belgrade), and a Master of Philosophy in Culture, Environment and Sustainability from the University of Oslo. At SUM she wrote her thesis called â&#x20AC;&#x153;Sciency and society: Behind the scenes: Exploring the science-society dynamic in Longyearbyen, Svalbardâ&#x20AC;?. She previously worked as a scientific/teacher assistant and a guest lecturer at UNIS.

143


SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT RECONSIDERED

Sustainable development was officially defined by the

the perceived lack of food in the world. But the astonishing

World Commission on Environment and Development as

increase in yield3,4 was achieved mainly due to extensive

“the development that meets the needs of the present without

use of pesticides and fertilizers.5 In 1989, there were around

compromising the ability of future generations to meet their

1 million human pesticide poisonings annually, some

own needs” in the “Our Common Future” report in 1987.1

20.000 ended in death.6 Cancer, poisoning or immune

The GenØk Biosafety report outlines the fundamental

system dysfunction are all linked to high pesticide intake

principles of sustainable development as “[R]espect and care

through foods.7 Domestic animal poisoning, destruction of

for the present and future communities of life, including both

natural agents of pest control, pesticide resistance in pets,

natural and human. It involves respect for ecological integrity

reduced pollination, honeybee poisoning and damage of

and resilience […]”, including justice “in reference to pursuing

crops has become more frequent.8,9 Pesticides escape human

the common good […].”

controlled areas, resulting in damage and contamination of

2

This phrase has now seeped into our everyday language

soil, water and wildlife.10

and is often used to denote a rather simplified notion

Today, 805 million people do not have enough food

of more modest resource exploitation in order to ensure

to lead a healthy life, out of which two thirds are in Asia11

the availability of future supply. However, sustainable

- the continent that has seen the success of the Green

development encompasses a complex constellation of

revolution at its greatest. The number of hungry people has

social, economic and therefore class relations that will be

gone up by 19% in South America even though production

crucial for our daring vision of building a society on the

of food on the continent has increased.12

principles of sustainability.

Yet, the GM food industry is persistent in its campaign for taking over the ambitions of the Green revolution,

The problem of food security can be seen as one of the fundamental questions to our social development – it constitutes the essence of sustainability: the common good, the justice and the ecological integrity.

eliminating hunger and providing solutions for global problems, as the company DuPont likes to promote itself.13 It appears that these solutions are just within the reach, and the advantages of genetically engineered foods are infinite - higher yield, resistance to insects and tolerance to herbicides, slower ripening, easier processing and storage, cholesterol reducing as well as foods being richer

With the advent of the market into the world of

in micronutrients with anti-cancer properties or containing

science we see a continuation of what Adorno called the

vaccines.14,15 Despite the claimed benefits these foods might

“culture industry” - commodification of cultural products,

be able to provide, it is still too early to evaluate if they

which reveals the dehumanizing effect of capitalism and the

indeed have any of the promised effects. For example,

alienating nature of mass culture.

the amount of pesticide used has increased in 50% on genetically engineered corn and soy.16

As an epitome of the marketbased science - the science of genetically modified food practices is a contemporary derivate of the Marx-Hegelian notion of alienation where profit comes before people and exchange value before use value.

The downside of the practices is however becoming evident. The relevance of crop sorts’ genetic diversity when it comes to food security needs no explanation. In the meantime we are also reminded that the research and development funding within the GM crop practices come from the very same companies producing and promoting the engineered seeds.17 The GenØk Biosafety report observes that the difficulties in assessing the

The dictatorship of the market ensues.

complete ramifications of GM practices lie in “the conflict

A large-scale industrialization of agriculture - the

of interests in the research and analysis of the results.”

Green revolution, started after the WWII in order to meet

The experience of the impact assessment is limited; the 144


MARIJA HOLM RADOVANOVIC

complexity of biological systems creates inconsistencies

turned food from a renewable source of livelihood into

in the results of GM practices, the variations in

a disposable one, banning farmers from storing seeds.30

research findings do not add up to a consensus, and

The debt that farmers accumulate due to crop loss, rising

extremely polarized a priori positions in the analysis

costs of production and decreasing cost of GM crops have

and communication of results create a lot of scientific

resulted in more than 200 000 farmers’ suicides between

uncertainty.18,19 There is further a “documented history

1997 and 2009. The yield promised by the company was

of antagonism towards papers that demonstrate negative

largely overestimated and Indian farmers are losing 26$

effects of GM crops.”20,21

billion a year.31 The socio-economic and environmental

“The history of all hitherto existing society is the

effects of rising debt, falling prices and pesticide resistance

history of class struggles [while] the modern bourgeois

are now becoming evident in in Malawi, Burkina Faso

society has not done away with the class struggle. […]

and South Africa.32 In the US, the environmental hazard

It has but established new classes, new conditions of

grows as the contamination of conventional and organic

oppression, new forms of struggle in place of the old

crops by genetically modified ones became widespread, and

ones.”22

impossible to prevent.33

The post-enlightenment cultural matrix was so far

“The accumulation of capital exacerbates the poverty

dominated by the relations formed between power and

and a rapid technological change leads to the rule of dead

knowledge, where the utility of knowledge was the primary

matter over human world, the fundamental nature of workers’

measure of its value.23 This cultural matrix is more recently

alienation is exposed; that is the alienation from their product,

becoming increasingly pervaded by the profit-dominance

process of work, ‘fellow man’ and species being.” 34

discourse, against which all other parameters are defined.

In the Marxist doctrine, labor is an end in itself

Every aspect of social life, including knowledge is organized

if it has the ability to promote and advance human

around ensuring financial advantage, while the intellectual

existence. Alienated labor –creating a product as a power

culture is consequently transforming into profit-generating

independent from the producer, characterized by absence

pursuit on a global scale. The GM technology of food

of advancement of life, is essentially a denial of freedom.

is a materialization of the emerging trend to the use of

It, as Marcuse notes, prevents any form of self-fulfillment.35

scientific knowledge as ideology and the establishment of

In contemporary terms, labor would encompass self-

the capitalistic doxa in the very foundation of science. The

realization as a way of sustainable development, which in

new conditions of oppression have now been discovered

order to alleviate both current and future social challenges,

in the corporate control over food production. The

would needs to promote class consciousness, global

capitulation of humanistic values securing the inevitability

redistribution of ownership and self-realization.

of class society can finally be sealed by scientific method.

Adorno saw capitalistic production as turning culture

The chemical companies that left us with an

into a commodity36 and high culture is resisting being

unprecedented environmental degradation recently

commodified, he believed. It is a spontaneous articulation

re-invented themselves as sustainable agro-chemical

of human individuality and inner freedom, a form of

businesses. Monsanto, DuPont and BASF market

protest against the totality of production, social control and

themselves today with sustainable rhetoric, as “sustainable

mass consumption.37 Scientific knowledge and technology

agriculture company” , eradicating global hunger,

is similarly an expression of human ingenuity, aptitude

24

25

preserving biodiversity26, as well as “food quality”, “empower.

and freedom of thought only as long as it resists the

ment”, “safety” and “trust”.

planning and production model that is if it does not serve

27,28

DuPont states to commit

60% of R&D money “to ensuring that the world’s growing

the purpose of accumulation of capital and class ideology.

population has enough to eat.”29 However the practices

If high culture refuses to be subverted to the principle

paint a different landscape.

of usefulness, it needs to correspondingly reject profit

The dramatic undoing of the seed production

fetishism as well.

monopolizing is already evident in India, where Monsanto 145


SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT RECONSIDERED

The growing trend of subjecting science to profit is removing scientific knowledge from the realm of high culture and into a domain of commerce. In this way, science as an enterprise serving public interests is annihilated by capital. The approach to scientific knowledge and technology of GM food practices does not serve humanity, either of the current or the future generations. The development that includes relying on GM food practices puts in danger not only our natural resources and food security, but the humanitarian values of the society as a whole. Our common future will depend on an environment that promotes realizing individuality through labor and justice in securing the common goods â&#x20AC;&#x201C; food and ecosystems integrity through ownership, genetic diversity and reduced potential for degradation. The way of sustainable development can only be followed by putting freedom over class and humans over profit.

146


MARIJA HOLM RADOVANOVIC

REFERENCES 1 WCED, 1987, p 43.

about-genetically-modified-food/?page=1, retrieved may

2 Catacora-Vargas, G. and Myhr, A.I. “Genetically

2015

Modified Organisms A Summary of Potential Adverse

18 Biosafety report. GenØk. 2011. P.13

Effects Relevant to Sustainable Development“ http://

19 Myhr, A.I. and Traavik, T. Genetically Modified (GM)

genok.no/wp-content/uploads/2013/04/Biosafety-

Crops: Precautionary Science and Conflicts of Interests.

Report-2011-02.pdf

Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics. 2003.

3 Pimentel, D. Green revolution agriculture and chemical

20 Waltz E (2009) Battlefield. Nature 461:27-32, http://

hazards. The Science of the Total Environment 188 Suppl.

www.nature.com/news/2009/090902/full/461027a.html

1 (1996) p.86-98

21 “Box: Seeds of discontent.” Nature 461, 27-32

4 Chataway, J. Levidow, L. and Carr, S. 2000. Genetic

(2009) http://www.nature.com/news/2009/090902/

engineering of development? Myths and possibilities.

full/461027a/box/1.html

Poverty and development into the 21st century

22 Marx, K. and Engels, F. “Manifesto of the Communist

5 Pimentel, D. Green revolution agriculture and chemical

Party” 1848. https://www.marxists.org/archive/marx/

hazards. The Science of the Total Environment 188 Suppl.

works/1848/communist-manifesto/ch01.htm

1 (1996) p.86-87

23 Adorno, T and Horkheimer, M. “The dialectics of

6 Ibid.

Enlightenment”, Stanford University Press, 2002.

7 Ibid.

24 http://www.monsanto.com/whoweare/pages/default.aspx

8 Ibid. p. 88-91

25 http://www.dupont.com/corporate-functions/our-

9 Singh, R.B. Environmental consequences of agricultural

approach/global-challenges.html

development: a case study from the Green Revolution

26 https://www.basf.com/en.html

state of Haryana, India. Agriculture, Ecosystems &

27 http://www.monsanto.com/whoweare/Pages/our-

Environment . Volume 82, Issues 1-3, December 2000,

commitments.aspx

Pages 97-103.

28 http://www.pioneer.com/home/site/about/home/

10 Chataway, J. Levidow, L. and Carr, S. 2000. Genetic

29 http://www.dupont.com/corporate-functions/our-

engineering of development? Myths and possibilities.

approach/global-challenges/food.html

Poverty and development into the 21st century. p.474

30 Shiva et al. “Globalization and threat to seed security.

11 http://www.wfp.org/hunger/stats

Case of transgenic cotton trials in India.” Economic and

12 Rosset, P. Lessons from the Green Revolution. Food

Political weekly. Vol 34. No 10/11. 1999:601

First Backgrounder, Mar/Apr 2000

31 http://www.huffingtonpost.com/vandana-shiva/from-

13 http://www.dupont.com/corporate-functions/our-

seeds-of-suicide-to_b_192419.html

approach/global-challenges.html

32 http://acbio.localdomain.co.za/wp-content/

14 Myhr, A.I. and Traavik, T. Genetically Modified (GM)

uploads/2015/06/GM-Cotton-report-2015-06.pdf

Crops: Precautionary Science and Conflicts of Interests.

33 http://www.ipsnews.net/2014/03/farmers-address-u-s-

Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics. 2003:77

data-gap-gm-crop-contamination/

15 Barton, J.E. and Dracup, M. “Genetically Modified

34 Held, D. “Introduction to Critical theory. Horkheimer

Crops and the environment.” Agronomy Journal, Vol.92,

to Habermas.” 1980:237. University of California Press.

July –August 2000:798-799.

35 Ibid: 261, 292.

16 Benbrook, C.M. “Impacts of genetically engineered

36 Velimirovic, T. “Culture and/or deception” 2006:308.

crops on pesticide use in the U.S. – the first sixteen years.”

Lecture given at the Institute for Philosophy and Social

Environmental Science Europe. 2012.

theory, University of Belgrade.

17 http://www.scientificamerican.com/article/the-truth-

37 Ibid: 309 147


The Elitization of Space through Tourism Development in Nicaragua ANNA G. SVEINSDÓTTIR

ABOUT THE AUTHOR: Anna G. Sveinsdóttir is a PhD student and a graduate teaching assistant at the Department of Geography and the Environment at the University of Denver. Anna is originally from Iceland but lived in Oslo, Norway before moving to Denver. She holds a Bachelor of Science in Tourism Studies from the University of Iceland and a Master of Philosophy in Culture, Environment and Sustainability from the Centre of Development and the Environment at the University of Oslo.

148


In the summer of 2014 I completed my Master’s degree in

domestic and foreign entrepreneurs who have come to the

Culture, Environment and Sustainability from the Centre

area and started businesses and/or invested in land. The

for Development and the Environment at the University of

study also focused on several institutions that are directly

Oslo. I am now a first year PhD student at the Department

involved in tourism development in Nicaragua and Tola, but

of Geography and the Environment at the University of

are not necessarily located in Playa Gigante.

Denver. My current research interests focus on the role of

Playa Gigante is nestled in a quiet bay, surrounded by

elites in environmental governance and conflicts related

lush forest, rolling hills and the infinite blue Pacific Ocean,

to natural resource extraction in Guatemala, and how the

Gigante has all the necessary traits of an idyllic beach

alliances between elites and the government shape decisions

paradise. In recent years, Gigante and its surrounding areas

and practices related to control and use of the environment.

have become a popular destination for foreign tourists;

In that context, I wish to examine how conflicts and struggles

mostly surfers, but also retired North Americans and

over natural resource extraction emerge and develop.

Canadians, as well as well-off tourists from countries within

My Master’s thesis examined how processes of tourism

the region. Before 1979, much of the land in southern Tola

and real estate development are transforming land tenure

was privately owned by the dictator Anastasio Somoza and

along the southwestern Pacific Coast of Nicaragua. The

his associates. The area now known as Gigante was part

study used a political ecology lens and focused explicitly

of one of Somoza’s private estates, finca Güiscoyol, until

on elite dynamics, including domestic and transnational,

the property was expropriated in 1979 by the Sandinista’s.

economic and political elites, and how they grab land and

Through the 1980’s Agrarian Reform, 846 hectares of land

control over natural resources in the area.

were redistributed to a group of landless peasants from Tola

In the thesis, I argue that the “Emerald Coast” – as

and their families. This land became the Pedro Joaquín

the coastline of Tola has come to be known - is a spatial

Chamorro agricultural cooperative and the home of the first

production in which Tola’s coastal landscape and the families

families in Gigante.

who live there have been folded into a dynamic with

The main source of income for these families has

tourists, developers, and elites. I argue that through spatial

traditionally been small-scale artisanal fishing, supplemented

production,

by subsistence farming and cattle ranching. Small-scale fisheries take place along the entire coastline of Tola and

Gigante and Tola have become a “tourism space,” which has reshaped land tenure in the area and is causing conflicts with regard to access and control over resources, which are central to the livelihoods of local families.

are important to local livelihoods. The majority of Tola’s population living in proximity to the coast relies on these fisheries, both for income and food security. However, as tourism continues to expand along the coastal areas of Tola there seems to be a steady decline in fishing employment. Many of the fishermen are now turning to tourism, working as boat captains on surf charters and sport fishing

The tourism and real estate boom is in many cases amp-

tours. Some of the locals have also started working for the

lifying the already precarious situation regarding land tenure

surrounding tourist resorts, surf camps and restaurants doing

insecurity and inequality in the area. Furthermore, I argue

cleaning, laundry and bartending or working in the kitchens.

that the ability to negotiate conflicting interests is, to a large

What we can see in Gigante and in Tola’s coastal areas is

extent, constrained by the resources available to different

the beginning of a process of increasing “elitization” of land.

actors to shape and influence the production of space.

The proliferation of luxurious resorts and gated residential

The empirical data for my thesis were drawn from

communities are a clear sigh of this “elitization” process.

fieldwork carried out in the autumn of 2013 using a

Looking at the physical spatial morphology of Gigante

qualitative case study approach. The study focused on

and Tola’s coastline we can observe, in a very tangible way,

persons living in and around Playa Gigante, ranging from

the uneven development and inequitable power relations

local residents who have lived in the area all their lives, to

underlying the “Emerald Coast.” 149


THE ELITIZATION OF SPACE THROUGH TOURISM DEVELOPMENT IN NICARAGUA

In Nicaragua, coastal areas have increasingly been transformed from being places imbued with social, political and historical meaning for local people to being places of leisure for elites, within a tourism space produced by different but concerted practices of the political and economic elites. 150


Credit: ANNA SVEINSDÓTTIR 151


Grønne Reiser og Klimakrisens Alvor TORBJØRN TUMYR NILSEN

ABOUT THE AUTHOR: Torbjørn Tumyr Nilsen holds a Master of Culture, Environment and Sustainability from the Centre for Environment and Development at University of Oslo. He did his master on the Norwegian Rainforest Initiative. He currently work as freelance journalist, worked 4,5 years for the Norwegian weekly Ny Tid, and worked at Klassekampen in the summer of 2015.

152


Kjøper du en bil, er bilforhandleren pliktig til å oppgi hvor mye den forurenser. Det er ingen slik ordning når du bestiller flybilletter. Kanskje det er på tide å ta et oppgjør med denne globetrotterkulturen?

153


GRØNNE REISER OG KLIMAKRISENS ALVOR

Nordmenn reiser lengre og oftere, men klimaavtrykket

langhelger. Det er blitt en del av den norske livsstilen

til de reisende er usynlige i klimaregnskapet. En britisk

relativt løsrevet fra samfunnsgruppe og status,” sier

eventyrer har skapt en alternativ kortreist ferievanetrend.

reiselivsdirektør i Virke Utland, Rolf Forsdahl, til VG om

Det er lett å snurre på globusen og drømme seg

tallene.

vekk til Patagonia, Madagaskar eller New York. Billige flybilletter, lønnsvekst og mer fritid har i Norge de siste

Flere lange flyruter

tiårene gjort drømmer til virkelighet, og nordmenn til et av

Også innenriks øker utslippene fra luftfarten. Mens Avinor

verdens mestreisende folkeslag.

og flyselskapene sier de arbeider hardt for å få utslippene

Klimasamvittighet har samtidig aldri blitt en

ned, sier tallene at utslippstallene innenlands har økt fra

faktor i reiseplanleggingen til norske reisende. I takt

1,3 til 1,4 millioner tonn siden 2012, det vil si omtrent

med klimakrisens tydeligere alvor har nordmenn økt

7 prosent økning. Ser vi lenger tilbake i tid, til 1990

reisefrekvensen og gjort reisene lengre. Helgeturer til hytte

har økningen i utslipp vært på 40 prosent. Fra 2013 til

og familie har blitt til langweekender i Berlin og Riga,

2014 steg antall flypassasjerer med én million. ”Vi jobber

mens juleferien blir feiret i Thailand.

målbevisst med å redusere klimagassutslippene fra luftfarten

Etableringen av det norske lavprisselskapet Norwegian

- sammen med flyselskapene. De viktigste bidragene frem

har noe av skylden. På flyselskapets nettsider ligger det for

til nå har flyprodusentene gjort ved å utvikle vesentlig mer

øyeblikket tilbud på flybilletter til 199 kroner én vei, mens

energieffektive motorer”, sier pressesjef i Avinor, Sindre

”sol og bad” er bare 399 kroner unna. Det er mindre enn

Ånonsen, til Ny Tid.

en norsk togbillett, eller en middels lang hurtigbåttur, og

Men Avinor er også glad for den økte flytrafikken. I

betraktelig mer enn da man på 1990-tallet måtte gjøre

Bergen skal den trange flyplassen bli 66 000 kvadratmeter

dype innhogg i privatøkonomien for å betale flybillettene.

større. På Gardermoen skal det brukes 11,4 milliarder

”Vi bør vurdere forbud mot reklame for flyreiser”, sier leder

kroner frem til åpningen av ny terminal i slutten av april

i Framtiden i våre hender, Arild Hermstad, til Ny Tid.

2017. Diskusjonen om en ny flyplass i Bodø er for lengst påbegynt, og på Vigra i Ålesund er nybygg på 2200

Men først til tallene:

kvadratmeter snart ferdig. Og politikerne legger til rette for

Siden 1990 har utslippene fra utenriks luftfart økt med hele

mer flybruk.

333 prosent, viser tall fra Statistisk Sentralbyrå (SSB). Det

I fjor sommer opphevet regjeringen den

er som om nordmenn er blitt blinde for sammenhengen

tungvinte regelen om nyinnsjekking på Gardermoen

mellom reisevaner og klimagassutslipp. Eller kanskje har

for utenrikspassasjerer. NHO Luftfart mener denne

argumentasjonen til flyselskapene og Avinor om at flyreiser

regelendringen alene vil kunne ”øke inntektene med 1,8

stadig blir mer og mer klimavennlige, overbevist reiseklare

milliarder kroner årlig som følge av nye ruter og flere

nordboere. Avinor forklarer det slik til Ny Tid: ”Flere av

reisende. Også nettoinntektene ved lufthavnene er ventet

våre største lufthavner jobber med ambisiøse klimamål, og

å øke med 200 millioner kroner i året.” ”Gardermoen

har knyttet seg opp til forpliktende europeiske programmer

vil i større grad bli et knutepunkt på lik linje med

for å få ned klimautslippene. Dette innebærer blant annet

Heathrow og Schiphol. Dermed blir det enklere for

en omfattende dokumentasjon av utslippene - som igjen

norske flyselskaper å sette opp interkontinentale ruter fra

danner grunnlag for tiltak.” Men de siste tallene fra SSB

Gardermoen,” uttalte direktør i NHO Luftfart Torbjørn

viser også at klimagassutslippene fra utenriks luftfart økte

Lothe til Bergens Tidende.

med 28 prosent fra 2012 til 2013.

Og disse interkontinentale rutene har for lengst blitt

En undersøkelse fra reisesøkemotoren Momondo

stadig mer populære. Den siste reisevaneundersøkelsen til

viste i 2014 at 29 prosent av alle nordmenn hadde vært

SSB sier at andelen nordmenn som velger å fly på lange

på private flyreiser mer enn fem ganger i løpet av de siste

feriereiser har økt fra 19 prosent i 2009 til 28 prosent

12 månedene. Det samme tallet blant svenskene var syv

i 2013/14. Kun en seriøs økonomisk nedtur og endret

prosent. ”Vi reiser både i hovedferien, i andre ferier og

kronekurs kan se ut til å endre denne veksten. 154


TORBJØRN TUMYR NILSEN

Utfordrer Avinor

Usynlige flyutslipp

Men er det mulig å stoppe veksten uten å håpe på norske

Et annet virkemiddel kan være å gjøre flyselskapene pliktige

nedgangstider og arbeidsløshet? Ja, mener Framtiden i våre

i å oppgi CO2-utslippene knyttet til alle flyreiser. ”Kjøper

hender og Arild Hermstad. Han mener politikerne må

du en bil, er bilforhandleren pliktig til å oppgi hvor mye

begynne å snakke om at flyreiser fremdeles er skadelig for

den forurenser. Det er ingen slik ordning når du bestiller

miljøet. ”Det er et enormt sosialt press på nordmenn om at

flybilletter. Dermed blir fotavtrykket til flypassasjerene

man skal reise mye. Helgeturer til Portugal er blitt den nye

usynlig,” påpeker Hermstad.

normalen. Historisk har flytrafikken opplevd en formidabel

Og med dette usynlige klimautslippet blir også

vekst. Det har gått ekstremt fort, og folk reiser ofte og

klimaargumentet vanskelig å komme med dersom man

langt og snakker om reisene sine. Dette påvirker folk,”

sier nei til ferieturer. Dette gjelder selv for klimabevisste

sier Hermstad. ”Har folk blitt blinde for denne veksten?“

borgere. Klimagassutslippet er ikke bare usynlig for

“Ja, folk har blitt veldig blinde. Men en av grunnene til

forbrukerne. Utenlands flyreiser er også usynlig i nasjonale

blindheten er at myndighetene ikke snakker om flyreiser

klimaklimabudsjetter. Utslipp fra utenriks flytrafikk er

som klimafiendtlige. Så lenge det ikke innføres noen

ikke inkludert i de nasjonale utslippsforpliktelsene, og det

begrensende tiltak overfor flysektoren, oppfatter folk at det

er derfor få insentiver til å gjøre noe for å begrense disse

er ok å fortsette å reise. Vi trenger en politisk og kulturell

utslippene.

omveltning.” Hermstad mener derfor det bør finnes en

Miljødirektoratet kan bekrefte at dette stemmer.

tydelig klimapolitikk som kan få ned reisefrekvensen.

”Utslipp fra internasjonal luftfart rapporteres separat basert

Framtiden i våre hender mener det bør innføres

på salg av drivstoff i landene og teller ikke med i noen lands

reguleringer på flytrafikken. ”Det bør innføres klimaavgift

utslippsregnskap,” sier klimainformasjonsrådgiver Kjersti

på utenlandsreiser”. I dag er det ingen særskilte avgifter på

Dørumsgard Moxness i en epost til Ny Tid. Ifølge Moxness

dette. Dessuten må myndighetene fjerne taxfree-ordningen

har det tidvis blitt diskutert om utslippene fra internasjonal

som bidrar til lave flypriser og premierer de som har høye

luftfart skal inkluderes enkelte lands totale utslippstall.

utslipp. I tillegg mener Hermstad det er mulig å begrense

Det faktum at luftfarten er en utpreget global næring gjør

utbyggingene ved flyplassene. ”Avinor og flybransjen står

dette vanskelig. ”Teknisk er det gjennomførbart å tilordne

for en storstilt utbygging av norske flyplasser. Det må

utslippene til land, men dette vil gi rom for omgåelse og

settes en grense for utbyggingen av disse“ ”Og altså et

karbonlekkasje dersom forpliktelsene bare gjelder noen

reklameforbud?“ “Ja, vi mener faktisk reklamen for lange

land,” sier Moxness.

flyreiser bør forbys. Den påvirker oss noe helt vanvittig,

Det er kanskje gode grunner til å ikke inkludere

og er helt unødvendig.” Avinor mener på sin side at de

utenlandsreiser i karbonbudsjettet, men forurensingen av

jobber hardt for å få ned klimagassutslippene fra sektoren.

CO2 er likevel den samme. For mange er flyreisene umulig

De påpeker også at luftfarten er en viktig bidragsyter til

å unngå, spesielt i jobbsammenheng, mens for andre er

sysselsettingen i Norge. Vel 60 000 arbeidsplasser, drøye 2,3

det mangel på alternative reiseveier som gjør det vanskelig

prosent av norske arbeidsplasser, er knyttet til luftfarten.

å la være å fly. En lyntoglinje som kunne knyttet Oslo til

Pressesjef Sindre Ånonsen mener dette konkrete

Europa er fremdeles flere tiår frem i tid, dersom den i det

avgiftsforslaget fra Framtiden i våre hender vil få alvorlige

hele tatt kommer. Strekningen Oslo-Gøteborg kunne tatt

konsekvenser for det norske samfunnet: ”Luftfarten er

litt over en time med dagens lyntogteknologi. I dag tar den

en motor i norsk økonomi og velstandsutvikling, og en

samme strekningen 3 timer og 38 minutter, ifølge NSB

skjerping av avgiftene vil få konsekvenser ikke bare for

sine ruteplaner. Norske alternativer til fly ut i Europa er

luftfarten - men for hele samfunnet. Avinor og bransjen

dermed få.

ønsker handlingsrom til å jobbe videre med innovasjon og utvikling for å redusere klimagassutslippene fra luftfarten ikke reguleringer som vil ha høye kostnader for samfunnet.”

155


GRØNNE REISER OG KLIMAKRISENS ALVOR

Kortreist løsning

for å spørre om det er noen grønne tanker bak prosjektet

Hermstad i Framtiden i våre hender innrømmer at han

hans, er eposten på automatisk svar: ”Jeg er på vei mot det

selv tar fly, men at han prøver å begrense det så mye

skotske høylandet for noen fjelldager. Jeg er tilbake 15.

som mulig. Han trekker frem den britiske forfatteren og

april. Hvis det haster - vent.”

miljøaktivisten Tristram Stuart, som er mest kjent for sitt arbeid mot sløsing av mat. Stuart vant Sofieprisen i

Økoturisme

2011 for sin mataktivisme, men har også bemerket seg

Omtrent 45 minutter fra Bergen sentrum ligger den

for sitt selvpålagte flyforbud. ”Det Stuart gjør blir jo sett

bilfrie øyen Ypsøy. Blant sauer, frukthager, lyngheier,

på som ekstremt for øyeblikket, men kanskje det bør bli

kulturlandskap og hav, fjord og fjell har Vigleik og Monica

normalisert å ta et slikt valg,” sier Hermstad.

Ypsøy etablert seg som et opplevelsessenter for reisende fra

Men må vi egentlig reise? Og må vi reise så langt?

både nærområdene og resten av verden. ”Vi tenker ikke

Og blir opplevelsene sterkere jo lengre og oftere vi

så mye over at vi er kortreist. Vi får besøk fra folk over

reiser? Kanskje det er på tide å ta et oppgjør med denne

hele verden. Vi har mer fokus på at reiselivsnæringen skal

globetrotterkulturen? Det kan være på tide å oppdage sine

være miljøvennlig og at eventuelle inntekter skal brukes

egne nærområder på nytt. Det er billigere, tar kortere tid,

til å styrke natur- og kulturlandskapsverdiene. Vi er veldig

og kan være like opplevelsesrikt. Og det er her den britiske

bevisste på at vi ønsker å tilby et grønt reisealternativ,” sier

eventyreren kommer inn i bildet.

Vigleik Ypsøy til Ny Tid.

Forfatteren Alastair Humphreys hadde reist gjennom

Han mener mange nordmenn ofte har feil perspektiver

ørkenen i Saudi-Arabia, rodd over Atlanterhavet og

når de velger ferie. ”Nordmenn generelt har feriefokuset

krysset India for å finne det ultimate eventyret - men det

sitt for mye rettet mot sol, billig mat og drikke og en

er etter å snudd seg mot sitt eget nærområde og såkalte

egotankegang,” sier Ypsøy. Arild Hermstad tror ikke

”mikroopplevelser” at han har fått mest oppmerksomhet.

reisetrenden vil snu med det første. ”Vi kjører gjerne

Han siste bok Microadventures: Local Discoveries for

kampanjer om dette, men poenget er at det ikke er noen

Great Escapes (William Collins) presenterer begrepet

som tjener penger på at jeg tar meg en tur i Nordmarka

mikroeventyr som ”opplevelser som er nære hjemmet,

og legger meg under åpen himmel.” Han ser imidlertid

billige, enkle, korte, og likevel veldig virkningsfulle”.

en motsatt trend. ”Dette med mikroopplevelser er jo en

For Humphreys er det friluftslivet som er viktig. Han

veldig kul trend, men dessverre ser vi i Norge at dette

oppfordrer folk til å ta nærområdene i bruk på en ny måte,

er på vikende front, og at folk tilbringer mindre tid ute

sove ute under åpen himmel, svømme i havet eller gå en

i nærområdene sine.” Hermstad påpeker at det finnes

tur til et sted du ikke har vært før. ”Opplevelsene finnes

gode prosjekter om økoturisme og lokale opplevelser,

overalt, hver dag, og det er opp til oss å finne dem,” heter

og trekker blant annet frem Friluftslivets år 2015. Men,

det i boken.

påpeker han, igjen er det ikke miljø og klima som blir

For Humphreys er det ikke det klimavennlige som står

hovedargumentet for denne satsingen - det blir ikke

i sentrum. For ham er det først og fremst oppdagelsen av at

fremmet som et alternativ til lange flyreiser, men kommer i

eventyrlige opplevelser, som kan forandre deg, ikke er langt

tillegg. Argumentasjonen går ofte på at norsk reiseliv skaper

unna. Til New York Times sier briten at han hører historier

arbeidsplasser, økonomisk vekst og personlige helseeffekter.

fra lesere som har blitt motiverte. Om ”fedre og sønner

”Kommer man med klimaargumentet, oppleves det nesten

som finner hverandre, og overarbeidede menn som sover

som kontraproduktivt. Da blir det med engang snakk om å

på toppen av en ås”. Og i sosiale medier har emneknaggen

ofre noe,” avslutter han.

#microadventures gått varm for lenge siden. ”Å sove på en ås forandrer ikke livet ditt, men det kan være et lite

Drømmereisen

skritt mot forandring.” Og tar man denne trenden inn i

Men kanskje må vi ofre noe? Kanskje må drømmene

klimadebatten og den norske globetrottervirkeligheten, kan

som oppstår i det vi ser på verdenskartet, forbli nettopp

det føre til grønn forandring. Og når Ny Tid tar kontakt

drømmer. Eller kanskje det må bli med den ene lange 156


TORBJØRN TUMYR NILSEN

reisen til det landet på andre siden av jordkloden. Kanskje kan verdenskartet erstattes av fylkeskartet og kommunekartet, og man kan oppdage at det faktisk finnes steder veldig nær oss der vi ikke har vært, og som kan oppdages. Ta gjerne med sovepose og sov under åpen himmel.

157


State Entrepreneurship and Innovation in China MARIUS KORSNES

ABOUT THE AUTHOR: Marius Korsnes holds a Master´s degree from the Centre for Development and the Environment (SUM). His master thesis was titled “The Growth of a Green Industry: Wind Turbines and Innovation in China”. Marius recently finished his PhD about technological learning in China’s offshore wind industry at the Department of interdisciplinary studies of culture, NTNU.

158


Many people may wonder if something truly novel and

innovation’. In other words, it appears that innovation in

innovative can originate from China. In my PhD thesis

China can only happen through large-scale manufacturing,

about China’s offshore wind industry I seek to better

and that new designs originate from Western countries.

understand innovation in a Chinese context, and whether

This view is somewhat contrasted by scholars who

Chinese innovation and entrepreneurship may eventually

believe that innovation is happening in China, and that

lead to a transition towards more renewable energy. Here

an important source of innovation is state coordination

I shall provide some brief thoughts on that matter, based

and strategic governance.7,8,9 Sun10, for instance, finds

on material from my recently submitted PhD dissertation,

that alertness to opportunities, resource exploration and

entitled ‘Chinese Renewable Struggles: Innovation, the Arts

consolidation and strategic learning are key components of

of the State and Offshore Wind Technology’.

China’s entrepreneurial state. Using high-speed trains as a

We know that China has an authoritarian government,

case in point, Sun claims that these three components have

with a dominating Chinese Communist Party. To what

been crucial to building new innovative technologies in

extent does innovation happen in an authoritarian

China. In my research on China’s offshore wind industry I

system, and how, if at all, does the Chinese government

find that the Chinese government is an important force in

accommodate for innovation activities? One way of

catering for an environment favourable to innovation and

understanding this question is to use Mazzucato’s

innovation processes. I describe this as the ‘arts of the state’

concept of the ‘entrepreneurial state’. Mazzucato1 defines

in China, and I make four important conclusions:

entrepreneurs as actors who are willing and able to take on risk and genuine uncertainty. She finds that the courage,

· The Chinese government has a central role in

foresightedness and stability of the government have

accommodating new ventures and has ambitious goals

been crucial for paving the way for new technological

and high expectations for offshore wind technology

developments, such as renewable energy technologies.

development;

The US is described as a case where the state supported research, development and commercialisation of new

· Chinese institutions are characterised by flexibility,

technologies in very early phases, such as technologies that

supporting or constraining enterprises that to a varying

were used in the iPhone. Other important technologies

degree are controlled by the central government;

where state support was crucial in the initial phases were · Chinese firms are exploring several avenues of

radios, aircraft, the computer and the internet.2,3 Much recent literature claims that what is happening

interdependent technology development, ranging from

in China is not novel product innovation, but rather

licensing, joint-ventures and mergers and acquisitions

process and manufacturing innovation, and that the

to own experimentation;

government has not played an important role in ensuring that type of innovation. Breznitz and Murphree,4 for

· Experimentation is found to be an important

instance, look at China’s telecommunication companies

learning strategy that provides competencies and

and find that government interference hinders companies

experiences to Chinese firms, but that involves higher

from ‘novel-product’ innovation. This happens, they claim,

risks. Experimentation is also an important tool for

because the Chinese system gives preference to short-

policy learning and policy development.

term and tangible profit. Nahm and Steinfeld5 argue that China has become a ‘scale up nation’, where firms have

In China’s offshore wind industry we observe strong state

developed ‘unique capabilities surrounding technology

support of industrial innovation and manufacturing of

commercialization and manufacturing-related innovation’.

technologies that already exist elsewhere, but we also

A similar argument is sustained by Wan et al.6 who claim

observe that the Chinese government and industry

that China is a particularly fertile environment for ‘cost

actors are willing and able to take on risk and genuine

innovation, application innovation, and business model

uncertainty. This risk is related to the uncertainty of 159


160


Credit: MARIUS KORSNES 161


STATE ENTREPRENEURSHIP AND INNOVATION IN CHINA

rendering technologies and practices Chinese, and whether

transition can be jeopardised.

or not something new will come out of it in the end. In

To conclude, although evidence from China’s offshore

short, Chinese actors take risks to learn. Chinese actors

wind industry development point in the direction that

appear to be avid learners, willing to take chances and

Chinese companies may contribute to substantially

quick to seek and create new opportunities. Attempts

innovating the industry, we still have reasons to be wary

at innovation usually fail, which is why innovation

about whether or not this development is part of a larger

activities always are embedded with risk. But a Chinese

sustainability transition.

innovation environment as described through studying the offshore wind industry can be considered a space where experimentation, learning and exchange of knowledge and experiences eventually will lead to innovation. Depending on our definition of sustainability, we can discuss whether the offshore wind industry development is part of a larger transition to a more sustainable China. Focusing uniquely on energy supply, the scale of investments in non-fossil energy sources (including nuclear power) are now larger than those in fossil energy; more non-fossil electricity generation capacity is added each year, and non-fossil electricity power generation increases quickly, whilst fossil power generation decreased in 2014.11 These are on the one hand indications that China is moving rapidly towards more non-fossil electricity sources. Offshore wind energy, seen in this context, is part and parcel of a larger transition, and the success of offshore wind technology in China may affect the success of other renewable energy sources, as well. Moreover, the institutions, organisations and practices related to onshore and offshore wind are similar and relevant to other renewable energy technologies in China. On the other hand, since rapid growth comes with a price, several cautions should be pointed to. China’s economic turnaround that increased incomes and the national GDP has also involved decades of environmental abuse, destruction of limited natural resources and widespread pollution of air, soil and water.12 It appears that a more general element in China’s technological catching-up is to create excess capacity. For instance, the overcapacity in iron and steel industries in China in 2014 represented the total iron and steel capacity in Europe.13 Another downside with this large focus on added industrial capacity is a decreased focus on product quality and long-term performance. If Chinese companies generate overcapacity in order to learn, and in that learning process produce lower-quality products, the sustainability of China’s renewable energy 162


MARIUS KORSNES

REFERENCES 1 Mazzucato, M., 2013. The Entrepreneurial State: Debunking Public vs. Private Myths in Risk and Innovation, London, New York, Delhi: Anthem Press. 2 Ibid. 3 Kemp, R., Schot, J. & Hoogma, R., 1998. Regime shifts to sustainability through processes of niche formation: The approach of strategic niche management. Technology Analysis & Strategic Management, 10(2), pp.175–195. 4 Breznitz, D. & Murphree, M., 2011. Run of the Red Queen: Government, Innovation, Globalization, and Economic Growth in China, New Haven, London: Yale University Press. 5 Nahm, J. & Steinfeld, E.S., 2014. Scale-up Nation: China’s Specialization in Innovative Manufacturing. World Development, 54, pp.288. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.worlddev.2013.09.003. 6 Wan, F., Williamson, P.J. & Yin, E., 2015. Antecedents and implications of disruptive innovation: Evidence from China. Technovation, pp. 102. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.technovation.2014.05.012. 7 Heilmann, S., 2010. Chapter 6. Economic Governance: Authoritarian Upgrading and Innovative Potential. In J. Fewsmith, ed. China Today, China Tomorrow: Domestic Politics, Economy, and Society. Lanham, Md.: Rowman & Littlefield, p. IX, 334 s. 8 Rein, S., 2014. The End of Copycat China: The Rise of Creativity, Innovation, and Individualism in Asia, Hoboken, New Jersey: Wiley. 9 Steinfeld, E.S., 2010. Playing our game: why China’s rise doesn’t threaten the west, Oxford: Oxford University Press. 10 Sun, Z., 2015. Technology innovation and entrepreneurial state: the development of China’s high-speed rail industry. Technology Analysis & Strategic Management, 27(6), pp.646–659. Available at: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10. 1080/09537325.2015.1034267. 11 Mathews, J.A. & Tan, H., 2015. China’s Green-Energy Revolution. project syndicate. Available at: http://www.projectsyndicate.org/commentary/china-green-energy-revolution-by-john-a--mathews-and-hao-tan-2015-05 [Accessed May 16, 2015]. 12 Shapiro, J., 2012. China’s Environmental Challenges, Kindle Edition: Wile. 13 Rock, M.T. & Toman, M.A., 2015. China’s Technological Catch-Up Strategy: Industrial Development, Energy Efficiency, and CO2 Emissions, pp. 250. Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press. 163


Reflections on the Program, my Thesis, and your Country BECK ROAN

ABOUT THE AUTHOR: Beck Roan submitted his thesis The Complexity of Architecture : An Analysis of Design Intentions and Theories in the Norwegian National Tourist Routes at SUM in 2013 and is currently living in the United States, working as an attorney in Boise, Idaho. He spends his evenings helping out at a local brewery.

164


The Spanish architect Alberto Campo Baeza once said,

isolated, and an obvious foil to the respective landscape.

“Architecture must have reasons, always.” When recently

Instead, I learned from interviews that the designs are

reading this quotation, I thought of my time in Norway

intentional, meticulous, and complex. The architects

and, in particular, my experience at University of Oslo’s

sought to incorporate cultural and historical meaning into

Center for Development and the Environment. The quote

the sites. They balanced the visitor’s desire to investigate

allows me to reminisce about a culture, a school, and a

with the ability to view. They nurtured exploration while

tourist program that possess an unexpected complexity.

protecting the fragile environment from damage. And they

I sought an enlightening and transcending experience

imposed safety barriers in inherently dangerous locations.

when I moved to Norway in 2011. More than anything,

The architecture along the National Tourist Routes

I was attracted to the nation because of its minimalist

contains an overwhelming number of design decisions, all

design aesthetic and stunning natural scenery. I considered

of which are practical and meaningful. The design seeks

Norway to be a modern paradise, composed of visual

to influence the user’s location, feeling, understanding,

pleasures and little else. Similarly simplistic, I enrolled

emotion, and attention. Through my experience in Norway

at SUM for solutions. I sought an understanding of

and studies at UiO, I learned how a built platform or

current global crises, and I anticipated that education

lookout can also contain incredible complexity. Not only

would provide answers to these environmental and social

that, but a seemingly simple structure can convey this

questions.

complexity and narrative to the visitor through design alone.

What I discovered, however, was a country and a program that rejected simplicity.

The stops along Norway’s National Tourist Routes, like the country itself, demonstrate an understated and surprising complexity that is influential, educational, and practical.

The nation is more than minimalism, and the aesthetic is more than simplistic. The nature is not a static postcard or a repetitive view, but rather, astoundingly complex in its scenic variations – from Oslo to Bergen,

SUM incorporates these principles at its very core, and

along the western fjords, and high north into Tromsø.

provides its students with an enlightening experience that

Likewise, SUM advocates an inter-disciplinary study with

encourages revelations. The program, like the architecture

incredible breadth, acknowledging the historical, social,

Alberto Campo Baeza spoke of, has its reasons. And only

and environmental issues around the world. Insofar as the

in reflection do I realize how SUM, through its coursework

academic program encourages a broad understanding of

and philosophy, succeeds in addressing the many layers

global problems, it also despises the type of narrow and

of complexity within the world’s environmental and

rudimentary explanations that are too frequent in daily

developmental issues.

discourse. Norway’s unanticipated complexity is also apparent in my Masters Thesis for UiO. I investigated Norway’s National Tourist Route Program, which commissioned more than 50 architects and artists to design rest areas along designated Norwegian highways. Many of these rest stops are in Northern and Western Norway, and provide overwhelming views of Norwegian fjords and coastline. The architecture is also striking and unique to the varied sites, utilizing a wide range of colors, materials, and construction techniques. I initially thought of the site-design as simple, 165


Contributors to Issue #6

Entrepreneurship, Innovation and Initiatives 166


Annelies Zwaan is the Project Coordinator of Agropolis

appropriation of IT, experimental labs and the commons

Urban Farm in Christchurch, New Zealand. She is a

since the early 2000s. He is a founder of networks such as

creative that trained as a designer, but has since focused

MetaReciclagem and Bricolabs. Felipe lives in Ubatuba,

mostly on the humbler side of life. She splits her time

where he coordinates the experimental lab and co-working

between running her business creating bespoke furniture

space Ubalab, as well as the local node of Tropixel events,

from reclaimed timber and coordinating community

the cultural community radio Gaivota FM and a number

projects to help renew Christchurch whilst trying to find

of other projects. felipefonseca@gmail.com http://efeefe.

the line between caring about the world and living in it.

no-ip.org @efeefe

Anniken Fjelberg holds a degree in civil marketing from

Helga Øvsthus Tønder has a background in rhetoric

NMH/BI, and was one of the founders of 657 Oslo

and communication. Her interest in social justice and

in 2012, a coworking space that offers a place to work

entrepreneurship has taken her from Norway to Uganda

for freelancers, entrepreneurs and cultural and creative

to the US, working in startups, non-profits and social

companies. Anniken is a communicator, like most of the

enterprises. Helga has among other things worked with

others at 657 Oslo, and has a background from design,

a micro finance initiative with the Norwegian NGO

marketing, strategy, communication and creative processes.

Strømme foundation as well as in Los Angeles with an

In 2013 she was one of the starters of Superblaise, a

organization attached to a social enterprise helping people

communications agency stationed in the 657 house. At

back to work. She now works at Ashoka, an organization

home she lives with her life companion and business

supporting groundbreaking entrepreneurs that create

partner, Joachim Levin, and their 4 children.

solutions in the health, education, environment and economy sectors. Their job is to facilitate so that the

Eric R. Sannerud is a farmer, thinker, and Regenerative

entrepreneurs with the system changing ideas break

Entrepreneur in Minnesota, USA. Eric holds an

through and accomplish large ripple effects, and that even

interdisciplinary bachelor’s degree from the University

more with them will have the courage to create tomorrow´s

of Minnesota. He is available for speaking and writing

solutions.

and specializes in the overlap of food systems and entrepreneurship. He tweets from @EricSannerud. In

Inger Solberg is the director of the sustainability division

his free time, Eric loves food. Contact him at www.

at Innovation Norway. Solberg has for several years been

EricRSannerud.com

head of the department for agriculture and seafood at Innovation Norway, but also has wide experience from the

Erwin Hasselbrinck is a master’s student at the Centre

private sector. She has been the administrative director at

for Environment and Development. He holds a Bachelor

the egg producer Norgården AS as well as the Meat and

of Science in International Business from the Universidad

Poultry Association. Solberg also worked at Innovation

del Norte, and is a graduate of artistic photography

Norway´s predecessor SND. Innovation Norway´s

from the School of Fine Arts in Barranquilla, Colombia.

sustainability division will assist the Norwegian business

He is passionate about experimenting with light and

sector in the transition from an oil-based economy to an

photography techniques, for an incredible view of nature’s

economy based on sustainable competitive advantages.

magnificence. Blog: pensamientofluvial.tumblr.com Ingun Grimstad Klepp is a research professor who wrote Felipe Fonseca is a Brazilian researcher currently working

her MA and PhD on leisure time and outdoor life at the

on open and collaborative science (Ciência Aberta

University of Oslo. She works at SIFO with sustainable

Ubatuba / IBICT) and experimental labs (Rede//Labs

textile, clothing, laundry and leisure consumption. She

/ Brazilian Ministry of Culture). He develops projects

has written numerous articles and books of these themes.

articulating science, culture and society with critical

Klepp has worked as a researcher for many years and 167


CONTRIBUTORS TO ISSUE #6 LEAVING THE BOX

has led a number of research projects on apparel and the

Luciano Tardin is a Doctoral candidate in Production

environment. She considers dissemination as an important

Engineering at COPPE/UFRJ, M.Sc. in Art History at

and integral part of research and contributes actively in

EBA/UFRJ (1999). Graduated in Design at PUC/RJ

the media and through extensive lecturing. She currently

(1991). Coordinator of the Post-Graduate and Graduate

works with wool, both with consumption and questions

Design Area at ESPM -RJ. Has taught since 1995. Active

regarding the value chain. The relationship between textiles,

in the design market for over 20 years. Today is a founding

social and physical characteristics and how these are woven

partner of Ideia Café Design e Comunicação Ltda. - a

together is at the core of her interest. Klepp and Tobiasson

Design company.

are currently collaborating in the research project KRUS, which aims to look at how local apparel and slow fashion

Mads Bruun Høy is Strategic Advisor Brand Innovation

can spearhead a sustainable development.

at Scandinavian Design Group. Mads has more than 10 years of experience as an innovation advisor. He has

Itzel Anahí López Laínez is a master’s student at the

a background in research and process management at

Centre for Environment and Development studying:

the Norwegian University of Science and Technology,

Indigenous knowledge for education towards sustainability

studying and practising creativity and innovation within

in Puebla, Mexico. Itzel holds a Bachelor of Environmental

multidiciplinary teams.

Engineering from the Benémerita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla, with job experience in rural development and

Marcus Vinícius Fonseca is a Professor at UFRJ, in the

environmental impact. Being an enthusiast of travels,

PEP/ COPPE (Innovation area) as researcher, supervisor

reading history novels, and gardening; always proud of her

and responsible for teaching the disciplines: Innovation in

Mexican cultural heritage, she looks to keep on learning

organizations (since 2000) and Innovation and its Maps

from it.

(since 2014). - A Chemical Engineer graduate in 1978 at EQ/UFRJ, M. Sc. at COPPE/UFRJ in 1983 (PEQ);

Jeppe Sondov is product- and concept manager at SiO

Doctor in Engineering at Escola Politécnica da USP

Mat og Drikke. Formerly Product Development Manager

(EPUSP ) in 1990. - Author of more than 110 trabalhos

at Deli de Luca – NorgesGruppen. Work experience from

published in Brazil e abroad; received the Vöst-Alpine da

F&B industry within everything from fine dining to artisan

ABM Prize for work in the industrial waste reuse area;

baking. Food writer at Snø & Ski – Skiforeningen.

Member of a start-up team installed in the Coppe/UFRJ incubator since 2014 using nanotechnological approaches

Kaja Aas Ahnfelt holds a bachelor in Social Anthropology

to prototyping of a new light ceramic material.

and is a master student at the Center for Environment and Development at the University of Oslo. She currently

Maria Daniela Ricaurte is a graduate from the Centre

writes her master on civil, policy and industry discourses

for Development and the Environment with a background

concerning electronic waste and repairing in the UK.

in Environmental Communication. Daniela studied the

She is an avid traveller, and a curious learner about any

role of music festivals in communicating environmental

movement related to green transitions.

awareness in Norway. She is passionate about music as well as trying to inspire her son to become close to nature.

Karina Standal is a doctoral fellow at the Centre for

Development and the Environment at the University of

Maya Laitinen is a creative thinker from Lillomarka in

Oslo. Standal’s disciplinary background and academic

Oslo. She has a background in Theatre, Geography and

interest is with the political, feminist and development

Architecture from the Norwegian University of Science and

geography. Her research is broadly focused on women’s

Technology as well as the Architectural Association School

everyday life, gender relations and energy technologies in

of Architecture in London (AA). The project “The Lung

the rural South.

of Phnom Penh” won Technical Studies High Pass with 168


CONTRIBUTORS TO ISSUE #6 LEAVING THE BOX

distinction and was nominated by AA for the prestigious

offer. Wilhelmsen has a masters degree in International

RIBA President Bronze Medals 2014. The project takes

Economy and Development, and has been awarded prizes

a critical standpoint towards current building practices

for innovation in Norway and Scotland.

in Asia, as they often neglect local values connected to culture, history, nature and the environment. Where shall

Øystein Hagen is head of Innovation at Scandinavian

the poor of the future live if all the land is sold to richmaya

Design Group. Øystein has built a career around leading

investors? “If you have nothing left but air, maybe you can

hands-on innovation and growth processes for all variety of

use it to build with?”

clients, with a unique insight into what it takes to succeed in innovation. He is acknowledged as an authority in his

Sean Michael Thompson is a master’s student at the

field, with the 2011 Norwegian Management Consulting

Centre for Environment and Development and studies

award and as Norway’s keynote speaker of the year 2012.

how urban green spaces affect citizens’ perceptions of their surroundings. He is originally from San Diego, California and holds a Bachelor of Science in Anthropology from the University of California, Riverside. Sean is recently returned from Buenos Aires, where his research involved spending sunny days in parks while drinking mate and pestering Porteños for maps. Tone Skårdal Tobiasson is a seasoned journalist who

graduated with a BA in media and sociology in 1980 from Stanford University. She was editor-in-chief for Norway’s leading fashion magazine for a number of years, has written several books and was also the main driving force behind the establishment of the NICE (Nordic Initiative Clean & Ethical) Fashion project and nicefashion.org. She has written for fashion magazines and media in general, locally and international, on the theme of sustainability, now mainly for EcoTextile News. She was instrumental in reestablishing the Textile Panel in Norway, and has facilitated cooperation in the Nordic region with international organizations and initiatives. She travels extensively for lecturing at trade fairs, education institutions and conferences, combining humor with the basic serious message that change has to occur. She is involved in several research and development projects in cooperation with SIFO and other institutions, and generally leads the dissemination work. Torill Bye Wilhelmsen helps entrepreneurs start sustainable

and profitable lifestyle businesses and build their life’s works. As a founder of Fjellflyt AS, she is on a mission to help entrepreneurs and employees get the real business and health benefits that the Walking Movement has to 169


Editorial Board

Charlotte Lilleby Kildal from Asker, Norway is a recent

Kaja Aas Ahnfelt is from Oslo, Norway. She holds a

graduate of SUM’s masters programme in Culture,

bachelor in Social Anthropology and is a master student at

Environment and Sustainability where she researched

the Center for Development and the Environment at the

the Norwegian Army’s attempt to introduce Meat-Free

University of Oslo. She currently writes her master on the

Mondays in the military canteen. Charlotte holds a

civil, policy and industry discourse on electronic waste and

bachelor’s degree in Development Studies from the

reparation of electronics in the UK. She is an avid traveller,

University of Bergen and the University of Ghana and has

and a curious explorer of any movement related to green

studied French in Normandy. She is a contributor to the

community transitions.

UiO blog “Matlære” and has a strong passion for food, Kaja Elise Gresko from Drammen, Norway studies

cooking and coffee.

Culture, Environment and Sustainability at the Center for Despina Gleitsmann from Stuttgart, Germany, is a

Development and the Environment (UiO) and holds a

recent graduate of SUM’s masters programme in Culture,

bachelor’s degree in Political Science from the University

Environment and Sustainability where she researched the

of Oslo and the University of Zagreb. She has also studied

impact of large hydropower projects on conflict in Karen

Corporate Social Responsibility management and Spanish

State in Myanmar. She has a bachelor’s degree in Peace

at the University of Buenos Aires.

Studies from Lancaster University and previous master’s degree in Politics and Government of the European Union

Jonathan Frænkel-Eidse from Kelowna, Canada, is a

from the London School of Economics, with two years

recent graduate of SUM’s masters program in Culture,

of work-experience in Brussels. She is passionate about

Environment and Sustainability, where he researched the

travelling and experiencing new cultures.

social implications of climate change adaptation in Arctic 170


Norway. He also holds a bachelor’s degree in Sociology from Athabasca University, and when not studying has worked primarily as a mountain guide in several countries. For now he has settled down on Nesodden, Norway, where he enjoys adventures with his partner and 3-year old son on land and at sea. Marcela Oliveira Svoren from Cabo Frio, Brazil is a

recent graduate of SUM’s masters programme in Culture, Environment and Sustainability and has a bachelor’s degree in Social Communications from the Escola Superior de Propaganda e Marketing, Rio de Janeiro, a postgraduation degree in Environmental Management from the Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro and five years’ work experience within CSR. As an authentic Brazilian, Marcela loves rhythms, food and warm sunny days by the sea. Piper Donlin from Minneapolis, Minnesota is a recent

graduate of SUM’s masters programme in Culture, Environment and Sustainability. She has a bachelor’s degree from the University of Minnesota in Environmental Policy, Sustainability Studies and Art. Piper is a contributor to the UiO-blog “Matlære”. She is also an avid lover of food and cooking and spends a great deal of time in the kitchen experimenting to the delight (and dismay) of her partner, Carl Fredrik. Sean Michael Thompson is a master’s student at the

Centre for Environment and Development and studies how urban green spaces affect citizens’ perceptions of their surroundings. He is originally from San Diego, California and holds a Bachelor of Science in Anthropology from the University of California, Riverside. Sean is recently returned from Buenos Aires, where his research involved spending sunny days in parks while drinking mate and pestering Porteños for maps. Vendula Hurníková from Ostrava, the Czech Republic,

studies Culture, Environment and Sustainability at SUM. She has a bachelor’s degree in Sociology from the Masaryk University, Brno, the Czech Republic. Currently, Vendula is excited about urban environment which she has chosen to be her research area for the upcoming months.

171


Do you want to contribute to Tvergastein?

We accept contributions in Norwegian and English in two categories: Op-ed style (2,000-5,000 characters) Academic style (10,000-20,000 characters) If you have a finished text, an old exam paper that can be edited, or simply a good idea for an article, send us an e-mail. We promise you fair feedback and help in the editing process before publication. We are also looking for illustrations, drawings, photos, for our texts. Please contact us if you have a finished work, a sketch or an idea. tvergastein@sum.uio.no

172


Tvergastein is grateful for all the help and support of:

173


Tvergastein bears the name of Arne Næss’ cabin retreat in the mountains of Hallingskarvet. It was there that Næss, an activist and one of the most wide ranging philosophers of the last century, wrote the majority of his work. These writings, his unique ecophilosophy, and his life of activism continue to inspire environmentalists and scholars in Norway and abroad. In making this journal its namesake, we aim to similarly join academia with advocacy for the environment. We aspire to the ”enormous open views at Tvergastein” and the perspective Næss found there.

© 2015 Tvergastein www.tvergastein.com ISSN 1893-5605 174

Tvergastein Issue #6  

Leaving the Box - Entrepreneurship, Innovation and Initiatives : The issue takes on the more overarching themes of innovation and entreprene...

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