Entrepreneurship, Innovation and Initiatives
ISSUE 6, 1/2015
Editorial board: Kaja Aas Ahnfelt, Piper Donlin, Jonathan Frænkel-Eidse, Despina Gleitsmann, Kaja Elise Gresko, Vendula Hurníková, Charlotte Lilleby Kildal and Marcela Oliveira Svoren, Sean Michael Thompson. Design: Magnus Wittersø Front page photo: Rikke Grytemark Brekke Printer: Grøset Trykkeri Circulation: 1000 Editorial review finished: 30th of June 2015 Date of publication: 15th of September 2015 ISSN number (online): ISSN 1893-5834 ISSN number (print): ISSN 1893-5605 Tvergastein has two annual issues and is distributed for free at UiO, NMBU and several other locations. A digital version can be found at our webpage: www.tvergastein.com We would like to extend our sincere gratitude and thanks to Rikke Grytemark Brekke & Magnus Wittersø for lending us their photographs as well as to our sponsors: UiO Energi, Kulturstyret, Arne Næss Chair, and The Centre for Development and the Environment (SUM). Address: Tvergastein, co/SUM, Postboks 1116 Blindern 0317 OSLO E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Web: www.tvergastein.com Facebook: facebook.com/tvergastein Twitter: @tvergastein Tvergastein accepts submissions in two categories: Shorter op-ed pieces (2,000 - 5,000 characters) and longer articles (10,000 20,000 characters), in either English or Norwegian.
·8· Leaving the Box — Tvergastein Board of Editors
· 28 · LONG LIVE JEANS! — Jonathan Frænkel-Eidse
· 12 · Bærekraft som Konkurransefortrinn — Inger Solberg
· 34 · A Dizzying Spin on Green Growth — Ingun Grimstad Klepp and Tone Skårdal Tobiasson
· 20 ·
· 42 ·
Samarbeid er lik bærekraft, Om
entreprenørskap og sterke fellesskap
· 48 ·
· 78 ·
The Lung of Phnom Penh
Music for Change
Maria Daniela Ricaurte
· 54 · Gambiarra: Repair Culture — Felipe Fonseca
· 86 · Samfunnsansvar som driver for ny vekst — Øystein Hagen, Mads Bruun Høy og Jeppe Sondov · 64 · Beyond the Garden Fence — Annelies Zwaan
· 70 · Living with Zero Waste
· 94 ·
KAKIWIN TUTUNAKU: Welcome to
the Hill with Three Hearts — Itzel Anahí López Laínez
· 110 · To Think Outside the Box, Go out of the Building — Torill Bye Wilhelmsen
· 100 ·
LO C AL I N I T I AT I V E S — Question & Answer Feature · 118 · Fremtidslandet og ideene som skaper det — Helga Øvsthus Tønder
· 106 · Regenerative Entrepreneurship : Entrepreneurship for Our Complex World — Eric R. Sannerud
· 122 · Design as a Dialogical Process: A Social Dialogue Tool to Perform Innovation in a Complex Environment — Luciano Tardin & Marcus Vinícius Fonseca
· 126 ·
· 148 ·
SUM 25th Jubilee
The Elitization of Space through Tourism Development in Nicaragua
Master’s Students Feature
Anna G. Sveinsdóttir
· 152 · · 128 ·
Grønne reiser og
Teaching Solutions: Innovation in Academia?
Interview with Dan Banik
Torbjørn Tumyr Nilsen
Sean Michael Thompson · 158 · State Entrepreneurship and · 132 ·
Innovation in China
Happy Anniversary, SUM!
· 164 · · 134 ·
Reflections on the Program,
Practicing, Not Just Preaching
my Thesis, and your Country
· 142 ·
· 166 ·
Sustainable Development Reconsidered.
Contributors to Issue #6
The Science, the Profit and the Class Society:
A Case of Genetic Modification of Food
Marija Holm Radovanovic
Call for Papers — Thanks to the Contributors
Entrepreneurship, Innovation and Initiatives
TVERGASTEIN BOARD OF EDITORS
Within recent years, there has been much talk about the serious environmental and social problems our current status quo poses. The discussions around how to solve these issues spans from eating locally to subsidizing electric cars, education campaigns to installing solar panels. This being said, the environmental movement tends to demonize the private sector for their “profit over people” mentality and there is often a tension between economic profitability and social and environmental concerns. In addition, entrepreneurship and innovation are often related to trends in technology, which sceptics associate with the dangers of Pandora´s box; as we get caught up in the novelty of the new, we forget to acknowledge the potential consequences of our new creations. As an interdisciplinary journal on the environment, Tvergastein has addressed the issues of the food system, transportation systems, adaptability and climate change. In this issue, we have chosen to take on the more overarching themes of innovation and entrepreneurship. As the Centre for Environment and Sustainability celebrates its 25th year, it seems appropriate to have a discussion on the newly emerging trends and ideas within Norway and across the globe. Innovation, as Webster’s dictionary describes it, is the creation of a new idea, method or device. This definition pinpoints the controversy and difficulties this issue aims to address - while some feel that new technologies can solve our current woes, others point to redefining the system completely. Which opens more questions; is a redefinition enough? Is growth ever truly green? Is innovation simply a new means of consumption? In this respect we have been challenged by what it means to ‘leave the box’. Does it mean to leave capitalism and scrap the old system? Or should it rather be a process of reframing practices within the current system? We at Tvergastein believe that “leaving the box” is a means of describing this flight from the conventional - whether that means a new spin on current modes of consumption, as we will see in Jonathan Eidse’s interview with Sandya Lang of Nudie Jeans, or completely reinventing the way we consume, as is seen in Kaja Ahnfelt’s interview with Bea Johnson, the ‘queen of the zero-waste life’. What began as an exploration of current projects and initiatives became a discussion about what entrepreneurship really entails, and the role of different players in these changes. Our contributors offer a range of diverse perspectives spanning many disciplines. From Skårdal and Klepp’s analysis of the circular economy in the clothing industry, to the new face of free online learning, MOOC, as described in Sean Thompson’s interview with researcher Dan Banik, Karina Standal’s analysis of new developmental theories and their ability to foster gender equality, to Daniela Ricaurte’s look at communicating sustainability at music festivals across Norway, it is clear that the times are changing. While their means and motives may be different, all acknowledge that a new way of doing things is necessary to confront the environmental and social issues the global community faces.
TVERGASTEIN BOARD OF EDITORS
Credit: ERWIN HASSELBRINCK 11
Credit: EH - VISITNORWAY.COM 12
Bærekraft som konkurransefortrinn
Kreativitet og nyskaping krever at noen
I en verden som står overfor store sosiale og
tør å utfordre det etablerte og «tenke utenfor
miljømessige utfordringer gir det mening å styrke norsk
boksen». Dette krever initiativrike hoder,
næringslivs mulighet til å bidra. Behovet for omstilling gir
risikovillige ledere og åpne bedriftskulturer
oss en mulighet til å skape et bedre og grønnere samfunn.
som gir rom for nye ideer, forskning og
Oljen har hatt enorm betydning for Norges velstand
utprøving. Verden står overfor store klima-
de siste førti årene. Nå må vi legge om den klassiske
og samfunnsutfordringer med overforbruk
økonomiske veksten i en mer bærekraftig retning.
av ressurser. Gullalderen går mot slutten for
Sameksistens og overføring av kunnskap fra petroleumsbransjen til andre næringer kan legge fundamentet for den nye verdiskapingen.
olje- og gassbransjen, og Norge trenger nye bein å stå på. «Når forandringens vind blåser, går noen i skjul mens andre går ut for å bygge vindmøller», sier et kinesisk ordtak. Innovasjon Norge setter nå sterkt fokus på bærekraft som konkurransekraft for å styrke norsk næringsliv.
NHO-sjefen satte på sin årskonferanse fokus på samarbeid med internasjonalt perspektiv kontra regional konkurranse:
I 2014 kom alvoret. Olje- og gassprisen ble halvert og
- utviklingen av Norge handler om å ruste oss for
Norge fikk en økonomisk «wake-up call». Dette var også
verdensmesterskap, ikke kretsmesterskap.
året da trusselen om klimaskiftet ble tatt på alvor av de fleste. President Obama og president Xi Jingping signerte en historisk avtale om reduserte utslipp. Statsministeren
Hva kan Innovasjon Norge gjøre?
og sentralbanksjefen var i sine årstaler samstemte: «Landet
Vi i Innovasjon Norge mener det er helt nødvendig,
vårt går fra særstilling til omstilling. Vi må bli bedre på
og viktig omdømmemessig, at norsk næringsliv spiller
nyskaping, og vi må ruste Norge for fremtiden. 2014 ble
på lag og utvikler bærekraftige løsninger for å utnytte
året hvor hele landet forstod hvor sårbar norsk økonomi er,
det enorme markedspotensialet samfunnsutfordringene
og behovet for en grønn omlegging engasjerte langt utover
representerer. Vi kan gjennom lån, tilskudd og garantier
de klassiske naturvernmiljøene.
redusere risikoen som følger med bedriftenes investeringer i grønne, ansvarlige og bærekraftige forretningsmodeller. 13
BÆREKRAFT SOM KONKURRANSEFORTRINN
Ved hjelp av åpen innovasjon og vinn-vinn samarbeid kan
i fremtiden. Vi må fornye det offentlige og sørge for
store og små bedrifter løfte hverandre. Gjennom våre
en grønnere vekst. Det er ingen hvilepute at vi ikke er
etableringstilskudd skal Innovasjon Norge stimulere til
i akutt krise akkurat nå, det er en fantastisk mulighet
etablering av flere bærekraftige gründere, nye bedrifter for
for å posisjonere landet vårt for et nytt skifte som vi vet
klimavennlige grønne løsninger og samfunnsansvarlige,
kommer på verdensbasis. Dette skiftet, eller megatrenden,
sirkulære varer og tjenester.
blir ofte referert til som den «sjette utviklingsbølge» i verdensøkonomien – bærekraftbølgen, som følger etter
Kreativitet og nyskaping
informasjonsteknologibølgen og tidligere økonomiske
Evnen til å tenke nytt og innovativt er i dagens samfunn et
perioder dominert av andre teknologiske nyvinninger
viktig konkurransefortrinn og en økonomisk driver for de
som dampkraft, elektrisitet og romfart. Norge er godt
fleste bedrifter. Med utfordringene og markedsmulighetene
posisjonert og den overordnede megatrenden bør
vi nå står ovenfor blir evnen til å kunne omstille seg enda
være et bærende prinsipp for utviklingen av norsk
mer vesentlig. Konkurransen er stor, og utviklingen går
raskt. Det stilles stadig krav til økte forbedringer, fornyelser og opplevelser knyttet til varer og tjenester. Kompetanse
Innovasjon Norges forretningsmodell for
og tjenester utgjør ofte en viktig del av produktet, dette
krever kontinuerlig samspill, nytenking og læring. Hva
Store utfordringer representerer store muligheter.
som motiverer og demotiverer har mye å si for videre
Asia, USA, EU og andre internasjonale markeder
prestasjoner. Det har blitt vanlig å skifte jobb oftere enn
skriker etter klimavennlige, økonomisk levedyktige og
før, og læring overføres fra den ene organisasjonen til den
andre. For å holde på de beste medarbeiderne er bindinger
Norge trenger nye bein å stå på, og Innovasjon Norge
gjennom følelsesmessig tilhørighet, identifisering,
har fokus på bærekraft som konkurransekraft. Vi må
belønning og involvering viktige faktorer. Innovative
likevel tillate oss å ta ett og ett steg på veien. Kunnskap
organisasjoner preges ofte av frihet til å utvikle nye idéer,
fra næringer som ligger langt fremme kan overføres til nye
klare mål, lekenhet, debatt, risikotoleranse, motiverende
områder. Men hva legger Innovasjon Norge i bærekraft? Vi
ledere, involvering og en flat struktur med åpne og frie
har valgt å legge FNs definisjon til grunn: «En bærekraftig
utvikling imøtekommer dagens behov uten å ødelegge muligheten for at kommende generasjoner får dekket
Bærekraftbølgen er den nye samfunnstrenden
sine behov». For å tydeliggjøre hva vi legger i begrepet
Bærekraft er en sterk trend, og verdiskapingen i samfunnet
og hvordan det kan brukes praktisk for å skape lønnsom
har opp igjennom årene vært drevet av ulike trender.
innovasjon, har vi utviklet en forretningsmodell for bærekraft (se bilde).
Nå er det bærekraftbølgen som skyller over oss og som vil bli en driver for økonomisk utvikling.
Bærekraft skal være med på å skape bedriftens konkurransefortrinn. Det er vårt mål. Ut fra markedsbehov og dialog med kunden må bedriften finne sin forretningsmodell. Den må være økonomisk, miljømessig
Markedet internasjonalt leter etter lønnsømme
og sosialt bærekraftig. For å være bærekraftig holder det
bærekraftige løsninger som kan åpne muligheter og gi
ikke bare å være i front miljømessig og å ha akseptabel
konkurransefortrinn for de som er kreative.
økonomi, dét kaller vi grønn vekst. Det holder heller ikke å
Diskusjonene om hvor lenge vi kan leve av oljen
bare koble miljø og det sosiale, økonomi er en viktig driver.
blir sekundært fra et innovasjonsperspektiv. Vi vet vi
For å differensiere seg kan bedriftene velge ulik størrelse på
må skape nye arbeidsplasser, revitalisere eksisterende
boblene miljø, sosialt og økonomi, men alle tre må ivaretas
primærnæringer, investere for å løfte frem nye næringer,
for at forretningsmodellen skal være bærekraftig.
og sikre en annen fordeling av Norges eksportinntekter 14
leier skiene når vi er på vinterferie og laster ned musikk på Spotify eller Apple. Vintagevesker og brukt design med støtte til veldedige formål er siste mote. De som leder utviklingen og trendene i ulike bransjer må ta større ansvar. Markedet er bevisste, og etterspørselen går i retning av ansvarsfull etisk opptreden og «ekte» opplevelser. Sidestrømmer fra tradisjonelle næringer brukes kreativt for å produsere nye produkter. Fra bioøkonomiens ståsted er utvikling av råvarer som input i nye industrier et spennende område, bambusklær og cellulose kan for eksempel være en annen kilde for tekstil. Det skjer mye spennende i norsk næringsliv om dagen. Gjennom å besøke bedrifter og samle ideer fra land og strand fikk Innovasjon Norge, gjennom «Drømmeløftet», innblikk i dagens situasjon. En rekke prosjekter har fått støtte gjennom virkemiddelapparatet. Gjennom miljøteknologiordningen har flere bedrifter vokst seg globalt konkurransedyktige innen nye produksjonsmetoder som avfallshåndtering, helseteknologi, kvalitet i sjømatnæringen og fornybar energi. Holdningsendring tar tid, men vi ser allerede fremveksten av mange spennende, nye måter å sette sammen aktiviteter på som gir verdi for kundene og samfunnet. Internasjonale konsumenter er villige til å Innovasjon Norges forretningsmodell for bærekraft.
betale mer for matprodukter som er “rene” og trygge.
Etiske og økologiske produkter er i vekst internasjonalt, og norske leverandører må henge med. Turister og bevisste innbyggere som er opptatt av kultur og ekte opplevelser
Digitalisering, sirkulær økonomi og nye
viser seg å være mer attraktive og legger igjen mer penger
enn andre. Gjennom digitale medier kan nærhet til kunden
Nye kommunikasjonsplattformer gir grobunn for nye
oppnås på helt nye måter, for eksempel ved opplevelser på
forretningsmodeller og mulighet for å kommunisere og
YouTube før du reiser.
involvere konsumenten i innovasjonsprosessene på en helt
Resirkulering vil ikke løse miljøutfordringene, og vi kan ikke bare fokusere på å gjøre vår levemåte «grønnere», men også se på hva som er sosialt ansvarlig.
annen måte enn tidligere. Digitalisering, delingsøkonomi, sirkulær økonomi og nye forretningsmodeller oppstår ofte gjennom dialog med kunden og forståelse for kundebehov og forbrukeratferd. Store bedrifter kan ha nytte av å åpne opp forretningsmodellene sine, eller å utvikle ny teknologi i mindre gründermiljøer. Få ting er mer risikofylt enn å
Det skjer mye spennende innen grønn vekst
hvile på laurbærene og melke markedet med en utdatert
og reduksjon av miljømessig fotavtrykk. Ressursene
forretningsmodell for lenge.
er begrenset, og vi må ta bedre vare på dem. Store
Folk leser blogger og kjøper varer og tjenester via internett. Delingsøkonomien er en interessant trend, folk
skip resirkuleres og fartsreduksjon på frakteskip eller
betaler for å byttelåne biler, leiligheter, hytter, klær, vi
preppemaskiner i skibakken, er andre eksempler på 15
BÆREKRAFT SOM KONKURRANSEFORTRINN
Resirkulering vil ikke løse miljøutfordringene, og vi kan ikke bare fokusere på å gjøre vår levemåte «grønnere», men også se på hva som er sosialt ansvarlig.
økonomisk innsparing med miljømessig gevinst.
virkemiddelapparat, fred og sosial stabilitet. Det vi må få
Næringslivet blir stadig oftere pekt på som en del av
på plass nå, er en klar strategi og retning for hvor vi ønsker
løsningen på vår tids store og små utfordringer i samfunnet
å gå, hva det vil koste oss og hvordan vi skal nå de målene
og miljøet. Bedrifters jakt på profitt blir akseptert som en
vi setter oss.
positiv drivkraft når den anvendes til fellesskapets beste.
Norsk næringsliv er generelt sett innovativt, selv om
I stedet for å være yndet syndebukk, blir næringslivet
det finnes innovasjonsstatistikk som kan tolkes i en annen
invitert til å bidra. Fokus på svinn og kasting av mat
retning. Dette gjelder ikke minst EU-kommisjonens
fra restauranter, butikker og husholdninger er et annet
Innovation Union Scoreboard, en komposittindikator
eksempel på at bærekraftige løsninger kan gi positiv effekt
som i 2015-utgaven fortsatt rangerer Norge som nr.
både miljømessig, sosialt og økonomisk. Folkehelse,
17 i Europa. Men SSB, NIFU og andre har vist at
kosthold, trening, matproduksjon, transport og grønt
denne indikatoren ikke fanger opp den reelle norske
reiseliv er andre eksempler.
innovasjonsevnen. Innovasjon Norge samarbeider allerede
Offentlig sektor er allerede godt i gang med utvikling
godt med Statistisk sentralbyrå, Norges forskningsråd og
av smarte byer – bygg, transport, avfallshåndtering, energi,
relevante forskningsmiljøer om den videre utviklingen av
digitalisering. Norge er langt fremme. Hvordan kan vi
norsk innovasjonsstatistikk og vil ta initiativ til å utvikle
styrke hverandre gjennom et tettere innovasjonssamarbeid?
en mer helhetlig presentasjon av norsk innovasjonsevne
Internasjonalt samspill med enighet om felles mål og
som kan sammenlignes med andre land. Fundamentet
samarbeid på tvers av offentlig sektor, privat næringsliv og
for valg av riktig medisin fremover er en diagnose av egne
forskningsinstitusjoner er et viktig virkemiddel.
forutsetninger, virkelighetsoppfatning og premisser for innovasjon.
Norge trenger nye bein å stå på Norsk skaperkraft er summen av alt vi får til på hvert nes,
Anbefalinger fra Innovasjonstalen 2015 og
hvert tun og hver by over hele landet. Det er fristende
å sitere Gro Harlem Brundtland – ”alt henger sammen
Hva skal til for at Norge skal få nye bein å stå på? I sin
med alt”. Det internasjonale markedet er ikke opptatt av
Innovasjonstale i mai 2015 kom Anita Krohn Traaseth,
vårt nasjonale fokus på kommunegrenser, men av kvalitet,
administrerende direktør i Innovasjon Norge, med seks
integritet, grønt, teknologi, rent, demokrati, kunnskap
anbefalinger til norsk næringsliv
og stabilitet. Norge er et lite land, med et begrenset antall 1. Vi må prioritere
hoder og marked. Vi kan ikke gjøre alt eller tro at markedet vil gjøre de rette valgene for oss. Vi har blitt vant til å tro at vi kan være best i klassen. Vi skal være mest miljøvennlige,
Vi har et stort behov for å bygge nye landslag der Norge
mest distriktsvennlige, ha de beste arbeidsbetingelsene, de
allerede har komparative fortrinn internasjonalt. Vi er
beste velferdsordningene, den korteste arbeidstiden, den
godt skodd for å være en viktig leverandør av løsninger på
lengste ferien og den beste lunsjen. Blir det automatisk
de syv samfunnsutfordringene EU har definert gjennom
slik også for kommende generasjoner? Nei, politikerne må
forsknings og innovasjonsprogrammet Horizon 2020,
ha mot til å utfordre forestillingene våre. Innovasjon har
herunder blant annet helse, bærekraftig matproduksjon,
mange og krevende ansikter. Det handler om å ta risiko,
ren energi og effektiv ressursbruk.
om å lede i ukjent terreng, og å stille spørsmål til etablerte
Det er ingen konflikt mellom generelt gode
sannheter og maktstrukturer for å etablere nye. Landets
rammebetingelser og målrettede virkemidler.
ledere må tørre å gjennomføre de grepene som må til for at
Langtidsplanen for forskning identifiserer fem tematiske
vi skal klare omstillingen. Innovasjon Norge er optimister
satsinger, dette bør også gjenspeiles når vi ønsker å
på norsk næringslivs vegne. Norske arbeidstakere er godt
kommersialisere våre forskningsresultater angående ny
utdannede og kreative, vi har mange innovative bedrifter,
kunnskap til nye bedrifter, arbeidsplasser og næringer. For
sterke klynger, et velutviklet velferdssystem, et avansert
å tiltrekke oss internasjonale investeringer til Norge, må vi 17
BÆREKRAFT SOM KONKURRANSEFORTRINN
investere og innovere mer i dagens rammebetingelser slik at
reduseres til innkjøp av nye teknologiske løsninger. Når
tradisjonelle industrier kan bli grønne og fornybare.
vi snakker om digitalisering i det offentlige handler det
Vi bør ta utgangspunkt i vårt internasjonale
først og fremst om forståelsen for kravet til endring og
omdømme som vektlegger bærekraftige og miljømessige
innovasjon i eksisterende arbeidsprosesser, samarbeidskultur
forhold, for eksempel vår posisjon innen det maritime
og kompetansebehov for å være relevant for kunder og
og ren energi. Vi har også de beste forutsetningene fra
landbruk- og marin sektor for å lykkes med å posisjonere oss inn i den nye bioøkonomien, og vi kan bygge nye
4. Vi må synliggjøre, tilgjengeliggjøre og forenkle
næringer rundt velferdsteknologi, medisin, finans og
offentlige tilbud til dem som vil skape og endre
utdanningsteknologi. Det er nødvendig at vi omdisponerer og innretter allerede 2. Vi må satse på oppstart av helt nye bedrifter
tilgjengelig kapital og rammevilkår for å støtte opp under
Aldri før har entreprenørskapslysten vært større i Norge!
det næringslivet og de arbeidsplassene vi vil ha fremover.
Andelen som mener entreprenørskap gir høy status har
Alt fra kommunenes førstelinjetjeneste til næringshager,
steget fra 59 til 83% i perioden 2003-2014. Utvikling av
inkubatorer, etableringsstipend og Skattefunn må
både store og små bedrifter er viktig. Det etableres altfor
kommuniseres godt ovenfor relevante målgrupper.
mange enkeltmannsselskaper uten potensiale for vekst
Nærings- og fiskeridepartementet jobber også med et felles
eller ambisjoner for annet enn å dekke egen lønn. For å
profesjonalisere og realisere vekstpotensialet i næringer som
Innen forskning er det nødvendig med en
består av mange små aktører, må vi styrke våre etablerte
kulturendring. Det er viktig å bygge stolthet rundt evnen
klynger og opprette nye på tvers av bransjer. Samarbeid er
til å kapitalisere på de kloke hodene, og til å konkurrere
den nye konkurransekraften.
internasjonalt, med norske løsninger, kunnskap og produkter.
3. Vi må innovere og omstille mer i det offentlige 5. Vi må nyttiggjøre oss av all arbeidskapasitet i landet
Den offentlige innkjøpskraften representerer rundt 400 milliarder årlig som kan benyttes til å skape innovasjon i samspill med private leverandørbedrifter. Vi har et
Arbeidsledigheten er fortsatt lav, men den øker og vil øke.
skrikende behov for å omstille og innovere offentlige
Vi må få flere av dem som faller utenfor inn i arbeidslivet.
tjenester. Ifølge nasjonalregnskapet økte andelen
Økt forståelse og satsning på sosialt entreprenørskap
offentlige årsverk fra under 17% i 1970 til nesten 29%
er en del av løsningen, mulighetene befinner seg i et
i 2013. Utviklingen i offentlige årsverk er preget av
overlappingsfelt mellom offentlig, frivillig og privat sektor.
at visse omsorgstjenester som tidligere ble utført av
Bærekraft og skalèrbarhet er like viktig her som i rent
familiemedlemmer, i økende grad har blitt overtatt av
kommersielle bedriftsetableringer, og de har det samme
kommunale tilbud. I tillegg har alderssammensetningen
potensialet for vekst internasjonalt.
og medisinsk utvikling ført til at behovet for omsorgs- og sykehustjenester har steget. Den fremtidige utviklingen
6. Omstillingen vi står ovenfor krever først og
i offentlig forvaltnings størrelse avhenger i hovedsak av
fremst modig lederskap
hvorvidt den store økningen i disse tjenestene vil fortsette, og ikke minst hvor innovative vi er i videreutviklingen av
Lederskap må tas hos våre politikere, bedriftsledere,
partssamarbeidsaktører og folket. NHO-sjefen sa det på
Det er behov for et stort løft av digital kompetanse.
følgende måte i sin årstale: «Faren ved å blande fornuft
Teknologiens rolle i utviklingen av innovasjon i offentlige
og følelser er at vi lar være å gjennomføre ting vi egentlig
tjenester må ikke undervurderes, og dette må ikke
er enige om. Vi må la politikerne forvalte den tilliten vi 18
har gitt dem ved urnene – også når det innebærer å skjære gjennom for fellesskapets beste». Ekstra upopulære valg må tas, og vi må la våre politikere kompromisse mer enn vi er vant til. Vi i Innovasjon Norge har lagt inn et nytt gir. Vi lover å bidra med alt vi kan, alt vi er og kan bli for norsk næringsliv fremover. Norge har den kompetansen og forutsetningene som skal til for å klare omstillingen, og gjøre en forskjell hele veien, også utover egne landegrenser. Vi skal heie høylytt på våre kunder, for de representerer den lille prosentandelen av norsk befolkning som tør å gå foran, og som er så naive at de tror de kan endre verden med sine løsninger og produkter.
REFERENCES Innovasjon Norges: Innovasjonstalen og Drømmeløftrapporten 2015, Innsats nr 1, 2015 og Årsrapport 2014 FN/FNs Global Compact: “The Global Compact asks companies to embrace universal principles and to partner with the United Nations. It has grown to become a critical platform for the UN to engage effectively with enlightened global business.” – UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon Horizon2020(EU): “A challenge-based approach …will cover activities from research to market with a new focus on innovation-related activities, such as piloting, demonstration, test-beds, and support for public procurement and market uptake.” Innovasjon i offentlige anskaffelser (DIFI): «… markedet (kan) stimuleres til å utvikle nye løsninger som gir en mer effektiv bruk av ressursene og bedre løsninger for brukerne.» Eksempel fra OECD: “The governments adhering to the Guidelines aim to encourage and maximise the positive impact MNEs can make to sustainable development and enduring social progress.” Ny blåblå eierskapsmelding: «På klima- og miljøområdet … i denne sammenheng er næringslivets rolle sentral og spørsmålet om hvordan det enkelte selskap kan bidra til å nå målene som er satt.» Anbudsdokumentet fra NFD i juni 2014 for gjennomgang av virkemidlene for innovasjon og verdiskaping: «Innovasjon og verdiskaping er ikke de eneste målene for norsk næringspolitikk. Andre målsettinger er arbeidsplasser og bosetting i hele landet, bærekraft…» Statsminister Erna Solberg sin tale ved lanseringen av rapporten «A better climate for growth»: «Vi må bruke markedet i miljøets tjeneste. Gode ideer må omsettes i lønnsomme virksomheter.» 19
THINKING BEYOND THE BOX: Addressing Afghanistan’s Gender Inequality and Energy Poverty the ‘Barefoot’ way KARINA STANDAL
Energy and energy security plays a vital role in the
As a positive example of successfully integrating
environmental and development challenges we face today.
gender and environmental concerns to provide energy
Energy is one of the most important aspects of everyday life
access in rural Afghanistan, this article will draw on a
across cultures and geography. We need energy for cooking,
particular solar energy project that has applied the Barefoot
heating, production and transport to name a few. Most of
approach.2 The Barefoot approach has a strong conviction
the world’s energy use comes from fossil fuels that cause
in empowering women as agents of sustainable change in
detrimental effects to human health and the environment
rural communities. By prioritizing women to be trained
through pollution, and the more developed we become
as Barefoot Solar Engineers (BSEs) with the responsibility
the more energy we use. Still, about 1.3 billion people lack
and capacity to install and repair the solar technology in
electricity and 2.6 billion use traditional fuels for cooking,
their village, the gender perspective in the Barefoot project
which has negative effects on health, income opportunities
is the mainstay of the project’s sustainability. Further, it
and education.1 This article puts focus on the importance
innovatively addresses the challenges of structures and
of integrating and understanding the concept of gender
perceptions that create inequalities and hinder development
relations in our measures to solve the challenge of energy
in the first place.
poverty. Firstly, it would seem unrealistic to imagine any solutions without the contribution of half the population.
The Global Challenge of Energy Poverty and
In many parts of the world that is however sadly the case
as women are often excluded from decision-making at the
The unsustainable pattern of fossil energy use is not
family, community and policy-level. Secondly, development
just limited to the West or urban areas, but also rural
challenges, such as energy poverty, are precisely born out
communities in the South. In fact lack of adequate and
of inequality and hence solutions to these problems need
modern energy solutions causes about 4.3 million deaths
to address one of the main historical and contemporary
annually through indoor air pollution.3 That is many
features of inequality, namely gender inequality, in order to
times higher than Malaria or HIV related diseases. Not
find a sustainable result.
to mention the negative health effects of carrying heavy 20
Photo: BAARD HENRIKSEN, PER SOLLERMAN
Credit: NORWEGIAN CHURCH AID 21
THINKING BEYOND THE BOX
Energy is one of the most important aspects of everyday life across cultures and geography. loads of firewood causing everything from spinal injuries to
fix to the causes of unequal gender relations such as
premature births.4 Further, lack of energy and poverty often
women’s confinement to the home and lack of educational
go hand in hand, both at national and rural level.
possibilities. Lack of energy only exaggerates them. In
The absence of modern energy technologies affects
Afghanistan however, the training of women as BSEs seems
women and men differently. Providing and using
to have made the provision of modern energy work as a
household energy is most often women’s responsibility.
catalyst for challenging perspectives of women’s abilities
Indoor air pollution also mainly effects women and small
and their participation in public and private decision-
children as they are the ones spending time in the kitchens.
In addition children (very often girls) need to spend their time helping their families to gather fuelwood, and
Critical Reflections on Past and Present: Women,
Kerosene lanterns emit toxic particles making it difficult to
Development and Nature
use for doing homework. As the below quote shows gender
The idea of bringing women in the forefront in addressing
and sustainable development are not two separate entities,
our development and environmental challenges is not
but two sides of the same coin:
new. Focus on women was manifested in the Women in Development (WiD) in development thinking and
...the responsibility to provide firewood for cooking
policy in the early 70s arguing for women as the missing
a meal may lead a woman, when faced with a firewood
link to development and integration of women into
shortage, to plant a tree, but it may also lead her to pull up a
the global economies. WiD pointed to modernization’s
wooden fence and burn it, to argue for the purchase of a fuel
marginalization of poor rural women, in the South, but
efficient stove, to insist on the purchase of charcoal, to delegate
did not question women’s subordination in the global
fuelwood collection to a younger woman in the household...
capitalistic system or in terms of power relations, but
these responses depend on the bargaining position, within the
emphasized poverty as the “villain”.6 Later, another
household, of individual women.
movement was formed under the banner of Women,
Environment and Development (WED) and EcoIt also reveals that lack of energy is as unsustainable as
feminism emerged in the 70s. Similar to WiD’s ideas of
overuse of energy. Aiding the implementation of renewable
women special role in development, WED and Eco-
energy solutions is therefore not just important in our
feminism perceive women as the natural protectors of
“energy-hungry” Western consumer societies, but it is also
the environment as an extension of their reproductive
a prerequisite for development in many rural communities
role.7 Especially, Vandana Shiva has been seen as one of
in the South. However, there is no easy technological
the champions of this direction in development thinking. 22
Eco-feminism and the WED movement have been heavily
all of the development policy discourses discussed above.
criticized for their essentialist perspective of women.
It sincerely focuses on women and has an essentialist view
Especially, Cecile Jackson unpacked the idea that women
of women as “worthy” beneficiaries who will share the
“naturally” care for the environment, by showing that
gains and increase well-being naturally. Simultaneously it
women’s relationship with nature is very much dependent
is an instrumental approach, but born out of alternative
on their social status, rights and responsibilities in their
development it questions underlying economic, social
family and community. Many women and men lack
and political structures, and it tries to actively change the
the privilege to bond with nature as their everyday life
gender relations of the women beneficiaries in its projects.
depends on unsustainable use of the natural environment
Originating from the Barefoot College in India, the vision
they live in.9 Development thinking has later been greatly
of the Barefoot Approach is to help poor remote rural
influenced by Gender and Development (GAD), and
communities in acquiring and administering solar electricity,
post-structural critiques of feminist and development
by training local people as BSEs:
theory, emphasizing how women’s role in society is related
The Barefoot College has demystified technologies and
to gender relations and the need for a holistic approach
decentralised their uses by transferring the access, control,
to understanding difference and power in development.
management and ownership of sophisticated technologies
These critiques’ deconstruction of power relations and
to rural men and women, who can barely read and write.12
questioning of underlying social, economic and political
Since 2005, the development organization Norwegian
structures made their recommendations difficult to
Church Aid in collaboration with the Barefoot College has
implement. Perhaps therefore, the remains of WiD live
aided the implementation of solar energy in remote rural
very happily and continue to speak for a very instrumental
villages in Afghanistan. The solar electricity was set up
way of understanding gender equality (and development),
with the implementation of Solar Home Systems (SHS)
which is not aligned with understanding gender equality
that delivered electrical current to households for lighting
as an intrinsic value (such as feminism). A good example
purposes and sockets for electrical appliances such as TV
can be seen in the girl effect10 with its slogan “it only takes
and radio. By the summer of 2007 the NCA solar project
a girl.” Give a girl education and a loan for a cow and she
had solar electrified 917 households in 21 villages in the
will reap the benefits of income and respect, enter village
provinces Badakhshan, Faryab, Bamiyan, Uruzghan and
politics, boost the national economy, and thus make a
Daykundi and new villages are continuously in the process of
implementation. The total numbers of trained BSEs were 25,
Notwithstanding their powerful and strong messages,
whereof 7 were women and 18 men. NCA made an effort to
this is simply not enough to tackle the deep underlying
ensure that several of the solar engineers they recruited were
causes of resource and gender inequality. Giving a girl (a loan
women using the rhetoric that women BSEs could enter
for) a cow will help distribution somewhat, but it does not
houses for repairs even when the households’ men were on
tackle the reasons why she is born as poor, without access
long term migration.13
to modern and adequate energy, and as the less preferred
Just four years before the project started Afghanistan
gender. And the national economy she is aspired to boost
was seen as the worst country in the world to be a woman.
through women’s income production are all molded on the
Suffering both from 30 years of violent conflict and the
ideas of economic growth and capitalist societies, regardless
country’s lack of resources in everything from food, energy,
of their contribution to our planet’s unequal wealth
healthcare and education, the added cultural and political
distribution and environmental problems. As discussed next
restrictions put on women by the Taliban (and Afghan
there is a need to think differently in order to move forward
society in general) had devastating effects on women and
in the attempts to address the relations of power at play.
girls. In this context the Barefoot approach was applied in an effort to promote use of environmentally friendly modern
Engendering Solar Electrification in Afghanistan
energy and gender equality.
The Barefoot approach seems to both defy and incorporate 23
THINKING BEYOND THE BOX
The introduction of solar electricity did not just challenge gender roles in unequal gender relations, but also positively influenced the relation between women and men.
Thinking beyond the Box: New Ideas of
When you are sitting for long years at home [Taliban era]
and you could not see anybody. You do not have confidence in
To understand the impact of the Barefoot approach on
yourself and do not know how to talk to [other people], because
the access to environmentally friendly energy and gender
you have not seen people. But when you go and receive training
relations of the Afghan beneficiaries, let us consider the
and know about this [solar energy technology] and other things
narratives of two Barefoot Solar Engineers, Soraya and
you get your confidence. You know how to talk and how to
Shukrullah.14 Soraya was selected for BSE training by her
community and accepted to go with her husband as one of the first woman BSEs in Afghanistan. In order to do the
Soraya was the first woman in her village to be invited
training she had to leave 3 of her children at home during
to participate in meetings in the village council. In several
her six month stay in India, but she was allowed to bring
of the project villages, women’s councils where formed
her smallest baby (1,5 years) with her. It was evident from
through a National program and the women BSEs were
both her and other BSEs that separation from family and
included as members due to their insights and knowledge
community was very hard physically and emotionally. In
after the training. In Soraya’s village the traditional custom
many ways the changes in the women BSEs status and
of keeping the village council exclusively for men persisted,
respect from the community was derived from being strong
but after the Solar projects she claimed men respected
enough to handle this separation, in addition to being
women more and now she and other women could join the
technically able to bring light to their communities:
meetings and be heard if they wanted to raise issues that were important for the community.17
I now have the ability to repair the electricity and give the people light. That’s why the people respect me a lot…Earlier
The fact that women returned from India with knowledge
people thought that women cannot do anything. But when
played a role in (re)forming men’s, women’s and communities’
I went there (India) and learned and came back, the people
perception on women’s capabilities as expressed in a meeting of
talked together and said she is a very strong lady and she has
a men village council:
done good service for the people.15
We used to think our women were a little stupid, but now we see of TV Afghan women in the Loya Jirga and we
Soraya said she had gained confidence after her
have a woman governor in Bamiyan and they are just like our
training, not just because of acquiring technological
women. This encourages our women and the education of our
knowledge, but also because engaging with people
daughters becomes important.18
improved her verbal skills after experiencing monotonous everyday life during the Taliban era and their restrictions on women’s movement:
Credit: CARINA STANDAL
The introduction of solar electricity did not just
taqiyah20 and had the title Mullah, educated 14 years in a
challenge gender roles in unequal gender relations, but also
Pakistani madrasa. During our conversation he expressed
positively influenced the relation between women and men
astonishment and joy of his experience going to Barefoot
in the household because, as Soraya describes, it provides
College with his sister:
opportunities to fulfil the standards of keeping a good home and being a good mother:
I used to think women should stay at home. Now I think that our community is clear in their mind that women can
…it has changed because most of the women, if the men
do everything. Women are more independent now... When
need something for example their clothes or other things they
we (him and his sister) went to India there were women from
wash at night. And the relation is also getting better between
many countries there, Gambia, Sierra Leone, Cameroon…
husband and wife, because she can make everything on time.19
Then I thought girls can do anything and serve their country. For me this was a new thought. The girls were very young and
One of the men BSEs, Shukrullah, articulated the
good at learning…. When I saw the other girls in Tilonia I
almost revolutionary change of perception concerning
saw that women and men are equal in this and that women
women’s capabilities and role in society that prevailed
have capabilities21 (Interview 15.07.07).
among my men informants after the NCA project implementation. His background and physical appearance
As mentioned, all the men I interviewed consistently
(unlike the other men BSEs) fitted well into Western
said their perceptions on women’s capabilities had changed.
stereotypes of Afghan men. He had a full beard, wore
Men BSEs who trained with a female partner or observed 25
other women training in India, were especially impressed as
local women would certainly present a different outcome.
they thought technology was incomprehensible to women.
Firstly, the sustainability of the project would be greatly
They also emphasised that it was very good that women
jeopardized as the cultural context makes it difficult to
have knowledge about things like solar energy and by
repair equipment in houses where men migration occurs.
that could “provide services to the people”, contributing
Further, it would send a message to the beneficiaries that
the change of women’s role to the larger context of
community driven projects did not need to consider or
Afghanistan’s process of community and state-building.
include women. Finally, it would not have presented
The changes in perception of women’s capabilities
the powerful role-model of Afghan women able to do
and roles outside the traditional boundaries of marriage
technological repairs and doing “service for their country”.
and motherhood also transcended to perceptions of the
Fighting for girls’ education in Afghanistan is a long and
value of girls’ and women’s education. Shukrullah said he
arduous battle and it needs all the positive examples it can
planned to send his wife to finish school.22 His wife had
get. The Barefoot approach exemplifies how thinking in
only finished grade 10 and the plan was that she would
terms of gender relations open up for multiple benefits
finish grade 12. Since the school was a good distance from
instead of merely providing women a resource to make
the village, she and their baby son were moving to relatives
everyday life easier (within their confinements of home and
during her studies. Several informants reported that older
girls went for “education migration” in order to follow
The innovative ideas of the Barefoot approach goes a long way to solve rural communities’ problems by building on their knowledge and abilities, addressing their need for resources and challenging unequal structures of power relations.
higher education than that provided by village schools. This was a privilege among a few more affluent families and their aspirations seemed to be linked to economic opportunities later in form of work migration. Despite the Taliban’s ban on education for older girls, Islam values education and women have the responsibility for bringing their children up as good Muslims, making an educated mother positive. Promoting women and girls’ education in
It is not difficult to argue that for true development to
Muslim countries has been forwarded by Islamic rhetoric
happen these issues need to be addressed simultaneously.
of this kind.23 Conclusion Considering the narratives described above implementing solar electricity using the Barefoot approach in Afghanistan has had positive effects on the women beneficiaries’ access to decision-making and education as it opened up a space for women to act outside the traditional gender roles in their families and communities. These positive effects have undoubtedly not been distributed equally to all beneficiaries as other factors of social identities and statuses are also at work. Further, the project cannot take all the honor of any positive change occurring. Girl’s education and women’s political participation has been high on the agenda in Afghanistan since the 2001 invasion. There is also a great difference geographically when it comes to women’s role in society. Still, imagining this project without the training of 26
REFERENCES 1 Clancy, Joy; Winther, Tanja; Matinga, Margaret & Oparaocha, Sheila (2011). Gender Equity in Access to and Benefits from Modern Energy and Improved Energy Technologies. Gender Equality and Development, World Development Report 2012. ISSN 0163-5085. 2 http://www.barefootcollege.org/ 3 WHO fact sheet N°292 4 Akbar, Sameer, Barnes, Douglas, Eil, Andrew and Anastasia Gnezditskaia (2011), ‘Household cookstoves, environment, health and climate change: A new look at an old problem’. World Bank. 5 Jackson, Cecile (1993): “Doing What Comes Naturally? Women and Environment in development”, World Development 21 (12), p. 1958 6 Peet, Richard & Hartwick, Elaine (1999): Theories of Development. Guilford Press, New York, p.182 7 Peet, Richard & Hartwick, Elaine (1999): Theories of Development. Guilford Press, New York, p.189 8 Jackson, Cecile (1993): “Doing What Comes Naturally? Women and Environment in development”, World Development 21 (12), p. 1958 9 Standal, Karina (2008): Giving Light and Hope in Rural Afghanistan. The Impact of Norwegian Church Aid’s Barefoot Approach on Women Beneficiaries. University of Oslo, p. 43 10 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WIvmE4_KMNw&noredirect=1 11 http://www.girleffect.org/ 12 http://www.barefootcollege.org/barefoot-approach/ 13 Standal, Karina (2008): Giving Light and Hope in Rural Afghanistan. The Impact of Norwegian Church Aid’s Barefoot Approach on Women Beneficiaries. University of Oslo, p. 91 14 All names are fictional to protect the informants’ identities. 15 Standal, Karina (2008): Giving Light and Hope in Rural Afghanistan. The Impact of Norwegian Church Aid’s Barefoot Approach on Women Beneficiaries. University of Oslo, p. 90. 16 Standal, Karina (2008): Giving Light and Hope in Rural Afghanistan. The Impact of Norwegian Church Aid’s Barefoot Approach on Women Beneficiaries. University of Oslo, p. 60 17 Standal, Karina (2008): Giving Light and Hope in Rural Afghanistan. The Impact of Norwegian Church Aid’s Barefoot Approach on Women Beneficiaries. University of Oslo, p. 116 18 Standal, Karina (2008): Giving Light and Hope in Rural Afghanistan. The Impact of Norwegian Church Aid’s Barefoot Approach on Women Beneficiaries. University of Oslo, p. 90 19 Standal, Karina (2008): Giving Light and Hope in Rural Afghanistan. The Impact of Norwegian Church Aid’s Barefoot Approach on Women Beneficiaries. University of Oslo, p. 90 20 Muslim male headwear, believed to be worn by the Prophet Muhammad and often used for religious reasons. 21 Standal, Karina (2008): Giving Light and Hope in Rural Afghanistan. The Impact of Norwegian Church Aid’s Barefoot Approach on Women Beneficiaries. University of Oslo, p. 93 22 Standal, Karina (2008): Giving Light and Hope in Rural Afghanistan. The Impact of Norwegian Church Aid’s Barefoot Approach on Women Beneficiaries. University of Oslo, p. 94 23 Moghadam Valentine (2003): Modernizing Women. Gender and Social Change in the Middle East. Lynne Rienner Publishers, Colorado. 27
LONG LIVE JEANS! Prolonging product longevity Interview with Sandya Lang, CSR Manager at Nudie Jeans
Credit: NUDIE JEANS
LONG LIVE JEANS!
That the primary purpose of a business is to
What key challenges have emerged as Nudie steps
render profit is in most circles axiomatic. Yet
outside of industry-norms?
Nudie Jeans has a different take. Their raison d’être, as CSR Manager Sandya Lang explains,
When we turned to organic in 2008 we were well on the
is to maximize product sustainability while
way but then the economic crisis came. We were quite
producing cool products (though they do not
small at the time and couldn’t press the supplier so hard
seem to complain when this in turn results in
to make organic only for us. Other brands were not
demanding organic cotton, so this made it uneconomical for the suppliers to provide to us. This is why it took so
What do you see as the key issues in the
long to establish an organic cotton line in 2012.
fashion/apparel industry relating to social and environmental sustainability?
Today it is much easier to demand this of our suppliers, as we are a larger business. But since we have grown and
I think that the key issues for us and other brands in
set the standards quite high in terms of sustainability, it is
general is finding sustainable materials, to develop the
a challenge to find a supplier to collaborate with. It’s not
concept of recycling or reuse of the materials, challenges
difficult to find a T-shirt supplier, but to find a good one
relating to the transparency in the supply chain, as well as
is another thing. We try to choose the factories where we
to control and map your suppliers.
have the most possibilities to develop with. The mindset of the factory in terms of sustainability and CSR is becoming
Describe what you see as Nudie’s role as an
more and more important to us when we choose a new
innovator with relation to these?
We are actively working with all of the above issues. For
Do you believe that the average Nudie customer
example, with regards to sustainable materials we have
knows/cares about all this? Is this a business model
transformed our whole denim collection to organic cotton,
that draws customers? Or is it idealism?
initiated several recycling projects where we have tried to prolong the life of the garment, or recycling programs
I think that some do, yes, but that a lot of people don’t
that recycle jeans into rugs, or recycle the cotton fiber into
know until they buy a pair of jeans. Customers who are
a new pair of jeans. With regards to transparency in the
in our shop the first time may be surprised that everything
supply chain we have a production guide on our website.
is organic. Many customers are very interested in this
Many fashion companies publish a supplier list online
subject and buy our jeans just because they are organic and
which is usually quite boring spreadsheets that makes no
sustainable. Others have no clue at all. We haven’t pushed
sense for anyone else. We wanted to take this further than
it too much in the advertisement of our products. If you
the rest of the gang, so we made sure that our consumers
just come in the shop, you will quickly see that we sell
could actually find information that they are looking for.
organic jeans and Fair Trade T-shirts, but I don’t think that
So we created an interactive map over the countries that we
the customers in general think of us as an eco-store, they
have production in, where you can click and see how much
look at us as a brand that delivers good, cool products. In
we are producing in each country by percentage, as well as
terms of expectations people have about us, I think that we
the suppliers in these countries. If you click on the supplier
actually exceed ourselves.
you can get more information about them including a summary of the last audit made there - presenting both the
Do you believe Nudie would be the success it is
positive and negative aspects of this supplier.
today if it did not take the same path with regards to sustainability?
I think that if we removed everything that we have worked
The consumer needs to provide a lot of pressure. For now
with the last years, I would say that the product would not
we have organic denim jeans and many other products
stand out as much. Maybe the average customer doesn’t
as well. But there has not been much pressure from the
know much about it, but I think that it is paying off.
consumers to do all this. The initiative to make everything organic has come from ourselves, from the inside. If
An analysis of our production guide, for example, found
consumers start asking for this, and transparency and social
that there was a connection in clicks on the guide and
sustainability of other companies it will count for a lot.
subsequent sales. Similarly, some people thought that the whole program with recycling and repairing jeans was a
What I am hearing is that there doesn’t seem to
bad idea and would stop people from buying new ones.
be a lot of demand for this type of product, so this
But we have found that this is not the case, as they are both
may take some time to change the whole industry?
repairing and buying new ones as they come into the shop. We are also tying the customer to us with this service. So it
Yes, you can see some brands providing just a small sample
is very good for business, actually.
of organic. This is obviously better than nothing. Brands have responsibility to provide products that consumers
Nudie remains a privately owned company. To
can buy that are sustainable, but consumers have a
what degree does this allow Nudie to pursue the
responsibility to ask and question. If more and more people
course it has taken?
were to ask, take a stand and refuse to buy something then maybe it will have an effect. We, on the other hand, do not
Of course, it gives us a lot of freedom to do what we want,
leave the customers the choice to choose something else.
not only in CSR but in other aspects. The owners are also
Everything is organic, so they have to buy it if they want to
working on a daily basis here in the office, so whenever
buy a Nudie product. I don’t think anybody will say that
we have decisions to make, it is easy to make them. This
this is bad. Nobody will say that they would rather have a
is not the case for all companies. The whole idea from the
conventional denim product.
start has been to be a sustainable company. If we were a publicly traded company the decision making process may
Organic cotton, Fair Wear Foundation membership,
have been longer if there were a board and shareholders
transparency, “cradle-to-grave” product
involved. Maybe this model didn’t make all the difference,
responsibility - this all seems a bit over the top.
but it certainly made us more flexible.
But then again, is it enough? Can we consume our way out of unsustainable relations with the planet
Do you believe that the Nudie model can be
and one another?
replicated by the established corporate apparel industry? Do you believe that it has already
The most sustainable action, of course, would be to have
affected the industry? How to do this? Consumer
no business at all, to stop making jeans altogether. Now
pressure, industry voluntarism or regulation?
that we are here, we are trying to do the best that we can do. We don’t encourage the consumers to buy a lot of
There are certainly companies that can learn from us (and
products, we prefer them to buy a pair of high quality jeans
we can learn from them). But when you have a regular
and wear them for a long time, and repair them, and wear
business model it might be more difficult to do the
them again. Finally, when they can’t wear them anymore,
things that we are doing now because of the shareholders
they hand them in and get a discount on a new pair. We
opinions. So I think that in some ways, our model can be
are of course a normal company as well, and have normal
replicated, but on the other hand, maybe it is easier for
practices. So we are a part of the regular fashion industry,
other brands to not copy us but to find another way that is
but we want to have better standards.
more suitable for them. 31
LONG LIVE JEANS!
Imagine a future when what Nudie does today is the industry-norm. What is then left to do? Even as we try to do our best in terms of sustainability, this is a never ending job. The suppliers and ground floor conditions, the materials, the recycling of the product into something else, chemicals use and employing a circular economic model to name a few. In these terms we have a long ways ago. We have performed a broad product assessment so that we know where in the process we have the greatest environmental impact and are creating strategies for reducing these. So I donâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t think we can ever just sit down and be happy. We will always apply more pressure to do better.
Credit: NUDIE JEANS 33
Credit: SARAH LAZAROVIC 34
A Dizzying Spin on Green Growth
INGUN GRIMSTAD KLEPP & TONE SKÅRDAL TOBIASSON
Everyone is cheering for green growth. That should
consumption of non-renewable energy, water and land.3
arouse suspicion or at least some healthy skepticism. What
Rather bleak for everyone, in other words.
makes growth green? Or more specifically, what makes
The Nordic Council of Ministers (NCM) has just
it green enough so it reduces the environmental impacts
released a report “Norden – velkledd i et rent miljø,
overall and not just a little greener than any other growth?
handlingsplan for bæredyktig tekstil og mote” (“The
And last but not least: when is the circular economy
Nordic region – well-dressed in a clean environment,
actually a solution to a problem and not just a new way of
an action plan for sustainable textiles and fashion”)4. Its
spinning in circles even faster?
ambition is for the Nordic region to lead the way. But the
We work with garments and textiles. This is an area
report is not very specific and it does not take into account
where growth in production and consumption has been
that the many good intensions and initiatives led by other
rapid, simply explosive. The import of apparel to Norway
countries have not led to real reductions in environmental.5
has increased by 67% the last 20 years, and has reached
As a preliminary mapping for the action plan, we were
15 kilos per capita per year.1 The value of what we buy,
commissioned by the NCM to gauge the on-going
however, has declined during this period from 6.6% to
sustainability-focused initiatives in the Nordic countries
5.4% of our total household expenditures. Clothes have
and the major international ones.6 The vast majority of
become cheaper. We buy more, but it costs less.
the on-going initiatives are all about recycling and reusing
The dominant model for production and consumption
commercially, and various forms of “green growth”. The
of clothes is what so cleverly has been called “fast fashion”,
issue, however, is that the initiatives attack the problems
an expression stolen from the “fast food” phenomenon.
where there is least to gain. Much centers around the fact
This involves the accumulation of profit based on
that the businesses involved want to appear “the greenest
increasingly standardized, globally mass-produced goods;
in the class”, but the result is nonetheless that things are
with low margins and a high tempo. This also includes
at a stand-still. In the last 30 years the resource efficiency
emission of harmful chemicals, unethical working
in the textile industry has increased by 30%7, which of
conditions, problems with animal welfare, and a high
course is top of the pops, but growth in consumption 35
A DIZZYING SPIN ON GREEN GROWTH
has overshadowed this reduction. Not quite so top of the
are more well-dressed today than you were then. But we
pops. And neither the new action plan from the NCM nor
agree with Thorstein Veblen10:
ongoing initiatives will change this.
A fancy bonnet of this year’s model unquestionably
Circulating materials becomes necessary when we
appeals to our sensibilities today much more forcibly than
must share the resources of the Earth, and are part of the
an equally fancy bonnet of the model of last year; although
solution towards a sustainable society. Innovation Norway’s
when viewed in the perspective of a quarter of a century, it
Drømmeløft is also based on this perspective, but the
would, I apprehend, be a matter of the utmost difficulty to
success of both these action plans is dependent on a good
award the palm for intrinsic beauty to the one rather than
understanding of what green growth is. Much of what is
to the other of these structures.
cheered for in the name of a circular economy, is a dance around the golden calf, and the calf ’s name is not the
This he wrote in “The Theory of the Leisure Class” in
environment - but growth, and the results are increased
1899, but it is equally applicable today. It is not possible
to measure any aesthetic improvement within the past 20
In the UK the authorities and finally the industry have
years. Clothing has become more bountiful, but not better.
for some time tried to clean up the industry. They have
They last for a shorter time and cost less.
received awards and they have tried to move mountains.
If we go back even further in time, to Veblen’s
Despite numerous meetings, good intensions and miles of
contemporaries or even predecessors, apparel was the
reports, we haven’t seen real concrete or verifiable results.8
most valuable thing people owned. They had few and
The environmental pressures are increasing, if not as fast
more expensive garments, not to mention that they were
– there still is an increase and not a decrease.9 The trend
incredibly good at styling and reuse11,12. The fashion and
has not been reversed even though this was the actual goal.
media industries have stolen this from us, along with the
The dominant theme, which is continuous green growth
confidence that we can make our own clothes. The lack of
and circular economy, with everyone singing this solution’s
confidence in our own knowledge and our own appearance.
praise, has simply not been even close to solving the
If we compare how satisfied people are today with how they
problem. What is actually being applauded is that we (the
look, with for example. 1985, satisfaction has decidedly
rich Western world) can continue to become both greener
declined if we use body image as a measuring stick.13 We
and richer without having to change our course. And why
can therefore talk about a resource-economic downturn.
should we, as long as we’ve been able to pull wool over
We are spending more and more of the Earth’s resources to
be increasingly less satisfied with our appearance. Growth
Recently we were at a major conference in the Azores
has been in kilograms, but neither in dollar value nor in
where natural fibers were the theme - but where it became
satisfaction. No matter how much these clothes circulate,
almost laughably visible that much of the on-going
they do not solve the basic problem; that they should never
“innovation” is completely aimless. Here we learned about
have been produced.
cotton that behaved like wool, linen that behaved like cotton - because? Has someone requested or asked for
LCAs – counting what counts
these products? Using raw materials as we know them, but
A lot of work has gone into developing tools for
in a better way, so that they come into their own, was not
comparisons of the environmental impacts of different
on the agenda. Is it because everyone thinks that “new” is
fibers and processes in the production of textiles. And we
infinitely better than the “old, proven”, that works. If it
mean a lot. The most used method is called LCA, which
ain’t broken, don’t fix it.
stands for Life Cycle Assessment14, or: Look out Caution Ahead. When it comes to finding ways to substantiate
Growth, yes, but in what?
“green growth” (quotation marks needed), LCAs can easily
20 years ago, around 1985, we spent less than half the
be misused and basically scientifically prove that a fiber or
current amount of money on clothing. You may think you
a material is more environmentally friendly than another. 36
INGUN GRIMSTAD KLEPP & TONE SKÅRDAL TOBIASSON
This because they only measure impact from “farm to gate”
goal, while people actually having, using and enjoying
rather than what they say they are supposed to: follow
their clothing more, is not. It is rather a problem! If
the entire life-cycle .They also use industrial measures on
your children inherit clothes from their cousins it is not
nature, which is never a good idea, for example land-use
considered a transaction of economic value, but if you buy
as a constant negative16. Variations of LCAs go further, for
them at Fretex, you are contributing to “green growth”.
example EP & L (Environmental Profile & Loss statements)
From an environmental perspective however, inheritance
which major international consortia are now cheering
is top of the pops, and not to mention: it is this form of
onward. It is of course useful to know how great the
“reuse” which actually makes a difference. Collecting and
environmental impact of various products are. But just as
selling used clothing is primarily about exports to poorer
important as production, is the way in which they are used.
countries, and does not replace new purchases. Increasing
Until now, LCAs on textiles have been made on the
collection assumes that someone else wants to use the
basis of knowledge about production and raw materials.
growing mountain of hardly used clothing we are amassing.
But most people will understand that comparing paint
For some product groups, such as T-shirts, this market is
measured in liters does not give a good measure of
simply glutted. The world does not need one more slightly
environmental impact. A better measurement is 10 years
used T-shirt. Not a new one either, for that matter.
with a painted wall. How long commodities last, is crucial
Recycling of clothing is actually worse. To recycle
to the environmental impact over time. Clothes can be
the “factions,” as they are called in waste language, they
produced as disposable products (or hardly used, as many
must be clean. That is why sorting is the first step of
clothes end up in flea markets with the price tag on), or
recycling. Plastics and paper are easy to sort. But clothes
they can last for centuries. Without taking life-span into
are made of all kinds of materials, synthetic, organic,
the environmental account, these calculations end up
cellulose, natural, metals and problematic, even dangerous
raving mad. We need better products that last longer, not
chemical-additives. Thus recycling is difficult. In practice
more equally bad ones with slightly lower environmental
it is a question of down-cycling. What is produced in the
impact. It is like sending more airplanes into the air with a
other end, are simple things like wipes, though research is
little less polluting fuel, but with just as many empty seats.
rampant and new yarns from discarded clothes are said to
But. Again. It is all about, as we understand this,
be just around the corner. That corner has been a very long
using figures and analysis to glorify corporations’ simple
corner – and we are still waiting. Instead of developing new
(or simplistic) “choice” of innovative materials which
methods for recycling, efforts could however be directed
are mostly based on oil or for a quick replacement that
towards clothes remaining in use longer. Then the volume
immediately seems better. But, without asking questions
would go down (immediate environmental savings) and
about why or what really is improvement. The big winner
durability, fit and flexibility would go up.18 It is not difficult
in LCAs so far is recycled polyester. Nice thinking... but
to make clothing and textiles that last 10 or 100 times
there is an incredible number of clothing and textiles that
longer than what is common today. Our ancestors knew
will not be used if made in this material, simply because
the score. We, however, believe that “fast fashion” makes
it does not have the user characteristics that most people
us happier, and as long as we pass our apparel on to the
enjoy and demand.
recyclers, everything is fine.
Full speed in a circle, but at a stand-still
Mari Grinde Arntzen writes in the book Perfect:19
Both NCM’s action plan and most of the ongoing
“In recent years, a third expression [in advertising] has
initiatives in the Nordic countries have focused on reuse
appeared. ETSP - Ethical Selling Proposition. Consumers
and recycling. In many areas this is obviously17 a good and
follow the news. We buy too much, and things are
important perspective. But, when it comes to clothing,
produced in inhumane and environmentally damaging
this is a dead end. That apparel changes hands through sale
ways. Too high and problematic consumption damages
of used clothing, has become a political and commercial
nature and people. So, in order to drown out the bad 37
A DIZZYING SPIN ON GREEN GROWTH
taste in the mouth, the prime focus has shifted. For us
the most toxic pollutants in history. Unfortunately, it is
to continue to buy stuff, even though we know about
still out there, also in Norway’s clean nature, as it takes
consumption’s dark side, advertising is focusing on
forever to disappear. And it testifies to that we should not
consumption that “does well”. Buy a pair of shoes, and
compromise on these issues. In its time it was all part of
we give away a pair to someone in need. (...) The trick is
the applauding choir wishing for innovation and progress.
to give a sense of action that does good. That what you
Quick results. Increased productivity. Hooray. Until the
are doing is ethically correct. Thus, you can buy the same
consequences became obvious. Our DDT concept is about
amount, with good conscience. ETSP keeps the buying
Design Destined for Trash - our modern head-ache. And
desire intact, and the consumer is derailed from the fact
according to our proposal to the NCM (recently presented
that high consumption is unnecessary and causes harm.” So
as a separate report in Tema Nord series) DDT should be
the focus is still growth in volume, not in value.
replaced by W2W (Wonderful to Wear). Clothing we use over and over again.
Replace DDT with Wonderful 2 Wear
The project KRUS (“Crimp”), which is funded
Instead of thinking about clothes as waste and use as
by the Norwegian Research Council’s program for
recycling – it is possible to turn things around and upside
biological enterprise, has a sizable pot of money to delve
down, by paying attention to what we want to own in our
into these issues. When NCM in their action plan, and
wardrobes. What has value? Which garments do we own
Innovation Norway (through their Dream for the future –
and use over and over again? How can clothes help us feel
“Drømmeløftet”), do not ask the big question, we become
beautiful, confident and happy, what can help us to take
worried. Is green growth about volume and a dizzying spin
part in society, active, and what items are we so fond of
in terms of “circular economy”? Or is it actually about
that we do not want to part with, ever? So that we actually
value and prolonged use – and services linked to this?
do not need to go shopping for something new.
Our ambition is that by examining how a local
We are often asked: but can businesses make money?
commodity that is indigenous to Norway (namely wool),
The question’s obvious answer is: No, it does not pay off.
we may be able to use this as a point of departure to develop
What is profitable is not paying workers, not purifying
valuable and lasting apparel. We believe this change will
wastewater, not taking into account animal welfare and
benefit people, and give them more self-confidence and a
children’s right to a livable life. Many earn good money by
sense of belonging.
ignoring these issues. To pay it the true cost and to take
But the question is whether the forces that control
into account the environment and ethics, is expensive no
the market, dare take up the glove that has been cast. This
matter where things are produced.
applies to both the commercial and political stake-holders.
This certainly sounds like the death toll for trade as we
Do they want to keep the consumer dizzy, or do they dare
know it. It goes to the core of growth. Growth is the credo
to stop, and do something that really makes a difference?
of our economy. But: in the food sector, the focus on local food and alternative distribution channels has contributed to an alternative to the standardized, mass-produced and generally tasteless on offer. The big chains have been forced to take in exciting small stake-holders with food that actually tastes or has value in terms of connection to the local place, the history, or is associated with good welfare for the humans and/or animals who have helped in production. Ethics and animal welfare resonate in the media. It has been possible to choose, if you wish. What do we mean by replacing DDT with lasting and beautiful clothes? We all know that DDT is one of 38
INGUN GRIMSTAD KLEPP & TONE SKÅRDAL TOBIASSON
10 Veblen, T. (1899). The Theory of the Leisure Class:
1 SSB 2013: Forbruksundersøkelsen, 2012 Publisert: 17.
An Economic Study in the Evolution of Institutions.
desember 2013 https://www.ssb.no/fbu/ and SSB. (2014).
Utenrikshandel med varer. Tabell: 08812: Utenrikshandel
11 Klepp, I. G., & Laitala, K. (2015a). Consumption
med varer, etter varegruppe (tosifret SITC), land og
studies; The force of the ordinary. In Fletcher, K. & Tham,
transportmåte (tonn) Hentet 11.4.2014, fra https://www.
M. (Eds.), The Routledge Handbook of Sustainability and
Fashion. London: Routledge.
2 SSB. (2013).Tabell 10235: Utgift per husholdning per år,
12 Klepp, I. G., & Laitala, K. (2015b). His mother’s dress
etter vare- og tjenestegruppe. Hentet 4.2.2015, fra ttps://
- Growth in the number of clothes. In Strandbakken, P. &
Gronow, J. (Eds.), The Consumer in Society - A Tribute to
Eivind Stø (pp. 311-334). Oslo: Abstrakt forlag.
13 Kvalem, Ingela Lundin; von Soest, Tilmann; Træen,
3 Fletcher, K. (2008). Sustainable fashion & textiles:
Bente & Singsaas, Kjetil S (2011). Body evaluation and
Design Journeys. London: Earthscan.
coital onset: A population-based longitudinal study.
4 NMR 2015: http://abelia.no/getfile.php/Dokumenter/
Body image. ISSN 1740-1445. 8(2), s 110- 118 . doi:
14 ISO 14040. (2006). Environmental management - Life
5 Fletcher, K. & Tham, M. (Eds.) The Routledge
cycle assessment - Principles and framework. Geneva:
Handbook of Sustainability and Fashion. London:
International Organization for Standardization.
15 Laursen, S. E., Bagh, J., Hansen, J., Jensen, O. K.,
6 Klepp, I.G. mf. 2015 (in press). Sustainable textile
& Werther, I. (1997). Environmental assessment of
initiatives and suggestions for a Nordic Roadmap. Tema
textiles. Life cycle screening of the production of textiles
containing cotton, wool, viscose, polyester or acrylic fibres
7 Worldwatch Institute. (2011). Vital signs 2011: The
Miljøprojekt nr. 369. Copenhagen: Miljøstyrelsen. Miljø-
trends that are shaping our future. Washington, DC:
og Energiministeriet and Made-By (2011). Environmental
benchmark for fibres (Condensed Version). In L. Brown &
8 Langley, E., Durkacz, S., & Tanase, S. (2013). Clothing
Wilmanns Environmental (Ed.), (2 ed., Vol. 2011, pp. 7).
longevity and measuring active use. Banbury, Oxon:
Santa Barbara: MADE-BY.
Wrap. Turley, D. B., Horne, M., Blackburn, R. S., Stott,
16 Kviseth, K, & Tobiasson, T.S. (2011). Pulling Wool over
E., Laybourn, S. R., Copeland, J. E. (2010). The role and
our Eyes. The Dirty business of LCAs. KEA conference
business case for existing and emerging fibres in sustainable
clothing: final report to the Department for Environment,
18 Laitala, K., & Klepp, I. G. (2013). Bare mote?
Food and Rural Affairs (Defra), (pp. 141). London, UK
Materialitetens betydning for klærs levetid. In P.
and Carbon Trust (2011). International Carbon Flows -
Strandbakken & N. Heidenstrøm (Eds.), Hinsides
Clothing (CTC793) (pp. 17). London: Carbon Trust
symbolverdi - Materialiteten i forbruket (pp. 145-167).
9 European Environment Agency (2014). Environmental
indicator report 2014. Environmental impacts of
19 Artnzen, M.G. (2015). Perfekt – Skapelsen av det
production-consumption systems in Europe. Luxembourg.
plettfrie mennesket (p. 110). Forlaget Manifest. 39
Credit: ERWIN HASSELBRINCK 41
Samarbeid er lik bærekraft: Om entreprenørskap og sterke fellesskap ANNIKEN FJELBERG
Hva betyr setningen: “Samarbeid er den nye konkurransen”? Grammatisk er den kontradiktorisk og den henger ikke på greip. Men samarbeid på kryss av næringer og profesjoner er nøkkelen til nye og innovative løsninger som kan sikre et bærekraftig samfunn. Coworking representerer en ny måte å samlokalisere næringer på, som gjennom deling av kompetanse og erfaring bidrar til en mer bærekraftig framvekst av nye virksomheter. Flere virksomheter enn noensinne samlokaliseres for å oppnå synergier seg imellom, og dermed få tilgang på det mulighetsrommet som eksisterer slik at de kan forløse de kreftene som skal til for å lykkes.
Samfunn i endring
sammen for å dele tjenester som tid, plass, kunnskaper og
Begrepet bærekraft tok Norge som en stormvind da det
ferdigheter eller penger. Disse ulike samarbeidsformene
kom med Brundtlandrapporten på 1970-tallet. Det
appellerer til gründere som ønsker å skape nye produkter,
inntok en sentral plass både i politikken og ikke minst i
tjenester, eller bedrifter, og dermed vokser trenden om
skoleverket. I dag er begrepet nesten fraværende på alle
coworking frem. Mange i dag har hørt om Cross-Sector
arenaer, og i en del miljøer blir det endog oppfattet som
innovation, hvilket betyr hvordan en bransje i samarbeid
bakstreversk og gammeldags. Administrerende direktør
med en annen bransje kan få et nytt perspektiv, og dermed
i OsloTech, Karl-Christian Agerup, kommenterte nylig
kan løse nye problemer som man ikke hadde verktøy for å
Drømmeløftet til Innovasjon Norge1. Agerup skrev at de
løse tidligere fordi man får flere nye perspektiver på samme
elementene han mener er avgjørende for økt nyskaping
problemstilling. I krysningspunktet mellom ulike bransjer
”drukner i begreper som visjon, innovasjon, bærekraft,
oppstår noe nytt. Samarbeid genererer trippel klokskap, og
omstilling, skalerbarhet, forenkling, modighet osv.” Betyr
helt nye løsninger.
dette at ordet bærekraft har mistet sitt opprinnelige Rom for deling
innhold? Som coworker mener jeg at bærekraft tvert i mot
Siden mye skal endres på kort tid, må vi gjennom det
er moderne. Det fremtvinger naturlige iboende krefter
mange omtaler som et ”jordskjelv” i de fleste næringer.
i mennesket, holder prinsippet om at sammen kan vi
Wikipedia forklarer Earthquake engineering som følgende:
klare det meste høyt og forståelsen av at vi ikke bare
”A properly engineered structure does not necessarily have
har oss selv og vår egen virksomhet å ta hensyn til. I
to be extremely strong or expensive. It has to be properly
tillegg til dette har coworking den perfekte formen for
designed to withstand the seismic effects while sustaining
å takle omstillingstakten nåtidens kunnskapssamfunn
an acceptable level of damage.”2 Vi er i dag vitne til en
krever. Konsepter som coworking og klynger i
økende ustabilitet og kortsiktighet i verdenssamfunnet,
kunnskapsøkonomien er altså levedyktige over tid og
både innen politikken og i økonomien. Vi er tvunget
bærekraftige så det holder!
til å respondere raskt på den økende endringstakten
Kommunikasjonsbransjen har alltid vært preget av
i både klimatiske- og økonomiske rammer. I en slik
hard konkurranse, aktører med spisse albuer og store egoer.
virkelighet vil fleksibilitet og samarbeidskompetanse være
Det er ikke uten grunn at TV-serien ”Mad Men” med sine
makt- og grådighetsfortellinger fikk så mange seere.
Et godt coworkingspace kjennetegnes av at det evner
Etter mange gode år ser vi i dag at store
å skape nettopp en slik bærekraftig struktur gjennom tiltak
kommunikasjonshus snubler eller faller fordi de ikke har
som fremmer samarbeid og utvikling. En undersøkelse
klart endringstakten i samfunnet. Paradigmeskiftet til
gjort av Wix og Officevibe forteller at 91 prosent av
delingsøkonomi er vanskelig for en bransje som har vært
coworkerne sier de har bedre interaksjoner som coworkere.
bygget på suksessrike enkeltindivider og store penger. Dette
Dette støttes også av forskeren Dr. Robert Cialdini som
gjelder ikke bare her til lands, det er en wake-up-call for
viser at vi liker mennesker bedre dersom vi samarbeider
mesteparten av verden. I en tid hvor kommunikasjon,
med dem.3 I tillegg er det dokumentert at samarbeid bedrer
budskapsformidling og kulturuttrykk er viktigere enn noen
økonomiske resultater. Det er altså god grunn til å tro at
gang, er det essensielt at bransjen evner å omstille seg.
samarbeidsformen vil nå også andre næringer fremover.
Delingsøkonomi handler om å dele på ressursene på en fornuftig måte, enten gjennom produktservice-systemer,
Gi så skal du få
hvor man leier ut produkter eller tjenester som ikke er i
Coworking krever åpenhet og initiativ, og mange vil hevde
bruk til andre mot betaling, gjennom gjenbruksmarkeder,
det krever spesielle personligheter. Jeg mener dette ikke
hvor produkter man ikke lenger har bruk for selges til
stemmer og tror arbeidsformen først og fremst handler
andre, eller gjennom samarbeidsformer, hvor mennesker
om å endre tankemønster. At vi beveger oss mot en større
med sammenfallende behov eller interesser kommer
kollektiv bevissthet i tillegg til å ha fokus på egen vinning. 43
Samarbeid genererer trippel klokskap, og helt nye lĂ¸sninger.
Credit: HANS PETTER SMEBY/NYTT ROM
SAMARBEID ER LIK BÆREKRAFT: OM ENTREPENØRSKAP OG STERKE FELLESKAP
Mange fikk med seg Gene Marks’ artikkel ”Why I Don’t
som enkelt gjør coworkerne i stand til å betale hverandre
Want to Have Coffee With You” i sosiale medier i vår4,
for tid, tjenester eller produkter de utveksler seg imellom.
hvor han uttaler at han kun vil bruke tiden sin på å drikke
Systemer som dette har dukket opp i mange samfunn over
kaffe med folk han kan gjøre business med på en eller
hele verden de senere årene, slik som for eksempel den
annen måte, eller som han skylder en tjeneste. Ingen andre.
digitale valutaen bitcoin.
Slik ”what’s in it for me”- mentalitet er et hinder for at flere lykkes som gründere. Han har et poeng i at det er viktig
for oss gründere å prioritere tiden vår riktig, men det er
I fremtiden tror jeg unge mennesker i større grad enn
også viktig å finne balansen mellom bruk av tid til åpen
tidligere vil være mentorer for de mer erfarne, fordi
utforskning i gründerrollen og det å utelukkende jobbe
unge mennesker hjelper oss å finne vei i nytt terreng.
100 prosent fokusert mot eget mål. Personlig opplever jeg
Mentorrollen, en rolle som har eksistert i næringslivet i
at mennesker som åpner opp, er nysgjerrige og rause har
alle år, er i endring fordi næringslivet er i full forandring.
mer å bidra med både i egne og andres prosesser enn de
I coworkingspaces og start-up hub’er over hele verden
som velger ikke å være det. Dette understøttes av Øyvind
utvikles det virksomheter som en konsekvens av nye behov
Kvalnes ved Handelshøyskolen BI, som i en artikkel i DN i
i nye markeder og tverrsektoriell tenkning, av ny teknologi
februar skrev at folk som deler kunnskap er bedre rustet til
og av helt nye samarbeidsformer på tvers av geografi og
nyskapning enn de som holder ting for seg selv.5
En smart gründer ber ikke bare om å få tilgang på
Det skapes behov som aldri tidligere har eksistert.
andres kompetanse, men byr på seg selv og sin kunnskap
Det er ikke lett å være mentor for noen du ikke forstår
til de rundt seg. Og de aller smarteste begynner med å
hva driver med, og det er ikke nødvendigvis lenger sånn at
gi selv, før de ber om noe fra andre. Cialdini kaller dette
mentoren er senior til den man er mentor for i ett-og-
for gjensidighetsprinsippet, og definerer det som ”den
alt. Stadig høyere endringstakt gjør at mentorstanden
universelle regelen vi mennesker følger i alle kulturer om at
sannsynligvis også vil inkludere unge mennesker i langt
man er følelsesmessig forpliktet til å gi noe tilbake etter å
større grad i fremtiden, og at mentor-relasjonen utvikler
ha mottatt selv.”6
seg til å bli mer gjensidig. At det fremover handler om kunnskapsutveksling og læring for både mentor og adept.
Rollemodeller og mentoring
For noen måneder siden ble Ut: Studentbyrå lansert.
Jeg vil påstå at det ligger økt bærekraft i å ha rollemodeller
Det er et byrå av, for og med siste-års bachelorstudenter
rundt seg som man kan hente inspirasjon og læring
fra de største kreative høyskolene i Oslo-området. Per i dag
fra når man er gründer. Dette forutsetter at det finnes
har piloten hatt over 100 studenter gjennom fire kreative
rollemodeller som tar seg bryet med å dele. Under ”She-
”cuper” for store selskaper som Oslo Konserthus, Statoil og
konferansen” på Latter den 8. mars i år ble grunnlegger av
Telia Sonera. På hver ”cup” stiller et mentorlag fra relevante
Forskerfabrikken, Hanne Finstad, tildelt rollemodell- og
fagmiljøer, og innsatsen til disse mentorene oppleves som
inspiratorprisen ”She 2015.” Ett av hennes budskap var at
svært verdifull for studentene.
vi alle er rollemodeller enten vi er oss det bevisst eller ikke.
I tillegg ser man et tydelig mønster i at både mentorer
Jeg liker å kalle mennesker som Finstad forbilder. Folk som
og oppdragsgivere blir inspirert av studentene fordi de har
motiverer og inspirerer andre til å våge å gå nye veier, tro på
et annet perspektiv.
egne drømmer, og realisere store, hårete mål.
Erfaring er ikke alltid en fordel, noen ganger kan erfaring faktisk være til hinder for innovasjon.
I coworking tas rollemodeller og mentoring på alvor. Selv om langt fra alle som jobber på denne måten er ferske gründere, opplever vi alle et behov for mentoring fra tid til annen. Flere fungerer som rollemodeller og forbilder for hverandre, og for å stimulere til deling og samarbeid mellom
Det er derfor Ut: Studentbyrå planlegger et
disse er det utviklet en egen valuta (cwash = coworking cash)
”mentorprogram” hvor erfarne kan komme med 46
problemstillinger til unge, nyutdannede studenter, de som
blitt mine venner.”
ikke vet at noe ikke kan gjøres, og at næringslivet på den
Som medgründer og med flere års erfaring fra
måten kanskje får skråblikket som trenges inn i gamle,
coworking er min påstand at utsagnet ”Samarbeid er
fastlåste problemstillinger og tenkemåter.
den nye konkurransen” ikke bare er logisk og sant – det fungerer også i praksis. Mitt råd er derfor at du bør by
Kreativitet er den nye oljen
på kunnskapen din, og samarbeide i utstrakt grad med
Om du ønsker deg penger, råd eller nettverk, er det alltid
gamle og nye forbindelser – selv om det noen ganger
en god idé å snakke med andre underveis. Ta kontakt med
virker krevende å finne tid. Det bygger ikke bare opp deg
ditt forbilde og be om et råd. Og dersom du er så heldig
og ditt firma, men det bidrar også til en mer bærekraftig
å være forbilde for noen som tar kontakt med deg, vær
gründerstand i et land som sårt trenger noe annet enn olje
raus! Det gir ”god karma” og bidrar til en mer bærekraftig
å bygge sin fremtid på. Og på 657 Oslo er vi overbevist om
gründerstand. Du skal selvsagt ikke by på mer enn du
at kreativitet er den nye oljen.
har å gi, men jeg anbefaler deg å gå den ekstra milen som noen ganger kan kjennes litt lang. Samfunnet trenger det, gründere trenger det, og det er ikke usannsynlig at du noen ganger også vil nyte godt av det selv, uten at du nødvendigvis vet det på forhånd. Fra Gründerpulsen til Innovasjon Norge den 13. mars ser vi et bilde hvor Halvor Gregusson i Rocketfarm møter en investor. Om de drakk kaffe eller ikke vet jeg ingenting om, men møtet resulterte uansett ikke i cash. Likevel var det i følge Gregusson det beste møtet han noensinne har vært i fordi han da forsto hvordan investoren tenker. Enda godt at investoren tok seg tid til det møtet. Noen ganger er det forbilledlig å ta seg tid til et møte, selv om man ikke forventer å få noe igjen for det
umiddelbart. Raushet og bærekraft er to ord som oftere
1 Agerup, Karl-Christian (2015): http://e24.no/
og oftere brukes i samme setning. Flere unge bedrifter
overlever når de får hjelp i form av tid, råd eller penger i
startfasen av de som er kommet lenger enn dem selv. Også
de tradisjonsrike, store konsernene har noe å lære av denne
2 Wikipedia (2015): https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/
type bærekraft i en tid hvor nyvinninger og innovasjon
har mye fokus, og det er viktigere enn noensinne å være
3 Harvard Business Review (2013): The Users (and
lettbent og fremoverlent.
Abusers) of Influence”, July-August 2013 Issue, https://hbr.
Samarbeidskompetanse og nettverksbygging er en
av de viktigste komponentene i forhold til bedrifters
4 Marks, Gene (2015): “Why I Don’t Want to Have Coffee
bærekraft i dag, og coworking som metode byr på nettopp
With You”, Entrepreneur Magazine, 30 March 2015.
dette. Det er i denne konteksten slagordet ”Samarbeid er
den nye konkurransen” ble unnfanget. Andreas på 657
5 Kvalnes, Øyvind (2015): “Kunnskapsdelerne”, Dagens
Oslo sa det slik til en gruppe besøkende: ”Her jobber jeg
Næringsliv, 08.02.2015, http://www.dn.no/meninger/
med mitt eget selskap ved siden av mange likesinnede
bransjekollegaer. Vi ser på hverandre som kollegaer, men
6 Harvard Business Review (2013): “The Users (and
de samme menneskene er noen ganger mine partnere og
Abusers) of Influence”, July-August 2013 Issue, https://hbr.
andre ganger mine konkurrenter. Og mange av dem har
‘If you have nothing left but air, can you use it to build?’
Under the Khmer Rouge a quarter of the country’s citizens
during hot days. They also help drain excessive rainwater
were killed, cities were abandoned for years and all land-
and floods during the monsoons. In addition, three market
ownership papers were burned. Only recently Cambodia
areas are situated where city roads cross the structure.
has begun to rebuild and plan into the future. Yet most
The living units must be light tensile structures to avoid
people cannot claim their right to their own land, only
exceeding weight limitations. When a house is hanging
from the sky, a vertical hierarchy is developed. ‘Sky ladders’ go through the centre of the home. By heating the air
In 2007 Boeung Kak Lake was bought by an investment
inside an enclosed mylar membrane, the hot air rises and
company, which forced the 4,000 families living nearby
creates an ascending lift.
to abandon their homes. Between 2008 and 2013 the lake which was an important part of the natural drainage system
The structure offers an alternative typology in the city,
was filled with sand and is today a desert land. Due to
where levels are constantly moving and people inhabit
pressure from the World Bank, the displaced communities
a floating life. Creating a cooler environment and shade
have been given 12 per cent of the filled lake land. The
from the strong sun, plants can grow freely on the ground,
project proposes an alternative site where residents receive 3
inviting people into the Lung of Phnom Penh.
per cent of ground space but 15 hectares of the sky. The site punctures the new development on the lake with a public green park under floating balloons. This ‘green line’ connects important areas in the city to function as an essential ‘High Line’ for Phnom Penh. Pools provide water for the plants and residents during droughts while also creating a cool environment and natural ventilation system 48
Gambiarra: Repair Culture
Maker culture, the so-called revolution bringing digital fabrication technologies to the common citizen, has gained a lot of ground in the last few years. Maybe too much, in fact. We can of course ignore those people who are only, as always, surfing the current wave of hype. They seldom have any clue of the ideas they are selling themselves with anyway. But it also feels as though everybody else is talking about maker culture. Those words are even being uttered by people who have always been opposed to what they should mean. Or is it me? Did I get it wrong all the way?
The first time I read about a “maker culture”, it was a sort
acceleration towards the end of industrial age, celebrity
of relief. I had finally found - or so I thought - a way to
author-speakers are now talking about a “new industrial
explain a number of initiatives some of us in Brazil had
revolution”3. In the same direction, the Obama
been involved in for some years already. Framing those
administration is reportedly planning to pour one billion
things as “making” enabled us to mix critical thinking
dollars4 to set up 15 “manufacturing innovation hubs”5
with DIY (as brilliantly put by Matt Ratto on “critical
with the goal of sustaining industrial growth. As if the
making” ), proposing a sort of creative engagement
centuries oriented by industrial paradigms didn’t bring
that escaped the dead-ends of tedious market-driven
enough harm to the world already. Sure, one cannot deny
innovation. A culture of conscious makers could recognize
the improvements brought about by industry - especially in
and promote alternative solutions and new perspectives for
terms of driving scientific development and its implications
everyday problems, valuing distributed and collaborative
in food, transportation, health and communications.
approaches and seeking the common good. It would help
At the same time, though, we have seen some aspects
overcome traditional institutions and their clogged circuits
of contemporary life go in a totally wrong way. Think
of information. Local, cooperative formations would
for instance about waste and pollution, inequality,
challenge the logics of global industrial capitalism, treating
disintegration of cultures and social ties, permanent global
every human being - or small group, however loose it was
war and many other consequences of the industrial age.
- as potentially creative and productive. Industrial products
I’m not sure we should even be trying to promote a new
that suffered of planned obsolescence would be repaired
industrial revolution if those aspects are not carefully taken
as armies of amateurs used the internet to share digital
into account. And judging by the prevailing discourse
models of replacement parts. New kinds of meaning and
within the current breed of maker culture, I’m not sure
engagement would evolve, influenced by such approaches
to material and cultural expression. Possibilities emerging
When the maker culture becomes eminently entrepreneurial, we should wonder what mechanisms are set in motion.
from the free software and hacker movements would finally evert the world of things. And yet, we ended up in a world of newbie geeks assembling prefabricated kits of 3D printers, with which hipster designers-to-be (often the new-geeks themselves) can melt lots of plastic - which is hardly recyclable - into
It may as well be the old capitalist drive to turn the
prototypes of new products, hoping to become rich and
critique itself into the gears of its own reinvention gaining
famous. Most such prototypes will never be used for
ground. Could we ever escape that path?
anything at all, but their creators will nonetheless spam all
It was 2002 when a group of people in Brazil first
over Facebook, Twitter and Instagram trying to convince us
discussed the ideas that eventually led to the creation of
they are building our (better, in a way no one can specify)
MetaReciclagem.6 In the first projection of those shared
future. Who knows, they may be invited to do a TED talk
cyberpunk dreams, we would use the internet to gather
or raise some bucks on Kickstarter. Or at least become
local groups to work with the discarded PCs we saw piling
consultants for an international NGO willing to develop
up everywhere. Once repaired and put back to work using
“technologies for education”.
free and open source software, those computers could then
And there we go. Forget about hackers getting blisters
be configured as nodes in autonomous wireless networks
in their hands as they struggle to become carpenters. Those
that promised digital communications beyond the
times are gone. Sadly, the most important skill in the
constraints and market limitations of corporate internet.
maker culture these days seems to be keeping a spreadsheet
Never mind the fact that at that time none of us had ever
on Google drive with a business plan and a consistent
touched a Wi-Fi card, and only a couple had any working
strategy for social media PR. Numbers everywhere.
experience with free/open source software. We were
In more general terms, instead of portraying an
opening up those magical black boxes with our own hands 55
GAMBIARRA: REPAIR CULTURE
Credit: JOHANNA AOIFE 56
and changing the way they worked. And it felt great. It was
a newborn child - and proceed by inviting neighbors,
a group of passionate explorers of new possibilities, however
relatives, friends and acquaintances to help out, often with
remote those might seem. I don’t think we set up a lot of
their own hands. The result is an autonomous, iconoclast
those Utopian networks, but by decomposing the steps that
and celebratory sociability that is abundant and productive.
would bring us there we managed to accomplish a lot.
Gambiarra refers to all kinds of improvised solutions to
We were of course following the huge tidal changes
concrete problems that appear when one doesn’t have
taking place by the turn of the millennium. Some of us had
access to the proper tools, materials, parts or specific
been dragged into the dot-com bubble (the first one, still in
knowledge to perform a given task. It is all about repairing
the last century) with hopes of infinite creative challenges,
or re-purposing objects that seemed to be of little use but
only to end up finding office doors closed with locks
end up acquiring new value out of tacit, applied creativity.
after stocks imploded. Others were involved with urban
I sometimes call it “everyday innovation”. The Spanish
demonstrations against WTO and corporate globalization.
designer Victor Viña draws a parallel between gambiarra,
The second edition of the World Social Forum7 in 2002
jugaad and bricolage.8 These are cultural practices which are
offered some of us glimpses of hope in a world otherwise
naturally tactical, deeply rooted in the essentially human
still paralyzed by 9/11. Despite the bad times, within
and widely available ability of understanding objects
MetaReciclagem it felt as if faith, good intentions and hard
with one’s mind and hands, and then taking action over
work would allow us to create better futures. Whatever
such objects. They see the world as abundant in potential
that meant. Our part, it seemed by then, would start by
solutions instead of precarious or scarce in resources.
gathering every Saturday in a warehouse in the southern
Some years into this game, I had already heard of
part of São Paulo to repair discarded computers.
and even visited a number of the projects which for over
MetaReciclagem turned from an idea into a distributed
a decade had been proposing and implementing similar
group, and then onto a methodology that was open to be
ideas. In particular European hacklabs were rooted into
appropriated by whoever wished to, anywhere. At some
a social context that I could relate to. People involved
point, a network of about half a dozen self-managed
with these hacklabs stemming from an activist context -
MetaReciclagem labs in different regions of Brazil would
squatters, hackers, engaged artists, even critical theorists
receive donated PCs, make them useful again in some way
- talked of other possibilities for contemporary living, of
and then give them away to social projects and movements.
cultural diversity and common good reaching far beyond
Some of us were also invited to advise on and implement
the tired mechanisms of a market economy ruled by
public policies related to information technologies and
big media. They promoted networked politics that were
society. At some point MetaReciclagem came to be
radically inclusive. They strove to fight cognitive capitalism,
explained in such an elastic definition as a loose network
consumerism and alienation. DIY was the norm, as well
promoting the “critical appropriation of technologies for
as copyleft and consensus-based decision-making. In that
social change”. During that evolution, we discovered a
context, free and open source software was not only an
number of groups, people and initiatives in other parts of
efficient way to organize the production of knowledge
the world that acknowledged the huge potential of using
but also a cultural and critical take on the pervasiveness
discarded equipment and free/open source software to
of relationships mediated only by economic values. That
address both the uneven distribution of and the enclosure
universe made a lot of sense to our projects and political
of knowledge into information technologies.
momentum in Brazil as well.
Our own contribution to this context was related,
The same can’t easily be said of formations that
we found some time later, to the way our actions were
would emerge later on, even ones inspired by the very
deeply informed by Brazilian cultural practices such as
same context. A symbolic example is the transformation
gambiarra and mutirão. Mutirão is the sort of collective
performed by the hackerspace movement, translating
dynamics that takes place when we Brazilians need to find
and transporting the largely underground practices of
solutions - say, building an extra room to accommodate
(basically) European hacklabs to a wider public first in 57
The maker movement is a trend in which individuals or groups of individuals create and market products that are recreated and assembled using unused, discarded or broken electronic, plastic, silicon or virtually any raw material and/or product from a computer-related device 1
Credit: MARCO ESTRELLA 59
GAMBIARRA: REPAIR CULTURE
the US and later in the rest of the world. The association
were still trying to find out what it was that we wanted to
of hackerspaces with what came to be known as a
accomplish in those lost, sometimes frustrating Saturdays
“maker culture” gave me, as said above, an amazing first
- someone shared a link in our e-mail discussion list. It
impression. Indeed, while reading Cory Doctorow’s
pointed to a project in the UK called Lowtech12. Associated
Makers - first published in 2009 - I was pleased to recognize
with Access Space13 a digital arts centre in Sheffield that
practices, methods and aspirations that felt similar to ones
used exclusively discarded computers and Linux to carry
common within the MetaReciclagem network in Brazil.
its activities, Lowtech offered valuable insights that were
I also noticed essential differences in the world portrayed
definitely incorporated into our practices. It wasn’t before
by Doctorow’s novel, such as the central role attributed to
half a decade later during an edition of Futuresonic
commercial modes of operation. But I eventually dismissed
(now FutureEverything14) in Manchester that I had the
the relevance of these nuances, treating them as result of
opportunity to get acquainted with James Wallbank, the
particular cultural biases.
British artist who ran Access Space and created Lowtech.
We then started an open-ended conversation - that is still
It seems however that the current breed of maker culture has completely surrendered to market forces.
taking place today - about machines, hands, skills, scents and futures. When I met James again a couple of years ago in Finland for the Bricolabs programme during the Pixelache
I won’t even start discussing the prevalence of
festival15 he was promoting the Refab Space. This was
proprietary operating systems inside the laptops (and
his own take on setting up a lab with digital fabrication
smartphones, tablets, etc.) of today’s so-called makers.
equipment - some of it donated from local factories that
Let’s try to focus on the bigger picture. Not only did
were moving abroad. Instead of buying into the holy
the hackerspace movement give room to somewhat
grail of maker culture, James was curious about the actual
domesticated practices of commercial entrepreneurship ,
potential of using those technologies that were becoming
but their close and often submissive relationship with
increasingly available. He told me the laser cutter was a
models such as MIT’s Fablabs brought along a vocabulary
real workhorse. On the other hand, the 3D printer was - if I
packed with terms stemming from the industrial age.
remember James’ words correctly - the least useful and most
In 2008, Bre Pettis wrote an article for 2600 magazine
complex of this type of equipment. Nevertheless, it still had
promoting hackerspaces and technologies of digital
an indirect role for Refab Space as it attracted talented people
fabrication. In this three-page long rant, Pettis mentions
wanting to have the chance to explore new possibilities.
“prototypes” or “prototyping” over 20 times. As already
But there was something else there. I wanted to ask
noticed by Gabriel Menotti, the prototype is to an extent
James what he made of the whole maker culture concept.
the opposite of the Brazilian gambiarra.11 The prototype,
Unfortunately, I can’t tell what he would have replied16
as an object, wouldn’t have an existence on its own – it
as the idea of a culture of repair suddenly struck me
would only be a sort of rehearsal for “proper” products to
as too important to be overlooked and I was lost in
be mass-produced at some point in the future. In itself, a
daydreaming. Why had the maker culture become
prototype is already a piece of waste. On the other hand,
concerned only with industrial methods - prototyping
gambiarra is about finding multiple concrete solutions,
future mass-produced objects?
often by re-purposing two different objects to perform a
What would be the concrete outcomes of a number of success-eager young talents spitting out objects made out of melted plastic, hardly - if ever recyclable, everywhere in the world?
task none of them were originally built to. In the context of a contemporary society struggling for sustainability, meaning, creativity and value, gambiarra seems to have more to offer than the weak existence of layers and layers of plastic-made prototypes. Back in the beginning of MetaReciclagem - when we 60
Doesn’t the planet have enough useless objects made of plastic already? Of course, a repair culture isn’t just about repairing things. We could try to find a better way to define a culture of reuse, repair and re-purposing. But proposing repair the physical act of mending things in order to extend their lifetime or else turning them into something else of use - as a core value sounds good enough for a current need: criticizing the path apparently taken by maker culture that is addicted to novelty, becoming consequently toxic, unsustainable, superficial and alienating. In a sense, repairing may be rooted in tradition the same way startup making is related to novelty. Indeed, a number of makerspaces and fablabs sound all too anxious to reach an abstract future, often at the cost of discarding any sort of tradition. Repair culture, on the other hand, is nothing new. It has evolved with human history since thousands of years before the industrial revolution. In fact, it was only recently that repairing objects came to be regarded as something society as a whole and any person individually should avoid. But if we agree with that, something very important is being taken from us: the exercise and accumulated knowledge of matching everyday problems and the countless solutions available for them. There would be hipster designers everywhere, but the fundamental divide between makers and mere users would linger, or even increase. In other words, a renewed industrial sector, now distributed and even more dynamic, is planning to take creativity away from our everyday lives. We cannot afford to lose that. Perhaps we could start by shifting the focus away from “what valuable new thing can I come up with that will make me famous/rich/sexy”. Repairing things as a cultural trend is inextricably related to organic food, natural birthing, cultural diversity, upcycling, sustainable mobility, urban farming, fair trade, culture of peace and digital commons. Repair culture, in that sense, is not a mere side effect of the development of industrial societies. On the contrary, it is one of the very few distributed and consistent niches of resistance against the transformation of all human creativity into quantifiable commodity. I reckon it’s not hard to pick a side on this matter.
GAMBIARRA: REPAIR CULTURE
REFERENCES Doctorow, Cory (2009). Makers. New York: Tom Doherty Associates, LLC. Fonseca, Felipe Schmidt (2014). Redelabs: Laboratórios Experimentais em Rede. Master thesis. Unicamp, Labjor. Maxigas (2012). Hacklabs and Hackerspaces: tracing two genealogies, in Journal of Peer Production [online] Vol. 2: Bio/Hardware Hacking. URL: http://peerproduction. net/issues/issue2/peerreviewedpapers/hacklabsandhackerspaces/. Menichinelli, Massimo (2013). “Policies for Digital Fabrication”. [online]. URL: http://www.openp2pdesign. org/2013/fabbing/policiesfordigitalfabrication/. Menotti, Gabriel Gonring (2010). “Gambiarra: the prototyping perspective”. [online]. URL: http://medialab prado.es/article/gambiarra. Pettis, Bre (2008). Hacker Perspective: Bre Pettis, in 2600 [online], vol. 25, N 4. ISSN 07493851. Ratto, Matt (2011). Critical Making, in Open Design Now. Amsterdam: BIS Publishers. Viña, Victor (2012). “DIY in Context: From Bricolage to Jugaad”. [online]. URL: https://pt.scribd.com/ doc/98988556/DIYinContextFromBricolagetoJugaad 62
1 Techopedia (2015). “Maker Movement”. (online). - URL:
movement (Retrieved 23 June 2015).
16 After reading a draft of this text, Wallbank told me he
resigned from Access Space and opened a shop in Sheffield
7 [Procurar no domínio en.wikipedia.org] en.wikipedia.
dedicated to maker culture. He is excited with the way
youngsters are curious with “remaking, reuse, crafting and
making” these days.
Credit: ANNELIES ZWAAN
Beyond the Garden Fence
BEYOND THE GARDEN FENCE
By bringing food production into the city, it not only allows people greater understanding and access to food, it also minimizes transportation of crops, provides greater levels of freshness and puts the control of food creation back into the hands of the community, ultimately benefitting us all.
It will come as a surprise to no one, that our lives have
home to the first urban farm in New Zealand, Agropolis
changed dramatically over the past century. Many of these
Urban Farm, named to combine the words metropolis and
changes have been revolutionary and highly important,
agriculture. Started in October 2013, the farm is located
granting freedoms to people of different races, genders,
in the heart of the city, a heart which is mostly vacant lots
ages and socio-economic backgrounds. And yet, over the
still, as 80% of the CBDâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s buildings had to be demolished
past several decades there has been a slow, steady leaning
following the quakes. This has presented an unprecedented
back to examine the ways in which we are living. Part of
opportunity within the city, as there are currently large
this has been thanks to the internet and the accessibility
amounts of space for such initiatives to stake a claim.
to observe and comment beyond our own backyards but, for some, it has also been a gut level response to the idea
Like many urban farms, the key purpose of Agropolis is
that we are moving too far from the roots of our natural
to reconnect the city with its food and provide a space
world. This has driven many initiatives surrounding ideas
within the city that fosters community and learning. Not
of simplifying, enriching and de-consuming our lives,
only does this mean food is closer to its end destination,
but it begs the question of whether these (mainly) small
and hence fresher, it also helps support the local economy
enterprises can really change the perpetual motion of
and gives people closer, healthier options for sourcing their
food. This is the crux for most of the urban farm fervor. As populations increase, there is a huge demand on the
One such idea is that of Urban Farming, which is hailed as
food production complex and people are becoming more
an innovative way to grow food within cities to help deal
aware of the many issues surrounding the lack of clarity
with issues of scarcity, hunger and the current demand
about where our food actually comes from and how it is
on our traditional food system. Like many new initiatives
produced. By bringing food production into the city, it
responding to the issues of our modern world, urban
not only allows people greater understanding and access to
farming hits a lot of great words. Green, local, fresh,
food, it also minimizes transportation of crops, provides
seasonal, sustainable. But in fact, urban farming isnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t a new
greater levels of freshness and puts the control of food
idea at all, itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s actually how cities first began to spring up,
creation back into the hands of the community, ultimately
as a collection of people living by farmed land and trading
benefitting us all. For Agropolis, given its context as a
as we progressed from hunter gatherer societies to agrarian
sight of growth in a city where residents are frustrated by
peoples. Yet technology and city planning has pushed
the slow rate of reconstruction, it also serves as a beacon
farming further and further from its consumers and today
of hope. This has lead to a lot of ground level support for
the vast majority of our food takes great journeys to get
Agropolis and has shown that the ordinary citizens are
from the ground to our mouths. However, the renewal of
ready and willing to make such an enterprise work.
urban farming is already so popular that many cities in the world have variations of urban farms scattered across
But, sadly, the creation and running of Agropolis, and
them (in fact New York City claims to have over 700 food
many other urban farms, is not a simple as would be
producing farms within the city limits). But what happens
hoped. To begin with, the ground of the site is comprised
when we look beyond the garden fence and examine
of rubble left over from the demolition process with any
the current state of urban farming, its difficulties and its
number of toxins contained within it. This presents the
challenge of growing above ground, which is entirely possible but not preferable. Secondly, there is the fact that
As a New Zealander based in Christchurch, ideas like
the farm has a temporary license to occupy which means,
urban farming are the bread and butter of conservation at
at any point, they could be given 30 days notice in which
the moment. This is a result of the devastating earthquakes
to clear out. So not only do they need to plant above
that occurred here in 2010/11 and the opportunities that
ground, they also need to make sure everything on site is
rebuilding the city has created. In fact, Christchurch is
transportable and movable. Thirdly, there is huge pressure 67
BEYOND THE GARDEN FENCE
on resources and funding, as the cost of the rebuild sits
there is actually a lot of big unused space but bureaucracy
at an estimated $30 billion, which is well beyond any
has made it difficult to utilize these spaces as the officials
contingency money set aside for such occasions.
in charge don’t want to be liable for unknown risks. At the same time as this, the local council has created a food
This means that money usually set aside by city councils
resilience plan to try and increase access to food within
and government to foster new projects and innovative
the city and hence, be seen to back these initiatives. This
ideas, simply is not available. For some urban farms
is a classic example of policy makers wanting to be seen to
this may not be an issue, if a single person or group of
support innovation but not wanting or being able to take
people are creating the farm as a means of livelihood. But
on the trials that entail.
Agropolis has always been set up as a community-based spaced and, as such, is run primarily by volunteers. This
These challenges are by no means unique to Agropolis
does mean that running costs are relatively low but it
Urban Farm. However, they do raise the question of
also means that no one has that added aspect of financial
whether growing in urban centers is in fact the revolution
interest to help spur on the project.
it’s being touted as. Aiming to bring food closer to the people is an incredibly worthwhile pursuit but what
The flip side worth noting is that perhaps we are simply
does this translate to in reality? Will it mean that other
paying to little for our fruit and vegetables and, if we want
enterprising families can no longer generate profit from
farming to be able to move away from huge monocultures,
their own more rural farms as they have to add the cost of
we may need to get used to paying more for our food.
transport onto their food? Do cities have the space to make
Whilst many people will dislike such a suggestion, the
such ideas work? And will urban farms consistently need to
price we currently pay for fruit and vegetables is vastly out
rely on funding, as they cost more to set up than traditional
of sync with the real cost of producing quality food. Only
farms, with city land prices and the extra infrastructure
a few hundred years ago, when growing was generally on
needed to grow in such a non typical way, therefore
smaller, more local farms, households would spend an
draining money away from other equally worthy projects?
average of half their income on food. Now, despite the so-called advances in technology, a lot of people feel that
Another question is whether urban farming is really
spending even a third of their income on food is far too
that much different or any more beneficial than the
much. But growing food is an incredibly difficult job,
already established convention of traditional and/or
not just physically, but also in terms of the amount of
community gardening. Many urban farms rely on at least
learning involved in creating a productive farm and this
some volunteer power to support their growing and it is
is something that has lost its monetary value. If we could
important to consider the impact of this. For one thing,
learn to revalue our food perhaps some of the barriers of
it’s a sign that many urban farms aren’t able to sustain
urban farming would be let down.
themselves financially in the same way you would expect of a more traditional farming model. It also has the potential
However, there is also the huge and ongoing challenge of
to be drawing people in from surrounding suburbs which
space. Most typical farms are financially viable because they
is great in terms of cross-suburban socializing but less
can produce at volume but urban farming so far is generally
great when you consider the fuel required to make such
relegated to small lots or rooftops, which potentially
journeys. Going further is the fact that growing in the city
increases the amount of human input required whilst
is generally more difficult than within suburban or rural
minimizing the food outcomes. Many proposed or actual
areas because of the lack of quality soil and useful volumes
urban farms tackle this by building up rather than out,
of space which begs the question of whether it is simply
both making the most of land footprints and helping side-
not the right solution.
step issues of sunlight that can come into play with farming in built up areas. Frustratingly, within Christchurch CBD,
However, one of the most important lessons learnt so far 68
Credit: ANNELIES ZWAAN
at Agropolis is that it is hugely important to have time to
climates or cultures. And whilst crate growinghas been
experiment and trial ideas in order to find the best ways in
successful so far, we may well find down the track that
which to work. To any vegetable grower this is probably old
it is too time consuming and there is a simpler or less
news and common sense but most funders and councils are
demanding way we could be working. This reflects one
so concerned with results that gaining long-term support
of the important lessons of the century post-industrial
can be difficult. Part of this stems from the ingrained idea
revolution, which is, one size does not fit all.
that failures are bad and outcomes are all that matter, but
There are many things we can learn from one another and many ideas that transcend borders but this doesnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t mean that urban farming, or any other new green initiative, will save the world.
another part is the fear that supporting such ideas would be wasting money on a passing fad. But over the past year and a half the gardens have tried many ways of growing and are finally seeing some success with growing that produces quality vegetables whilst still being transportable and above ground. To do this they
There are still many turns in the road ahead for Agropolis
trialed different versions of raised bed and crate gardening
and urban farms worldwide as they try to work through
ideas to come to the eventual solution of growing in reused
the problems of stepping outside the confines we place on
flower bulb crates with the soil held by coffee sacks. These
the world around us. But, this is ultimately the challenge of
sacks are then cut into for planting and can then help hold
any initiative that dares to question the status quo as urban
water and act as a mulch whilst the plants are growing. This
farming does. It is the challenge to find a way to bridge the
is by no means the only solution and Agropolis intends
gap between grass roots movement and an accepted part
to continue experimenting but it does serve to highlight
of daily life. It is the challenge to crave a space in which to
the importance of having time to try new ideas before
try thing out, fail and fail some more but then, hopefully,
championing them as the answer.
succeed where others havenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t before. It is the challenge to question what we see in front of us and it is the challenge
For example, this system of growing is currently working
to convince those in power that a better future is possible
for Agropolis but who is to say itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;d work in other countries,
and is worth fighting for. 69
LIVING WITH ZERO WASTE A Utopian Dream or the Way of the Future?
Interview with Bea Johnson
KAJA AAS AHNFELT
Credit: NICOLE MARKWALD
By following 5 Râ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s of Refuse, Reduce, Reuse, Recycle and Rot, Bea produces one glass of yearly waste.
LIVING WITH ZERO WASTE: A UTOPIAN DREAM OR THE WAY OF THE FUTURE?
Imagine being handed a jar of glass on the first
took two years for us to go from living in a large home to
of January. During the following year, you are
choosing a more environmentally - friendly way of living.
to produce no more waste than what can you can fit into that tiny space. Impossible you say?
The first year, we moved into an apartment with only the
I asked Bea Johnson, the French-Californian
necessities and stored the rest -that’s where we learned that
Queen of Zero Waste, how she does it.
living with less allowed us to live more. The second year, we bought a house half the size of the previous one, we let
Bea Johnson, a ‘Zero Waste Guru’, settled in California,
go of 80% of our belongings (including those that we had
produces one jar of waste on a yearly basis. As the author of
stored) and then our voluntary simplicity opened time to
the book and the blog “Zero Waste Home”, she has since
educate ourselves on environmental issues - that’s when we
2008 been dedicated to live a zero waste lifestyle together
decided to change our ways for the sake of our kids future.
with her family. To most of us, producing zero amounts of waste is an incomprehensible idea, and to lead such a
I imagine that the transition to a living with Zero
radical life may seem as an exaggerated attempt to leave
Waste on a daily basis is quite challenging. What
the system. As I dig deeper into the matter of Zero Waste
have you found to be the main barriers?
it becomes evident that this concept is no longer utopian talk of the future. In different corridors to Bea’s simplistic
Our biggest challenge was finding balance, figuring out
home, bureaucrats, working in the European Commission
what worked for us and what did not. There were no books
(EC), are now setting out a strategy to let Europe achieve
or blogs on how to do Zero Waste when we started in
a Circular Economy with Zero Waste by 20201. From a
2008. So I googled alternatives and tested many recipes
state point of view, defining waste as a resource may be a
and how-to’s. But I eventually got too wrapped up into
way to create jobs, move the European economy out of
homemaking: At one point, I was making cheese, bread,
stagnation, as well as a way to stop resources depletion
yogurt, soy milk, butter and so on. Some of these ideas
and environmental degradation. I talked to Bea Johnson
were too extreme, too time consuming, and we later
to hear what is in it for her. In the context of a home
dropped them for the sake of simplicity. For example, we
economy, what does it actually mean to lead a Zero Waste
realized that there was no need for us to make bread if we
life? And how can we as individuals contribute to drive this
could buy it unpackaged either directly from the bakery
international agenda to help protect the environment?
or from the bakery bins. Since 2009, we have Zero Waste on autopilot in our home. It is easy and natural for us. We
The practical challenge of producing Zero Waste
found that for Zero Waste to be sustainable in a household, one has to adopt alternatives that fit his/her schedule, are
So Bea, how do you define Zero Waste?
feasible in the long run, and suit his/her regional customs.
The Zero Waste lifestyle is about reducing as much
Can you describe some routines or tasks that
household waste as possible while living simply. It translates
exemplify this lifestyle on a daily basis?
into a life based on experiences (lots of fun activities) instead of stuff. Contrarily to what most people think,
Because we use the term Zero Waste to describe our
Zero Waste is also not about recycling more, but less, by
lifestyle, many people picture me spending my day
preventing waste from being created in the first place with
homemaking or working at reducing my waste. This could
the application of the 5R’s - Refuse, Reduce and Reuse, we
not be further from the truth. I work a full time job. Zero
have very little to Recycle and Rot!
Waste actually depends much on what we do outside the
It is downsizing that triggered our rethinking. Our
home: When we refuse freebies, when consuming only
transformation was not overnight, but rather gradual. It
what we need, when we’ve replaced anything disposable 72
KAJA AAS AHNFELT
Credit: NICOLE MARKWALD 73
LIVING WITH ZERO WASTE: A UTOPIAN DREAM OR THE WAY OF THE FUTURE?
for a reusable alternative, and when we shop second hand
living waste-free meant, what we were doing and, why we
and in bulk, that’s when we can stop waste from coming
were doing it.
into our homes in the first place. I go to a thrift store twice
Some people said our lifestyle was too extreme and not
a year for our clothes and to a bulk food store once a week
realistic. But how could it be unrealistic if I am living it?
with a shopping kit (cloth bags for dry goods, and glass jars
Others said that we were not doing enough because we
for wet ones), but on a daily basis, all it requires is cooking
occasionally fly, eat meat once a week and use toilet paper.
simple meals from the ingredients that I can source
I must say that had I heard about a Zero Waste family
unpackaged and/or in bulk.
8 years ago, I too would have thought to myself: «These people are nuts, I’m sure they are hippies or she is a stay at
Contrary to common beliefs, you demonstrate that
home mom who spends her days homemaking to reduce
to live sustainably can be the opposite of dull and
their waste». So I am not surprised by the criticism that we
restrictive. You also write on your blog that leading
received. I expected it going into it because we live in a very
a Zero Waste life has changed your life in general
consumerist society and our story made people reflect on
for the better. How is this so?
their own shopping habits and sometimes shattered their way of thinking.
We found that Zero Waste is nothing that we would have
However, we’re not telling anyone how to live their lives, we’re just sharing how we live ours, and hope to inspire others.
expected it to be, it is not just good for the environment: Overall it has also made us healthier, and it saves us an incredible amount of time and money! What I love most of the lifestyle is the simple life, and how much closer it has brought my family. Voluntary simplicity has changed our
With time, and thanks to the press, we changed those
daily routine in these ways: It has greatly simplified our
misconceptions associated with the Zero Waste lifestyle and
cleaning -picking up the house only takes a few minutes
gave a face to this way of life. The term Zero Waste became
each day. It makes our housework and professional work
accepted and the critics died down: people realized that we
much more efficient. It has allowed us to play more -
are not hippies, but that we live a normal, simple, modern
simple living focuses on experiences versus stuff - and
life, based on experiences instead of things.
spend more time. It has even allowed us to travel more by being able easily to rent our home when we’re gone, our
Early movers - Transitioning out of the box
minimalist wardrobes fit in carry-ons, which then funds
While the European Commission trust the market to
vacation and family getaways! In the end, it’s all good!
drive the transition to a zero waste economy, Bea Johnson
And I wish everyone realized and enjoyed the great hidden
demonstrates that we don’t need to hold our breath and
benefits of this lifestyle.
wait for radical change. As an early mover she has already received enough media coverage to inspire thousands of
Comparing you with people I know who have turned
people to take a stance against needless waste. By speaking
vegan, I know that although being a pioneer may be
at universities, corporate events and conferences all over the
stimulating, challenging status quo can be tough
globe, she has become a «guru» and spokesperson for the
socially as people may feel criticized by your choices.
zero waste lifestyle. She is, as the New York Times stated,
How did you experience ’leaving the box’?
“The Priestess of Waste-Free Living”.
When we first exposed our lifestyle to the general public
In which ways do you see Zero Waste as an
through my blog and then the media: The term Zero Waste
important step to build a sustainable future?
was, at the time, only used to describe industrial practices, not home economics. So we received a lot of negative
As Jeffrey Hollender, CEO of Seventh Generation, said
comments from people who did not understand what
it himself: “Zero Waste is the mother of environmental 74
KAJA AAS AHNFELT
nobrainers” - as quoted in The Story of Stuff. It has
discourage waste reduction.
become evident that the Earth‘s resources cannot sustain
- Offering curb side pick-up of compostable and reusable
our society’s consumption. Reducing Waste is important
materials. This is going beyond recycling.
because it’s not only good for the environment (waste of
- Banning packaging (I found that it’s unnecessary!)
resources going to landfills, which release toxic compounds
- Supporting the opening of bulk stores
in the air and the ground), it also greatly improves one’s
- Inspiring citizens to adopt waste-free lifestyles.
standard of living! Also, if Zero Waste has greatly improved my family’s life, I can only imagine how wonderful it
Do you see the Zero Waste movement as a new
would for a civilization to adopt it as a whole. Just imagine
’green’ trend, or do you think it is the way of the
what it would be like if our society shifted from focusing
on “having” to focusing on “being”, as my family has! Zero Waste is not a trend, it’s a necessity! How do you see the importance of individuals in supporting a sustainable future?
To find out more about the nitty gritty details of living a Zero Waste life, visit Bea Johnson’s blog: http://www.zerowastehome.
Some people say that individual actions do not matter,
I on the contrary, believe that change starts at home because shopping is voting: each purchase that we, consumers, make has the power to support either a sustainable practice or an unsustainable one.
REFERENCES 1 European Commission – Environment (2015): ”Moving Towards a Circular Economy.” (online). –URL: http://eurlex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?qid=14153524998 63&uri=CELEX:52014DC0398R%2801%29. (Retrieved 23 June 2015).
It is our purchasing decisions that lead the manufacturing world. Furthermore, if you’re not happy with a product or its packaging, let your voice be heard! Send a letter, an email or the packaging back to the manufacturer to propose alternatives. My book has already inspired the launch of hundreds of blogs, the opening of bulk stores and the implementation of Zero Waste alternatives all over the world. Plastic bans are also passing everywhere, France banned disposable tableware, and San Francisco just banned the sale of plastic bottles. How do you see the role of policies though in building a Zero Waste society? Many policies can aid our society shift towards Zero Waste, here are 5 examples that come to mind: - Abolishing incinerators. They depend on a constant stream of waste, release toxins in the air, burn valuable resources including compostable and recyclable ones, and 75
Credit: ERWIN HASSELBRINCK 77
MUSIC FOR CHANGE How music festivals contribute to green innovation
MARIA DANIELA RICAURTE
In a time of social, political and economic
Innovative implementations at festivals
transformations towards greater sustainability,
At the Hove festival in Tromøya, south of Norway, the
is there room for hedonistic, waste producing
attendants could sell their waste and get the chance to
events? The answer is yes. Events such as
win a backstage tour (Figure 1). This means that every
music festivals might have a more positive
soda bottle, pizza box, and even used snus could be sold
impact than we think. Despite their generating
at the environmental stands. Not only that, but campers
waste and using energy to operate, they are a
could actually exchange their used and packed tent for an
place where music, culture and environmental
early access to the bus back home. Hove aims at providing
sustainability can meet.
innovative ways to challenge and motivate their attendees into becoming environmentally responsible.
Music festivals are part of a wider range of events known as
Hove is home to a solar-powered camp (Figure 2). This
business events. This means that the internal management
camp is composed of small and cozy wooden houses that
of the festival can be compared to that of any particular
have enough room for beds and storage. The little houses
business. In fact, business events have been accepted as part
offer some light and outlets to charge electronic devices. If
of the economical market of several countries. In Australia,
a guest chooses to stay at this camp, all they need to bring
for example, there was a total of $17.4 billion3 spent by
are their clothes and personal items. The guests at this
people attending business events, making them competitive
camp in the summer of 2014 thought it was a great idea to
have a little more comfort than a regular tent. Additionally,
The positive outcome of a well-planned and creatively
these houses can be used again, unlike most tents that are
managed festival can be impressive.5 This is why many
abandoned on site after the festival (Figure 4). While living
music festival managers began incorporating sustainable
in the solar-powered cabins, the guests may indirectly
experiences and environmental communication in their
learn about solar energy and relate it to a comfortable and
events. Festivals all over the world are becoming greener
enjoyable stay. Hove also rents environmentally friendly
each year through the use of creative ideas: from happy-
camp chairs to reduce the consumption of new chairs at
hour trash collection, to solar powered camps.
the camp and reuse materials when making the chairs.
Working with festivals is like working on a blank canvas,
These chairs are made out of used wooden pallets and
there is room for creativity since this is an unexplored area.
have a minimal environmental impact in comparison to
These events are lucky to have the power to influence not
traditional metal camping chairs.
only their attendees, but also their stakeholders, providers
The list of authors who have researched sustainability
and sponsors. By adopting sustainability in every choice
at festivals might not be long, but festivals can base their
they make, music festivals can have a significant impact in
sustainability agenda on a few core proposed strategies.
all the areas surrounding the event.
Some common points include: organic catering, renewable
Historically, festivals would only focus on
energy, transportation, environmental information stands,
“traditionally green” strategies such as recycling, or might
collaboration with sponsors and suppliers, efficient waste
not have considered the environment at all. At present
management, among others. There is no clear set of rules
times there is more room for innovation when it comes
and limitations for festivals to work with yet and therefore
to incorporating sustainability within the music festival.6
most strategies will be exploratory in nature.
Music festivals have a big environmental impact that goes beyond the days in which they take place.7 Unfortunately,
Why does this matter?
festival managers don’t have an extensive written record of
Music festivals are not going to disappear. They are a space
what strategies to fix or help avoid these impacts; this leaves
of enjoyment and creativity and cultural events have always
room for creative and original ideas.
been a part of human history. They can be transitioned into
There is great potential to implement sustainability initiatives within the festival that influence the broader community beyond the festival bounds 1
Credit: MARIA DANIELA RICAURTE 81
MUSIC FOR CHANGE
tools to communicate sustainable living. The atmosphere
comply with the environmental standard set by the festival.
allows for innovative ideas to break through the minds of
Music Festivals can affect the way other businesses work,
young festival attendants. It’s only a matter of choosing an
and even enforce policies regarding sustainable event
appropriately targeted strategy to incorporate sustainability
planning. At the Øya Festival, there was a continuous fight
into the event.
towards sustainable merchandise procurement. This festival
Let’s take The Burning Man as an example of
managed to convince their suppliers to become organic and
untraditional cultural events. The Burning Man festival
green to participate at the event.
takes place every year in Nevada’s Black Rock Desert,
For now, music festivals that are interested in
USA. Here, an organized group of creative minds plan and
becoming beacons of sustainability should be innovative
set up a “temporary metropolis dedicated to community,
and learn from their mistakes. It is also important that they
art, self-expression, and self-reliance” . But what makes
report and share between similar events in order to find
this event so unique? First of all, it is filled with cultural
support and implement ideas that have worked. Music
explosions of all shapes and sizes. From gigantic sculptures
festivals have the advantage of already being popular and
to musical performances, this event attracts an incredible
enjoyable events, which will only help environmental
array of artists. To participate in this event the attendees
practices become engaging as well!
must be aware of the established set of rules that make the Burning Man a festival that leaves no trace in its natural
arena. Therefore, the organizers have established a set of 10
1 Brooks, S., O’Halloran, D., and Magning, A. (2007).
principles to make the festival work under the conditions
Rock on!: Bringing strategic sustainable development to
of the desert.
music festivals. Blekinge Institute of Technology, Sweden.
Among Radical Inclusion and Communal Effort, the
2 Brooks, S., O’Halloran, D., and Magning, A. (2007).
most environmentally relevant principle at Burning Man
Rock on!: Bringing strategic sustainable development to
is Leaving No Trace. At this festival the community is
music festivals. Blekinge Institute of Technology, Sweden.
expected to value the environment and therefore they must
3 Deery, et al (2005). “National business events study”.
commit to leave the desert in the same or better state than
Altona, Victoria: Common Ground.
they found it. The festival hosts around 68,000 people
4 Mair and Jago (2010). “ The Development of a
and is very committed to the restoration of its location.
conceptual model of greening in the business events
During the days following the event, there is a team that
tourism sector”, Journal of Sustainable Tourism,
carefully searches the area to ensure there is no impact from
its visitors. The attendants to the festivals must contribute
5 Jones, M. (2014). “Sustainable Event Management A
during their visit and so far, they have been successful in
Practical Guide”. Routledge, NY.
leaving no impact.
6 Jones, M. (2014). “Sustainable Event Management A Practical Guide”. Routledge, NY.
7 Brooks, S., O’Halloran, D., and Magning, A. (2007).
Music festivals may have the ability to shape certain
Rock on!: Bringing strategic sustainable development to
decisions that their partners take. For example, in the
music festivals. Blekinge Institute of Technology, Sweden
Norwegian context we find the case of Øya festival that was
8 Burningman.org. Burning Man Project (2015).
able to persuade their textile partner into delivering t-shirts
“Philosophical Center” <http://burningman.org/culture/
made with organic cotton. Again, they have the benefit
of being one of the biggest festivals in Norway and are therefore able to push towards an environmental minimum from their sponsors and stakeholders. When it comes to food, Øya asks of its guest restaurants to procure organic menus as well as making vegetarian options. Since it is a contextually important event, Øya’s partners are willing to 82
MARIA DANIELA RICAURTE
The potential of music festivals to leverage their role as leaders of social and cultural trends has only been recently recognized 2
Credit: MARIA DANIELA RICAURTE 83
Credit: MARIA DANIELA RICAURTE 72
SAMFUNNSANSVAR SOM DRIVER FOR NY VEKST ﾃ郎STEIN HAGEN, MADS BRUUN Hﾃ郎, JEPPE SONDOV
Trippel er et innovasjonsprogram designet rundt
Her spiller design en sentral rolle – form og funksjon i
hypotesen – Kan samfunnsansvar være en driver
for ny vekst? Vi utvikler forretningskonsepter for grønn vekst i matbransjen, og svarer til
Sammen kan vi bidra til å løse flokene
de tre bunnlinjene – People, Planet, Profit.
Noen utfordringer er så store at det må flere til for å løse
Scandinavian Design Group har initiert og
dem. Vi kaller denne type utfordringer floker. En slik
ledet prosessen fra innsikt til konseptutvikling
floke finnes i storhusholdningen (matbransjen) og handler
til eksperimentering og implementering, men
om hvordan vi får ned matavfall, bidrar til menneskers
matbransjen selv er pionerene i dette arbeidet.
helseutfordringer og samtidig skaper verdi for så mange
Sjelden setter en hel verdikjede seg ned, og
aktører som mulig.
legger interessekonflikter og posisjonering til
I Trippel jobber nå aktører som TINE, Nortura og
side for å skape nye konsepter som gagner alle.
Lerøy sammen med Studentsamskipnaden i Oslo og
Det er krevende arbeid, men problemstillingen
Akershus (SiO), Nordic Choice Hotels, Forsvaret, Norsk
rundt matsvinn og grønn vekst er av en slik
Gjenvinning og sosiale entreprenører som Kompass og Co
karakter at ingen kan løse den alene.
og Food Studio, for å sammen løse opp i denne floken. Slikt tverrsektorielt samarbeid er en krevende prosess
For å finne genuint nye svar, må vi lære noe
med stor potensiell fallhøyde. Aktører fra tre sektorer
forsøker å komme på samme side av bordet og se sine
Innovasjonsarbeid starter med å bringe frem ny innsikt. I
roller i et samfunnsperspektiv, ikke bare som bedrifter eller
Trippel ser vi på hele verdikjeden innen storhusholdning
organisasjoner, men som samfunnsaktører. Med design
for å finne udekte brukerbehov, utfordre etablerte
og innovasjonsmetodikk som tilnærming jobber vi nå
sannheter og for å kartlegge diskontinuiteter. Alt for å
’hands-on’ med å skape konsepter som skal være en del av
oppdage nøkkelinnsikter som låser opp nye mulighetsrom
løsningen for matsvinn og bærekraftig vekst i matbransjen.
for innovasjon og provoserer fram nye svar. Maksimér læring – minimér risiko
Nøkkelinnsikter er analysen og en ’sensemaking’ av data som er samlet inn fra observasjon, intervjuer og andre
Gjennom pågående eksperimenter og videre gjennom
implementeringsfasen finner vi ut om det er mulig å løse
Konseptutviklingen bygger videre på nøkkelinnsiktene
opp i flokene. For å lære maksimalt og risikere minimalt
og følger logikken om å utvikle utenifra og inn – altså
gjøres raske og billige eksperimenter for å teste våre
fra brukerens/kundens perspektiv og tilbake til hvordan
hypoteser og sjekke om markedet reagerer slik vi tror. Ingen
industrien og aktørene kan gjøre kundens hverdag bedre,
lab-eksperimenter eller skrivebordsøvelser, bare virkelige
enklere, grønnere og mer meningsfull – og ikke minst
situasjoner med ekte mennesker.
lønnsom. Nøkkelinnsiktene identifiserer små og store ”jobber” som kunden og sluttbruker skal ha gjort, altså
behov som man med denne kunnskapen kan utvikle
Flere av konseptene i vår portefølje denne våren adresserte
konsepter for å møte. Et eksempel på en slik nøkkelinnsikt
problemstillingen med best før merking og matsvinnet
er; Folk ønsker å ta grønne valg, men de synes det er
knyttet til dette. I matbransjens verdikjede er det påvist at
det er forbruker som kaster mest mat (70% av alt avfall). Og det er blitt en etablert sannhet at det er forbrukeren
Muligheten her ligger i at folk har et behov for å gjøre noe og at man kan hjelpe til med grønne tjenester eller løsninger som gjør det enkelt for dem.
sin feil at det er slik. Kanskje er dette en naturlig følge av hvordan verdikjeden er ”designet”? En leverandør som produserer en gitt mengde mat, med en gitt holdbarhet selger denne til neste ledd i verdikjeden og har da per definisjon null svinn (med mindre feilproduksjon eller 87
SAMFUNNSANSVAR SOM DRIVER FOR NY VEKST
Credit: KUTT GOURMET 88
ØYSTEIN HAGEN, MADS BRUUN HØY, JEPPE SONDOV
deler av råvaren ikke blir fult ut utnyttet). Dette fratar
restaurantene blir låst på innkjøpssiden fordi de skal kunne
dog ikke leverandørene ansvaret rundt i hvilken bulk eller
tilby den samme, lange menyen fast over lang tid, uten å
forpakning og størrelse de selger sine varer. Har neste ledd
vite hvilke retter gjesten vil velge. Derfor må restauranten
forutsetning for å selge alt dette? Eller vil de brenne inn
ha alt til enhver tid, og med dét et stort potensial for svinn.
med for stort lager?
Dersom vi snur dette på hodet og sier at restauranten
Dette er problemstillinger vi har diskutert mye. Etter
velger hva man skal spise, så blir valget som gjest enkelt
hvert som varen kommer utover i kjeden og nærmere
– skal jeg gå dit i dag eller ikke? Innsikt fra feltarbeid
forbruker nærmer varen seg siste forbruksdag og ”faren” for
blant studenter ga oss sterke signaler om at tradisjonelt
at maten blir kastet øker. Systemet er ”designet” slik at vi
restauranttilbud ikke er det de lenger tenner på.
produserer opp en mengde mat som settes på en hylle eller
Studenter ønsker ikke flere valg, de har for mye å tenke
på en buffet, så håper vi at nok kunder kommer og plukker
på allerede, og hvis de stoler på avsender så vil de gjerne
dette opp og konsumerer det før det går ut på dato. I frykt
at avsender tar valget for dem. KUTT har et high-end
for å gå tom, rundes estimater opp og vi ender opp med
uttrykk og en stram og fin profil, noe vi mente ville skape
svinn. Dataene i denne kjeden er langt i fra perfekte, og vi
tryggheten kunden trengte for å akseptere at det kun var
produserer derfor mye mer enn det som konsumeres.
én rett hver dag. Null valg. I tillegg var det også kun 200
I Trippel ser vi hele veien til andre bransjer for å hente
porsjoner hver dag (sikrer null svinn). Når det er tomt, så
inspirasjon, og spesielt konseptet rundt forbruksutløsende
er det tomt.
verdikjeder (consumer-triggered-valuechains) har gitt
Konsekvensen av denne tilnærmingen er at kokken
verdifull innsikt . Si at du skal kjøpe en splitter ny bil i
må være kreativ hver dag og at restauranten er friere på
dag, når får du den egentlig? Svært ofte er bilen bestilt og
innkjøpssiden og kan handle i ”spot” markedet, altså
betalt før den blir produsert. Kunden har forpliktet seg til
kjøpe varer som har kort holdbarhetsdato og som ellers
å ”konsumere” før vi produserer. Dette er samme prinsipp
ville stått i fare for å bli kastet. For kunden kan dette også
som Dell Computers ble store på for ti år siden – kunden
medføre at de spiser mer variert enn de ellers ville gjort om
bestiller og betaler, så settes datamaskinen sammen etterpå.
de skulle velge selv. Dette kombinert med arbeidskraft fra
Er dette et tankesett vi kan lære noe av i matbransjen?
Kompass & Co, en sosial entreprenør og Trippel-deltaker
Vi ser allerede at mat mer og mer blir levert som en
som gir ungdom arbeidserfaring og en mestringsarena, gjør
tjeneste gjennom matkasser og abonnementer. Men vi
at kostnadene kommer på et nivå som gjør at studenter
tror vi kan gjøre mer for å designe en enklere situasjon for
med en begrenset lommebok kan få gourmetmat de har
forbrukerens bevisste forbruk. Mange av våre konsepter
råd til, hver dag. I alt dette ligger det flere aspekter av
handler om å redesigne verdikjedens ulike ledd. Derfor
samfunnsansvar. For eksempel at studenter er fremtidens
etablerte vi merkevaren KUTT, som en felles overbygging
ledere, borgere og samfunnsbyggere og at vi som samfunn
på disse konseptene.
er tjent med at de får med seg mest mulig kompetanse
Prinsippet med KUTT er å kommunisere til kunder
ut fra årene som student. Eller at de yngre og litt
som ønsker å velge bærekraftig at vi bruker det som ellers
vanskeligstilte ungdommene får en ny mestringsarena og
ville blitt kuttet bort, altså en ”hele dyret” tankegang – at vi
yrkeserfaring, som igjen bygger stolthet og selvtillit og
kutter svinn og avfall, at vi kutter CO2 og at forbrukeren
setter dem i stand til å igjen bidra positiv i vårt samfunn.
kan kutte ned på sin gnagende samvittighet.
Og til slutt at vi setter fokus på at bevisst forbruk kan designes og derfor være den forandringen vi vil se i vårt samfunn.
KUTT Gourmet Et uttak av KUTT er Studentsamskipnadens eksperiment med pop-up restauranten KUTT Gourmet – Gourmetmat som studenter har råd til. Hypotesen her var at studenter ønsker å ta bærekraftige valg, vi må bare gjøre det enklere for dem. Vi ville redesigne den tradisjonelle verdikjeden der 89
SAMFUNNSANSVAR SOM DRIVER FOR NY VEKST
ﾃ郎STEIN HAGEN, MADS BRUUN Hﾃ郎, JEPPE SONDOV
Credit: KUTT GOURMET 91
SAMFUNNSANSVAR SOM DRIVER FOR NY VEKST
Credit: KUTT GOURMET 92
ØYSTEIN HAGEN, MADS BRUUN HØY, JEPPE SONDOV
Eksperimentet med KUTT Gourmet ble rigget som en
planlegger vi alltid for suksess. Denne visjonen deler vi med
pop-up restaurant på Blindern våren 2015, og holdt åpent
våre samarbeidspartnere, som alle ønsker å bidra til å forme
i 3 uker. Erfaringene og innsikten fra denne perioden
en mer bærekraftig matbransje. De som ikke er med strever
evalueres i disse dager og konseptet justeres slik at det kan
fortsatt med problemet.
skaleres og etableres på permanent basis. Her er noen av
Floker av størrelsen som matsvinn og grønn vekst løses ikke alene.
erfaringene vi har gjort oss etter eksperimentet: • Kø ved åpning • Brandet KUTT appellerer og får frem budskapet
Gjennom å samle aktører fra ulike sektorer, og en grundig
• Studentene omfavner samfunnsansvarsdimensjonen
innovasjons-og designprosess med nøye eksperimentering
• Studentene stoler på avsender
og testing, kan vi klare å finne løsninger på store
• Studentene syntes det var deilig å slippe å velge en rett
samfunnsutfordringer. Flere konsepter fra porteføljen vil du
• 200 porsjoner ble solgt ut hver dag i perioden
se i markedet i løpet av de neste året. Først ut er KUTT og
• Uforutsigbarheten når det gjelder råvarer gjør det
KUTT Gourmet som vil være en naturlig del av matilbudet
krevende for kokken
for studenter som ønsker å ta bærekraftige matvalg.
• Noe ustabilitet på tilgangen til råvarer
Konseptet rulles ut på Blindern og andre campuser i Norge fra høsten av.
Disse læringspunktene illustrerer hvordan vi jobber med en innovasjon- og designtilnærming – utenifra og inn: Vi eksperimenterer først med den delen som treffer kundene for å sjekke om de forstår konseptet og om det vil ha det. Når vi har en større sikkerhet rundt det, jobber vi oss bakover i verdikjeden for å greie å levere det kundene vil ha på en effektiv måte. Kort fortalt er dette prosessen for testing av konsepter: 1. Vil de ha det? 2. Greier vi å levere det slik de vil ha det? 3. Greier vi å levere det slik de vil ha det, og skape lønnsomhet? KUTT Gourmet er ett av konseptene i Trippels portefølje dratt frem av SiO sammen med Kompass & Co og Matvett, med støtte fra leverandørene i nettverket. Konseptet viser hvordan vi kan forsøke å løse opp i en stor floke ved å eksperimentere i et mikrounivers først, for å lære mest mulig før man skalerer. Flere av våre andre konsepter skal gjennom samme prosess utover høsten. Framtiden skapes av de som tør å ha en mening om den Å ta på seg store utfordringer innebærer alltid en risiko for å ikke lykkes. Vi mener dog bestemt at oppsiden ved å lykkes er større enn risikoen for å mislykkes. Derfor 93
KAKIWIN TUTUNAKU Welcome to the Hill with Three Hearts
ITZEL ANAHÍ LÓPEZ LAÍNEZÇ
Easily described as a paradise, Sierra Norte is a tropical highland region localized at the north of Puebla in Mexico, that holds both cultural and natural treasures and is home of a thriving ecotourism enterprise proudly owned and managed by indigenous women. This initiative not only aims to provide eco-friendly accommodation or to delight visitors with their culinary arts; the local ecological knowledge transmitted to their guests lets them enjoy the region with respect so that future generations have the same privilege. What could be better than to experience a place through the culture of its native inhabitants?
Credit: ITZEL ANAHÍ LÓPEZ LAÍNEZ 95
KAKIWIN TUTUNAKU: WELCOME TO THE HILL WITH THREE HEARTS
I went back to my homeland, Puebla, to do fieldwork as part of the objective for my master thesis focused on indigenous ecological knowledge. Not so long ago, in my college years, I heard of a place called Huehuetla, situated at Sierra Norte, and chose it as a study case. As I was making arrangements and looking for a place to stay, I became aware that regardless of the sensitivity towards tourism, this peaceful community lacks facilities to receive visitors. I didn’t know it then, but the answer to my search for accommodation would present itself as I was on my way to Huehuetla, with very happy consequences. From Puebla, there’s only one bus line that takes you to the farthest towns of Sierra Norte. To Huehuetla, it’s a five hour trip; at first, as the bus goes through the city, the outskirts and through a landscape of mostly maize field crops, pasture lands and a few scatter villages, the trip doesn’t seem very promising. But then, as my “derrière” was feeling as if my seat was made of stone, the bus began to go uphill and the landscape changed to a rewarding lush of green: we were going through mountains, alongside steep cliffs and misty canyons, being introduced to a region full of history both from before and after the arrival of the Europeans, a region that is the home of a friendly people. All of the sudden, I forgot the trip`s previous hours and my weariness and let myself enrapture with the scenery and immerse my senses in the environment. As we were approaching Huehuetla, a sign by the road caught my attention: it announced an ecotourism center called Kakiwin Tutunaku, the hill with three hearts, and to my relief, it offered accommodations. This would prove a double stroke of luck: not only was I to have a place to stay but this place also happened to belong to an organization named Taputsama Talakxtumit, seeking equity, run only by women from the Totonac ethnic group. Not even in my wildest dreams did I hope to encounter a place and organization who has committed itself to the “mission to preserve and improve our environment by creating decent jobs for our people. We do so by offering our visitors and guest, besides accommodation, walks and guided tours through our region, workshops about our culture and last but not least, a tasty way to get to know us: our traditional food.” That night, with a roof over my head, I indulged 96
ITZEL ANAHÍ LÓPEZ LAÍNEZ
myself with the latter. Before the Europeans` arrival, the Sierra Norte of Puebla was settled by various ethnic groups: Nahuas, Totonacas, Otomis and Tepehuas. Nowadays the inhabitants in Huehuetla are mostly Totonaca- speaking people who live along with other ethnic groups, including European descendants, that despite a long history of repression, discrimination and impoverishment still preserve a key feature of their ancestral ways: collective work. The Kakiwin Tutunaku initiative was founded in 2002 by 35 Totonac women and a year later, with the help of the consultancy Yoltli A.C. they started to build an “eco” hotel that for now has two cozy cabins, one hostel, a learning center and a restaurant. This ongoing project has interesting eco-technologies like a cistern to catch the rainwater, a sewage water treatment facility and they make their own compost with waste coming from the kitchen, which is later used to nourish their gardens. Today, relating their work to a permaculture philosophy, 58 organized women share work and profits from the ecotourism center. In the 1980’s1 a group of Nahua indigenous from Cuetzalan, a town not very far from Huehuetla, founded Tosepan Titataniske, meaning “together we’ll win”. It was based on the same principles that would later inspire the women in Huehuetla, and has been thriving to become a pioneer in organic coffee production in Mexico2 and has created the first eco hotel entirely owned and run by indigenous women. In addition, Cuetzalan is the region`s most popular tourist destination, from home and abroad, due to their qualification as “pueblo mágico” (magic town), a program of the Mexican tourism ministry aiming to promote and develop small towns around the country.3 Under the same principles and basics, the two cooperatives started their projects with funds provided by Mexican institutions, to buy land (ironically, land that used to be theirs) and build the hotels. Women received training on hotel and restaurant management; in addition they were qualified to be environmental promoters to know how to collect rain water, to classify waste and to identify species of local trees for a better use of natural resources. It may
Credit: ITZEL ANAHÍ LÓPEZ LAÍNEZ 97
KAKIWIN TUTUNAKU: WELCOME TO THE HILL WITH THREE HEARTS
seem like common sense, but there are specific studies on tourism that confirm that “ecotourism as a mechanism for achieving local conservation and development goals, is more successful when the projects prioritize local involvement and control”4. Proof of this are the ongoing projects Kakiwin Tutunaku in Huehuetla and the consortium Tosepan Totataniski in Cuetzalan. Their common objectives to empower women, enhance local knowledge, ennoble culture and preserve the environment have had further positive response in the region. In recent years several municipalities at Sierra Norte have stood against international interventions on their territory, known by locals as “death projects” (mainly put forth by mining and hydroelectric companies).5 People in this region are well aware of their bonds to the environment; most of them have chosen to live as their ancestors did, believing in the preservation of their natural environment and devoted to the spirit that has provided all their needs for countless generations. The fate of these “death projects” is still uncertain but the outcry of the locals keeps spreading warning messages and the echo can be heard all along Sierra Norte of Puebla. My stay at Kakiwin Tutunaku turned into an unexpected discovery for my research; during those compelling days I witnessed the powerful effect of collectiveness through the team-hearted work of those Totonac women. The struggles they faced right from the beginning due to society´s rejection of a project run only by women, the long process they underwent so that men allowed them to work and not to mention the lack of tourist promotion from the local authorities.6 Their work and commitment has set an example among other women in this region an outside. (Illustration 4. Making dinner on the ecological wooden stove. Photo: Itzel Lopez) For me it was not only a knowledgeable experience, I enjoyed delicious traditional food and the nicest cups of orange leaf infusion made on an ecological wooden stove. It was an opportunity to learn about the use of herbs and plants, to listen to their legends and appraise the caring hospitality of Totonac women who are the core of that 98
ITZEL ANAHÍ LÓPEZ LAÍNEZ
chain of people protecting what they love the most. In the end, aren’t care and respect the best elements needed for a sustainable enterprise? REFERENCES 1 Zeppel, H. (2006): Indigenous Ecotourism: Sustainable Development and Management. Oxforshire. Ecotourism Series No. 3 CABI. p. 94 2 Toledano, V.M.; Ortiz-Espejel, B. (2014): México, regiones que caminan hacia la sustentabilidad. Puebla. Universidad Iberoamericana Puebla. p. 90 3 SECTUR (2015): “Magic Towns” [online].-URL: https://www.sectur.gob.mx/pueblos-magicos/ (retrieved 4 April 2015) 4 Joy Mathews, E. (2002): Ecotourism: Are current practices delivering desired outcomes? A comparative case study analysis. MA Dissertation. Faculty of the Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University. 5 Ramirez Cuevas, Jesús dir. “Sierra Norte por la vida”. Cooperativa Tosepan Titataniske. 2014 Documental. 6 Yolistli, Xasasti. Kakiwin Tutunaku. Puebla, April 11, 2009.
Credit: ITZEL ANAHÍ LÓPEZ LAÍNEZ 99
QUESTION & ANSWER FEATURE
FROM SMALL STRE AMS TO A BIG RIVER 1. WHAT IS THE INITIATIVE AND WHAT ISSUE IS IT ADDRESSING?
2. IN WHAT WAYS IS YOUR INITIATIVE LEAVING THE BOX?
GRØNNE JENTER 1. Grønne jenter (meaning green girls) is a pink lifestyle
2. The idea of the blog evolved as we tried to answer the
blog with a green heart. We are ten girls in our twenties
following questions: how do we communicate sustainability
blogging about our successful and not so successful attempts
to people who do not really care about the environment?
to be concerned world citizens. Fashion, traveling, food
We found out we should unite two worlds which are
and hobbies - it is all touched with a green pen. We believe
really not compatible. Lifestyle and fashion blogs are often
that concrete examples can inspire people to make more
associated with high levels of consumption. We wanted
sustainable lifestyle choices. And, we try to demonstrate that
to use the blog genre to reach out to young girls with
it is fun, and even cool, to care about the environment.
GRUTEN 1. The idea is about using coffee grounds in innovative
2. The core of Gruten and our aim is to care for the
and useful ways. Coffee brewing process produces a lot
environment through promoting the good use of the
of coffee waste. Only in Oslo, around 10 tons a day! The
resources that we already have around us. We pick up coffee
Coffee grounds contain several nutrients and they have
grounds from coffee shops and bakeries in Oslo and use
good qualities that humans, plants and animals can benefit
it to produce Grutensåpa, an organic coffee scrub soap.
from. In Gruten we upcycle coffee grounds, which would
Gruten has hit a nerve and received quite a lot of interest
otherwise go straight to the bin, to new sustainable products
because the concept is easy to grasp and people can relate to
to create awareness and practical knowledge around using
it since «everyone» in Norway drinks coffee.
coffee waste for creative and useful purposes. 100
QUESTION & ANSWER FEATURE
O N E E A RT H D E S I G N S 1. Our award winning solar grill SolSource is the future way
2. SolSource reaches temperatures up to 350 and it is more
of cooking. It is powerful, clean and fuel-free, and you can
than 90% energy efficient. In comparison, photovoltaics
grill without any charcoal or gas. In the long-term, our goal
(solar cells) can only utilize around 20% of the sun’s energy.
is to go to provide this in developing countries, where our
We are creating a new era for solar energy!
vision is to meet the challenges of deforestation and indoor smoke pollution.
KO M PA S S O G C O 1. Kompass & CO creates jobs for youth in the age between
2. We combine social and green innovation while we at the
15-25 who in some way or another does not find their
same time produce sustainable products needed in society.
place in society. We turn these jobs into arenas of mastery
We work along principles of a circular economy, which means
for the youth to build competence, take responsibility for
that our products do not harm the environment. We are for
themselves and others, and build skills which are needed in
example making furniture out of pallets, giving them a new
society. We focus on building skills within three areas: Food,
life instead of letting them be burnt. Kompass & CO sees gold
Redesign and Urban Farming.
where others see garbage. We see resources and opportunities where others see problems, costs and challenges.
EPLESLANG 1. Epleslang is a start-up and social enterprise founded
2. At Epleslang people with disabilities and young people
in 2012 in Oslo. We produce and sell a premium quality,
who are looking for work experience are responsible for the
natural apple juice made from unused and wasted apples,
harvesting of all the gardens and the bottle labelling. We
harvested from private gardens around the city with the help
provide work experience because we believe everyone can
of those most in need of a job. So when you drink Epleslang
take part and contribute.We love to work with a product
you might be enjoying the ‘fruit’ of your neighbor’s garden.
built on both social and environmental values, whilst preserving the best that nature has to offer. Combining all these untapped resources – that’s what makes Epleslang unique!
QUESTION & ANSWER FEATURE
AGE OF ENLIGHTENMENT 1. We have a created a fashion brand to address and shed a
2. We have used organic cotton and tencel as materials for
light on the problems the fashion industry is facing, as the
our collection, and named our clothes after people that have
second worst industry within environmental pollution after
made the world more enlightened, such as Eva Joly, Gro
fossil fuel. Our first goal was to show that ethical fashion
Harlem Brundtland, Richard Dawkins and Savitribai Phule.
could be just as desirable as high-end fashion, and to target
Today only 2% of the world cotton production is organic.
the typical decision makers to nudge them into a greener
Fair payment, good working conditions and the right to get
way of thinking. Now our goal is to find a way to move the
organized in workers unions are a great struggle. By using
industry as a whole as we think that the change needs to
organic and fairtrade cotton we are leaving the traditional
come from within the industry.
box. However we are aware that the world does not need more clothes which leaves us with a lack of motivation to produce more. The clothes that are being sold must be long lasting and made out of organic materials.
SYKKELKJĂ&#x2DC;KKENET OSLO 1. Oslo Bike Kitchen is a community development and
2. We use the bicycle as a medium not only for learning and
environmental initiative. Our purpose is to teach members
empowerment, but also to create a social meeting space that
of the community about basic bike repair and maintenance
bridges generational gaps, ethnic backgrounds, languages,
through hands-on, DIY courses and outdoor public events.
sexual orientations and political affiliations. We view the
Neglecting your bike can lead to costly repairs. If people
bike-repair community as a common denominator to bring
took better care of their bikes, the number of bikes being
people together and create social cohesion, not to mention a
thrown away could be reduced. We also organize Bike
necessary building block for a thriving bike culture.
Rescue Dugnads with housing associations to ensure ownerless bikes get new homes.
BLINDERN STUDENTHAGE 1. Blindern Student Garden possesses a beautiful piece
2. We contribute to diminishing our ecological footprints
of land at the University of Oslo campus, that we run
a tiny bit, by aiming to let the resources go full-circle. For
by organic principles. The work in the garden is based
example we compost our waste, limiting the amount of
on dugnad - unpaid, voluntary community based work
energy required from other sources. Other good side-effects
managed by the students. Our work is quite hands-on,
from our work could be that the students learn more about
growing food and spending time together.
growing food, that they become more aware of what they put in their grocery carts as well as gaining more respect towards what lies behind the work put into producing food, so that they might throw away less food. 102
QUESTION & ANSWER FEATURE
PA N T E R I N G 1. The initiative is working on implementing a public
2. The initiative is addressing a problem that up until now
system for recycling of bottles and cans (“pant”) that aims
has been ignored in Norway, and solves it in an easy and
to make it easier. The “pantering” is a sort of cup holder
attached to public trash bins, so people can put bottles and cans there instead of in the trash, while people gathering them for recycling can easily collect them without having to look through the trash. By this we wish to make the process of gathering bottles and cans easier, increase recycling and at the same time spread environmental and social conscience.
ENGL A ST - Imagine a green Filipstad 1. The project by Arkitektur- og designhøgskolen i
2. The project challenges people’s ideas of a box. From
Oslo in collaboration with Bymøljøetaten and Plan- og
the outside the container seems limited by its natural four
Bygningsetaten focuses on Filipstad’s current landscape and
corners and walls, confining everything inside. Going inside
its potential future development. The main objective is to
however, the world appears infinite, endless, as the limited
show the transformation of an industrial area through an
physical space is transformed into a never ending space. The
Urban-Landscape Architecture project. Inside a 12 meter
mirrors allow people to leave the box by giving the illusion
long container the walls are lined with mirrors, reflecting
that opportunities are eternal.
planting beds of blue, purple and white flowers. While the container reflects the industrial ambient of Filipstad, the interior symbolizes the future possibilities for an environmentally friendly development of the area.
FO OD STUDIO 1. Food Studio is a collective of professionals who believe
2. Using a collaborative approach, Food Studio
in good and honest food. They collaborate closely with
makes people think of their environmental impact by
specialists in the food industry, ranging from foragers and
demonstrating basic lifestyle modifications: reducing waste
farmers to designers and innovators. Through practical,
by throwing away less; consuming less meat and more wild
simple, and interactive learning experiences, Food Studio
fish or game; being aware of the entire life cycle of animals
challenges the daily way we think about and work with
and the provenance of protein; using more resources directly
food and hopes to communicate inspirational and feasible
from nature through foraging; and alike. These tactics
solutions that individuals can make on a daily basis.
are taught with a holistic consciousness and strong visual expression, making Food Studio’s work both theoretically unique and visually identifiable. 103
QUESTION & ANSWER FEATURE
Pantering — Credit: Niklas Barre
Food Studio — Credit: Svein Gunnar Kjøde
QUESTION & ANSWER FEATURE
One Earth Designs — Credit: Torbjørn Buvarp
Epleslang — Credit: Alex Asensi
REGENERATIVE ENTREPRENEURSHIP: Entrepreneurship for Our Complex World ERIC R. SANNERUD
By now, we are all familiar with the concept of
One, by this definition who is not a social entrepreneur?
Oil companies make money by providing energy. Retailers
Companies, organizations, and individuals have flocked
provide consumers with stuff they think they want.
to the social entrepreneurship space in search of a new
Political parties do it all for the good of their citizens.
paradigm for doing business. TOMS Shoes, Wood from
Clearly, such a broad definition is problematic by allowing
the Hood, and MyRain are a few examples of successful
for too wide an interpretation. Two, it is too general to
social enterprises. There is an extensive list of resources,
be practical. How does a student, entrepreneur, visionary,
groups, conferences, degrees, and awards dedicated to it.
mid-career professional, retiree begin to engage with an
The biggest players in regular old entrepreneurship are
idea so broad?
moving in. On Twitter, the hashtag “#socent” is used more
These are the challenges Regenerative Entrepreneurship
than 100 times an hour.
seeks to address by laying out a clear definition as well as
Such proliferation of an idea can have a downside. In its
defined characteristics and practices.
meteoric rise, social entrepreneurship’s being pulled to cover many different bases. What does it really actually
mean? Try Googling for a definition and you will find that
Accepting that entrepreneurship is a well understood
nearly every one of the resources, groups, conferences,
word, if vague in its own right, we will start by defining
degrees, and awards defines it slightly differently.
Regenerative. Using the medical dictionary, we find the
The best general definition floating around the internet
following: “To generate or produce anew; especially: to
seems to be this:
replace a body part by new growth of tissue.”1 The most important characteristic of this definition is
Social entrepreneurship is doing well while doing good. This definition has two challenges.
what it implies. First, regenerative assumes a systemic lens. Replacing a part implies that there is a whole that the part belongs to. It focuses on action without pointing fingers. It does not explicitly state the old system is broken. It simply 106
implies that intervention is needed. Producing anew does
There is no well-trod road to follow. Only through repeated
not leave room for old ways to stay.
attempts will a regenerative entrepreneur hack their way
One of the best essays on what we could describe as
through the complexity to a truly systemic solution.
Regenerative Entrepreneurship is “Solves for Pattern”
This third characteristic knocks most of the current host
by Wendell Berry.2 To apply this definition quickly - a
of organizations out of the running: honest accounting.
regenerative solution is one that, as Wendell Berry would
A regenerative solution achieves the high, high bar of
say, ‘solves for pattern’. It solves not just the symptom but
producing a solution without creating a new problem
in the process. Oil companies, retail, politicians take no responsibility for the negative externalities of their
Take food waste. The social entrepreneur seeks to compost more of our food waste. A Regenerative Entrepreneur addresses the root causes of food waste such as consumer behavior change and processing inefficiencies.
actions unless forced to by law. Additionally, Regenerative Entrepreneurs must fairly pay themselves, their employees, and their suppliers. No regenerative solution succeeds off the backs of shorted suppliers, underpaid laborers, or founders without a home. Getting even more specific, here is a selection
Or think about renewable energy. A social entrepreneur
three of the many practices of Regenerative
helps existing energy companies diversify their portfolio. A
Regenerative Entrepreneur seeks to shift not only the source
Ask why 5 times, or more. This simple action can lead to
of energy but also the control of the energy source, does not
deep new insights and surface root causes.
assume the same private ownership model is the right way.
In order to learn by doing, a Regenerative Entrepreneur must employ the philosophies of the Lean Start Up meth-
Regenerative Entrepreneurship seeks to address
odology. Principle among these is the idea to test as many
root challenges with new techniques for a
assumptions in your proposed solution for the least risk.
Another practice under experiential education is 30%
Now lets get more specific. The three characteristics
ideas. This practice is translated from the field of design
of Regenerative Entrepreneurship are systemic lens,
where there is a principal called “30% Drawing”. You draw
experiential education, and honest accounting.
out a concept to 30% and seek feedback and check in.
Regenerative Entrepreneurs must employ a bi-focal
The power here is creating a pause to take a deep breath
systemic lens while viewing challenges. First, they must
in the middle of the race. The 30% drawing is enough
go wide. What are the sums of inputs and outputs to this
for the designer and the client to have a good idea about
challenge? What connected aspects have been left out
where the design is and is not going. It is significantly less
of the discussion? Second, now that they have a broad
risky than bringing in a 100% design for initial review.
understanding of the system challenges they go deep to
For regenerative entrepreneurs they can run a “30%
seek the root causes.
Organization”. Adopting this mindset leads to a lot more ideas, half-baked though they may be. But since they are
Reading a textbook does not make you any type of entrepreneur.
only 30% of the way in - not too much time has been wasted in creating them, but at the same time, they have been thought about enough to have substance to reflect on.
Regenerative Entrepreneurs learn by doing through extensive experiential education. Internships, failed
Questions to help identify a Regenerative
start-ups, and new projects, rapid iteration. Regenerative
Entrepreneurs seek to address issues not yet addressed.
REGENERATIVE ENTREPRENEURSHIP: ENTREPRENEURSHIP FOR OUR COMPLEX WORLD
1. If your organization is successful, what has changed about the issues you are seeking to address? 2. Does your organization succeed through providing treatments for the symptom or solutions for the disease? 3. Why? Why? Why? Why? Why? By more narrowly defining its tenets than social entrepreneurship, Regenerative Entrepreneurship is more able to facilitate the development of a distinct community of changemakers. Regenerative Entrepreneurshipâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s distinct definition allows for curriculum development, clarifies what organizations are truly pursuing a better world, and ultimately holds the potential to shift paradigms.
ERIC R. SANNERUD
REFERENCES 1 Merriam-Webster. Merriam-Webster, 2015. Web. 05 May 2015. 2 Berry, Wendell. “Chapter 9.” Solving for Pattern. N.p.: North Point, 1981. N. pag. Print. 109
TO THINK OUTSIDE OF THE BOX, GO OUT OF THE BUILDING
TORILL BYE WILHELMSEN
Credit: CATHRINE DOKKEN 111
TO THINK OUTSIDE OF THE BOX, GO OUT OF THE BUILDING
Creative thinking is a prerequisite for innovation. As an entrepreneur and founder of the Walking Movement I believe in the power of developing fresh ideas while walking.
TORILL BYE WILHELMSEN
Innovation is often defined as the process where new ideas
etc. Together these initiatives are nudges that slowly change
are implemented in a business, an organization or the
the way the society operates, because we incorporate these
society. Ideas alone are not enough to make an innovation,
changes into our daily lives. It may be that slowly, our
it´s the implementation and actual improvement that
culture will change, adding more value to our lives through
matters. You can easily spot entrepreneurs and change-
more sustainable and environmentally friendly lifestyles.
agents, it´s often people starting sentences off with “What
Critics say that these are sub-cultures, and small niches,
if…”. They are dreamers, visionaries - but most of all doers
but every revolution starts small.
that believe that anything is possible even with very little
According to government records, 80 percent of
resources. I have always admired entrepreneurs that start
Norwegians aren’t getting enough activity.1 Much like
off with a creative idea and goes on to create something
the U.S., many people work in offices, and the average
Credit: CATHRINE DOKKEN
valuable for other people that solve a problem, meet a need
time sitting is more than 9 hours a day. The problem with
or changes their behavior.
this trend is that sitting dulls creativity, and this has real
Innovation and entrepreneurship are related to almost
business impacts. The loss in productivity from sitting
all areas, including nature and environmental problems. I
all day have been valued by the Norwegian Directorate
trained as a resource economist and many of the problems
of Health at 239 billion Norwegian kroner a year (which
we worked with, like pollution, are very old problems. It
equals 28 billion USD) - the equivalent of the Norwegian
is forward-thinking, good solutions that are lacking, and
oil fund in 2013.2
that is when we need both intrapreneurs, who work inside
Entrepreneurs often work themselves into the
existing organizations, and entrepreneurs, who want to
ground. Many people leave corporate jobs and become
improve the status quo by setting up a new business. Many
entrepreneurs to pursue a life with more freedom, but even
small business owners do things differently and provide
as self-employed they find themselves working long hours
new answers to environmental problems - even if it is on a
in front of the computer trying to solve problems - and it
small scale. Some examples are inventors of electric bikes,
often feels like a waste of time. And with very good reason;
more stylish helmets, organic jackets that will last for
sitting is counterproductive. Getting outside to take a
generations, solid walking boots that will serve you for life
walk is proven to bolster creative thinking.3 Walking will 113
Credit: CATHRINE DOKKEN 115
TO THINK OUTSIDE OF THE BOX, GO OUT OF THE BUILDING
also improve your memory and ability to concentrate.4
walking had real business and health benefits, and I started
Entrepreneurs need to know how to utilize that fact, and
Fjellflyt AS with a mission to help entrepreneurs, business
that´s why I started the Walking Movement. On a global
owners and workers “walk the talk” so that they achieve
scale we want to address rising public health issues, falling
productivity and need for innovation.
In quiet lodges and mountain farms in Norwegian
In the Walking Movement, we’re encouraging
National Parks with breathtaking nature, we host retreats
entrepreneurs and their employees to go for short walks
for entrepreneurs with Walkshops, yoga and local food.
between 2-20 minutes throughout the workday. As a first
Participants are entrepreneurs that want to build a healthy
step towards better ideas, stronger health and more profits,
lifestyle and profitable business. My customers are mainly
the Walking Movement is encouraging employees and
small business owners of lifestyle businesses. Walkshops,
entrepreneurs to take a walk while they solve a problem,
on the other hand, are largely attended by organizations
brainstorm, have a walking meeting, a Walkshop®, or as I
who want to provide an opportunity for their employees to
like to call them “a workshop with legs”, with their team
learn on their feet. At one event, focused around the link
or listen to an audio lecture. The Walking Movement is
between movement and innovation, we had 130 people
innovative because it is directly targeted at changing the
participate. Walkshops are an alternative to traditional
culture at the workplace to fight the negative consequences
seminars and conference sessions, where the participants
of prolonged sitting, and get the positive effects from
walk while they discuss a topic. The Fjellflyt community
has grown organically by word of mouth, online marketing
When I got the idea for Fjellflyt AS, I was working
and a great deal of media coverage in national press. This
as head of business in a municipality, and I realized that
proved to be a powerful mix that created momentum and
many entrepreneurs were struggling with taking care
kickstarted the community.
of themselves while starting their own business. At the
When entrepreneurs walk, they get more creative
same time, I was dealing with this exact problem. The
ideas and avoid the negative effects of sedentary behavior
combination of long work hours, travelling and being a
like sitting. Now thousands of people are walking more
new mom led me to burnout, and I quit my job to get
and reaping the benefits. In the long term I can see the
some headspace and create a healthier work environment
movement turning into a walking revolution at workplaces
for myself. This made me realize that a computer can be
all over the world.
replaced when it´s broken, but you can’t just order a new body online. We need to take care of ourselves to protect
For more about Torill Bye Wilhelmsen and the Walking
our productivity and our creativity.
Movement, visit http://fjellflyt.no
From here, I began to think about what it was that gave me the most creative thoughts and renewed my energy. It turned out to be taking walks. To test what worked best, I started experimenting; I walked on and off paths, went fast and slow, and even ran into trees. But it wasn’t until Mia Keinänen, a researcher, interviewed me for her research on walking and thinking that I learned about the scientific results that prove the benefits of walking for being more productive and creative. This was a big turning point, because I learned how movement aids learning by stimulating neurotransmitters in the brain. Movement helps the brain connect the dots. We all know that walking reduces stress and increases the level of hormones that are good for us - but we don´t act on it. Then I knew why 116
TORILL BYE WILHELMSEN
Credit: CATHRINE DOKKEN
REFERENCES 1 Norsk Friluftsliv (2015): [online]. - URL: http://www.norskfriluftsliv.no/?file=5733 2 Sandberg T. (2014, March 29): Prisen for stillesitting: Slappinger koster 239 mrd i året, in Dagsavisen, March 29 2014, [online]. - URL: http://www.dagsavisen.no/innenriks/prisen-for-stillesitting-slappinger-koster-239-mrd-i-året-1.284794 3 Wong, May (2014): Standford study finds walking improves creativity, Standford Report, April 24, 2014 [online]. – URL: http://news.stanford.edu/news/2014/april/walking-vs-sitting-042414.html Berman, M. (2012): Berman on the Brain: How to Boost your Focus, in Huffpost Living, March 4 2014, [online].-URL: http://www.huffingtonpost.ca/marc-berman/attention-restoration-theory-nature_b_1242261.html 117
Fremtidslandet og ideene som skaper det HELGA ØVSTHUS TØNDER
Entreprenørskapets plass i Norge
lik utfordringer som finnes andre steder i verden. I
I Norge ser vi etter hvordan vi skal overleve etter oljen. Vi
etterdønningene av finanskrisen bestemte Ashoka i Irland
har to parallelle diskusjoner: én handler om innovasjon,
seg for å storslått prøve noe nytt. De ville løfte hjemlandet
en annen om velferdsstaten. Samtidig begynner Norge
sitt ut av en vanskelig situasjon, og bestemte seg for å gjøre
å bli kjent med en ny type entreprenør: den sosiale
det gjennom import. Ikke av varer, men av ideer.
entreprenøren. En gründer med to tanker i hodet
Ashoka er et globalt nettverk av over 3000 sosiale
samtidig. Hen er opptatt av samfunnsinnovasjon, og tar
entreprenører, kalt Ashoka Fellows. Alle disse har satt unike
i bruk tradisjonelle forretningsmodeller for å sette ideene
ideer ut i livet, og bidratt til positiv endring innen blant
sine ut i livet.
annet miljø, helse, utdanning og økonomi. Ashoka i Irland
Sosialt entreprenørskap har på verdensbasis blitt
ville plukke de mest overførbare praksisene og introdusere
kjent som et kraftfullt verktøy for å møte kjente og nye
dem i Irland for å skape endring.
samfunnsutfordringer i verden. Mikrofinans er et godt
I mars 2012 sparket Ashoka Irland i gang Change
eksempel. Fattige hadde inntil ganske nylig ikke tilgang
Nation. De samlet ledere fra offentlig, privat og ideell
til å ta opp lån, og Muhammad Yunus, som introduserte
sektor. De møtte entreprenørene bak ideene, og lærte om
produktet, ble møtt med skepsis. Nå er det en selvfølge
de nye løsningene. Her begynte prosessen med å dyrke
for enhver bank med respekt for seg selv å ha tilbud
etterspørsel og utvikle strategier for hvordan løsningene
tilpasset denne kundegruppen. Yunus’ innovasjon førte til
skulle spres internt i Irland.
systemendring. Ideene som skaper endring
I Norge ligger vi i startgropen når det gjelder denne typen entreprenørskap, delvis fordi staten har vært garantist
Totalt 50 ideer ble bragt til Irland, med hjelp av Ashokas
for vår sosiale trygghet i en årrekke. Det er den fremdeles,
globale nettverk. En av entreprenørene var den første i
men med en verden i rask endring, klarer ikke alltid dagens
Norge som ble valgt inn i nettverket: Hanne Finstad med
system å hamle opp med de nye utfordringene raskt nok.
Forskerfabrikken. Med blikk på fremtidens arbeidsmarked,
Det kan den sosiale entreprenøren.
delte hun med irene hvordan hun lærer barn og unge real- og teknologifag på en engasjerende måte. Hanne ønsker å vekke
Søken etter bedre løsninger
barn og unges interesse for fagområdene, og tilbyr forskning
Intet er nytt under solen, eller i hvert fall ytterst sjelden.
og teknologi som et fritids- og kulturtilbud på lik linje med
Utfordringene vi møter her hjemme, er som regel
andre fritidsaktiviteter som musikk, dans og sport.1 118
Arbeidsledighet er et problem i Irland som ellers i
Irland, ville vise potensialet i sosialt entreprenørskap for å
Europa. For å gi et nytt blikk på løsninger kom etablerer
løse samfunnsutfordringer. Samtidig søkte de å inspirere
av IQ Consulting, Ashoka Fellow Norbert Kunz. Byrået
flere til å ta ansvar for problemene de ser foran seg, og gjøre
hans fokuserer på sosial innovasjon og forretning, og
noe med dem. Det finnes i dag 1400 sosiale foretak
tilbyr rådgivningstjenester for marginaliserte målgrupper.
i Irland, som ansetter rundt 25000 mennesker.5
Gründer Kunz etablerte byrået fordi han opplevde at
Næringen er i vekst.
mange arbeidsledige og under-sysselsatte mennesker har
I sosialt entreprenørskap er spredning et
gode forretningsinstinkter. Det de mangler er en god
suksesskriterium. I Ashoka, verdens eldste og største globale
forretningsplan og god nok kreditthistorie til å få tilgang til
nettverk av sosiale entreprenører, er spredning så viktig at
opplæring og finansiering. I Tyskland har deres individuelle
vi måler det. Entreprenørene som er valgt inn i nettverket
coaching, opplæring og tilbud om kontorfellesskap ført
har satt ut i livet innovative løsninger innenfor blant
til etableringen av 1500 bedrifter, hvorav 70% fortsatt er
annet miljø, helse, økonomi og utdanning. Hele 91% av
i drift etter 3 år.2 IQ sine metoder har vært med å forme
disse ideene er kopiert av andre organisasjoner.6 En vanlig
den første tyske mikrofinansmodellen og en endring i
entreprenør prøver å beskytte seg mot at noen stjeler ideen
profesjonsutdanningen i Tyskland. Dette ble i sin tur
deres. For en sosial entreprenør er det derimot et tegn på
inspirasjonen for utviklingen av Tysklands nasjonale
suksess hvis deres idé viser seg å være så god at andre vil
mikrofinanssystemer, som forvalter over € 100m per år.
Prinsippet om deling av ideer, som Irland tok i bruk når de satte i gang Change Nation, er også grunnsteinen
i den tredje av de 50 de løsningene som ble presentert for
Norge går nye problemer i møte som vi kun ser konturene
irene. Entreprenør Sascha Haselmayer oppdaget at når de
av i dag: flere fattige barn, manglende integrasjon i
store byene i verden skal finne løsninger på problemene de
arbeidsmarkedet, flere unge arbeidsuføre og ungdommer
sliter med, velger 90% å gjøre dette i en lukket prosess.
som dropper ut av skolen. Samfunnsutfordringene bør
Sascha opplevde at muligheten til å hente inn innovative
også få plass i innovasjonsdebatten. Gir vi de sosiale
løsninger fra andre steder var begrenset, og startet derfor
entreprenørene plass, så kan vi få frem bærekraftige
Citymart. Organisasjonen hjelper byer med åpenhet rundt
løsninger. Noen vil vokse frem lokalt, mens andre
problemene sine – slik at det globale og lokale markedet
kan hentes inn fra andre land. Slik kan vi ruste oss for
har mulighet til å lytte, handle og investere. Til nå,
fremtiden med borgere som står klare for å møte nye
gjennom de 90 utfordringene som er lansert av Citymart,
utfordringer med innovative løsninger.
har byer oppdaget mer enn 10.000 nye løsninger, og skalert allerede utprøvde sosiale innovasjoner i nye kontekster.
Per dags dato har 52 byer over hele verden implementert
og delt metoden, inkludert London, Paris, Barcelona, San
Francisco, Boston, Santiago, Mexico City, Fukuoka og
3 http://changenation.org/index.php/solutions/solution/ Ingen verdi uten spredning
18 av de 50 ideene fra Change Nation er i dag satt ut i
livet i Irland, og flere er på vei. Landet har de siste årene
bygd seg opp et omdømme som en foregangsnasjon innen
5 Coleman, Alison (2014) : Ireland Leading the Charge
samfunnsinnovasjon. Målet med Change Nation var ikke
With Social Entrepreneurship, Forbes, 04.10.2014, http://
bare å vise frem gode ideer, men å involvere mennesker og
midler på tvers av sektorer i et prosjekt som handlet om
å gjøre Irland bedre, sammen. Initiativtakerne, Ashoka
6 http://uk.ashoka.org/sites/uk.ashoka.org/files/Ashoka_ UK_booklet_digital_0.pdf 119
Vanlige entreprenører gjør alt for å beskytte seg mot at noen stjeler ideene deres. En forutsetning for suksess er et vedvarende behov i markedet, og å være størst er best. En sosial entreprenør opererer med de samme forretningsmodellene, men gjør alt for at ideene deres skal spre seg. De jobber for at behovet for deres produkter og tjenester skal forsvinne – så raskt som overhodet mulig.
Credit: MAGNUS WITTERSØ 121
DESIGN AS A DIALOGICAL PROCESS: A Social Dialogue Tool to Perform Innovation in a Complex Environment
LUCIANO TARDIN & MARCUS VINÍCIUS FONSECA
Credit: DESIGN COUNCIL UK
Thinking through Design
scientific approaches to design.2 From the creativity flux
Design’s history is also the history of the systematization
inherent in design process, to the increasing complexity
of the designer’s creative process. If we focus on recent
of the situation in which design took place, the design
academic and professional debates and publications, as in
model partitioned the process in key steps that represent
common sense and media, we will be able to identify a
movements toward interaction and intervention.
continuous growth of its meanings and connections with
Fruit of an evolving process, the “Double Diamond”
different ideas and practices, revealing a subtle amplitude in
model proposed by the Design Council3 synthesizes the
practices and definitions.1
evolution of these multiple reflections about project activity
This emergent status of design in the 21st Century is
in design. This model is formed by four different phases.
to be noted as something important.
Discover, Define, Develop and Deliver. The model is custom-made to each applicable situation, considering a
In this contemporary scene, design is presented as part of innovation, sustainability and growth agendas.
variation of resources and restrictions typical of a specific human-centred approach, inserted in a complex web of relationships. Design and Complexity
In this sense, design is an integrative activity, capable of extending knowledge through human experience.
Approaches to complex problems in design were
The design process is a series of events, actions and
originally formulated by Horst Rittel4 in the sixties, a
proceedings, to be followed in order to reach a specific
period in time where project methodology in design was
objective, result or goal. This process is being optimized as
an object of great interest.
a goal of its own. Among many other contributions, lies
According to Rittel, complex problems are a class
the work, Systematic Methods for Designers, by L. Bruce
of problems in a badly formulated social system, where
Archer who was the head of the Design Research Unit at
information is confused, situations wherein clients
the Royal College of Art (1964). His publications can be
and decision-makers have conflicting values, and
considered pioneering examples of design methods and
where ramifications throughout all the social systems 123
DESIGN AS A DIALOGICAL PROCESS: A SOCIAL DIALOGUE TOOL TO PERFORM INNOVATION IN A COMPLEX ENVIRONMENT
are extremely complicated. Design problems are
precision of planning escapes its own planned action. This
“indeterminate” and “complex” because of the fact that
paradox, that involves planning and acting, is inherent
design does not have a specific goal, other than what
to the existence of every organization. And in this way,
the designer defines as such. The objective of design is
the awareness of the incompleteness of comprehension
potentially universal in its scope. Design Thinking can be
appeals to the development of a form of acting and
applied to any area of human experience. We therefore
managing, which is much more integrated, alive and
understand that the centrality of the human factor
intelligent. In this sense, project methodology in design
demands a process that precedes the objective intentionality
presents itself as a form of approach that is capable of
that characterises product development. It claims a focus
proposing a formulation of interventions. This evolves
on human emotions, desires and interactions. This view
into a continuous prototyping process of the relation and
frees the project perspective from the limitations of a
functions of organizations in society, based on a dialogical
program based on preconceptions about behaviour, that
when added to an ideation process, capable of transcending the limits imposed by previous experiences, is able to make
Design as Dialogue
the innovation process dynamic.
An approach to the reality of social and productive
The continuous complexity of life, that permeates
organizations, in complex, open and permeable systems,
all culture, is being discussed in different arenas and with
demands an equally complex thinking process. This occur
different focuses. In common is the attempt to reinaugurate
when different understandings are harmonized and when
the comprehension of reality in order to continuously
they meet, it generates a dynamic formulation. According
transpose barriers imposed by the very approach/
to Morin, two consequences arise from the idea of an
investigative method, be it scientific or no, but with a
strong Cartesian, disjunctive thought influence.
“The first is that the laws of the organization of life are not those of balance, but of imbalance, recovered
Organizations as Complex Systems
or compensated, of stabilized dynamics... The second
Organizations, understood as complex systems have as
consequence, maybe even greater, is that intelligibility of
characteristics non-linearity and self-organisation. We can
the system must be found, not only in itself, but also in its
think about these characteristics using the three causalities
relation to the environment and that this relation is not
implied in the productive process of the organisations, as
one of simple dependence, it is itself a part of the system.”
proposed by Morin5: linear causality, circular causality and
A co-created design, dialogued, is based on
recursive causality – three distinct ways of approach. These
the emphasis of an initial project stage of empathy
causalities develop in complexity, starting from a linear,
construction. This stage determines the moment in
deductive causality, insufficient to understand and manage
which dialogue is established, through the suspension
a complex organization. However, that is objectively related
of suppositions6 by which we observe and formulate our
to the realization of tasks, the transformation of material
ideas. This can be a way out for the incompatibilities and
into products, and, in a first analysis, the very definition of
gridlocks generated by any and every social activity.
a productive system. Another approach is circular causality,
The dynamics of the contemporary market challenges
retroactive, based on an interaction between its products/
the reflection about the adequacy of understanding gained
services with its environment, in a continuous process of
throughout time and the envisioning of the future. In the
feedback. Finally, in recursive causality, the product is the
future, we may be able to consider the non-existence of
producer of the production process. In this last causal logic,
externalities to our actions. And in its stead, see a network
the processes are constantly shaped by its own results.
of continuous implications that once understood as an
This understanding of recursive causality exposes the
extension of project activity, will bring us closer to a
management process in as much as it puts in perspective
the fact, provable through systematic observation, that the 124
LUCIANO TARDIN & MARCUS VINÍCIUS FONSECA
REFERENCES 1 Buchanan, Richard (1992): “Wicked Problems in Design Thinking”. Design Issues, Vol. 8, No. 2 pp. 5-21. The MIT Press. 2 Bayazit, Nigan (2004): “Investigating Design: A Review of Forty Years of Design Research”. Design Issues: Vol. 20, No. 1 MIT Press., 3 Design Council: Eleven lessons: managing design in eleven global companies. Desk Research. 5 November 2007. 4 Op. cit. Buchanan, Richard. 5 Morin, Edgar (2011): Introdução ao Pensamento Complexo. Porto Alegre: Sulina. p.22. 6 Bohm, David (2005): Diálogo. São Paulo: Palas Athena. 125
25 25 YEARS WITH SUM
5 EDITORIAL BOARD
As University of Oslo’s Centre for the Environment and Development (SUM) celebrates its 25th year, it seems only fair to acknowledge the work of the master’s students in the program, Culture, Environment and Sustainability, which SUM has housed since 2003. The aim of the CES master’s programme is to provide students with knowledge and critical insights into the socio-cultural, political and scientific challenges of achieving sustainable development at both the local and global level. The research undertaken by SUM students spans a broad range of themes related to sustainability, including ethics, culture, development theory, poverty, business and consumption. The articles that follow are an assortment of writings from former students of CES. While some chose to focus on the projects they undertook during their theses, others reminisce on their experiences at SUM. Keeping the theme of this issue in mind, the editorial board saw this as an opportunity to highlight the innovative projects of SUM while getting a glimpse at what paths students take after graduating. Several have left Norway to work abroad, including Anne Sveinsdottir who is now a PhD student at the University of Denver and Beck Roan who works as an attorney in the US. Others have stayed in Norway, now working in the private and public sectors. The pieces chosen as features reflect this diversity of research interests and the impressive array of paths taken by SUM graduates.
Teaching Solutions – Innovation in Academia SEAN MICHAEL THOMPSON
At the University of Oslo’s Centre for the Environment
evolve from the standard classroom course from
and Development (SUM), Professor Dan Banik sat down
the past years?
with Tvergastein in order to discuss his recent Massive Open Online Course (MOOC). Titled “What Works?”,
Several years ago I was in charge of the development
the course is designed to take a look at success stories from
studies modules at the social sciences faculty, and after a
the world of development. Holding permanent and visiting
long term of talking about everything that didn’t work
positions at the University of Malawi, the University of Oslo,
the students got up and said “could you please in this last,
Stanford University and a university in Beijing, Professor
final, special lecture – what we want you to do – could
Banik is uniquely positioned in being able to experiment
you highlight some of the success stories; could you give
with using MOOCs as a way to provide high-quality
us hope? Is there anything that works out there? Does
education to students in different corners of the world.
anything have an impact? We want to work for the UN,
Our interest in this topic for our current issue stems
the World Bank; we want to work for NGOs – all you’ve
from the belief that MOOCs, with their ability to reach
said – you’ve highlighted things that don’t work, so...” I
thousands of students, are an example of innovative
thought it was a very profound observation. I did that final
solutions being applied to problems in development. In
talk and I tried to highlight positive stories, but I ended
addition to purely environmental factors such as cutting
up going back to the negatives – I was arguing against
down on air traffic – since the lectures are online and not in
myself. So I talked to some of these students, and we
person – MOOCs could serve countries where traditional
had a brainstorming session discussing this. Several years
universities and educational institutions have had difficulty
later I came up with this idea for the SUM course which
keeping up with demand. Apart from the MOOC as
I’ve offered for the last three years on Success Stories in
an educational medium, the course subject is solution-
International Development – and that attracted the usual
oriented in its approach to developmental problems.
twenty to twenty-five student crowd, from SUM and other
In this interview we discuss innovation within a
university departments. Then I realized that this really has
changing academic landscape, as well as academia’s role
in telling success stories. Professor Banik shares thoughts How did the organization of the MOOC look like?
on how a new approach could possibly change not just the academic side of development, but the way in which development projects are funded and executed.
Doing a MOOC is in many ways challenging, it’s not like a regular course – you have to first persuade people.
First, we just want to start off with some
Well, the other challenging aspect is of course the topic
background. So how did the idea of the MOOC 128
- Could you highlight some of the success stories; could you give us hope? Is there anything that works out there?
Interview with Dan Banik 129
TEACHING SOLUTIONS – INNOVATION IN ACADEMIA? INTERVIEW WITH DAN BANIK
itself – so what works? I’m not aware of any other course
Works?” MOOC and MOOCs in general address the
that has been given on this topic. So that was one thing,
issue of sustainability as far as mass education and
and not everybody is comfortable talking about the success
democratizing education are concerned?
stories, the promising practices, because as you may know most academics are extremely cautious. They’re very careful,
Well that’s the beauty of a MOOC, is that you have firstly
they’re – they like to be critical and independent, but they’re
a global classroom – with minimal energy you are reaching
not very good at coming up with solutions or – the fear
out to quite a lot of people. But it’s also the other way
that by generalizing something to be a success they may be
around, that these
criticized. So there were those challenges, but once we were
more the logistical and the practical challenges of doing it.
people from all nooks and corners of the world are having access to world-class lecturers that they would not normally have access to.
How has the feedback been so far?
So I think there’s a realization here at SUM, and I think
at the University of Oslo the President agrees, that on
The feedback so far has been extremely positive, I was
certain occasions it may be well worth it to invest in these
impressed by the feedback – I was fairly nervous the first
big MOOCs rather than a course with 25 students. My
week, you know? Because I’ve never done this before, none
personal thing is that I think MOOCs are extremely good
of us have done it, and I was worried that the topic itself
at being supplementary to existing courses. I’m still not
wouldn’t be very popular. MOOC as a form of teaching
sold to the idea entirely. I don’t like the idea of education
is of course very well established, I mean it’s been going
simply being based on the MOOC model. I don’t see
on since 2008. But I wasn’t sure how the response would
how we can escape the normal classroom, or do away
be, about “What Works?”. Whether we’d be criticized for
with it totally. However I do see many interesting ways
being naive. So I was extremely worried – not worried – I
in which we can make the classroom even more exciting.
was anxious, and I was relieved the first week when we got,
We can make the experience more dynamic; the learning
I think almost a thousand responses, just when we asked
experience. And a MOOC is just super in that connection.
people to introduce themselves and tell us about the topic.
I would still really like to have my 25-50 or 60 students
able to get through those and we convinced these people that you could talk about anything that you want, as long as it falls within a broad category of success, then it was much
One of the big criticisms of the MOOCs is that
that I often have in Political Science and I would like them
people don’t really complete. And I saw this year a lot of
to be a part of this community.
people sign up, they would watch one video, and they
In terms of sustainability I’ve been experimenting
would forget that something was going on. There is a lot of
with these techniques for a long time, in terms of different
psychology. When I give a course or when I give a talk at
kinds of software. But I do think that we should be using
the university, or at schools, I’m not worried about who’s
video content in much the same, you know MOOCs are
taking notes or who wasn’t showing up for class, I’m not
just great ways of – to give you an example I have a 5 year
really worried about that. If I see half the class empty then
operation with Malawi now – I’m not always going to be
I’d be worried. But in a MOOC you have to keep thinking
in a position to travel all the way to Malawi. I do travel a
about ways of getting students back in class, so my team
lot, but I really want to cut back on that and one way we’re
and I had devised all these sorts of bonus materials, it
going to try to experiment is actually to record some of my
wasn’t just a course.
lectures on a stick, on a USB stick and maybe just send it by DHL because they won’t be able to download these
Our theme for this issue of Tvergastein is Leaving
huge files. And then that stick could just be put into a large
the Box – towards creative ideas addressing
screen and they could see my talk. I mean there are some
sustainability. So in light of this, how does “What
trade-offs obviously; everybody wants you to be there in 130
SEAN MICHAEL THOMPSON
I want there to be a balance between all the challenges we have in terms of development, and the successes, the promising practices.
person, and the discussions you have with someone after the break or after the classes, you can’t replace that – but as a second best option we have the opportunity, we have the technology now to involve a lot of people who otherwise would not be able to travel. And so I see that as a new way in which we could all contribute towards offering courses
I want to know how we have learned from previous lessons.
that involve people from all over the world. So I like the
What were the mistakes and, you know, and what is
technology but I’m still not sold to the idea that it’s only
working and why? I’m not really worried about whether
that version of technology that’s going to work. I would
something that is working in one place can be replicated
like to see how we could mix and match. I would like to
elsewhere. I’m just interested in knowing why it’s working.
see how we could use it as a supplement.
Who’s benefiting from it? And great, are there some lessons to be learned? Maybe we could take it and do some
Where will the “What Works?” idea lead?
comparative studies. So you know both from a research student point of view but also from a communication,
In terms of what I would like to do, I’m really playing
dissemination kind of view. I think this kind of an effort
around with a new idea. That is, I have this portal;
would be really interesting.
whatworks/development.org. At the moment it’s exclusively So there is a discourse that needs to be balanced?
based on the MOOC, but what I want to do is to create an online presence and an interactive experience, where one part of the experience is the MOOC or something
There is a growing awareness already because of this course
similar or a course that we offer. Another component
and because of this movement that there is a need to create
would be gathering information, together aligning
a balance between all the challenges – and I’m perfectly
ourselves with Facebook and Twitter pages. We collect
aware of the challenges, the magnitude of challenges, of
and we assemble, it’s like a repository of knowledge, of
poverty and health and all of that, and yet I feel the need
“What Works?”. So publications, research, media articles,
to correct the balance by providing the alternative stories
that our volunteers, our teams of students submit on
and I think that is where we should be. We shouldn’t
their own, and we moderate that and somewhere filter
tilt the scale in favor of one, but try to maintain the
and somehow categorize this according to environment,
balance. And I think if we are able to do that, we would
development, poverty reduction, country-wise, whatever.
be much more credible as an institution, as researchers, as
And the idea there is that if you as a student want to do
students, because we are not just saying “give us money
a thesis on one of the topics you could go in there, get a
or give us funding, we do the study and it doesn’t work,
lot of information, maybe some contacts, and then you
we need more”. We’re actually saying “listen, some of this
already have something to start with and you don’t have to
is actually working” but these are the challenges. So we
start from scratch. The same thing would be with research
need to continue. That’s the story I want to tell. Not like
projects. So I’m interested in providing that kind of a
a lot of the NGOs often do. It’s like “nothing is working,
knowledge base. Thirdly, I’m also interested in much more
there’s a lot of extreme poverty there, we need more of
interactive sessions with, you know, video content coming
your money”. So it’s this guilty conscience-based kind of
from the field, so I would like to see, explore ways in
a funding mechanism. I always want to avoid that. I don’t
which the UN, World Bank, civil society, NGOs, citizens,
want organizations or institutions to treat people who
organizations upload stuff that, we of course carefully filter,
fund them as naive. They should know that they’re taking
in terms of quality, etc., how they talk about success stories.
a decision based on a careful review of the data, of the
I’ve been using the term movement for a while, I sound
evidence. That something’s been done. And if something
extremely activistic, but that’s really what I want to create.
hasn’t been done then maybe one will end up not funding that organization. But I think that’s a risk we have to take. 131
Happy Anniversary SUM! HEIDI BADE
ABOUT THE AUTHOR: Heidi Bade holds a Master’s degree from the Centre for Development and the Environment. She wrote her Master’s thesis on Norway’s REDD+ partnership with Guyana entitled “Aid in a rush”. She now works as an advisor at the Norwegian Agency for Development Cooperation, Norad.
Centre for Development and the Environment
in Afghanistan or river salmon habitats in Canada. We
(SUM) is a popular 25 year-old: The
learned how civil society pushed Nike to change their
newly launched e-course “What works in
international development” attracted more
I believe this focus on real world cases rather than
than 6000 applicants.
internal academic debates is a key asset at SUM.
Being inter-disciplinary, SUM research is able to ask more relevant questions.
SUM also hosts an exclusive master’s program consisting of only 20 students selected from all parts of the world. The students are not only selected based on their merits, but also their diversity. The result is a mixed group with varied
Students and professors are not caught up in endless
educational backgrounds and work experience.
academic debates, which, I suspect very few outside academia really care about. Instead, we are encouraged to
Diverse group, diverse sets of skills
ask questions that are relevant in the actual world. In my
I believe this mixture is key to the success of the program.
experience, this helped me write a master´s thesis that was
During my three years of bachelor studies at the University
accessible and interesting to the outside world. I believe
of Oslo, my classmates and I were a rather homogenous
it makes research at SUM useful, relevant and up to date.
group in terms of experience and worldview. It was very
Therefore, while SUM is getting older, it will always be
comfortable, and there was very little friction. At SUM,
young in spirit.
suddenly many of my perceptions were challenged. Our class had a sanitation expert, an Italian world traveller and Arctic expert, a Brazilian who had worked in the private sector and me who had very little work experience at all. There were students from Vietnam, Ethiopia, Germany, Indonesia, and Kvamsøya, Norway. What united us was a common desire to push our societies in a greener direction. At SUM we learned how. We were taught about international negotiations by acting them out. I performed as the U.S delegate and I remember how the small island states convincingly despised me. We learned how businesses might be both part of the solution, and the problem.
We studied the development in consumption patterns taught by a man who was energy self-sufficient in his ecohouse on Nesodden. Not least, we learned to understand the complex climate systems and the scenarios we must prepare ourselves for in the future. Real world problems We always focused on specific, real-world cases, never on theoretical debates. We learned of solar power projects 133
The greatest unanswered question is no longer whether and how our ecosystems and societies will be affected by global environmental change, but rather of which, as the last years of stalemate in the international climate negotiations is a testament, and what to do about it.
Practicing, Not Just Preaching INGERID SALVESEN
ABOUT THE AUTHOR: Ingerid Salvesen is a journalist and a scholar of environment and development issues. She holds a bachelor degree in journalism from Oslo University College, and completed a masterâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s degree at Centre for Environment and Development in November 2014. She has worked for several media outlets, covering mainly international affairs. She is currently a freelance journalist at Kverna Media. She has broad editorial experience with, among others, Die Welt, Dagens NĂŚringsliv, NRK Dagsnytt 18 and NTB.
PRACTICING, NOT JUST PREACHING
How do we mitigate and adapt to climate change? How
social movement theory, I analyzed findings for each of the
do we transform our societies to become more sustainable
two groups exclusively, as well as across both cases. Such
and resilient? Who gets to decide how and when?
a comparison enabled insight into not only the formation and the results of the Transition Movement in Norway
Frustrated by the lack of agreement or substantial change at the global and national levels, the founders of a rather new community-based social movement called Transition Movement claim that it is collective local action that must and 1 can “change the world”.
in general, but also into local variations and the factors explaining these variations. The examination of ‘energy-related’ consumption was conducted through studying three consumption practices with significant energy and environmental consequences, and the norms embedded in these practices: a) buying imported food in the supermarket; b) driving a car to and from work and spare time activities; c) regularly buying
The movement aims to mobilize action in communities
new clothes and throwing old ones away. These practices
worldwide to address what they call ‘the twin challenges’
were chosen for both pragmatic reasons (these are the main
of climate change and depletion of cheap energy. Their
practices that both groups engage with) and because of their
approach is unconventional in that it is not based on
relevance (the majority of the energy use of, and greenhouse
information-campaigns for the public nor lobbying or
gas emissions from, modern household consumption comes
protesting politicians or institutions; instead they simply
from food and transport and housing.5 I will argue that the
launch activities in their local areas. These are both directed
Transition Movement represents an interesting angle from
towards reducing carbon emissions from the communities
which to explore the critique of current consumption and
involved, and towards fostering public engagement and
energy saving policies in the global North and to look for
empowerment around climate change. The movement
seeks to institutionalize new low-carbon social practices
First then, a look at these policies and their critique.
and social norms and thus contribute to a transition to
Although the last decades have seen significant gains in
low-carbon economies. Their key rationale is: “If we wait
energy efficiency through technological innovation, the total
for the governments, it’ll be too little, too late. If we act as
energy demand and use has only increased in most modern,
individuals, it’ll be too little. But if we act as communities,
industrialized societies— outweighing the efficiency gains.6
it might just be enough, just in time”. Community action
Policymakers have responded to the challenge by attempting
is seen as “the missing piece”.
to promote less energy-intensive consumption, emphasizing
The movement has grown rapidly across the
approaches like providing information to the public. The
world, receiving increasing attention from scholars and
results, however, have so far been few. Several scholars7 argue
policymakers. It is both criticized for being politically naïve
that the lack of success is due to the narrow view of social
and utopian3 and cheered for providing alternative and
change underlying contemporary consumption and energy
innovative ways for engaging citizens in reducing carbon
savings policies, being based on simplistic linear models of
emissions. In my master thesis, I examined the mechanisms
human behavior: The assumption that ‘information leads to
through which the two biggest Transition groups in Norway
change in attitude leads to change in action’ has been largely
(Omstilling Sagene and Bærekraftige Liv på Landås) have
rejected by research on sustainable consumption, which
formed, how they have mobilized participants, and whether
suggests that also social, material, cultural and institutional
participation in the groups has contributed to an increased
factors influence our consumption patterns and choices.8
uptake of alternative and less energy-intensive consumption
From this perspective, energy-related consumption will not
practices – and if so, how. I also discussed questions of
change if approached only at an individual level, because
why the groups have, or have not succeeded in mobilizing
it is embedded in a larger system of social norms, cultural
participants and/or in changing participants’ everyday
values, material conditions and institutional infrastructure.
consumption practices. Applying social practice theory and
This is where Seyfang et al see the potential of civil 136
society, including grassroot social movements like the
how the groups have emerged as a response to a perceived
Transition Movement, as a change catalyst. The authors
modernity crisis and common grievance of climate change
argue that “behavior change will likely occur in the context
and over-consumption. What the OS and BLL do is to
of changing values, lifestyles, and cultural norms modulated
put forward an alternative framing of climate change as
through social contexts, including social movements”.9 The
not only a challenge, but also an opportunity – a call to
Transition Movement indeed seeks to implement a method
create better, happier and safer communities. They offer
that differs from what the last decades of consumption
individuals an opportunity to feel as part of the solution,
and energy savings policies have been based on. It claims
not only the problem. Following Swensen15 and Norgaard16,
that instead of information- and awareness-campaigns, it is
such a framing holds potential in mobilizing people around
creating changes in everyday practices that will lead to not
a shared grievance of feeling powerless in confrontation with
only reduction in carbon emissions, but also to a sustained
troubling information. Instead of directing their actions
change in attitudes and norms.10 Thus the movement works
towards the state or firms, they direct their action towards
to involve people in local community activities to try to
their own communities. Their outcome should thus not
collectively change social practices around energy-related
be measured in terms of effect on governmental policy or
support, as other strands of social movement theory would
Yet scholars have questioned the ability of such a
do, but more in form of their potential effect on broader
movement, excluded from positions of economic and
cultural transformation within their communities, in line
political power, to transform complex industrial economies
with NSM theory.
and systems through merely providing examples. The
Thus, the second part of my inquiry was to investigate
influence of individual choice in industrialized societies is
if their activities contribute to form new norms and
clearly limited by a range of systemic factors, including the
practices, and thus have the potential to actually reduce
configuration of cities, transport systems, energy and water
energy-related consumption. From a social practice theory
supply systems, as well as housing and product designs, to
(SPT) perspective, practices consist of three interrelated
name some.12 Also, the development of a mass movement
elements: the social (norms and meanings), the material
for less carbon consumption is challenging in modern
(infrastructure and technology) and the individual
societies where citizens not only enjoy consumer lifestyles,
(cognitive and embodied knowledge and competences).
but the economy and their everyday lives are so dependent
Changing a practice depends on breaking the links
on it.13 Moreover, many have raised questions of whether
between, and/or changing one or more of the elements
‘the local’ is the right scale to confront problems of global
constituting a practice. From an SPT perspective, changing
practices can thus be done by introducing more low-carbon
Thus in addition to examining whether the TM groups
technologies or objects into the practices (addressing the
engage and mobilize citizens in questions of low-carbon
material), integrating into the practices new norms and
living and climate change in a novel way, we also need
ideas promoting sustainability (addressing the social),
to examine whether the groups actually do contribute to
and/or exposing individuals to learning (addressing the
the change towards less energy intensive consumption
knowledge and competences of the individual). Spreading a
practices as they promise. Concerning the first question
practice involves processes of social learning and creation of
- the formation of the groups and the engagement of
communities of practices. Further, combining insights from
citizens - I found that both groups of study did manage to
SPT and social movement theory show that movements can
engage people who have not been particularly involved in
facilitate this social learning by creating alternative places
environmental issues or volunteer work before. Both groups
for it to happen, acting as ‘communities of practice’ and
share a broad motivational framing that does not include
consequently challenge mainstream norms and practices
only environmental or local gains, but also social and
through collectively innovating alternative practices.
personal gains for the participants.
I operationalized the concept of change in practices
New Social Movement (NSM) theory can help explain
through examining the distribution and uptake of two 137
PRACTICING, NOT JUST PREACHING
alternative practices for each of three different current
out to a broader segment of the public than at present.
practices in the two respective groups (a) growing your own
The other is that although succeeding in addressing social
food or buying local/ecological instead of buying imported
and competence aspects of energy-related consumption,
food, b) biking or using collective transport instead of
the groups to a lesser degree address the material and
driving a car, c) exchanging or repairing instead of buying
infrastructural aspects. My research shows that the groups
new clothes). I found that participation in the groups in
do create change by supporting and teaching each other
varying degrees address the constituting elements of the
how to act to reduce the energy use and carbon emissions
six alternative consumption practices, and consequently
of their everyday life, but as of today only to a certain
that participation has in many cases led to an increased
point. Barriers noted by participants show that material and
uptake of the alternative practices within both groups. This
infrastructural aspects of the alternative practices still limits
has happened mainly through strengthening social norms
their uptake. If these barriers are not addressed, the practice
promoting the practices and facilitating learning through
will likely remain at its present level.
social participation. Thus the groups largely succeed in
I found that alternative practices spread through
addressing the social element of the practices, and to an
processes of social and participatory learning within
almost as great extent the competence element; however the
Transition Movement groups, which act as communities
activities to a lesser extent address the material element of
of practice. The Transition Movement facilitates this
the practices. I found that the more that the activities of the
learning by creating alternative places for it to happen;
groups address all three elements of the practice, the more
for collectively inventing and enacting alternative
participants engage in it. Barriers noted among participants
consumption practices and norms. These places turn
for increasingly engaging in the alternative practices are then
questions of everyday consumption, by mainstream society
also mainly of the material kind.
largely viewed as private actions, into collective actions
The Transition groups thus seem to represent a novel
enacted in the public sphere. In this way, the work of
way of socially organizing in the face of environmental
TM is also political. Through learning from and engaging
change in a Norwegian context. Their emphasis on specific
each other, the groups are demonstrating an original way
and practical action alternatives connected to everyday
of engaging citizens in reducing the energy intensity of
life in the local community differs from the more state-
their consumption. In many ways it is the opposite of
centric politics of the more established environmental
what energy efficiency and consumption policies have
movement, emphasizing methods of advocacy and
prescribed the latter years. Instead of trying to persuade
information campaigns. The TM also seems to enact a
with information and plead to the individual’s morality,
broader motivational framing for mobilization purposes,
the groups engage their participants through offering
engaging people as much on issues of quality of life, sense
specific action alternatives that are both perceived as fun,
of community in the neighborhood and doing something
social and convenient. As importantly, they generate a
joyful and practical—as on environmental concerns. I will
sense of meaning for participants through framing the
argue that this is where some of the potential of TM seems
participants as part of the solution. The groups thus
to lie in a Norwegian context. Norwegian consumption and
translate troublesome information of over-consumption and
energy saving policies have been criticized for focusing too
climate change into specific, local action alternatives, where
much on economic motives of saving money and too little
participants are framed as the solution—not simply the
on social, material and cultural aspects of behaviour.17 The
problem. The results are communities that strengthen the
TM groups counter this. The Norwegian environmental
engagement of individuals in less energy intensive practices,
movement has been criticized for being narrow, moralistic
and to various degrees also increase the uptake of some of
and academic,18 and for having little relevance for people’s
everyday lives.19 The TM groups counter this as well.
The groups are in an early phase and it remains to be
The challenge of both groups however, if they were
seen how they develop. Despite their current shortcomings,
to create an even larger change, is dual. One is to reach
ignoring these groups, who are successfully engaging citizens 138
in reducing the energy load of everyday practices, would be unwise. In a country like Norway, where a unanimous political goal is to increase energy savings and reduce greenhouse gas emissions - and where the number of participants in the established environmental movement has been decreasing - scholars and policymakers should perhaps devote more attention to the Transition groupsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; approaches.
PRACTICING, NOT JUST PREACHING
REFERENCES 1 Rob Hopkins is co-founder of Transition Network and the initiator behind the first Transition group, Transition Town Totnes. 2 Rob Hopkins is co-founder of Transition Network and the initiator behind the first Transition group, Transition Town Totnes. 3 Trapese (2008): “The rocky road to a real transition: The transition town movement and what it means for social change.” Report. Trapese popular education collective. [online] –URL: http://trapese.clearerchannel.org/resources/rocky- road-a5web.pdf (Retrieved 25.02.2014). 4 Reeves, A., Lemon, M. and D. Cook (2013): “Jump-starting transition? Catalysing grassroots action on climate change.” Energy Efficiency 7: 115-132 5 EEA (2012): “Consumption and the Environment - 2012 Update. The European Environment. State and Outlook 2010.” Copenhagen: European Environment Agency. [online]. –URL: http://www.eea.europa.eu/publications/consumption-andthe-environment-2012 (Retrieved 16.10.2014). 6 Wilhite, H., Shove, E., Lutzenhiser, L. and W. Kempton (2000): “The legacy of twenty years of energy demand management: We know more about individual behavior but next to nothing about demand.” in Jochem, E., Sathaye, J. and D. Bouille (eds): Society, behaviour and climate change mitigation. London: Kluwer Academic Publishers. 7 Shove, E., Lutzenhiser, L., Guy, S., Hackett, B. and H. Wilhite (1998): “Energy and social systems” in Rayner, S. and E. Malone (eds): Human choice and climate change. Ohio: Battelle Press. Hargreaves, T. (2011): “Practice-ing behavior change: Applying social practice theory to pro-environmental behaviour change”. Journal of Consumer Culture 11(1): 79-99. 8 Shove, E., Lutzenhiser, L., Guy, S., Hackett, B. and H. Wilhite (1998): “Energy and social systems” in Rayner, S. and E. Malone (eds): Human choice and climate change. Ohio: Battelle Press. 9 Seyfang, G., Haxeltine, A., Hargreaves, T. and N. Longhurst (2010): “Energy and communities in transition – towards a new research agenda on agency and civil society in sustainability transitions”. CSERGE Working Paper 2010/13. Norwich: 140
The Centre for Social and Economic Research on the Global Environment, University of East Anglia. 10 Hopkins, R. (2013): The power of just doing stuff. How local action can change the world. Cambridge: Green Books 11 North, P. (2011): “The politics of climate activism in the UK: A social movement analysis.” Environment and Planning 43: 1581-1598. 12 Wilhite, H., Shove, E., Lutzenhiser, L. and W. Kempton (2000): “The legacy of twenty years of energy demand management: We know more about individual behavior but next to nothing about demand.” in Jochem, E., Sathaye, J. and D. Bouille (eds): Society, behaviour and climate change mitigation. London: Kluwer Academic Publishers. 13 Monbiot, G. (2006): Heat: How to stop the planet burning. London: Allen Lane. 14 Brown, J. and M. Purcell (2005): “There’s nothing inherent about scale: Political ecology, the local trap and the politics of development in the Brazilian Amazon” Geoforum 36(5): 607-624. 15 North, P. (2011): “The politics of climate activism in th UK: A social movement analysis.” Environment and Planning 43: 1581-1598. 16 Smith, A. (2011): “The Transition Town Network: A review of current evolutions and renaissance”. Social movement studies: Journal of social, cultural and political protest 10(1): 99-105. 17 Swensen, E. (2012): “Tid for ei revitalisering av miljøengasjementet.” Tvergastein. Interdisciplinary Journal of the Environment 1: 19-23. [online]. –URL: http://tvergasteinjournal.wordpress.com/2012/05/24/issue-1/ 18 Nordgaard, K. (2011): Living in denial: Climate change, emotions and everyday life. Cambridge: MIT Press 19 Karlstrøm, H., Ryghaug, M. and K. Sørensen (2013): “Towards new national policy instruments for promoting energy efficiency”. Working Paper. Trondheim: Department for the interdisciplinary study of culture, NTNU.
SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT RECONSIDERED The Science, the Profit and the Class Society: A Case of Genetic Modification of Food
MARIJA HOLM RADOVANOVIC
ABOUT THE AUTHOR: Marija Holm Radovanovic is a climate and energy advisor for Hedmark County Council. She holds a Master of Science in evolutionary biology and ecology (Uni of Belgrade), and a Master of Philosophy in Culture, Environment and Sustainability from the University of Oslo. At SUM she wrote her thesis called â&#x20AC;&#x153;Sciency and society: Behind the scenes: Exploring the science-society dynamic in Longyearbyen, Svalbardâ&#x20AC;?. She previously worked as a scientific/teacher assistant and a guest lecturer at UNIS.
SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT RECONSIDERED
Sustainable development was officially defined by the
the perceived lack of food in the world. But the astonishing
World Commission on Environment and Development as
increase in yield3,4 was achieved mainly due to extensive
“the development that meets the needs of the present without
use of pesticides and fertilizers.5 In 1989, there were around
compromising the ability of future generations to meet their
1 million human pesticide poisonings annually, some
own needs” in the “Our Common Future” report in 1987.1
20.000 ended in death.6 Cancer, poisoning or immune
The GenØk Biosafety report outlines the fundamental
system dysfunction are all linked to high pesticide intake
principles of sustainable development as “[R]espect and care
through foods.7 Domestic animal poisoning, destruction of
for the present and future communities of life, including both
natural agents of pest control, pesticide resistance in pets,
natural and human. It involves respect for ecological integrity
reduced pollination, honeybee poisoning and damage of
and resilience […]”, including justice “in reference to pursuing
crops has become more frequent.8,9 Pesticides escape human
the common good […].”
controlled areas, resulting in damage and contamination of
This phrase has now seeped into our everyday language
soil, water and wildlife.10
and is often used to denote a rather simplified notion
Today, 805 million people do not have enough food
of more modest resource exploitation in order to ensure
to lead a healthy life, out of which two thirds are in Asia11
the availability of future supply. However, sustainable
- the continent that has seen the success of the Green
development encompasses a complex constellation of
revolution at its greatest. The number of hungry people has
social, economic and therefore class relations that will be
gone up by 19% in South America even though production
crucial for our daring vision of building a society on the
of food on the continent has increased.12
principles of sustainability.
Yet, the GM food industry is persistent in its campaign for taking over the ambitions of the Green revolution,
The problem of food security can be seen as one of the fundamental questions to our social development – it constitutes the essence of sustainability: the common good, the justice and the ecological integrity.
eliminating hunger and providing solutions for global problems, as the company DuPont likes to promote itself.13 It appears that these solutions are just within the reach, and the advantages of genetically engineered foods are infinite - higher yield, resistance to insects and tolerance to herbicides, slower ripening, easier processing and storage, cholesterol reducing as well as foods being richer
With the advent of the market into the world of
in micronutrients with anti-cancer properties or containing
science we see a continuation of what Adorno called the
vaccines.14,15 Despite the claimed benefits these foods might
“culture industry” - commodification of cultural products,
be able to provide, it is still too early to evaluate if they
which reveals the dehumanizing effect of capitalism and the
indeed have any of the promised effects. For example,
alienating nature of mass culture.
the amount of pesticide used has increased in 50% on genetically engineered corn and soy.16
As an epitome of the marketbased science - the science of genetically modified food practices is a contemporary derivate of the Marx-Hegelian notion of alienation where profit comes before people and exchange value before use value.
The downside of the practices is however becoming evident. The relevance of crop sorts’ genetic diversity when it comes to food security needs no explanation. In the meantime we are also reminded that the research and development funding within the GM crop practices come from the very same companies producing and promoting the engineered seeds.17 The GenØk Biosafety report observes that the difficulties in assessing the
The dictatorship of the market ensues.
complete ramifications of GM practices lie in “the conflict
A large-scale industrialization of agriculture - the
of interests in the research and analysis of the results.”
Green revolution, started after the WWII in order to meet
The experience of the impact assessment is limited; the 144
MARIJA HOLM RADOVANOVIC
complexity of biological systems creates inconsistencies
turned food from a renewable source of livelihood into
in the results of GM practices, the variations in
a disposable one, banning farmers from storing seeds.30
research findings do not add up to a consensus, and
The debt that farmers accumulate due to crop loss, rising
extremely polarized a priori positions in the analysis
costs of production and decreasing cost of GM crops have
and communication of results create a lot of scientific
resulted in more than 200 000 farmers’ suicides between
uncertainty.18,19 There is further a “documented history
1997 and 2009. The yield promised by the company was
of antagonism towards papers that demonstrate negative
largely overestimated and Indian farmers are losing 26$
effects of GM crops.”20,21
billion a year.31 The socio-economic and environmental
“The history of all hitherto existing society is the
effects of rising debt, falling prices and pesticide resistance
history of class struggles [while] the modern bourgeois
are now becoming evident in in Malawi, Burkina Faso
society has not done away with the class struggle. […]
and South Africa.32 In the US, the environmental hazard
It has but established new classes, new conditions of
grows as the contamination of conventional and organic
oppression, new forms of struggle in place of the old
crops by genetically modified ones became widespread, and
impossible to prevent.33
The post-enlightenment cultural matrix was so far
“The accumulation of capital exacerbates the poverty
dominated by the relations formed between power and
and a rapid technological change leads to the rule of dead
knowledge, where the utility of knowledge was the primary
matter over human world, the fundamental nature of workers’
measure of its value.23 This cultural matrix is more recently
alienation is exposed; that is the alienation from their product,
becoming increasingly pervaded by the profit-dominance
process of work, ‘fellow man’ and species being.” 34
discourse, against which all other parameters are defined.
In the Marxist doctrine, labor is an end in itself
Every aspect of social life, including knowledge is organized
if it has the ability to promote and advance human
around ensuring financial advantage, while the intellectual
existence. Alienated labor –creating a product as a power
culture is consequently transforming into profit-generating
independent from the producer, characterized by absence
pursuit on a global scale. The GM technology of food
of advancement of life, is essentially a denial of freedom.
is a materialization of the emerging trend to the use of
It, as Marcuse notes, prevents any form of self-fulfillment.35
scientific knowledge as ideology and the establishment of
In contemporary terms, labor would encompass self-
the capitalistic doxa in the very foundation of science. The
realization as a way of sustainable development, which in
new conditions of oppression have now been discovered
order to alleviate both current and future social challenges,
in the corporate control over food production. The
would needs to promote class consciousness, global
capitulation of humanistic values securing the inevitability
redistribution of ownership and self-realization.
of class society can finally be sealed by scientific method.
Adorno saw capitalistic production as turning culture
The chemical companies that left us with an
into a commodity36 and high culture is resisting being
unprecedented environmental degradation recently
commodified, he believed. It is a spontaneous articulation
re-invented themselves as sustainable agro-chemical
of human individuality and inner freedom, a form of
businesses. Monsanto, DuPont and BASF market
protest against the totality of production, social control and
themselves today with sustainable rhetoric, as “sustainable
mass consumption.37 Scientific knowledge and technology
agriculture company” , eradicating global hunger,
is similarly an expression of human ingenuity, aptitude
preserving biodiversity26, as well as “food quality”, “empower.
and freedom of thought only as long as it resists the
ment”, “safety” and “trust”.
planning and production model that is if it does not serve
DuPont states to commit
60% of R&D money “to ensuring that the world’s growing
the purpose of accumulation of capital and class ideology.
population has enough to eat.”29 However the practices
If high culture refuses to be subverted to the principle
paint a different landscape.
of usefulness, it needs to correspondingly reject profit
The dramatic undoing of the seed production
fetishism as well.
monopolizing is already evident in India, where Monsanto 145
SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT RECONSIDERED
The growing trend of subjecting science to profit is removing scientific knowledge from the realm of high culture and into a domain of commerce. In this way, science as an enterprise serving public interests is annihilated by capital. The approach to scientific knowledge and technology of GM food practices does not serve humanity, either of the current or the future generations. The development that includes relying on GM food practices puts in danger not only our natural resources and food security, but the humanitarian values of the society as a whole. Our common future will depend on an environment that promotes realizing individuality through labor and justice in securing the common goods â&#x20AC;&#x201C; food and ecosystems integrity through ownership, genetic diversity and reduced potential for degradation. The way of sustainable development can only be followed by putting freedom over class and humans over profit.
MARIJA HOLM RADOVANOVIC
REFERENCES 1 WCED, 1987, p 43.
about-genetically-modified-food/?page=1, retrieved may
2 Catacora-Vargas, G. and Myhr, A.I. “Genetically
Modified Organisms A Summary of Potential Adverse
18 Biosafety report. GenØk. 2011. P.13
Effects Relevant to Sustainable Development“ http://
19 Myhr, A.I. and Traavik, T. Genetically Modified (GM)
Crops: Precautionary Science and Conflicts of Interests.
Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics. 2003.
3 Pimentel, D. Green revolution agriculture and chemical
20 Waltz E (2009) Battlefield. Nature 461:27-32, http://
hazards. The Science of the Total Environment 188 Suppl.
1 (1996) p.86-98
21 “Box: Seeds of discontent.” Nature 461, 27-32
4 Chataway, J. Levidow, L. and Carr, S. 2000. Genetic
engineering of development? Myths and possibilities.
Poverty and development into the 21st century
22 Marx, K. and Engels, F. “Manifesto of the Communist
5 Pimentel, D. Green revolution agriculture and chemical
Party” 1848. https://www.marxists.org/archive/marx/
hazards. The Science of the Total Environment 188 Suppl.
1 (1996) p.86-87
23 Adorno, T and Horkheimer, M. “The dialectics of
Enlightenment”, Stanford University Press, 2002.
8 Ibid. p. 88-91
9 Singh, R.B. Environmental consequences of agricultural
development: a case study from the Green Revolution
state of Haryana, India. Agriculture, Ecosystems &
Environment . Volume 82, Issues 1-3, December 2000,
10 Chataway, J. Levidow, L. and Carr, S. 2000. Genetic
engineering of development? Myths and possibilities.
Poverty and development into the 21st century. p.474
30 Shiva et al. “Globalization and threat to seed security.
Case of transgenic cotton trials in India.” Economic and
12 Rosset, P. Lessons from the Green Revolution. Food
Political weekly. Vol 34. No 10/11. 1999:601
First Backgrounder, Mar/Apr 2000
14 Myhr, A.I. and Traavik, T. Genetically Modified (GM)
Crops: Precautionary Science and Conflicts of Interests.
Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics. 2003:77
15 Barton, J.E. and Dracup, M. “Genetically Modified
34 Held, D. “Introduction to Critical theory. Horkheimer
Crops and the environment.” Agronomy Journal, Vol.92,
to Habermas.” 1980:237. University of California Press.
July –August 2000:798-799.
35 Ibid: 261, 292.
16 Benbrook, C.M. “Impacts of genetically engineered
36 Velimirovic, T. “Culture and/or deception” 2006:308.
crops on pesticide use in the U.S. – the first sixteen years.”
Lecture given at the Institute for Philosophy and Social
Environmental Science Europe. 2012.
theory, University of Belgrade.
37 Ibid: 309 147
The Elitization of Space through Tourism Development in Nicaragua ANNA G. SVEINSDÓTTIR
ABOUT THE AUTHOR: Anna G. Sveinsdóttir is a PhD student and a graduate teaching assistant at the Department of Geography and the Environment at the University of Denver. Anna is originally from Iceland but lived in Oslo, Norway before moving to Denver. She holds a Bachelor of Science in Tourism Studies from the University of Iceland and a Master of Philosophy in Culture, Environment and Sustainability from the Centre of Development and the Environment at the University of Oslo.
In the summer of 2014 I completed my Master’s degree in
domestic and foreign entrepreneurs who have come to the
Culture, Environment and Sustainability from the Centre
area and started businesses and/or invested in land. The
for Development and the Environment at the University of
study also focused on several institutions that are directly
Oslo. I am now a first year PhD student at the Department
involved in tourism development in Nicaragua and Tola, but
of Geography and the Environment at the University of
are not necessarily located in Playa Gigante.
Denver. My current research interests focus on the role of
Playa Gigante is nestled in a quiet bay, surrounded by
elites in environmental governance and conflicts related
lush forest, rolling hills and the infinite blue Pacific Ocean,
to natural resource extraction in Guatemala, and how the
Gigante has all the necessary traits of an idyllic beach
alliances between elites and the government shape decisions
paradise. In recent years, Gigante and its surrounding areas
and practices related to control and use of the environment.
have become a popular destination for foreign tourists;
In that context, I wish to examine how conflicts and struggles
mostly surfers, but also retired North Americans and
over natural resource extraction emerge and develop.
Canadians, as well as well-off tourists from countries within
My Master’s thesis examined how processes of tourism
the region. Before 1979, much of the land in southern Tola
and real estate development are transforming land tenure
was privately owned by the dictator Anastasio Somoza and
along the southwestern Pacific Coast of Nicaragua. The
his associates. The area now known as Gigante was part
study used a political ecology lens and focused explicitly
of one of Somoza’s private estates, finca Güiscoyol, until
on elite dynamics, including domestic and transnational,
the property was expropriated in 1979 by the Sandinista’s.
economic and political elites, and how they grab land and
Through the 1980’s Agrarian Reform, 846 hectares of land
control over natural resources in the area.
were redistributed to a group of landless peasants from Tola
In the thesis, I argue that the “Emerald Coast” – as
and their families. This land became the Pedro Joaquín
the coastline of Tola has come to be known - is a spatial
Chamorro agricultural cooperative and the home of the first
production in which Tola’s coastal landscape and the families
families in Gigante.
who live there have been folded into a dynamic with
The main source of income for these families has
tourists, developers, and elites. I argue that through spatial
traditionally been small-scale artisanal fishing, supplemented
by subsistence farming and cattle ranching. Small-scale fisheries take place along the entire coastline of Tola and
Gigante and Tola have become a “tourism space,” which has reshaped land tenure in the area and is causing conflicts with regard to access and control over resources, which are central to the livelihoods of local families.
are important to local livelihoods. The majority of Tola’s population living in proximity to the coast relies on these fisheries, both for income and food security. However, as tourism continues to expand along the coastal areas of Tola there seems to be a steady decline in fishing employment. Many of the fishermen are now turning to tourism, working as boat captains on surf charters and sport fishing
The tourism and real estate boom is in many cases amp-
tours. Some of the locals have also started working for the
lifying the already precarious situation regarding land tenure
surrounding tourist resorts, surf camps and restaurants doing
insecurity and inequality in the area. Furthermore, I argue
cleaning, laundry and bartending or working in the kitchens.
that the ability to negotiate conflicting interests is, to a large
What we can see in Gigante and in Tola’s coastal areas is
extent, constrained by the resources available to different
the beginning of a process of increasing “elitization” of land.
actors to shape and influence the production of space.
The proliferation of luxurious resorts and gated residential
The empirical data for my thesis were drawn from
communities are a clear sigh of this “elitization” process.
fieldwork carried out in the autumn of 2013 using a
Looking at the physical spatial morphology of Gigante
qualitative case study approach. The study focused on
and Tola’s coastline we can observe, in a very tangible way,
persons living in and around Playa Gigante, ranging from
the uneven development and inequitable power relations
local residents who have lived in the area all their lives, to
underlying the “Emerald Coast.” 149
THE ELITIZATION OF SPACE THROUGH TOURISM DEVELOPMENT IN NICARAGUA
In Nicaragua, coastal areas have increasingly been transformed from being places imbued with social, political and historical meaning for local people to being places of leisure for elites, within a tourism space produced by different but concerted practices of the political and economic elites. 150
Credit: ANNA SVEINSDÓTTIR 151
Grønne Reiser og Klimakrisens Alvor TORBJØRN TUMYR NILSEN
ABOUT THE AUTHOR: Torbjørn Tumyr Nilsen holds a Master of Culture, Environment and Sustainability from the Centre for Environment and Development at University of Oslo. He did his master on the Norwegian Rainforest Initiative. He currently work as freelance journalist, worked 4,5 years for the Norwegian weekly Ny Tid, and worked at Klassekampen in the summer of 2015.
Kjøper du en bil, er bilforhandleren pliktig til å oppgi hvor mye den forurenser. Det er ingen slik ordning når du bestiller flybilletter. Kanskje det er på tide å ta et oppgjør med denne globetrotterkulturen?
GRØNNE REISER OG KLIMAKRISENS ALVOR
Nordmenn reiser lengre og oftere, men klimaavtrykket
langhelger. Det er blitt en del av den norske livsstilen
til de reisende er usynlige i klimaregnskapet. En britisk
relativt løsrevet fra samfunnsgruppe og status,” sier
eventyrer har skapt en alternativ kortreist ferievanetrend.
reiselivsdirektør i Virke Utland, Rolf Forsdahl, til VG om
Det er lett å snurre på globusen og drømme seg
vekk til Patagonia, Madagaskar eller New York. Billige flybilletter, lønnsvekst og mer fritid har i Norge de siste
Flere lange flyruter
tiårene gjort drømmer til virkelighet, og nordmenn til et av
Også innenriks øker utslippene fra luftfarten. Mens Avinor
verdens mestreisende folkeslag.
og flyselskapene sier de arbeider hardt for å få utslippene
Klimasamvittighet har samtidig aldri blitt en
ned, sier tallene at utslippstallene innenlands har økt fra
faktor i reiseplanleggingen til norske reisende. I takt
1,3 til 1,4 millioner tonn siden 2012, det vil si omtrent
med klimakrisens tydeligere alvor har nordmenn økt
7 prosent økning. Ser vi lenger tilbake i tid, til 1990
reisefrekvensen og gjort reisene lengre. Helgeturer til hytte
har økningen i utslipp vært på 40 prosent. Fra 2013 til
og familie har blitt til langweekender i Berlin og Riga,
2014 steg antall flypassasjerer med én million. ”Vi jobber
mens juleferien blir feiret i Thailand.
målbevisst med å redusere klimagassutslippene fra luftfarten
Etableringen av det norske lavprisselskapet Norwegian
- sammen med flyselskapene. De viktigste bidragene frem
har noe av skylden. På flyselskapets nettsider ligger det for
til nå har flyprodusentene gjort ved å utvikle vesentlig mer
øyeblikket tilbud på flybilletter til 199 kroner én vei, mens
energieffektive motorer”, sier pressesjef i Avinor, Sindre
”sol og bad” er bare 399 kroner unna. Det er mindre enn
Ånonsen, til Ny Tid.
en norsk togbillett, eller en middels lang hurtigbåttur, og
Men Avinor er også glad for den økte flytrafikken. I
betraktelig mer enn da man på 1990-tallet måtte gjøre
Bergen skal den trange flyplassen bli 66 000 kvadratmeter
dype innhogg i privatøkonomien for å betale flybillettene.
større. På Gardermoen skal det brukes 11,4 milliarder
”Vi bør vurdere forbud mot reklame for flyreiser”, sier leder
kroner frem til åpningen av ny terminal i slutten av april
i Framtiden i våre hender, Arild Hermstad, til Ny Tid.
2017. Diskusjonen om en ny flyplass i Bodø er for lengst påbegynt, og på Vigra i Ålesund er nybygg på 2200
Men først til tallene:
kvadratmeter snart ferdig. Og politikerne legger til rette for
Siden 1990 har utslippene fra utenriks luftfart økt med hele
333 prosent, viser tall fra Statistisk Sentralbyrå (SSB). Det
I fjor sommer opphevet regjeringen den
er som om nordmenn er blitt blinde for sammenhengen
tungvinte regelen om nyinnsjekking på Gardermoen
mellom reisevaner og klimagassutslipp. Eller kanskje har
for utenrikspassasjerer. NHO Luftfart mener denne
argumentasjonen til flyselskapene og Avinor om at flyreiser
regelendringen alene vil kunne ”øke inntektene med 1,8
stadig blir mer og mer klimavennlige, overbevist reiseklare
milliarder kroner årlig som følge av nye ruter og flere
nordboere. Avinor forklarer det slik til Ny Tid: ”Flere av
reisende. Også nettoinntektene ved lufthavnene er ventet
våre største lufthavner jobber med ambisiøse klimamål, og
å øke med 200 millioner kroner i året.” ”Gardermoen
har knyttet seg opp til forpliktende europeiske programmer
vil i større grad bli et knutepunkt på lik linje med
for å få ned klimautslippene. Dette innebærer blant annet
Heathrow og Schiphol. Dermed blir det enklere for
en omfattende dokumentasjon av utslippene - som igjen
norske flyselskaper å sette opp interkontinentale ruter fra
danner grunnlag for tiltak.” Men de siste tallene fra SSB
Gardermoen,” uttalte direktør i NHO Luftfart Torbjørn
viser også at klimagassutslippene fra utenriks luftfart økte
Lothe til Bergens Tidende.
med 28 prosent fra 2012 til 2013.
Og disse interkontinentale rutene har for lengst blitt
En undersøkelse fra reisesøkemotoren Momondo
stadig mer populære. Den siste reisevaneundersøkelsen til
viste i 2014 at 29 prosent av alle nordmenn hadde vært
SSB sier at andelen nordmenn som velger å fly på lange
på private flyreiser mer enn fem ganger i løpet av de siste
feriereiser har økt fra 19 prosent i 2009 til 28 prosent
12 månedene. Det samme tallet blant svenskene var syv
i 2013/14. Kun en seriøs økonomisk nedtur og endret
prosent. ”Vi reiser både i hovedferien, i andre ferier og
kronekurs kan se ut til å endre denne veksten. 154
TORBJØRN TUMYR NILSEN
Men er det mulig å stoppe veksten uten å håpe på norske
Et annet virkemiddel kan være å gjøre flyselskapene pliktige
nedgangstider og arbeidsløshet? Ja, mener Framtiden i våre
i å oppgi CO2-utslippene knyttet til alle flyreiser. ”Kjøper
hender og Arild Hermstad. Han mener politikerne må
du en bil, er bilforhandleren pliktig til å oppgi hvor mye
begynne å snakke om at flyreiser fremdeles er skadelig for
den forurenser. Det er ingen slik ordning når du bestiller
miljøet. ”Det er et enormt sosialt press på nordmenn om at
flybilletter. Dermed blir fotavtrykket til flypassasjerene
man skal reise mye. Helgeturer til Portugal er blitt den nye
usynlig,” påpeker Hermstad.
normalen. Historisk har flytrafikken opplevd en formidabel
Og med dette usynlige klimautslippet blir også
vekst. Det har gått ekstremt fort, og folk reiser ofte og
klimaargumentet vanskelig å komme med dersom man
langt og snakker om reisene sine. Dette påvirker folk,”
sier nei til ferieturer. Dette gjelder selv for klimabevisste
sier Hermstad. ”Har folk blitt blinde for denne veksten?“
borgere. Klimagassutslippet er ikke bare usynlig for
“Ja, folk har blitt veldig blinde. Men en av grunnene til
forbrukerne. Utenlands flyreiser er også usynlig i nasjonale
blindheten er at myndighetene ikke snakker om flyreiser
klimaklimabudsjetter. Utslipp fra utenriks flytrafikk er
som klimafiendtlige. Så lenge det ikke innføres noen
ikke inkludert i de nasjonale utslippsforpliktelsene, og det
begrensende tiltak overfor flysektoren, oppfatter folk at det
er derfor få insentiver til å gjøre noe for å begrense disse
er ok å fortsette å reise. Vi trenger en politisk og kulturell
omveltning.” Hermstad mener derfor det bør finnes en
Miljødirektoratet kan bekrefte at dette stemmer.
tydelig klimapolitikk som kan få ned reisefrekvensen.
”Utslipp fra internasjonal luftfart rapporteres separat basert
Framtiden i våre hender mener det bør innføres
på salg av drivstoff i landene og teller ikke med i noen lands
reguleringer på flytrafikken. ”Det bør innføres klimaavgift
utslippsregnskap,” sier klimainformasjonsrådgiver Kjersti
på utenlandsreiser”. I dag er det ingen særskilte avgifter på
Dørumsgard Moxness i en epost til Ny Tid. Ifølge Moxness
dette. Dessuten må myndighetene fjerne taxfree-ordningen
har det tidvis blitt diskutert om utslippene fra internasjonal
som bidrar til lave flypriser og premierer de som har høye
luftfart skal inkluderes enkelte lands totale utslippstall.
utslipp. I tillegg mener Hermstad det er mulig å begrense
Det faktum at luftfarten er en utpreget global næring gjør
utbyggingene ved flyplassene. ”Avinor og flybransjen står
dette vanskelig. ”Teknisk er det gjennomførbart å tilordne
for en storstilt utbygging av norske flyplasser. Det må
utslippene til land, men dette vil gi rom for omgåelse og
settes en grense for utbyggingen av disse“ ”Og altså et
karbonlekkasje dersom forpliktelsene bare gjelder noen
reklameforbud?“ “Ja, vi mener faktisk reklamen for lange
land,” sier Moxness.
flyreiser bør forbys. Den påvirker oss noe helt vanvittig,
Det er kanskje gode grunner til å ikke inkludere
og er helt unødvendig.” Avinor mener på sin side at de
utenlandsreiser i karbonbudsjettet, men forurensingen av
jobber hardt for å få ned klimagassutslippene fra sektoren.
CO2 er likevel den samme. For mange er flyreisene umulig
De påpeker også at luftfarten er en viktig bidragsyter til
å unngå, spesielt i jobbsammenheng, mens for andre er
sysselsettingen i Norge. Vel 60 000 arbeidsplasser, drøye 2,3
det mangel på alternative reiseveier som gjør det vanskelig
prosent av norske arbeidsplasser, er knyttet til luftfarten.
å la være å fly. En lyntoglinje som kunne knyttet Oslo til
Pressesjef Sindre Ånonsen mener dette konkrete
Europa er fremdeles flere tiår frem i tid, dersom den i det
avgiftsforslaget fra Framtiden i våre hender vil få alvorlige
hele tatt kommer. Strekningen Oslo-Gøteborg kunne tatt
konsekvenser for det norske samfunnet: ”Luftfarten er
litt over en time med dagens lyntogteknologi. I dag tar den
en motor i norsk økonomi og velstandsutvikling, og en
samme strekningen 3 timer og 38 minutter, ifølge NSB
skjerping av avgiftene vil få konsekvenser ikke bare for
sine ruteplaner. Norske alternativer til fly ut i Europa er
luftfarten - men for hele samfunnet. Avinor og bransjen
ønsker handlingsrom til å jobbe videre med innovasjon og utvikling for å redusere klimagassutslippene fra luftfarten ikke reguleringer som vil ha høye kostnader for samfunnet.”
GRØNNE REISER OG KLIMAKRISENS ALVOR
for å spørre om det er noen grønne tanker bak prosjektet
Hermstad i Framtiden i våre hender innrømmer at han
hans, er eposten på automatisk svar: ”Jeg er på vei mot det
selv tar fly, men at han prøver å begrense det så mye
skotske høylandet for noen fjelldager. Jeg er tilbake 15.
som mulig. Han trekker frem den britiske forfatteren og
april. Hvis det haster - vent.”
miljøaktivisten Tristram Stuart, som er mest kjent for sitt arbeid mot sløsing av mat. Stuart vant Sofieprisen i
2011 for sin mataktivisme, men har også bemerket seg
Omtrent 45 minutter fra Bergen sentrum ligger den
for sitt selvpålagte flyforbud. ”Det Stuart gjør blir jo sett
bilfrie øyen Ypsøy. Blant sauer, frukthager, lyngheier,
på som ekstremt for øyeblikket, men kanskje det bør bli
kulturlandskap og hav, fjord og fjell har Vigleik og Monica
normalisert å ta et slikt valg,” sier Hermstad.
Ypsøy etablert seg som et opplevelsessenter for reisende fra
Men må vi egentlig reise? Og må vi reise så langt?
både nærområdene og resten av verden. ”Vi tenker ikke
Og blir opplevelsene sterkere jo lengre og oftere vi
så mye over at vi er kortreist. Vi får besøk fra folk over
reiser? Kanskje det er på tide å ta et oppgjør med denne
hele verden. Vi har mer fokus på at reiselivsnæringen skal
globetrotterkulturen? Det kan være på tide å oppdage sine
være miljøvennlig og at eventuelle inntekter skal brukes
egne nærområder på nytt. Det er billigere, tar kortere tid,
til å styrke natur- og kulturlandskapsverdiene. Vi er veldig
og kan være like opplevelsesrikt. Og det er her den britiske
bevisste på at vi ønsker å tilby et grønt reisealternativ,” sier
eventyreren kommer inn i bildet.
Vigleik Ypsøy til Ny Tid.
Forfatteren Alastair Humphreys hadde reist gjennom
Han mener mange nordmenn ofte har feil perspektiver
ørkenen i Saudi-Arabia, rodd over Atlanterhavet og
når de velger ferie. ”Nordmenn generelt har feriefokuset
krysset India for å finne det ultimate eventyret - men det
sitt for mye rettet mot sol, billig mat og drikke og en
er etter å snudd seg mot sitt eget nærområde og såkalte
egotankegang,” sier Ypsøy. Arild Hermstad tror ikke
”mikroopplevelser” at han har fått mest oppmerksomhet.
reisetrenden vil snu med det første. ”Vi kjører gjerne
Han siste bok Microadventures: Local Discoveries for
kampanjer om dette, men poenget er at det ikke er noen
Great Escapes (William Collins) presenterer begrepet
som tjener penger på at jeg tar meg en tur i Nordmarka
mikroeventyr som ”opplevelser som er nære hjemmet,
og legger meg under åpen himmel.” Han ser imidlertid
billige, enkle, korte, og likevel veldig virkningsfulle”.
en motsatt trend. ”Dette med mikroopplevelser er jo en
For Humphreys er det friluftslivet som er viktig. Han
veldig kul trend, men dessverre ser vi i Norge at dette
oppfordrer folk til å ta nærområdene i bruk på en ny måte,
er på vikende front, og at folk tilbringer mindre tid ute
sove ute under åpen himmel, svømme i havet eller gå en
i nærområdene sine.” Hermstad påpeker at det finnes
tur til et sted du ikke har vært før. ”Opplevelsene finnes
gode prosjekter om økoturisme og lokale opplevelser,
overalt, hver dag, og det er opp til oss å finne dem,” heter
og trekker blant annet frem Friluftslivets år 2015. Men,
det i boken.
påpeker han, igjen er det ikke miljø og klima som blir
For Humphreys er det ikke det klimavennlige som står
hovedargumentet for denne satsingen - det blir ikke
i sentrum. For ham er det først og fremst oppdagelsen av at
fremmet som et alternativ til lange flyreiser, men kommer i
eventyrlige opplevelser, som kan forandre deg, ikke er langt
tillegg. Argumentasjonen går ofte på at norsk reiseliv skaper
unna. Til New York Times sier briten at han hører historier
arbeidsplasser, økonomisk vekst og personlige helseeffekter.
fra lesere som har blitt motiverte. Om ”fedre og sønner
”Kommer man med klimaargumentet, oppleves det nesten
som finner hverandre, og overarbeidede menn som sover
som kontraproduktivt. Da blir det med engang snakk om å
på toppen av en ås”. Og i sosiale medier har emneknaggen
ofre noe,” avslutter han.
#microadventures gått varm for lenge siden. ”Å sove på en ås forandrer ikke livet ditt, men det kan være et lite
skritt mot forandring.” Og tar man denne trenden inn i
Men kanskje må vi ofre noe? Kanskje må drømmene
klimadebatten og den norske globetrottervirkeligheten, kan
som oppstår i det vi ser på verdenskartet, forbli nettopp
det føre til grønn forandring. Og når Ny Tid tar kontakt
drømmer. Eller kanskje det må bli med den ene lange 156
TORBJØRN TUMYR NILSEN
reisen til det landet på andre siden av jordkloden. Kanskje kan verdenskartet erstattes av fylkeskartet og kommunekartet, og man kan oppdage at det faktisk finnes steder veldig nær oss der vi ikke har vært, og som kan oppdages. Ta gjerne med sovepose og sov under åpen himmel.
State Entrepreneurship and Innovation in China MARIUS KORSNES
ABOUT THE AUTHOR: Marius Korsnes holds a Master´s degree from the Centre for Development and the Environment (SUM). His master thesis was titled “The Growth of a Green Industry: Wind Turbines and Innovation in China”. Marius recently finished his PhD about technological learning in China’s offshore wind industry at the Department of interdisciplinary studies of culture, NTNU.
Many people may wonder if something truly novel and
innovation’. In other words, it appears that innovation in
innovative can originate from China. In my PhD thesis
China can only happen through large-scale manufacturing,
about China’s offshore wind industry I seek to better
and that new designs originate from Western countries.
understand innovation in a Chinese context, and whether
This view is somewhat contrasted by scholars who
Chinese innovation and entrepreneurship may eventually
believe that innovation is happening in China, and that
lead to a transition towards more renewable energy. Here
an important source of innovation is state coordination
I shall provide some brief thoughts on that matter, based
and strategic governance.7,8,9 Sun10, for instance, finds
on material from my recently submitted PhD dissertation,
that alertness to opportunities, resource exploration and
entitled ‘Chinese Renewable Struggles: Innovation, the Arts
consolidation and strategic learning are key components of
of the State and Offshore Wind Technology’.
China’s entrepreneurial state. Using high-speed trains as a
We know that China has an authoritarian government,
case in point, Sun claims that these three components have
with a dominating Chinese Communist Party. To what
been crucial to building new innovative technologies in
extent does innovation happen in an authoritarian
China. In my research on China’s offshore wind industry I
system, and how, if at all, does the Chinese government
find that the Chinese government is an important force in
accommodate for innovation activities? One way of
catering for an environment favourable to innovation and
understanding this question is to use Mazzucato’s
innovation processes. I describe this as the ‘arts of the state’
concept of the ‘entrepreneurial state’. Mazzucato1 defines
in China, and I make four important conclusions:
entrepreneurs as actors who are willing and able to take on risk and genuine uncertainty. She finds that the courage,
· The Chinese government has a central role in
foresightedness and stability of the government have
accommodating new ventures and has ambitious goals
been crucial for paving the way for new technological
and high expectations for offshore wind technology
developments, such as renewable energy technologies.
The US is described as a case where the state supported research, development and commercialisation of new
· Chinese institutions are characterised by flexibility,
technologies in very early phases, such as technologies that
supporting or constraining enterprises that to a varying
were used in the iPhone. Other important technologies
degree are controlled by the central government;
where state support was crucial in the initial phases were · Chinese firms are exploring several avenues of
radios, aircraft, the computer and the internet.2,3 Much recent literature claims that what is happening
interdependent technology development, ranging from
in China is not novel product innovation, but rather
licensing, joint-ventures and mergers and acquisitions
process and manufacturing innovation, and that the
to own experimentation;
government has not played an important role in ensuring that type of innovation. Breznitz and Murphree,4 for
· Experimentation is found to be an important
instance, look at China’s telecommunication companies
learning strategy that provides competencies and
and find that government interference hinders companies
experiences to Chinese firms, but that involves higher
from ‘novel-product’ innovation. This happens, they claim,
risks. Experimentation is also an important tool for
because the Chinese system gives preference to short-
policy learning and policy development.
term and tangible profit. Nahm and Steinfeld5 argue that China has become a ‘scale up nation’, where firms have
In China’s offshore wind industry we observe strong state
developed ‘unique capabilities surrounding technology
support of industrial innovation and manufacturing of
commercialization and manufacturing-related innovation’.
technologies that already exist elsewhere, but we also
A similar argument is sustained by Wan et al.6 who claim
observe that the Chinese government and industry
that China is a particularly fertile environment for ‘cost
actors are willing and able to take on risk and genuine
innovation, application innovation, and business model
uncertainty. This risk is related to the uncertainty of 159
Credit: MARIUS KORSNES 161
STATE ENTREPRENEURSHIP AND INNOVATION IN CHINA
rendering technologies and practices Chinese, and whether
transition can be jeopardised.
or not something new will come out of it in the end. In
To conclude, although evidence from China’s offshore
short, Chinese actors take risks to learn. Chinese actors
wind industry development point in the direction that
appear to be avid learners, willing to take chances and
Chinese companies may contribute to substantially
quick to seek and create new opportunities. Attempts
innovating the industry, we still have reasons to be wary
at innovation usually fail, which is why innovation
about whether or not this development is part of a larger
activities always are embedded with risk. But a Chinese
innovation environment as described through studying the offshore wind industry can be considered a space where experimentation, learning and exchange of knowledge and experiences eventually will lead to innovation. Depending on our definition of sustainability, we can discuss whether the offshore wind industry development is part of a larger transition to a more sustainable China. Focusing uniquely on energy supply, the scale of investments in non-fossil energy sources (including nuclear power) are now larger than those in fossil energy; more non-fossil electricity generation capacity is added each year, and non-fossil electricity power generation increases quickly, whilst fossil power generation decreased in 2014.11 These are on the one hand indications that China is moving rapidly towards more non-fossil electricity sources. Offshore wind energy, seen in this context, is part and parcel of a larger transition, and the success of offshore wind technology in China may affect the success of other renewable energy sources, as well. Moreover, the institutions, organisations and practices related to onshore and offshore wind are similar and relevant to other renewable energy technologies in China. On the other hand, since rapid growth comes with a price, several cautions should be pointed to. China’s economic turnaround that increased incomes and the national GDP has also involved decades of environmental abuse, destruction of limited natural resources and widespread pollution of air, soil and water.12 It appears that a more general element in China’s technological catching-up is to create excess capacity. For instance, the overcapacity in iron and steel industries in China in 2014 represented the total iron and steel capacity in Europe.13 Another downside with this large focus on added industrial capacity is a decreased focus on product quality and long-term performance. If Chinese companies generate overcapacity in order to learn, and in that learning process produce lower-quality products, the sustainability of China’s renewable energy 162
REFERENCES 1 Mazzucato, M., 2013. The Entrepreneurial State: Debunking Public vs. Private Myths in Risk and Innovation, London, New York, Delhi: Anthem Press. 2 Ibid. 3 Kemp, R., Schot, J. & Hoogma, R., 1998. Regime shifts to sustainability through processes of niche formation: The approach of strategic niche management. Technology Analysis & Strategic Management, 10(2), pp.175–195. 4 Breznitz, D. & Murphree, M., 2011. Run of the Red Queen: Government, Innovation, Globalization, and Economic Growth in China, New Haven, London: Yale University Press. 5 Nahm, J. & Steinfeld, E.S., 2014. Scale-up Nation: China’s Specialization in Innovative Manufacturing. World Development, 54, pp.288. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.worlddev.2013.09.003. 6 Wan, F., Williamson, P.J. & Yin, E., 2015. Antecedents and implications of disruptive innovation: Evidence from China. Technovation, pp. 102. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.technovation.2014.05.012. 7 Heilmann, S., 2010. Chapter 6. Economic Governance: Authoritarian Upgrading and Innovative Potential. In J. Fewsmith, ed. China Today, China Tomorrow: Domestic Politics, Economy, and Society. Lanham, Md.: Rowman & Littlefield, p. IX, 334 s. 8 Rein, S., 2014. The End of Copycat China: The Rise of Creativity, Innovation, and Individualism in Asia, Hoboken, New Jersey: Wiley. 9 Steinfeld, E.S., 2010. Playing our game: why China’s rise doesn’t threaten the west, Oxford: Oxford University Press. 10 Sun, Z., 2015. Technology innovation and entrepreneurial state: the development of China’s high-speed rail industry. Technology Analysis & Strategic Management, 27(6), pp.646–659. Available at: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10. 1080/09537325.2015.1034267. 11 Mathews, J.A. & Tan, H., 2015. China’s Green-Energy Revolution. project syndicate. Available at: http://www.projectsyndicate.org/commentary/china-green-energy-revolution-by-john-a--mathews-and-hao-tan-2015-05 [Accessed May 16, 2015]. 12 Shapiro, J., 2012. China’s Environmental Challenges, Kindle Edition: Wile. 13 Rock, M.T. & Toman, M.A., 2015. China’s Technological Catch-Up Strategy: Industrial Development, Energy Efficiency, and CO2 Emissions, pp. 250. Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press. 163
Reflections on the Program, my Thesis, and your Country BECK ROAN
ABOUT THE AUTHOR: Beck Roan submitted his thesis The Complexity of Architecture : An Analysis of Design Intentions and Theories in the Norwegian National Tourist Routes at SUM in 2013 and is currently living in the United States, working as an attorney in Boise, Idaho. He spends his evenings helping out at a local brewery.
The Spanish architect Alberto Campo Baeza once said,
isolated, and an obvious foil to the respective landscape.
“Architecture must have reasons, always.” When recently
Instead, I learned from interviews that the designs are
reading this quotation, I thought of my time in Norway
intentional, meticulous, and complex. The architects
and, in particular, my experience at University of Oslo’s
sought to incorporate cultural and historical meaning into
Center for Development and the Environment. The quote
the sites. They balanced the visitor’s desire to investigate
allows me to reminisce about a culture, a school, and a
with the ability to view. They nurtured exploration while
tourist program that possess an unexpected complexity.
protecting the fragile environment from damage. And they
I sought an enlightening and transcending experience
imposed safety barriers in inherently dangerous locations.
when I moved to Norway in 2011. More than anything,
The architecture along the National Tourist Routes
I was attracted to the nation because of its minimalist
contains an overwhelming number of design decisions, all
design aesthetic and stunning natural scenery. I considered
of which are practical and meaningful. The design seeks
Norway to be a modern paradise, composed of visual
to influence the user’s location, feeling, understanding,
pleasures and little else. Similarly simplistic, I enrolled
emotion, and attention. Through my experience in Norway
at SUM for solutions. I sought an understanding of
and studies at UiO, I learned how a built platform or
current global crises, and I anticipated that education
lookout can also contain incredible complexity. Not only
would provide answers to these environmental and social
that, but a seemingly simple structure can convey this
complexity and narrative to the visitor through design alone.
What I discovered, however, was a country and a program that rejected simplicity.
The stops along Norway’s National Tourist Routes, like the country itself, demonstrate an understated and surprising complexity that is influential, educational, and practical.
The nation is more than minimalism, and the aesthetic is more than simplistic. The nature is not a static postcard or a repetitive view, but rather, astoundingly complex in its scenic variations – from Oslo to Bergen,
SUM incorporates these principles at its very core, and
along the western fjords, and high north into Tromsø.
provides its students with an enlightening experience that
Likewise, SUM advocates an inter-disciplinary study with
encourages revelations. The program, like the architecture
incredible breadth, acknowledging the historical, social,
Alberto Campo Baeza spoke of, has its reasons. And only
and environmental issues around the world. Insofar as the
in reflection do I realize how SUM, through its coursework
academic program encourages a broad understanding of
and philosophy, succeeds in addressing the many layers
global problems, it also despises the type of narrow and
of complexity within the world’s environmental and
rudimentary explanations that are too frequent in daily
discourse. Norway’s unanticipated complexity is also apparent in my Masters Thesis for UiO. I investigated Norway’s National Tourist Route Program, which commissioned more than 50 architects and artists to design rest areas along designated Norwegian highways. Many of these rest stops are in Northern and Western Norway, and provide overwhelming views of Norwegian fjords and coastline. The architecture is also striking and unique to the varied sites, utilizing a wide range of colors, materials, and construction techniques. I initially thought of the site-design as simple, 165
Contributors to Issue #6
Entrepreneurship, Innovation and Initiatives 166
Annelies Zwaan is the Project Coordinator of Agropolis
appropriation of IT, experimental labs and the commons
Urban Farm in Christchurch, New Zealand. She is a
since the early 2000s. He is a founder of networks such as
creative that trained as a designer, but has since focused
MetaReciclagem and Bricolabs. Felipe lives in Ubatuba,
mostly on the humbler side of life. She splits her time
where he coordinates the experimental lab and co-working
between running her business creating bespoke furniture
space Ubalab, as well as the local node of Tropixel events,
from reclaimed timber and coordinating community
the cultural community radio Gaivota FM and a number
projects to help renew Christchurch whilst trying to find
of other projects. email@example.com http://efeefe.
the line between caring about the world and living in it.
Anniken Fjelberg holds a degree in civil marketing from
Helga Øvsthus Tønder has a background in rhetoric
NMH/BI, and was one of the founders of 657 Oslo
and communication. Her interest in social justice and
in 2012, a coworking space that offers a place to work
entrepreneurship has taken her from Norway to Uganda
for freelancers, entrepreneurs and cultural and creative
to the US, working in startups, non-profits and social
companies. Anniken is a communicator, like most of the
enterprises. Helga has among other things worked with
others at 657 Oslo, and has a background from design,
a micro finance initiative with the Norwegian NGO
marketing, strategy, communication and creative processes.
Strømme foundation as well as in Los Angeles with an
In 2013 she was one of the starters of Superblaise, a
organization attached to a social enterprise helping people
communications agency stationed in the 657 house. At
back to work. She now works at Ashoka, an organization
home she lives with her life companion and business
supporting groundbreaking entrepreneurs that create
partner, Joachim Levin, and their 4 children.
solutions in the health, education, environment and economy sectors. Their job is to facilitate so that the
Eric R. Sannerud is a farmer, thinker, and Regenerative
entrepreneurs with the system changing ideas break
Entrepreneur in Minnesota, USA. Eric holds an
through and accomplish large ripple effects, and that even
interdisciplinary bachelor’s degree from the University
more with them will have the courage to create tomorrow´s
of Minnesota. He is available for speaking and writing
and specializes in the overlap of food systems and entrepreneurship. He tweets from @EricSannerud. In
Inger Solberg is the director of the sustainability division
his free time, Eric loves food. Contact him at www.
at Innovation Norway. Solberg has for several years been
head of the department for agriculture and seafood at Innovation Norway, but also has wide experience from the
Erwin Hasselbrinck is a master’s student at the Centre
private sector. She has been the administrative director at
for Environment and Development. He holds a Bachelor
the egg producer Norgården AS as well as the Meat and
of Science in International Business from the Universidad
Poultry Association. Solberg also worked at Innovation
del Norte, and is a graduate of artistic photography
Norway´s predecessor SND. Innovation Norway´s
from the School of Fine Arts in Barranquilla, Colombia.
sustainability division will assist the Norwegian business
He is passionate about experimenting with light and
sector in the transition from an oil-based economy to an
photography techniques, for an incredible view of nature’s
economy based on sustainable competitive advantages.
magnificence. Blog: pensamientofluvial.tumblr.com Ingun Grimstad Klepp is a research professor who wrote Felipe Fonseca is a Brazilian researcher currently working
her MA and PhD on leisure time and outdoor life at the
on open and collaborative science (Ciência Aberta
University of Oslo. She works at SIFO with sustainable
Ubatuba / IBICT) and experimental labs (Rede//Labs
textile, clothing, laundry and leisure consumption. She
/ Brazilian Ministry of Culture). He develops projects
has written numerous articles and books of these themes.
articulating science, culture and society with critical
Klepp has worked as a researcher for many years and 167
CONTRIBUTORS TO ISSUE #6 LEAVING THE BOX
has led a number of research projects on apparel and the
Luciano Tardin is a Doctoral candidate in Production
environment. She considers dissemination as an important
Engineering at COPPE/UFRJ, M.Sc. in Art History at
and integral part of research and contributes actively in
EBA/UFRJ (1999). Graduated in Design at PUC/RJ
the media and through extensive lecturing. She currently
(1991). Coordinator of the Post-Graduate and Graduate
works with wool, both with consumption and questions
Design Area at ESPM -RJ. Has taught since 1995. Active
regarding the value chain. The relationship between textiles,
in the design market for over 20 years. Today is a founding
social and physical characteristics and how these are woven
partner of Ideia Café Design e Comunicação Ltda. - a
together is at the core of her interest. Klepp and Tobiasson
are currently collaborating in the research project KRUS, which aims to look at how local apparel and slow fashion
Mads Bruun Høy is Strategic Advisor Brand Innovation
can spearhead a sustainable development.
at Scandinavian Design Group. Mads has more than 10 years of experience as an innovation advisor. He has
Itzel Anahí López Laínez is a master’s student at the
a background in research and process management at
Centre for Environment and Development studying:
the Norwegian University of Science and Technology,
Indigenous knowledge for education towards sustainability
studying and practising creativity and innovation within
in Puebla, Mexico. Itzel holds a Bachelor of Environmental
Engineering from the Benémerita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla, with job experience in rural development and
Marcus Vinícius Fonseca is a Professor at UFRJ, in the
environmental impact. Being an enthusiast of travels,
PEP/ COPPE (Innovation area) as researcher, supervisor
reading history novels, and gardening; always proud of her
and responsible for teaching the disciplines: Innovation in
Mexican cultural heritage, she looks to keep on learning
organizations (since 2000) and Innovation and its Maps
(since 2014). - A Chemical Engineer graduate in 1978 at EQ/UFRJ, M. Sc. at COPPE/UFRJ in 1983 (PEQ);
Jeppe Sondov is product- and concept manager at SiO
Doctor in Engineering at Escola Politécnica da USP
Mat og Drikke. Formerly Product Development Manager
(EPUSP ) in 1990. - Author of more than 110 trabalhos
at Deli de Luca – NorgesGruppen. Work experience from
published in Brazil e abroad; received the Vöst-Alpine da
F&B industry within everything from fine dining to artisan
ABM Prize for work in the industrial waste reuse area;
baking. Food writer at Snø & Ski – Skiforeningen.
Member of a start-up team installed in the Coppe/UFRJ incubator since 2014 using nanotechnological approaches
Kaja Aas Ahnfelt holds a bachelor in Social Anthropology
to prototyping of a new light ceramic material.
and is a master student at the Center for Environment and Development at the University of Oslo. She currently
Maria Daniela Ricaurte is a graduate from the Centre
writes her master on civil, policy and industry discourses
for Development and the Environment with a background
concerning electronic waste and repairing in the UK.
in Environmental Communication. Daniela studied the
She is an avid traveller, and a curious learner about any
role of music festivals in communicating environmental
movement related to green transitions.
awareness in Norway. She is passionate about music as well as trying to inspire her son to become close to nature.
Karina Standal is a doctoral fellow at the Centre for
Development and the Environment at the University of
Maya Laitinen is a creative thinker from Lillomarka in
Oslo. Standal’s disciplinary background and academic
Oslo. She has a background in Theatre, Geography and
interest is with the political, feminist and development
Architecture from the Norwegian University of Science and
geography. Her research is broadly focused on women’s
Technology as well as the Architectural Association School
everyday life, gender relations and energy technologies in
of Architecture in London (AA). The project “The Lung
the rural South.
of Phnom Penh” won Technical Studies High Pass with 168
CONTRIBUTORS TO ISSUE #6 LEAVING THE BOX
distinction and was nominated by AA for the prestigious
offer. Wilhelmsen has a masters degree in International
RIBA President Bronze Medals 2014. The project takes
Economy and Development, and has been awarded prizes
a critical standpoint towards current building practices
for innovation in Norway and Scotland.
in Asia, as they often neglect local values connected to culture, history, nature and the environment. Where shall
Øystein Hagen is head of Innovation at Scandinavian
the poor of the future live if all the land is sold to richmaya
Design Group. Øystein has built a career around leading
investors? “If you have nothing left but air, maybe you can
hands-on innovation and growth processes for all variety of
use it to build with?”
clients, with a unique insight into what it takes to succeed in innovation. He is acknowledged as an authority in his
Sean Michael Thompson is a master’s student at the
field, with the 2011 Norwegian Management Consulting
Centre for Environment and Development and studies
award and as Norway’s keynote speaker of the year 2012.
how urban green spaces affect citizens’ perceptions of their surroundings. He is originally from San Diego, California and holds a Bachelor of Science in Anthropology from the University of California, Riverside. Sean is recently returned from Buenos Aires, where his research involved spending sunny days in parks while drinking mate and pestering Porteños for maps. Tone Skårdal Tobiasson is a seasoned journalist who
graduated with a BA in media and sociology in 1980 from Stanford University. She was editor-in-chief for Norway’s leading fashion magazine for a number of years, has written several books and was also the main driving force behind the establishment of the NICE (Nordic Initiative Clean & Ethical) Fashion project and nicefashion.org. She has written for fashion magazines and media in general, locally and international, on the theme of sustainability, now mainly for EcoTextile News. She was instrumental in reestablishing the Textile Panel in Norway, and has facilitated cooperation in the Nordic region with international organizations and initiatives. She travels extensively for lecturing at trade fairs, education institutions and conferences, combining humor with the basic serious message that change has to occur. She is involved in several research and development projects in cooperation with SIFO and other institutions, and generally leads the dissemination work. Torill Bye Wilhelmsen helps entrepreneurs start sustainable
and profitable lifestyle businesses and build their life’s works. As a founder of Fjellflyt AS, she is on a mission to help entrepreneurs and employees get the real business and health benefits that the Walking Movement has to 169
Charlotte Lilleby Kildal from Asker, Norway is a recent
Kaja Aas Ahnfelt is from Oslo, Norway. She holds a
graduate of SUM’s masters programme in Culture,
bachelor in Social Anthropology and is a master student at
Environment and Sustainability where she researched
the Center for Development and the Environment at the
the Norwegian Army’s attempt to introduce Meat-Free
University of Oslo. She currently writes her master on the
Mondays in the military canteen. Charlotte holds a
civil, policy and industry discourse on electronic waste and
bachelor’s degree in Development Studies from the
reparation of electronics in the UK. She is an avid traveller,
University of Bergen and the University of Ghana and has
and a curious explorer of any movement related to green
studied French in Normandy. She is a contributor to the
UiO blog “Matlære” and has a strong passion for food, Kaja Elise Gresko from Drammen, Norway studies
cooking and coffee.
Culture, Environment and Sustainability at the Center for Despina Gleitsmann from Stuttgart, Germany, is a
Development and the Environment (UiO) and holds a
recent graduate of SUM’s masters programme in Culture,
bachelor’s degree in Political Science from the University
Environment and Sustainability where she researched the
of Oslo and the University of Zagreb. She has also studied
impact of large hydropower projects on conflict in Karen
Corporate Social Responsibility management and Spanish
State in Myanmar. She has a bachelor’s degree in Peace
at the University of Buenos Aires.
Studies from Lancaster University and previous master’s degree in Politics and Government of the European Union
Jonathan Frænkel-Eidse from Kelowna, Canada, is a
from the London School of Economics, with two years
recent graduate of SUM’s masters program in Culture,
of work-experience in Brussels. She is passionate about
Environment and Sustainability, where he researched the
travelling and experiencing new cultures.
social implications of climate change adaptation in Arctic 170
Norway. He also holds a bachelor’s degree in Sociology from Athabasca University, and when not studying has worked primarily as a mountain guide in several countries. For now he has settled down on Nesodden, Norway, where he enjoys adventures with his partner and 3-year old son on land and at sea. Marcela Oliveira Svoren from Cabo Frio, Brazil is a
recent graduate of SUM’s masters programme in Culture, Environment and Sustainability and has a bachelor’s degree in Social Communications from the Escola Superior de Propaganda e Marketing, Rio de Janeiro, a postgraduation degree in Environmental Management from the Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro and five years’ work experience within CSR. As an authentic Brazilian, Marcela loves rhythms, food and warm sunny days by the sea. Piper Donlin from Minneapolis, Minnesota is a recent
graduate of SUM’s masters programme in Culture, Environment and Sustainability. She has a bachelor’s degree from the University of Minnesota in Environmental Policy, Sustainability Studies and Art. Piper is a contributor to the UiO-blog “Matlære”. She is also an avid lover of food and cooking and spends a great deal of time in the kitchen experimenting to the delight (and dismay) of her partner, Carl Fredrik. Sean Michael Thompson is a master’s student at the
Centre for Environment and Development and studies how urban green spaces affect citizens’ perceptions of their surroundings. He is originally from San Diego, California and holds a Bachelor of Science in Anthropology from the University of California, Riverside. Sean is recently returned from Buenos Aires, where his research involved spending sunny days in parks while drinking mate and pestering Porteños for maps. Vendula Hurníková from Ostrava, the Czech Republic,
studies Culture, Environment and Sustainability at SUM. She has a bachelor’s degree in Sociology from the Masaryk University, Brno, the Czech Republic. Currently, Vendula is excited about urban environment which she has chosen to be her research area for the upcoming months.
Do you want to contribute to Tvergastein?
We accept contributions in Norwegian and English in two categories: Op-ed style (2,000-5,000 characters) Academic style (10,000-20,000 characters) If you have a finished text, an old exam paper that can be edited, or simply a good idea for an article, send us an e-mail. We promise you fair feedback and help in the editing process before publication. We are also looking for illustrations, drawings, photos, for our texts. Please contact us if you have a finished work, a sketch or an idea. firstname.lastname@example.org
Tvergastein is grateful for all the help and support of:
Tvergastein bears the name of Arne Næss’ cabin retreat in the mountains of Hallingskarvet. It was there that Næss, an activist and one of the most wide ranging philosophers of the last century, wrote the majority of his work. These writings, his unique ecophilosophy, and his life of activism continue to inspire environmentalists and scholars in Norway and abroad. In making this journal its namesake, we aim to similarly join academia with advocacy for the environment. We aspire to the ”enormous open views at Tvergastein” and the perspective Næss found there.
© 2015 Tvergastein www.tvergastein.com ISSN 1893-5605 174