Farm and Ranch Spring 2023

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Farm & RanchSpring 2023March 29, 2023 A special publication of the • Escalon Times • Manteca Bulletin • Oakdale Leader • Ripon Bulletin • Riverbank News

Crop yields remain volatile this year

Harvest seasons vary depending on the crop that was planted, but late summer and fall are busy times of year for farmers. And since the pandemic began, farmers have been working overtime to ensure that their goods make it to market on time.

The agricultural sector is affected by a number of variables, including the weather and pests. The pandemic is yet another of those variables, and consumers may want to know how the many factors that affect the agricultural sector could affect what is and isn’t in the grocery store in the months to come.

Wheat products

A variety of factors have affected the availability of wheat-based products. Earlier this year, exceptional drought levels in the midwest — areas with high production of wheat products — coupled with concern about spring rainfall amounts being enough for summer crops to thrive may continue to adversely affect the availability of breads,

pastas and other items made from wheat.

Things are not looking better regarding imported wheat. The ongoing war between Russia and Ukraine, where wheat crops are grown in abundance, is impacting the global wheat market. Russia, the United States, Canada, France, and Ukraine were the world’s top wheat exporters in 2020, according to Statista. The United Nations reported that 30 to 40 percent of the fall 2022 harvest in Ukraine is at risk, as farmers have been unable to plant crops. This could result in a potential loss of 19 to 34 million tons of exported wheat this year.

Grass seed

The abundance of spring rain in the Pacific Northwest, as well as areas of Minnesota and Canada, contributed to an expected above-average crop of grass seed. However, the upper midwest crop was forecasted to be a week to two weeks late due to cooler than average temperatures.

Despite an abundance, the Oregon Grass Seed Bargaining Association expected that

growers will ask for higher prices on seed throughout 2022 for perennial ryegrass and tall fescue due to greater input costs and land rent increases, among other factors.

Corn products

Later planting dates of corn across the United States corn belt has led to stalled development of the crop in 2022. The University of Nebraska-Lincoln’s Crop Watch anticipated near-average levels of corn on irrigated fields. Across rainfed locations, predictions are more uncertain due to weather throughout July and August (which had yet to be documented at press time). While most sites are expected to see near-average corn crops, a high probability of below-average yield

may occur in Iowa, southwest Nebraska and southern Kansas. Above-average yield may occur in northwest Missouri and southcentral Illinois. Despite more normalized yields, operating costs have climbed, including the costs of nitrogen fertilizer used in corn production, so store prices of corn, corn oil and other corn products may remain high.

The agricultural sector continues to make strides to provide products people need. However, various factors have affected the cost and availability of a number of products.

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The role of the humble earthworm in sustainable agriculture

Home gardeners and commercial agricultural enterprises are increasingly integrating more natural and sustainable practices into plant production. Although chemical pesticides and fertilizers can improve crop yields, chemicals can deteriorate soil efficiency and may affect the ecosystem in negative ways. In lieu of turning to a laundry list of products to help the soil, farmers and home gardeners may benefit from relying more heavily on the humble earthworm.

Earthworms are beneficial

According to CABI, an international, inter-governmental, not-for-profit organization that provides information and applies scientific expertise to solve problems in agriculture and the environment, earthworms are useful for the management of biodiversity. Earthworms are any gardener’s friend. These shy, lightsensitive creatures burrow through the soil,

pulling leaves and other plant matter deep within. When the earthworms consume this detritus, the decomposed plants as well as the worms’ droppings provide nutrients to the soil. Together with microbes, earthworms convert biodegradable materials and organic waste into nutrient-rich products. They also may help reduce instances of soil-borne diseases.

The benefits to worms do not end there. Earthworms also aerate the soil, enabling water to be absorbed, which helps develop strong plant roots. Earthworm burrows serve as channels where roots can elongate into deeper soil layers, enabling plants to grow more securely and deeply. This, in turn, can help reduce soil erosion. While research is ongoing, there are some reports that the unique talents of earthworms can help convert land that is largely barren into fertile soil.

Breeding earthworms

It may be in gardeners’ and farmers’ best interests to raise earthworms. According to the science information site

Sciencing, earthworms are hermaphrodites, meaning they have both male and female reproductive organs. Despite this, most worms need a partner to reproduce — although certain types will reproduce alone if partners are scarce. Worms can be purchased or found for breeding. A worm box, which can be made or bought from gardening shops, is a box made from untreated wood. The earthworms will need a temperature of at least 25 F, and dark, moist soil.

Place moistened paper scraps into one half of the worm box. Place the worms on top and give them opportunities to hide. Place small amounts of organic matter, such as kitchen scraps, coffee grounds and leaves, on the paper layer every day. Leave the

other side of the worm box empty, as this will be where the worm dropping compost will eventually collect. After two or three months, there will be quite a number of hatched worms to release into the garden along with the compost. Leave some worms behind to continue to reproduce.

Earthworms amend the soil in natural ways that can reduce the need to use chemical products and protect biodiversity.

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Green farming is growing

Farmers have been pressured to increase production to meet the demand of a growing population. This may require employing more efficient measures to ensure maximum output. Unfortunately, efficiency doesn’t always mesh with sustainability, so commercial operations have had to make some modifications to find a balance between serving the public and protecting the planet.

Green farming utilizes different technology and practices in order to decrease detrimental impact on the environment. According to the farming resource NuFarming, agricultural operations have a significant impact on climate change. Simply adopting some new practices can lessen that impact.

Solar power

Growing plants are not the only thing on a farm that can benefit from the sun. Farmers can convert a portion or all of their power needs to solar. According to the U.S. Department of Energy, there

are benefits when solar companies and farmers work together. Solar developers reduce installation costs and upfront risk by placing solar modules on previously tilled agricultural land. Vegetation under modules also can contribute to lower soil temperatures and increased solar performance. Agricultural land managers can reduce energy costs and diversify their revenue streams with solar. Plus, they can market products to sustainability-minded customers.

Solar is not the only renewable energy option. Farmers can incorporate wind and hydroelectric power as well.

Crop rotation

This farming technique has been used for thousands of years and involves growing different crops in different seasons over a period of time. Farmers reduce the chances for pests and diseases becoming problems in the soil because frequent crop changes prevent invaders from gaining a foothold. Farmers use fewer fertilizers and pesticides as a result.

Hydroponic and aquaponic strategies

Farmers can improve productivity while also reducing environmental impact with these two growing methods. NuEnergy states that hydroponic systems grow plants in mineral solutions or in materials like perlite or gravel. Aquaponics involves raising aquatic animals in addition to growing crops. The waste from the fish and other marine life is used to offer nutrients to the plants by growing them in this nutrient-rich water. Both methods remove the need for soil.

Drip irrigation

Drip irrigation methods deliver water to the roots of plants through a series of pipes or tubes. Because water is not being sprayed into the air through sprinklers and other methods, less is lost to evaporation, and less water overall may be needed to provide for crops.


Plastic seems like it may not have a purpose on the farm, but recycled plastic, which is used in plastic mulch, can help produce plentiful crops with less water. Plastic mulches raise soil temperatures and insulate against evaporation so plants can grow faster and mature sooner.

Invasive weeds also may be less likely to take root in plastic mulch or when crops are grown on black plastic.

Natural pesticides

Farmers can introduce plants that pests tend not to like to reduce reliance on chemical pesticides. For example, interspersing crops with natural bug repellants, such as basil, lavender and lemongrass, may keep insects at bay. Alliums, chrysanthemums, marigolds, and other flowers planted nearby also may deter bugs.

Green farming is something more agricultural operations may want to adopt.

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Simple safety protocols that can protect hunters

Hunting is big business in North America. In 2017, more than 15 million people hunted in the United States. The National Shooting Sports Foundation reports that sportsmen and women contribute nearly $9.4 million to the economy every day.

Millions of hunters take to forests and fields every year. Seasoned hunters and novices alike can benefit from revisiting some safety procedures before their first outing this season.


Weather should be a consideration whenever people spend a significant amount of time outdoors. Hunters typically leave before dawn and arrive home after dusk. Hypothermia is a very real risk for hunters who may be out in snow or wet conditions. It’s possible to get hypothermia by overdressing as well. Sweating and then being exposed to dropping temperatures puts people at risk for hypothermia. Hunters should dress in layers with moisture-wicking materials

and a water-repellant outer layer. In addition, check the weather forecast before heading out as a last second precautionary measure.

Firearm safety

Firearm safety is a critical component of safe hunting. Hunters use rifles, shotguns and other firearms. Each gun is different, so hunters need to familiarize themselves with new firearms before using them. The following are some additional firearm safety tips, courtesy of State Farm Insurance and Southern Land Exchange.

• Always treat a firearm as if it is loaded.

• Keep your finger off the trigger until ready to shoot.

• Only point at what you plan to shoot.

• Clearly identify your target and what is beyond it.

• Fire within the zone-of-fire, which is the 45-degree area directly in front of each hunter.

• Firearm chambers should be emptied

when guns are not in use.

• U se appropriate ammunition.

• Never modify or alter the gun.

• Never cross a fence, jump a ditch or climb a tree with a loaded gun.

• Never rely on a gun’s safety.

Additional safety tips

Hunters should always let others know where they will be when leaving in the morning. If something should happen, people back home can alert authorities if something goes awry. Always check equipment and maintain it properly. Equipment should include gear colored in hunter’s orange. That extends to dogs if they are accompanying hunters on a trip. This makes hunters more visible

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to other hunters. Also, carry a first aid kit, a charged mobile phone or a satellite phone to maintain contact with others in case of emergencies.

These are just some of the safety protocols that should be followed when hunting. Non-hunters should exercise caution during hunting seasons, particularly when entering forests and areas that hunters frequent.

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Dairy dietary guidelines

The value of a well-balanced diet is undeniable. An eating plan that includes foods from the various food groups ensures individuals get an assortment of healthy vitamins, minerals and nutrients. Certain foods may need to be avoided by individuals with preexisting conditions, but those without such restrictions can follow dietary guidelines from the United States Departments of Agriculture and Health and Human Services. Those guidelines include various recommendations regarding dairy consumption.

• The USDA notes that the amount of dairy an individual needs depends on the person’s age, sex, height, weight, and level of physical activity. In addition, women who are pregnant or breastfeeding will have different dairy consumption needs than women who are not expecting or breastfeeding. Individuals can speak with their physicians to determine how much dairy they should consume, and they also can utilize the MyPlate Plan at The MyPlate Plan allows users to enter information specific to them (i.e., weight, height, age, etc.) so they can learn how much dairy they

should be consuming.

• USDA guidelines encourage most individuals to consume three servings of dairy per day. The organization’s “Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2020-2025” recommend that adults consume the equivalent of three cups of dairy per day. The guidelines indicate that children should consume 21⁄2 cups of dairy per day, with that number increasing to three cups around the time children reach age 9.

• Low-fat or fat-free dairy options are recommended. Low-fat or fat-free products can quell common concerns about dairy products, including that they’re high in fat, calories and sodium. The organization American Bone HealthTM reports that low-fat or fat-free dairy products provide more calcium, potassium, vitamin A, and vitamin D per calorie.

Dairy is a vital component of a well-balanced, nutritious diet. Individuals with more questions about dairy can consult with their physicians and/or visit to learn more.

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How labor shortages are affecting

The agricultural workforce is shrinking, and has been for some time. The American Farm Bureau Federation estimates there are roughly 2.4 million farm jobs that need to be filled annually, but there has been a drastic decline in workers each year.

There are a number of reasons for the shortages. The AFBF says more than 73 percent of farm workers are immigrants from South America and Mexico. While the United States’ H2-A visa program, which allows employers who meet specific requirements to bring foreign laborers in for temporary Continued on Page 8

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work, has increased the number of accepted applications for immigrants to 250,000, this number is still just a drop in the bucket in terms of labor needs.

Another factor is a career in agriculture isn’t always easy or lucrative. According to the U.S Department of Agriculture, for every dollar spent on food, a farmer receives only 7.6 cents. Farmers were predicted to lose 9.7 percent of total net income in 2021.

Declining interest in the field has also affected the number of farm workers. As more farm operators reach retirement age, fewer young farmers are replacing them due to volatile pricing, high real estate and land costs, steep initial machinery

investment costs, and other factors. The physical demand of the industry also takes its toll. So what does this mean for the agricultural industry?

Many with knowledge of the industry indicate sweeping changes are warranted. Ellen Poeschi, the project director for the National Association of Agricultural Educators Teach Ag campaign, has said that a lack of agricultural education is contributing to the problem. Increasing availability of ag education courses across the country could build interest in the industry. Connecting students to internships or mentors may help, too.

Another option is to rally for greater economic opportunities in agriculture. The ag industry in general needs to find ways to make the economic benefits more competitive to other industries, and improve the working conditions and job flexibility. Agricultural industries currently average only 60 percent of what other industries offer in salaries. Farm wages have been rising due to the H-2A program, which requires farm worker pay to be higher than the state/federal minimum wage. More change is needed, but this may have to come at the federal level or be sparked by efforts on the part of agricultural advocacy groups.

Additional strategies farm

operators can employ to combat shortages are: scaling back farm operations; integrating ag technology to reduce labor burdens; pivoting to crops that require fewer laborers; leasing portions of land to have extra money; employing temporary guest workers; and moving operations abroad. Worker shortages continue to be problematic for the agricultural industry. A greater focus on remedying the issue is needed on a grand scale.

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Getting to the root of sodic soil

Plants often are only as strong as the soil in which they grow. While certain greenery may thrive no matter where it’s planted, soil conditions are often key to successful growing.

Sodic soil is one condition people may experience at home or in commercial farming operations. Sodic soils, sometimes called saline-alkali soils or dispersive soils, are defined as having high levels of exchangeable sodium and low levels of total salts, according to the Colorado State University Extension. These conditions compromise growing conditions because sodic soils tend to be poorly drained and crust over. Water intake also can be poor in sodic soils, and pH is usually high — coming in above 9.0.

The Department of Primary

Industries and Regional Development of the Government of Western Australia advises a simple sodic soil test to check for sodicity. One can collect dry soil aggregates (crumbs of soil) from different depths. Those crumbs should be placed into a clear jar of distilled water, taking care not to mix or agitate the soil. The water around the edges of sodic soil will become cloudy and appear milky. For highly dispersive soil, the dispersion will be evident after about 10 to 30 minutes. Moderately sodic soil may take 2 hours.

Individuals can take steps to improve sodic soil. Gypsum is the most commonly used amendment for sodic soil, according to Science Direct. It also can reduce the harmful effects of highsodium irrigation waters. Gypsum is a mineral that is composed of hydrated


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calcium sulfate. Gypsum has an effect on reducing the rate of soil erosion. It is more effective when gypsum is spread on the soil surface rather than mixed in.

Limestone, which also contains calcium, is another additive that can amend sodic soils. Gardeners may want to add calcium to the soil because it replaces the sodium and then the sodium can be leached out.

Additional mitigation methods for sodic soils include changing plant species or varieties to more tolerant ones that will grow more readily.

Commercial farmers or home gardeners may encounter sodic soil. Though sodic soil is not ideal, it can be remedied in various ways.

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The link between agriculture and food security

The world faces many unique challenges in the decades to come, including a rapidly expanding global population. The United Nations estimates that the global population will reach 9.71 billion in 2050. That’s an increase of more than 1.7 billion people between 2023 and 2050.

Food security is among the more significant challenges the world will face as the population increases. The United States Agency for International Development notes that food security means all individuals, regardless of

their physical or economic circumstances, have access to sufficient food to meet the dietary needs for a productive, healthy life. Food security is a more significant issue than people may recognize, even in first world, fully developed countries. For example, the United States Department of Agriculture’s Economic Research Service indicates that slightly more than 10 percent of U.S. households were food insecure at some point during 2021. In fact, estimates suggest more than 800 million people across the globe go to bed hungry

Continued on Page 11

10 | Farm & Ranch • March 29, 2023

every night, which underscores the seriousness of the issue.

Agriculture and food security

Food security and the agricultural industry are inextricably linked. The USAID indicates that most of the people who go to bed hungry at night are smallholder farmers who depend on agriculture to make a living and feed themselves and their families. Supporting efforts to strengthen the agricultural industry can help to combat food security, as the USAID reports that growth within that sector has been found to be at least twice as effective at reducing poverty as growth in other sectors. Much of that can be traced to the disproportionate percentage of poor people who live in rural rather

than urban areas. For example, the USAID reports that 75 percent of poor people in developing nations live in rural areas.

But the poverty rate is higher in rural areas than urban areas in the United States as well. Data from the 2019 American Community Survey indicates the poverty rate in rural areas was 15.4 percent in 2019 compared to 11.9 percent in urban areas. Though recent data regarding rural poverty rates in Canada is unavailable, a 2013 discussion paper on the topic from the Government of Canada noted that the country’s rural residents earned less and had lower levels of education than residents in urban areas, suggesting that poverty is likely more prevalent

in the Canadian countryside than in the country’s cities.

What can be done

Though food security poses a significant global challenge, lack of access to healthy foods is preventable. Individuals in rural and urban communities can voice their support for efforts to strengthen the agricultural sector. A thriving agricultural sector can ensure fewer people go to bed hungry each night and bolster the economies of rural communities that are disproportionately affected by poverty.

Did you know?

Agricultural technology, often referred to as “AgTech,” is playing an increasingly bigger role on modern farms, and that role is evident when examining AgTech startups’ growing access to venture capital. Data from PitchBook and the National Venture Capital Association’s PitchBookNVCA Venture Monitor, a quarterly report on venture capital activity in the entrepreneurial ecosystem, indicates that AgTech startups received $6.1 billion in VC investments in 2020. That reflects a nearly 60 percent increase in investment over 2019. Weaknesses in the agricultural and food supply chain revealed during the pandemic undoubtedly drove some of that investment. Widespread recognition of a need for improvements within the agricultural sector so it can meet the demands of a global population that the United Nations estimates will increase by two billion people by 2050 also likely contributed to the considerable rise in VC investment in AgTech startups.

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