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PIANO BOSSA NOVA A PROGRESSIVE METHOD by TURI COLLURA

www.terradamusica.com.br


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Many thanks to my students, especially those who followed the development of this work from the very beginning. In addition, I am most grateful to my dear friend Silvânia Saadi for the Clavinova piano. I would also like to thank my great friends Weber Marely, Patrícia Tebet, Jeferson Mesquita, Rosana Giosa, Geni Leika, Valéria Forte, José Saraiva, Thiago Costa Veríssimo, José Carlos de Oliveira, Vinícius Grossi, Marco António de Souza.

SPECIFICATIONS Production assistant: Neusinha Escorel Cover art: Patrícia Tebet Desktop publishing and closing: Turi Collura and Neusinha Escorel English proofreading: American Journal Experts Technical revision: José Saraiva Digital publishing: Carlo Collura Graphic design: Jeferson Mesquita DVD filming, editing and authoring: Renan Rauta Musicians: Piano: Turi Collura Flute: Weber Marely Guitar: Giovani Malini

Video and Audio files accompanying the book contain practice demonstrations and provide opportunities for the learner to play along. Please find the download information on the last page of the book.

ISBN-13: 978-1539738657 ISBN-10: 1539738655 Copyright © 2013 Terra da Música Edições - Vitória (ES), Brasil. All Rights Reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced in any form or by any means without the prior written permission of the Publisher. Support cultural and scientific productions: do not copy books. Visit the book's hotsite www.pianobossanova.com


FOREWORD The instructional method that you now have in your hands is a precious learning instrument. Simplicity, I believe, is its major strength. Basic principles of bossa nova are clearly and precisely described, and the guidelines provided in this instructional book will enable a dedicated learner to begin grasping the meaning and specific characteristics of this musical style. Throughout my own endless learning process, I have realized that the constant practice of certain principles is one of the key aspects of obtaining a greater understanding of and achieving greater immersion within any rhythm or language. Practice forms the perfect complement to the acquisition of deeper and more sophisticated information. Thus, I recommend constant repetition of the proposed tasks—reasonably and without exaggeration— until your body can feel the flow of these rhythms and the harmonic sense of each chord. If studied wisely and lightly, the results will be satisfactory, and the whole process will be carried out with great pleasure and genuine happiness, as with the discovery of new languages and aptitudes. Congratulations to Turi for the development of this method. It is undoubtedly a work of love for music and for those who study it. Enjoy! Benjamim Taubkin.


INTRODUCTION It is with great pleasure that I introduce the progressive method Piano Bossa Nova, which teaches one how to play bossa nova step by step. Beginning with simple elements, the proposed method guides the pianist in the development of his/her skills through a gradual process that involves studying songs as well as harmonic, rhythmic, and melodic elements. This work is divided into 8 units. The videos and audios accompanying the book contain practice demonstrations and provide opportunities for the learner to play along. Throughout the book, you find two symbols: indicates that a related example or task is shown in video for demonstration or practice. indicates that a related example or task is provided by an audio track for your practice. Please find download information on the last page of the book. Bossa nova is known for its refined harmonies, melodic refinement, and rhythmic swing. Learning to play this musical style thus requires studying its specific musical aesthetic qualities. Throughout the units, both harmonic and rhythmic elements are studied, sometimes independently and sometimes together. The rhythmic figures that are presented can be practiced independently, that is, without any specific harmony or proximity to a keyboard. You can merely tap, on any surface, the rhythmic tasks that are presented. Visualize the rhythmic patterns: it is important for you to see what you are learning in your mind. This way, you can study and develop your abilities without the use of a musical instrument. To develop motor skills, hand independence, and rhythm and pulse consciousness, it is important to repeat each task over and over until you have free-flowing movements. Moreover, always play in a relaxing environment, and do not overload your muscles. Indeed, this advice is a valuable for all pianists. Unit 1 presents an overview containing references to chord typologies and their corresponding symbols. This knowledge is an essential prerequisite to the progressive study of characteristic bossa nova chords that is presented in the units that follow. Knowledge of a chord position in all keys requires, in most cases, more time to assimilate compared with that related to other activities. Therefore, take your time to correctly memorize the positions. Regarding harmony, it is important to understand the concept of voicing, which refers to a specific chord structure, that is, a particular disposition of the notes. Take, for instance, the voicing 6-2-b3-5 in three different Keys:

5 b3 2 6

5 b3 2 6

5 b3 2 6


In this book, I propose the study of a series of voicings that allow the bossa nova sound to be expressed on the piano. Certainly, these chords do not exhaust all piano vocabulary (we also acknowledge that each artist uses harmony in a personal way), but in general, they seem to represent the genre very well. I encourage you to search for additional chords, to write down new voicings that you like, and to make your own learning experience active and dynamic. Through seven progressively more difficult songs, we will study harmony, rhythmic patterns, melodic features, harmonic-rhythmic clichĂŠs, and so forth. We will also learn how to comp, to play duos, to play trios, or to solo. Playing alone is the most difficult task for the pianist, who must then provide all the required elements by himself. Thus, the development of the solo is proposed gradually. The last two units of the book focus on solo techniques in depth, some of which are innovative, such as the "three-hands" technique. Please note that in the videos in the DVD, I make more extensive hand movements than are normally required to play in order to make the movements clearer for the viewer. As a remark on the musical notation that is used in this method, to make reading the music easier, I sometimes transpose at the octave. Therefore, wherever the clefs are shown alongside a pentagram, the notes on that pentagram should be played an octave lower. Normally, Brazilian songs are written in 2/4 time. I have chosen to use 4/4 notation in the first few units because it offers some advantages in the beginning of the learning process. From unit 4 on, I use the traditional 2/4 notation. To internalize bossa nova language, it is important to listen to original recordings to recognize and absorb their musical aesthetic. Moreover, you should apply everything that you learn to your favorite songs. Throughout the book, I provide tips concerning the most appropriate songs for the development of each individual phase of the learning process. Today, countless resources for musical scores are provided either on the Internet or in musical editions. In particular, the songbooks edited by Almir Chediak are important sources (see bibliography). A book can virtually become alive if a relationship is observable between it and its author. For this reason, the website www.pianobossanova.com was created. This site provides information, articles, news, videos, exercises, and so forth. You can access it and download the mp3 files of the songs referenced in the book for free. Furthermore, visit the website from time to time to keep yourself up to date. This method is the result of my studies and research that have been developed over many years with several students. The positive results led me to delineate it systematically in order to present it to the broader public. I hope that this method contributes to your development and opens doors to numerous achievements in music learning. If this method is able to help you, writing this book will have been well worth it. Enjoy the book and the exercises!


TABLE OF CONTENTS Unit 1 Triads 9 Exercises 1 to 6 9-11 Four-notes chords 11 Four-notes chords notation 12 Exercises 7 to 12 13-15

Unit 2 Rhythmic pattern 1 16 Harmonic-rhythmic cliché 16 Song "Areia e mar" 17 Exercise 13: voicings of "Areia e mar" 17 Duo version: piano and flute for the song "Areia e mar" 18 Comping a melody: duo piano and guitar 19 Exercise 14: coordination of melody and comping 19 Trio version: piano, bass and drums for the song "Areia e mar" 20 Harmonic studies: major chords and voicings 21 Exercises 15 to 17 22

Unit 3: Rhythmic pattern 2 23 Exercise 18: application of rhythmic pattern 2 23 Song "Lembrando de você" 24 Exercise 19: voicings of the song "Lembrando de você" 24 Duo version: piano and flute, song "Lembrando de você" 25 Bass melodic enrichment 26 Song "Ah, insensatez" 27 Exercise 20: application of patterns 1 e 2 in the song "Ah, insensatez" (duo piano and flute) 28 Harmonic studies: minor chords and voicings 30 Exercises 21 to 23 31 Complementary activities 32

Unit 4 Rhythmic pattern 3 33 Harmonic-rhythmic cliché (exercises 24A to 26) 34-35 Song "Copacabana 62" 36 Duo version: piano and flute for the song "Copacabana 62" 36 Left-hand comping (part one) 38 Exercises 27 to 29 38-39 First piano solo 39 Harmonic studies: dominant chords 40 Exercises 30 and 31 41


Unit 5 Characteristics of bossa nova melody 42 Rhythmic pattern 4 43 Exercises 32 and 33 44 Complementary activities 44 Song "A tarde cai" 45 Melody in double octave 45 Duo: piano and guitar 46 Harmonic characteristics of bossa nova 48 Exercise 34: complementary harmonic study 51

Unit 6 Rhythmic pattern 5 52 Exercise 35: Practicing rhythmic pattern 5 52 Primary rhythmic cell in Brazilian music 53 Rhythmic pattern 6 53 Exercises 36 and 37 54 Rhythmic variety in comping 54 Exercise 38 55 Song "A influência da bossa" 56 Complementary activity 56 Bass rhythmic enrichment 57 Exercises 39 to 41 57

Unit 7 Melody and comping with the right hand 58 Exercises 42 and 43 58-59 Comping for the song "Corcovado" 60 Harmonic studies: diminished chord and voicings 61 Left hand comping (part two) 62 Exercises 44 and 45 62-63 Piano solo of the song "A influência da bossa" 64

Unit 8 The "three-hands" technique 66 Exercises 46 and 47 66-67 Song "Eu assim tão só" 68 Exercise 48 68 Piano solo of the song "Lembrando de você" 70 Rhythmic patterns 7 and 8 based on the bossa nova clave 71 Exercises 49 and 50 71

Learning assessment 72

Bibliographic references 74


DVD TABLE OF CONTENTS Unit 1

Exercise 1 Major triads Exercise 2 Minor triads Exercise 3 Major triads: 1st inversion Exercise 4 Major triads: 2nd inversion Exercise 5 Minor triads: 1st inversion Exercise 6 Minor triads: 2nd inversion Exercise 7 Four-note chords XMaj7 Exercise 8 Four-note chords X7 Exercise 9 Four-note chords Xm7 Exercise 10 Four-note chords Xm7(b5) Exercise 11 Four-note chords X7sus4 Exercise 12 Diminished chords

Unit 2

Rhythmic pattern 1 Application of rhythmic pattern 1 Harmonic-rhythmic cliché Song "Areia e mar" Duo piano and guitar: song "Areia e mar" Exercise 14 Coordination of melody and comping Trio with bass and drums: song “Areia e mar" Exercise 15 Harmonic study: major chords (2-3-5-7) Exercise 16 Harmonic study: major chords (7-2-3-5)

Unit 3

Rhythmic pattern 2 Exercise 18 Performance of rhythmic pattern 2 Song "Lembrando de você" Bass enrichment (2 examples) Song "Ah, Insensatez" Exercise 21 Harmonic study: minor chords (b3-5-6-9) Exercise 22 Harmonic study: minor chords (b7-9-b3-5)

Unit 4

Rhythmic pattern 3 and variations Exercises 24A and 24B Harmonic-rhythmic cliché Cliché of the song "Wave" Exercises 25A and 25B Harmonic-rhythmic cliché Exercise 26 Harmonic-rhythmic cliché Song “Copacabana 62" Left-hand comping Exercise 27 Coordination of melody and comping Exercise 28 Coordination of melody and comping Exercise 29 Coordination of melody and comping First solo piano: Song “Lembrando de você" Exercise 30 Harmonic study: dominant chords (b7-9-3-13) Exercise 31 Harmonic clichés for descending 5th

Unit 5

Rhythmic pattern 4 Exercise 32 Application of rhythmic pattern 4 Exercise 33 Variations of rhythmic pattern 4 Song "A tarde cai" Exercise 34 Complementary harmonic study

Unit 6

Rhythmic pattern 5 Exercise 35 Application of rhythmic pattern 5 Rhythmic pattern 6 Exercise 36 Application of rhythmic pattern 6 Exercise 37 Application of rhythmic pattern 6 with bass Exercise 38 Rhythmic variation in comping: song "A influência da bossa" Exercise 39 Rhythmic bass enrichment Exercise 40 Rhythmic bass enrichment Exercise 41 Rhythmic bass enrichment

Unit 7

Example of melody and comping Exercise 42 Right-hand comping Exercise 43 Right-hand comping Piano solo: Excerpt from "Copacabana 62" Comping: "Corcovado" Left-hand comping (closed position) Lef-hand comping (opended position) Exercise 44 Coordination of melody and comping Exercise 45A Coordination of melody and comping Exercise 45B Coordination of melody and comping Song "A influência da bossa" (solo piano)

Unit 8

Exercise 46 "Three-hands" technique Exercise 47 "Three-hands" technique Song "Eu assim tão só" (solo piano) Song "Lembrando de você" (solo piano) Exercise 49 Rhythmic pattern 7 Exercise 50 Rhythmic pattern 8

EXTRAS

Song "A tarde cai" (solo piano) Song "A influência da bossa" (piano and guitar) Song "Copacabana 62" (piano and guitar)


Piano Bossa Nova - Unit 1

Unit 1

Content: Overview of triads and Four-note chords; Overview of symbols and chords; Drills. Harmony is an important element of bossa nova. Before we study the distinctive voicings of this musical style, let us review the basic harmonic elements (triads and four-note chords) and chord symbols that are found in major publications. Triads Created by the overlapping of two thirds, triads can be considered the smallest complete harmonic unit. We can certainly have harmonies comprising two notes, but they constitute an incomplete version of a three-note chord or more. The image below indicates the four basic triads and possible indications through the chord symbols (the chord symbols that are used in this method are highlighted).

major

minor

5 3 1

diminished

5 b3 1

ndicated as:

C or:

augmented

b5 b3 1

#5 3 1

Cm C° C- Cm(b5) dim Cmi C

C aum C(#5) C+

Other triads and their chord symbols: Csus 4

Csus 2 5 4 1

Cadd 2

5 3 2 1

5 2 1

While the sus chord doesn't contain the third degree, the add chord indicates an addition of a note to the chord. Practice the following drills to facilitate your learning. Try to memorize the positions. Exercise 1 Application of major triads in all the keys: C

Db

D

Eb

E

F

F#

1

G

Ab

A

Bb

B

C

9


Turi Collura - Piano Bossa Nova: a progressive method

Exercise 2 Application of minor triads in all the keys: Cm

Dbm

Dm

Ebm

Em

Fm

F#m

2

Gm

Abm

Am

Bbm

Bm

Cm

Triads inversions Each triad can be played in three positions: root, first inversion and second inversion. In root position, the lowest note of the triad is the root note of the chord, the middle note is the third and the highest note is the fifth. In first inversion, the lowest note is the third and the highest is the root (octave). In second inversion, the lowest note is the fifth and the highest is the third (octave). See the image below:

Root position

First inversion

Second inversion 3 1 5

8 5 3

5 3 1

Exercise 3 Application of major triads in first inversion: C

Db

D

Eb

E

F

F#

3

G

Ab

A

Bb

B

C

Exercise 4 Application of major triads in second inversion: C

10

Db

D

Eb

E

F

F#

4

G

Ab

A

Bb

B

C


Piano Bossa Nova - Unit 1

Exercise 5 Application of minor triads in first inversion: Cm

Dbm

Dm

Ebm

Em

Fm

5

F#m

Gm

Abm

Am

Bbm

Bm

Cm

Exercise 6 Application of minor triads in second inversion: Cm

Dbm

Dm

Ebm

Em

Fm

F#m

6

Gm

Abm

Am

Bbm

Bm

Cm

Four note chords Adding a seventh to major triads (including the sus4 triad here), we can obtain 4-note chords called tetrads. The seventh can be of three different types: minor sevent

diminished seventh

(sometimes indicated as below)

6

major seventh

By combining each triad with the different types of sevenths, we then have the following chords: Triads

Major seventh

minor seventh

diminished seventh

Major

XMaj7

X7

Minor

Xm(Maj7)

Xm7

*

Diminished

Xm7(b5)

Xo

Augmented

***

XMaj7 (#5)

X7 (#5)

Sus4

---

---

X7 sus 4

**

---

(“X� represents any root of a chord. For example, X7 indicates the formation of a dominant chord: 1-3-5-b7).

11


Turi Collura - Piano Bossa Nova: a progressive method

If we take a C chord as a reference, the previous table changes as follows:

Triad

+

major seventh or minor seventh

5 3 1

7 5 3 1

b7 5 3 1

5 b3 1

7 5 b3 1

b7 5 b3 1

b7 b5 b3 1

b5 b3 1

#5 3 1

5 4 1

7 #5 3 1

or

diminished seventh

bb7 b5 b3 1

b7 #5 3 1

b7 5 4 1

(*) The combination of a major triad with a diminished seventh does not occur. A diminished seventh is equal to a major sixth, which is its enharmonic equivalent. (**) As in the example above, the combination of a minor triad with a diminished seventh does not occur. The chord can become, in this case, a Cm6. The note in this chord will not be considered a seventh, however. (***) The combination of a diminished triad with a major seventh can be considered an alteration of the diminished chord.

Four note chords and its notation The chord symbols that are used in popular music are not universally standardized. Numerous differences exist among various countries, schools, and publishing houses. To offer readers useful tips, I will present major indications and chords, which are most commonly used in musical scores.

12


Piano Bossa Nova - Unit 1

Chords types and chord symbols used in this book

Other chords that can be found in different publications

CMaj7: major triad with major 7th (1-3-5-7)

CMaj7; CMa7; C7M (Brasil); Cr7

CMaj7(#5): major triad with 7th major and augmented 5th (1-3-#5-7)

C7M(#5) (Brazil); CMaj7(+5); Cr7(#5); Cr7(+5)

Cm7: minor triad with minor 7th (1-b3-5-b7)

C-7; Cmi7

Cm(Maj7): minor triad with major 7th (1-b3-5-7)

Cmr; C-r; Cm(r); Cm(7M) (Brazil); Cm(Maj7)

Cm7(b5): half-diminished (1-b3-b5-b7)

O

C-7(b5); C 7; Cm7(-5); Co7 (!)

Co: diminished (1-b3-b5-bb7)

Co7 (!)

C7: dominant (1-3-5-b7)

C7

C7(#5): dominant with augmented 5th (1-3-#5-b7) C+7; C7(+5) C7(b5): dominant with diminished 5th (1-3-b5-b7) C7(-5) C7sus4: dominant sus 4 (1-4-5-b7)

C7sus; C7,4; C7(4)

(!) Notice that the symbol Co7 appears in two different categories of four-note chords: diminished and half-diminished. Unfortunately, no standard symbol for these tetrads exists. In Brazil, this symbol is not used.

Exercise 7 Application of XMaj7 chords in all keys:

7

13


Turi Collura - Piano Bossa Nova: a progressive method

Exercise 8 Practice of X7 chords in all keys (complete the empty spaces):

8

Exercise 9 Practice of Xm7 chords in all keys (complete the empty spaces):

9

Exercise 10 Practice of Xm7(b5) chords in all keys (complete the empty spaces):

10

Exercise 11 Practice of X7sus4 chords in all keys (complete the empty spaces):

11

14


Piano Bossa Nova - Unit 1

The diminished chord can be defined as a symmetrical chord because the distance between two notes is always one and a half steps, so the notes divide the octave into four identical parts. Notice the symmetry of the notes that compose Co in relation to Ebo, F#o and Ao in the image below. Exercise 12 Practice of the diminished chords (all chords shown on this page): 12

To simplify the presentation of the material studied below, we will not use doubled alterations. Instead, their enharmonic equivalents will be used. Thus, in practical terms, the Co inversions are equivalent to Ebo, F#o e Ao, or even better, each of these chords can represent the others from the same group (Co = Ebo = F#o = Ao). Thus, the notes of a chord are equivalent to those that compose other chords. In practical terms, we can consider there to be only two more groups of diminished chords. Consider the group C#o = Eo = Go = Bbo below:

Consider the last group, Do = Fo = G#o = Bo:

Having the content of this unit as a basic harmonic reference, we can learn to build characteristic bossa nova voicings for the piano.

15


Turi Collura - Piano Bossa Nova: a progressive method

Unit 2

Content: Rhythmic pattern 1; First harmonic cliché; Song "Areia e Mar"; Duo: piano and flute; Duo: piano and guitar; Trio: piano, bass and drum; Coordination exercise; Harmonic study 1. Rhythmic pattern 1 This rhythmic pattern is the most common and simple pattern for bossa nova comping. It is performed with both hands; the right hand plays the chord, while the left hand plays the bass. Learn the movements without thinking about notes or chords, internalize the rhythm and hand displacement by repeating the pattern several times: 13

 

Example:

 

14

2X

One characteristic of bossa nova is harmonic sophistication. In the example above, an alternation can be observed between the seventh and the sixth of the chord. This alternation is rather common in major chords with a major seventh, and the presence of a ninth is also observed. Harmonic-rhythmic cliché We now apply rhythmic pattern 1 to a typical harmonic sequence. Notice the presence of the ninth and the thirteenth in the chords: 15

16


Piano Bossa Nova - Unit 2

1

Areia e mar

16

Exercise 13 The image below shows the voicings for the song "Areia e mar" used in the video. Memorize these voicings and then apply rhythmic pattern 1 to the comping performance (the next page shows the result of this activity). 1&2

17


Turi Collura - Piano Bossa Nova: a progressive method

Duo: piano and flute The image below shows the transcription of the comping performed in the video of the song “Areia e mar." Notice the octave alternation in the bass (left hand, bars 1-3 and 5-6) to avoid excessive repetition of the same notes. 1&2

18


Piano Bossa Nova - Unit 2

Comping a melody: piano and guitar duo If the guitar plays the rhythmic comping, the pianist can either play the melody or improvise, playing harmony in a freer and simpler rhythm. Use the chord positions indicated below: 17

3

Exercise 14 Coordination of melody and comping (keep the recommended fingering): 18

4 1

1

2

(2)

3

3

4

4

5

5

4

4

3

3

2

2

(1)

1

2

2

3

(3)

4

4

5

5

4

3

2

4

3

2

19


Turi Collura - Piano Bossa Nova: a progressive method 1

2

3

(4)

5

4

3

2

1

2

3

4

(5)

1

2

3

4

5

(4)

3

2

1

2

3

4

5

1

2

3

4

5

4

4

4

3

2

(3)

2

3

Trio version of "Areia e Mar": piano, bass and drums In a trio, the pianist can perform more consistent rhythmic comping. Practice along with the video: 5&6

20

19


Piano Bossa Nova - Unit 2

Harmonic study: major chords and voicings If we examine the scores of great bossa nova composers, we find that this musical style rarely uses triads and instead prefers chords that offer richer sonority. For instance, major triads thus add the sixth, seventh, and ninth:

6 5 3 1

7 5 3 1

5 3 1 6

6 3 2 7

5 3 2 6

9 7 5 3

7 5 3 2

5 3 2 7

9 7 6 3

9 6 5 3

Next, notice the indicated similarities between some voicings presented above:

9 7 5 3

9 6 5 3

5 3 2 7

9 7 6 3

5 3 2 6

6 3 2 7

To master these chord positions, practice the following exercises. The videos for these exercises suggest the use of rhythmic pattern 1.

21


Turi Collura - Piano Bossa Nova: a progressive method

Exercise 15 Practicing the voicing 2-3-5-7 (XMaj7,9) ascending chromatically: 7&8

20

Exercise 16 Practicing the voicing 7-2-3-5 (XMaj7,9) ascending chromatically: 9 & 10

21

Exercise 17 Choose other voicings and practice them ascending chromatically, as we did in the previous exercises. Note that memorizing the voicings that are presented in this unit may require hours of study and repetition. Take your time.

22

Piano bossa nova: progressive method  

Learn to play piano bossa nova with this unique step-by-step method. Discover fresh techniques and an amazing path: 50 exercises, 7 differ...

Piano bossa nova: progressive method  

Learn to play piano bossa nova with this unique step-by-step method. Discover fresh techniques and an amazing path: 50 exercises, 7 differ...

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