Home of Innovation Projecten 2022

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Home of

Innovation A small taste of our cutting edge technology



Home of

Innovation A small taste of our cutting edge technology


Table of Contents Introduction by Paul Althuis

5

Considering to collaborate

7

Get in Touch

9

Valorisation indicators 2020

11

TRL & Icons

12

Infographic 14 Innovation projects

17

■ Chapter 1: Generation of renewable energy

17

■ Chapter 2: A future proof grid

26

■ Chapter 3: Energy in the build environment

34

■ Chapter 4: Energy & sustainable industry

42

■ Chapter 5: Energy & transport

47

■ Chapter 6: Future Energy Labs

56

■ Chapter 7: Start-ups in the TU Delft Ecosystem

65

Index by research theme 73 Colophon 74

4


Accelerating Innovation & Impact TU Delft’s mission ‘impact for a better society’. is more appropriate than ever when it comes to one of the major challenges we are working on as a university: the energy transition and the shift towards a sustainable society.This is why this fifth edition of Home of Innovation is completely devoted to the energy transition. We have gone out in search of the latest, radical and most promising projects within our innovation ecosystem on TU Delft Campus. At TU Delft, around a thousand scientists are working on technological innovations, covering the entire spectrum of the energy chain. This involves both generating renewable energy and developing an energy system that is robust enough to handle these new forms of often locally generated energy. But we also look beyond that: we explore how our buildings can be made more sustainable when it comes to energy, and also look at industry and the transport sector. We showcase the labs, start-ups and institutes that are playing their part in this process. Together, all of these projects provide an excellent overview of the wide variety of research at TU Delft and how our innovative ecosystem operates. The challenges we face and the technological solutions required are of such complexity that collaboration will be essential in ensuring success. The TU Delft Innovation & Impact Centre is facilitating this in various ways, including setting up field labs in which companies can work together with scientists, researchers, startups and the public in testing, validating and further developing new innovations. We are making huge efforts for the energy transition. In the Green Village, the field lab for sustainable innovation on TU Delft Campus, tests will be done in the coming year on setting up an 24/7 energy system, in which local hydrogen generation will play an important role. Another excellent example of collaboration is the recently opened ESP Lab, developed in cooperation with grid operator TenneT. In it, a complete digital copy of the Dutch electricity grid is being built, making it possible to future-proof the grid safely. We are also working hard on the development of other field labs, in such areas as floating renewables and e-refinery, in an effort to accelerate innovation. The projects in this booklet have again been captured in exciting visualisations and rated according to their technology readiness level. All of the information can be found online using a QR code. Home of Innovation is a guide for companies and institutions that are keen to collaborate. Do you also share our ambition for a better society? We will be happy to join forces with you in working towards a sustainable future. Sincerely, Paul Althuis Director of the Innovation & Impact Centre

5



Considering to Collaborate? ‘Impact for a better society’ is the central mission of Delft University of Technology. Building on an excellent scientific profile in science, engineering and design we offer knowledge-intensive, technology-driven solutions to societal challenges. These solutions are rooted in ground breaking research: research that makes us an attractive cooperation partner for other knowledge institutes, society and for businesses. We deeply value our collaborations with industry, many of whom we have longstanding relations with deeply rooted in joint history. We are always open to welcome new partners, to explore new domains and establish new joint ventures, either through bilateral agreements or within the framework of, amongst others, Horizon Europe, national top sector funding, NWO and regional funding. Our societal challenges need solutions now. The speed of innovation has become essential for all players in a worldwide market. We believe that multi party collaborations are key in accelerating innovation. We invite businesses to join our community and collaborate on research and innovation with the TU Delft and parties in our TU Delft Campus ecosystem. Together we identify your research and innovation challenges and connect these challenges to our ecosystem of academics, students, corporates and entrepreneurs. The aim of TU Delft is to grow TU Delft Campus as a public private innovation campus of great international importance. This can only be achieved by creating strong interactions with knowledge institutions, government organizations, larger businesses, SME’s, start-ups, scale-ups and investors. My final call to all of you is: Let’s cooperate to create future society and future markets and work in a joint effort on impact for a better society!

7



Get in touch with the Innovation & Impact Centre The Innovation & Impact Centre of the Delft University of Technology supports in establishing collaborations between businesses, government and knowledge institutes to initiate research and bring innovations to the market. Are you interested in collaborating with the Delft University of Technology, please get in touch.

Corporate Innovation - Industry collaboration

The speed of innovation has become essential to compete in a worldwide market. We believe that multi party collaborations are key in accelerating innovation. We invite businesses to join our community and collaborate on research and innovation topics with the TU Delft and parties in our TU Delft Campus ecosystem. Together we identify your research and innovation challenges and connect these challenges to our ecosystem of academics, students, corporates and entrepreneurs. We offer strategic collaborations that accelerate innovation, inspire and spark entrepreneurship. This is your chance to innovate together. These team members are well informed on the latest scientific research at TU Delft, and they know the needs from the private sector. This enables them to contribute to very effective market research, business development and matchmaking between small medium and large enterprises and researchers. To initiate and facilitate sustainable collaborations, the team continuously searches for key-partners in multidisciplinary settings, resulting in research and innovation collaboration. Naam

Onderwerp

Emailadres

Zwanet van Lubek

Manager Corporate Innovation

Z.H.vanLubek@tudelft.nl

Anne-Lize Hoftijzer

Manager TU Delft Campus – innovation ecosystem

A.J.E.Hoftijzer@tudelft.nl

Maxim Segeren

Innovation Manager Offshore Wind

M.L.A.Segeren@tudelft.nl

Friso Lippmann

Innovation Manager Offshore Renewables and Climate Action

F.G.Lippmann@tudelft.nl

Peter Lucas

Innovation Manager Hydrogen

P.Lucas@tudelft.nl

Arnoud van der Zee

Innovation Manager Energy Transition Build Environment

A.E.vanderZee@tudelft.nl

Caroline Duterloo

Innovation Manager Artificial Intelligence Energy Transition

C.G.Duterloo@tudelft.nl

Mirjam Harmelink

Innovation Manager Urban Energy & Smart buildings

M.G.M.Harmelink@tudelft.nl

John Nijenhuis

Innovation Manager e-Refinery

J.Nijenhuis@tudelft.nl

General information about the Innovation & Impact Centre: Van der Burghweg 1, 2628 CS Delft, the Netherlands www.tudelft.nl/en/technology-transfer/ innovation-impactcentre@tudelft.nl

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Valorisation indicators 2020 The Dutch universities formulated their valorisation objectives in their performance agreements with the Ministry of Education, Culture and Science in 2012. Following on from this, each university has developed its own valorisation indicators to measure performance. The following valorisation indicators were established in 2015, along with the other Dutch universities of technology, and they have been published in the annual report since 2016. This set of indicators provides a quantitative overview of the valorisation activities TU Delft. Proportion of funding Government funding

591,8 M€

Indirect funding

64,0 M€

Contract funding

134,4 M€

Internships and graduation projects for non- university institutions Master

793

PDEng

21

Co-publications with companies CWTS Leiden Ranking – University Industry Co-publications

#42

Proportion of publications with one or more companies as co-author

10,5%

Intellectual property Number of invention disclosures

76

Number of patent applications

55

Number of transfers

5

Number of licences

5

Business activities TU Delft spin-off with TU Delft IP

10

Startups – TU Delft founded, without TU Delft IP

3

Startups – by third parties, with TU Delft IP

0

Ancillary activities Number of professors with non-academic ancillary activities

116

Entrepreneurship education Entrepreneurship minors (30 EC)

221 studenten / 6630 EC

Aditional Entrepreneurship courses (5-8 EC per vak)

530 studenten / 2799 EC

Total EC Entrepreneurship education

751 studenten / 9429 EC

Alumni careers Percentage of alumni employed by non-academic organisations

85,1% (2019) 11


TRL & Icons explained Research Themes

In total eleven research themes have been used for a thematic categorisation of the innovative projects. Each research theme has been assigned its own colour. You can find the themes on top of each project page. Please also see index page 73 to search by research theme.

Which faculty involved

Delft University of Technology has eight faculties. For all projects we have indicated which faculties are involved using the following icons:

3mE

Mechanical, Maritime and Materials Engineering

ABE

Architecture and the Built Environment

AE

Aerospace Engineering

AS

Applied Sciences

CEG

Civil Engineering and Geosciences

EEMCS

Electrical Engineering, Mathematics & Computer Science

IDE

Industrustrial Design Engineering

TPM

Technology, Policy and Management

Technology Readiness Levels

The University is full of interesting, innovative research within its own specific theme and stage of development. Finding a project that matches your interest can be complex without some guidance. We have listed the projects according to their TRL level.

12


13

Technology concept

Basic principes observed

Basic technology research

TRL 2

TRL 1

TRL 3

Research to prove feasibility

Experimental proof of concept

Knowledge Development

Technology demonstration

Validation in lab

TRL 4 Validation in relevant environment

TRL 5

TRL 6

Technology development and prototypes

Demonstrated in relevant environment

Technology Development

TRL 9 System proven in operational environment

Prepared in accordance with Annex G of Horizon 2020

Market launch and commercialisation

System complete and qualified

TRL 8

Business Development

Pilot plan and scale uP

System prototype

TRL 7

Technology Readiness Level (TRL)


THE ACCELERATOR TEAM: OUR ‘FORMULA’ FOR TODAY, WE FIND OURSELVES IN

? DECREASE

TAKE

MAKE

USE

DISPOSE

Energy and Material Consumption

… an environment where products and services consume high amounts of energy and end-users struggle to make their behaviour more sustainable. Our linear economy leads to depletion of natural resources and exhaustion of scarce materials.

DIGITISE Energy Systems

ENERGY GENERATION

TRANSMISSION

LOCAL DISTRIBUTION

END USER

… an energy system designed for centralised energy production, one-directional energy distribution, and human decision-making. It can’t facilitate large numbers of decentralised renewable energy production and storage facilities.

DECARBONISE Society

… a society that relies on fossil energy sources for producing electricity, fuelling transport, and feeding chemical industries. Today, there are no effective solutions to fully mitigate their CO2 emissions. 14

The Accelorator Team: Andrea Ramirez Ramirez, Axelle Vire, David Vermaas, Hadi Hajibeygi, Gerdien de Vries, Laure Itard, Olindo Isabella, Peter Palensky, Phil Vardon, Ruud Kortlever & Deborah Nas


ACCELERATING THE ENERGY TRANSITION WE ARE WORKING TOWARDS

… a sustainability-aware society where green products and services are available to everyone, powered by efficiency and circularity.

Technology Policy

Digital Twin

People

… a reliable, safe, cost-effective, fair energy system that balances supply and demand through intelligently controlling energy production, distribution, storage, and usage at all scales and all times.

H2

H2

H2

O2

H2O

H2

CO2

… a carbon-negative society where clean energy is abundant and industry uses fossil-free sources of carbon such as CO2, biomass, or waste as feedstock.

Infografic: Iris Jönsthövel

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1. Generation of renewable energy

17


Energy

Structural Engineering

Materials

CEG

TRL

Energy from Concrete dr. Branko Šavija Yading Xu

Summary

Concrete is seen as an unfavourable material with regards to high CO2 emissions due to the manufacturing process. The researcher is focused on using 3D printing in combination with concrete to make novel materials which could improve that image. He came up with a type of concrete that is very deformable. With 3D printing he created specially shaped holes inside of the concrete that makes the normally so solid concrete more flexible. This shape together with a special fiber added concrete mixture allows it to move when under pressure and without damage to the material. The holes are perfect for adding piezo-electric sensors which in turn can harvest any form of kinetic energy and transform it into electric energy. This type of concrete could be applied in public buildings where you have a lot of pedestrians that make it a bit deformable.

What’s next? The results on the energy capturing part are promising – the principle technology works. Currently the researcher is working on how to you optimize and how do you upscale. The researcher is also looking for industrial partners that are interested to collaborate. For instance on the electrical engineering part. Besides there are still some unknowns about the applicability of the technology in seawater conditions. For the concrete that will not be a problem but how will the metallic parts perform? Eventually the researcher is working towards doing pilot tests in a few years’ time.

Contribution to the Energy Transition

With regard to sustainability people think about replacing concrete with more green building materials but the researcher believes it is not possible on the short or medium term. So he thinks we should look for way to get things back form concrete. He thinks he can contribute to getting back more than we do now in terms of energy par example.

18


Energy

Water & Maritime

3ME

EEMCS

Making Solar Panels Float Offshore dr. -ing. Sebastian Schreier

TRL

Min Zhang MSc, Hugo Verhelst MSc, dr. ir. Henk den Besten, dr. ir. Ido Akkerman, dr. Matthias Möller, dr. Carey Walters

Summary

The potential of solar farms at sea is huge. The researchers work on designing and testing various types of solar structures that float. They look at lightweight modular structures that can move with the waves. This raises all sorts of questions about the hydrodynamic effects; on how do we prevent waves from washing over the floating structure but also on what happens to the waves while travelling underneath the structure. From the structural perspective, wrinkling and fatigue are but two of the topics that are investigated. And practically, how can the structure be installed and moored in the most effective way? The researchers are combining experiments in the towing tank on small scale models with numerical simulations to gather data for deeper insight into the physics and for further optimization of the design so it can be implemented at open sea.

What’s next? The next step is to build the lab tested prototypes to full scale. A change of scale can have a huge impact on how the floating solar panels behave; what works at lab scale can be disastrous a full scale due to how the materials react. Another next step is to look at the interaction of the panels with life at sea. How fast will barnacles and algae use the floating panels as a substrate. And can the panels be designed and constructed in such a way that part of the light falls through the panels for under water growth.

Contribution to the Energy Transition

With floating solar panels in between the wind turbines at sea we can harvest 3-5 more renewable energy at the same area than with the wind turbines alone. Solar panels require lots of space, which is scarce on land. With floating solar panels combined with offshore wind turbines, more renewable energy can be harvested and offshore electrical infrastructure can be used more efficiently.

19


Energy

Structural Engineering

Water & maritime

CEG

TRL

Gentile Driving of Piles prof. dr. Andrei Metrikine

dr. Apostolos Tsouvalas, dr. Federico Pisano, dr. Sergio S. Gómez, mr. Evangelos Kementzetzidis, mr. Athanasios Tsetas, mr. Timo Molenkamp

Summary

Currently we drive monopiles into the ocean floor for the foundation of wind turbines at sea. Usually long steel cylinders are driven down by knocking at the top. New technologies have been developed where these piles are driven in the ground by shaking them vertically. This still produces quite some noise and once in a while the pile gets stuck before reaching the desired penetration depth. A novel method for driving piles is developed inspired by how we open champagne bottles. This method still uses a shaker for making the pile vibrate. However, not only does it vibrates vertically, but also a torsional motion is excited at a much higher frequency. This new shaker has been demonstrated to drive the piles smoothly and quickly and reduces the underwater noise emitted during pile driving as torsional vibrations emit very little noise into water.

What’s next? As the next step the novel shaker is being upscaled for XXL monopiles. This is done by implementing new engineering solutions, which have never been used in pile driving in the past. In parallel, a sensor is being developed which will go onto the pile in order to automatically determine the amplitude and frequency for each of the two directions of motion for the shaker. Subsequently, research will be conducted to make this sensor contactless and dron-based.

Contribution to the Energy Transition

20

This method piles will increase the installation speed of piles as it is more efficient. Importantly the same method can be used for removing the piles without disturbing the soil too much. Finally, that this pile driving method is more environmentally friendly than the conventional methods as it emits much less noise into water. This removes the necessity to employ very costly noise mitigation measures as the environmental impact of this driving method is expected to be within the allowable limits without any additional mitigation.


Energy

Software technology & Intelligent systems

CEG

Underground Hydrogen Storage dr. Hadi Hajibeygi

TRL

Summary

Renewable energy can be converted and stored in the form of green hydrogen. One of its biggest benefits is that hydrogen can be stored in large scales (TWh), much beyond the scope of electricity-based batteries. This requires huge space, several billion cubic meters, as for its low volumetric energy content. The solution to this challenge is to utilize earth underground reservoirs. which offer giant capacities to store billions of cubic meters of hydrogen at high-pressures. Up till now little is known about how hydrogen behaves in the subsurface – the science is missing. In the newly established hydrogen research lab, the researcher is investigating not only how it behaves in the subsurface but also what type of subsurface would be the right reservoir to store it at a given quantity and scale. With a uniquely integrated multidisciplinary approach the researcher and his team are finding solutions to make this technology ready for field deployment within a few years.

What’s next? The next step for the underground hydrogen storage research is to investigate, at real-field conditions, how hydrogen will interact with the reservoir and cushion gas fluids. Specially mixing and reactivite physics under cyclic transport of hydrogen is to be investigated.

Contribution to the Energy Transition

Hydrogen is a very attractive renewable energy carrier. While we aim to scaleup renewable energy production, if we establish ways to store green hydrogen at large-scale (TWh) safe and pure in the giant underground reservoirs, we will certainly accelerate energy transition by several folds.

21


Energy

Aerospace

AE

TRL

3ME

Water & maritime

CEG

Floating Wind Energy dr. ir. Axelle Viré

prof. dr. Dominic von Terzi, prof. dr. ir. Jan-Willem van Wingerden, prof. dr. Andrei Metrikine, dr. ir. Delphine De Tavernier, dr. ir. Michiel Zaaijer Siemens Gamesa Renewable Energy, Offshore Renewable Energy Catapult, EireComposites, GDG, Ideol, MARIN, NREL, Politecnico di Milano, University College Cork, DTU Wind Energy, INSA CORIA

Summary

The idea of floating wind is that you put a wind turbine on a floating support structure so it can capture wind energy. The advantage is that you can install wind turbines almost everywhere in the ocean which opens up new markets for harvesting this resource. However, as the turbine is no longer fixed to the sea floor its behaviour is quite different due to the influence of wind and waves. With high fidelity modelling the lead researcher and her team are looking at all the conditions that need to be taken into account for building these floating turbines – the type of turbine and floater, and the environmental conditions. Through this way of modelling she can test the assumptions of the engineering model before a physical model is built to be put to the test.

What’s next? Since the research is mostly model-based the next step is to build experimental facilities where the models can be physically tested. Parts of the facilities you would need to test floating wind are already on campus but there is need for smart way of connecting these. For instance, in the wind tunnel you would need a hexapod that moves mimicking the floating behaviour of the turbines. Another next step is joining the floating wind research with research on producing hydrogen far offshore so you don’t have to transport the electricity over huge distances.

Contribution to the Energy Transition

There is a huge need for suitable locations to install wind turbines. Wind at sea is one of the preferred options for capturing wind energy compared to wind at land. The current wind farms at sea are fixed to the sea floor and hence installed in shallow seas. More space is available in deeper waters which can be captured by using floating wind turbines instead.

22


Energy

High-Tech

Materials

Chem., bio & pr.

AS

Electrolysis of Green Hydrogen prof. dr. ir. Ruud van Ommen

TRL

Summary

Hydrogen is created by putting electricity on a electrolysis cell filled with water. The water will be split into hydrogen and oxygen. Although this process is known for many years doing so on a large scale and in a sustainable way has many challenges. The first challenge is how to perform electrolysis with renewable energy. The supply of renewable energy fluctuates. For the longevity of the electrolyser you would want it to operate continuously. Research is being done on how this can be achieved. Seconly, for electrolysis you need critical materials for the electrodes which area scarce. Here the researcher is looking at how can we distribute this material as thinly as possible with nano layering technology so we can use it more efficiently and need less of the scares material per cell. The third challenge is to find smart ways to scale up the size of the electrolysers in 3 dimensions.

What’s next? For hydrogen the next step is to build installations on industrial scale. Another next step is to see if a renewable fuel can by produced directly from CO2 using electrolyse technology or by combining hydrogen directly with CO2 using catalysts.

Contribution to the Energy Transition

We need a conversion in order to store renewable energy. Batteries are very costly to store huge amounts of energy. So we are looking for methods to chemically store large amounts of energy of which Hydrogen is one of the possibilities.

23


Energy

Water & Maritime

CEG

TRL

Modelling for Capturing Wave Energy dr. George Lavidas prof. dr. Andrei Metrikine, dr. Saghy Saeidtehrani

Summary

Waves have a great energy potential as a renewable resource. The researcher is working on combining numerical wave modeling with mechanical engineering creating a system that is globally adaptable. On the one hand the research looks into how the waves change over the years with changes in the climate. Building models this gives information about the wave energy resource but also for coastal protection. On the other hand, studying the wave resource numerically allow us to know how to optimally design, how to optimally place a wave energy converter. The researcher can look into what is the optimum device you should be using, how to optimize wave energy converters in terms of operation and location. Another benefit is that with the models the researcher is looking at where you can place energy converters in array, not only making them more efficient but also as part of the coastal protection system.

What’s next? The researcher is looking into how the different renewable resources can interact so that there will be less variability in the electricity that will reach people’s homes. Subsequently he is working on developing a real time hybrid testing methodology for optimising wave energy converters.

Contribution to the Energy Transition

By adding wave energy to the renewable energy mix – besides solar & wind - you can get a better and more fluid production of energy. There is a delay between solar, wind and wave energy reducing the use for storing renewable electricity – which is very expensive. Besides wave energy has a great resource potential increasing the amount of renewable energy that can be generated.

24



2. A Future proof grid


Energy

Robotics

High-Tech

Aerospace

S.Tech & Int.S.

3ME

Integration of Data-drIven and model-based TRL enGIneering in fuTure industriAL Technology With value chaIn optimization prof. dr. ir. Tamas Keviczky

Tata Steel, Airborne International, ASM Pacific Technology, Philips, ASML, Canon, Demcon, VDL, TNO, Stamicarbon, Altran, Qing, Eindhoven University of Technology, University of Groningen, Leiden University

Summary

High-tech systems are increasingly complex and difficult to design, produce and maintain. There is a lack of synergy between model-based engineering and data-driven approaches, which hamper the development of reliable and agile digital twins. A digital twin is the description of a process or system that is enhanced with (live) data simulating the real world as accurately as possible. Researchers aim to develop methods to make accurate digital twins of such high-tech systems; with the development of a unified mathematical (mathware) and ICT (software) platform for integrating model-based engineering methods and data-driven approaches to significantly improve the current value chain. This asks for a more integrated approach in which the identification and control steps are closely intertwined and models are updated via data-driven methods. The challenge for this research is to establish a more engineering discipline instead of developing one-off solutions.

What’s next? For applied mathematics and computational sciences to develop the mathematical underpinnings and scalable algorithms that will take a digital twin to the next level. This means moving from doing the fundamental science on how to build and set up a digital twin to becoming an engineering tool that can be used for designing and controlling high-tech applications. The researchers aim to develop a platform that covers all key enabling technologies for the automated development of digital twins and their use for technology health management, as well as for control systems reconfiguration and optimization, and demonstrating this in a real-life setting.

Contribution to the Energy Transition

Digital twins can play an important role in various applications related to our renewable based energy system. It can act as an accurate, timely and reliable support tool for decision making of stakeholders at all engaged levels. Applications you can think of are: control room advice, education & training, reflective analysis, autonomous short- and long-term decision-making & support, asset management, field operation support, automatic controller reconfiguration, collaborative decision making, and predictive maintenance.

27


Energy

Software technology & Intelligent systems

EEMCS

TRL

EASY-RES - Enable Ancillary Services by Renewable Energy Sources

dr. Milos Cvetkovic, dr. Aleksandra Lekic, dr. ir. Aditya Shekhar, prof. dr. Peter Palensky Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, University of Seville, and more…

Summary

In the past we had large fossil fuel fed generators that produce a lot of energy on a stable, robust, controllable and predictable way. With the increased generation of renewable energy we are downsizing in terms of scale – there are many more units that feed into the network with increase variability and uncertainty. This causes power volatility, large frequency deviations and voltage regulation problems which are challenging to manage. The researcher aims to improve the technical characteristics of the renewables so they mimic the behaviour of a conventional generator – by developing ways in which they can aggregate the behaviour of many solar panels or wind turbines. With electrical power engineering, control theory, ICT, algorithms and other methodologies he is building controllers embedded with intelligence for the renewables. The biggest challenge is to develop controllers that can simultaneously do multiple things.

What’s next? The next step is to move from the technical development into the more regulation and market developments. These controllers do not exist yet. They need to build these controllers at low cost And it would be preferred for the controllers to have a dimming function so the spilling of energy can be reduced developing new services.

Contribution to the Energy Transition

With the development of these controllers the volatility of a renewably fed energy system can be more easily managed to ensure a steady supply of electricity to every socket in the network.

28


Energy

Software technology & Intelligent systems

EEMCS

MIGRATE - Massive InteGRATion of Power Electronic Devices

TRL

dr. Jose Luis Rueda Torres

Summary

The way our electrical grid operates is a continuous balancing act - what is generated must be balanced with what is needed at any instant. This is done by transmission system operators. Fluctuating renewable energy causes imbalances between consumption and production of electricity. Modern renewable generators are connected to the grid through a power electronic converter. In a conventional electric system, the consequence is that inertia from a renewable generator is not transferred to the grid. In systems with zero or low inertia, power failures in the grid cause fast and large dynamic phenomena. The longer it takes to respond to these instabilities, the more energy is required to restore the system to its stable state. In the absence of inertia conventional control and protection equipment cannot work properly anymore, and therefore the grid stability is at risk. The researcher is working on developing new control principles for our electrical grid on a system level.

What’s next? MIGRATE was mainly focused on onshore generation systems so a next step would be to look at the generation and control of offshore renewable systems. Another next step will be looking into new principles of control of the grid when you connect huge capacity electrolysers to the grid or what type of control is needed when different consumers and devices can provide support to stabilize the grid.

Contribution to the Energy Transition

Our current electrical grid is very inert due to the decoupling of renewable power plants. The researcher works on new fundamental operational and control principles for complex, unpredictable, and inherently instable future offshore-onshore energy systems dominated by renewable energy sources.

29


Energy

Sw. Tech. & Int. Syst.

High-Tech

EEMCS

TRL

URSES - Uncertainty Reduction in Smart Energy Systems dr. Ilya Tyuryukanov

dr. Matija Naglic, dr. ir. Marjan Popov

Summary

In the future, the increase in generation of energy from renewable sources will intensify stability problems and will increase the uncertainties in planning and operation of electric power systems. Unexpected disturbances and inadequate system monitoring can cause catastrophic failures such as blackouts. Existing monitoring and control schemes often cannot cope with these problems due to the lack of coordinated control when the system is affected by large disturbances. The researchers aim to create a wide-area intelligent system, that empowers the future power grids by providing real-time information, quickly assessing system vulnerability, and performing timely corrective control actions based on system-wide considerations. The researcher developed algorithms that can help in deciding when and where to split parts of the grid in order to maintain the grid stability, prevent blackouts, and minimize the impact on the power consumers.

What’s next? The innovative idea has been developed for monitoring and control of the stability of medium to large scale electric power grids up to the European scale. The next step could be to apply the found solution for protecting a realistic power grid. Furthermore, some enhancements in terms of modelling would be desirable to capture the full degree of complexity of large-scale power grids.

Contribution to the Energy Transition

With a new way for timely corrective control the researchers aim to prevent catastrophic blackouts, independent of any future network generation mix, unpredictable topology and load profile.

30


Energy

Sw. Tech. & Int. Syst.

EEMCS

IDE

Social Impact

3ME

LIFE: Local Inclusive Future Energy City Platform

TRL

dr. ir. Arjen van der Meer

prof. dr. Peter Palensky, prof. dr. Tamas Keviczky, dr. Abhigyan Singh

Summary

With the rise of more solar panels, electric vehicles or even more houses or energy intensive commercial buildings there is an increasing stress on our electricity network. Situations where supply and demand are unbalanced can be resolved by increasing the capacity of the network or can be met by exploring smart energy management solutions. Against the backdrop of further urbanisation in the Amsterdam ZO-region, designing and operating urban energy systems in an inclusive is a major challenge of the energy transition. The researchers aim to develop a scalable energy exchange platform to resolve both grid challenges and foster the participation of local residents into energy challenges. Through the platform they want to engage both large customers and residential energy users. The insight into how the exchange and other energy services will work will be simulated by setting up a digital twin.

What’s next? When the math core of the digital twin is active and people from the companies and neighborhoods can submit their data to it the next step is to start writing applications for it – open source – enabling a participatory urban energy system. This concept will be scaled up technically with heat network extensions and geographically targeting other areas such as Rotterdam Schiebroek.

Contribution to the Energy Transition

With the development of a smart energy exchange platform the researchers aim to contribute to battling energy poverty and increase awareness of what the energy transition entails for the local stakeholders. The participation process allows the planning and development of grid-friendly and community inclusive energy innovations.

31


Energy

Software technology & Intelligent systems

EEMCS

TRL

FlexBat - Integration of Battery Energy Storage Systems in Distribution Grids Marco Stecca MSc

dr. Thiago Batista Soeiro, dr. ir. Laura Ramirez Elizondo, prof. dr. ir. Pavol Bauer

Summary

Adding batteries to the grid might be a way to mitigate the impact of the expected fluctuating energy supply when we rely and solely use renewable resources. This is not easy to achieve. Conventional batteries are very expensive and rules and regulations are missing to determine who can add and own such a battery to the network as consumers can become suppliers too. This makes the business case unclear. Developing and adding functionalities to the usage of the battery can help sort out the business case. The researcher aims to develop techniques and guidelines for the sizing, location, and control of battery energy storage systems in distribution grids and for the design of the power electronics converter used to interface the storage system with the network. For this he is developing a special power convertor and developing algorithms for the integration of the batteries in the grid.

What’s next? For this innovative idea to work the next step would be to change policy so it would become easier for these batteries be deployed. These batteries open up new possible business models for storing and using the energy when needed. Another next step, technology wise could be to consider more applications for the deployment of batteries to the grid.

Contribution to the Energy Transition

Transforming our energy system to rely solely on renewable energy can destabilize our grid, especially in cases of congestion or peak usage of electricity. By adding batteries to the grid local buffering reservoirs where energy can be stored and retrieved can be created. These batteries give the grid more stability and make it more healthy.

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3. Energy in the build environment


Energy

Software technology & Intelligent systems

ABE

EEMCS

3ME

IDE

Brains 4 Buildings prof. dr. Laure Itard, prof. dr. ir. Tamas Keviczky, prof. dr. David Keyson, dr. Neil Yorke-Smith & Mirjam Harmelink MSc

TRL

Summary

Currently, the existing building management systems of office spaces follow fixed schedules that are ill-adapted to the actual, dynamic use of these buildings. The objective of Brains4Buildings project is to develop smart methods and algorithms to reduce energy consumption while allowing for maximised and customisable comfort. Even in the most modern utility buildings energy is wasted due to malfunctioning installations and unexpected user behaviour. This means that, without requiring physical changes to the building, a significant cost reduction can be obtained by making the building management systems smarter. By adding ‘Brains’ to a building, that is fed by data from smart meters, building management systems and the Internet of Things will be capable to make weighted decisions how to maximize energy efficiency and CO2-reduction, increase comfort, respond flexibly to user behaviour and local renewable energy supply and demand, and save on maintenance costs.

What’s next? The research is organised around open living labs, that will develop and test the first prototypes of new smart algorithms, methods and interfaces in a protected environment. One of the main challenges, is to develop scalable affordable solutions. Moreover, B4B needs to convince managers of the benefits and start investing and using smart system. Lastly, the end users need to be involved to understand how they want to use their offices, to determine the extent to which building management systems should be adapted while balancing sustainability requirements.

Contribution to the Energy Transition

By enabling a smarter use of existing offices and building management systems, energy consumption can be reduced by 20-30% without sacrificing comfort and usability.

35


Energy

Software technology & Intelligent systems

EEMCS

TRL

TPM

Go-e dr. ir. Arjen van der Meer prof. dr. Peter Palenksy, prof. dr. ir. Pavol Bauer, prof. dr. Zofia Lukszo, Caroline Fernandes Farias MSc, Jules Zweekhorst MSc

Summary

The increased electrification of the built environment creates challenges of congestion. This fluctuation in available electricity creates problems for the operation and eventually the stability of the grid. The researchers aim to investigate scalable electrical flexibility services for consumers, business, and distribution system operators in order to postpone or even prevent such low-impact works. This flexibility can be created by shifting the charging time for electric cars or the utilisation of heat pumps to moments when people use less energy or by storing the surplus of energy in batteries when the sun shines bright. Through the development of special algorithms the researchers develop a mechanism which can decide when energy flows which way. For the development of such mechanisms they also include the willingness of companies and consumers to be flexible in their energy flow.

What’s next? When it is possible to make the grid more flexible the next step is to develop applications that will automate the use and trade of electrical energy in a transparent and fair manner.

Contribution to the Energy Transition

The fast electrification of our environment and the connected energy demand in the built environment necessitates electrical grid expansions. Grid congestion management is a key operational tool to smoothen the planning of such expansions and optimise the allocation of scarcely available technicians. This requires intelligent, scalable, and socially acceptable flexibility solutions borne by the complete energy supply chain.

36


Energy

Software technology & Intelligent systems

EEMCS

Reconfigurable PV modules dr. Patrizio Manganiello, dr. Olindo Isabella

TRL

Summary

Current PV modules are composed of many in series connected solar cells. When part of the PV module is shaded, the shaded cells cannot generate the same current limiting the ability of the PV module to produce power. Parallel connection of the strings of solar cells could solve this issue. However, the drawback of connecting in parallel is that you will have higher losses. So, what if you could make the connections between the solar cells reconfigurable? Depending on the casted shade cast on the PV module, it will implement the most optimal connections between the cells. The researchers aim to do so by making the solar cells and modules smart by means of integrated electronics and novel algorithms. Through special electronics cells and modules can sense shade and take other measures which will help the module to make the optimal connections.

What’s next? The new module has the electronics in place to reconfigure the electrical connections between the strings and to decide on the best configuration using internal electrical measurements. The next step is to design ad hoc power converters for reconfigurable PV modules and develop new algorithms that can not only increase the maximum energy output but also make decisions that are more oriented to the diagnosis or prognosis of the state of health of the panel to improve the PV module and system safety and facilitate operation and maintenance.

Contribution to the Energy Transition

With reconfigurable PV modules more surfaces become suitable for installing PV panels, thus increasing the capacity for capturing solar energy. With this innovation we no longer have to omit partially shaded surfaces. Subsequently, this innovative idea will facilitate integration of PV in infrastructure and create new design opportunities for architects and building/city planners.

37


Energy

Software technology & Intelligent systems

EEMCS

TRL

FLEXInet - Intelligent flexibility through integrated hybrid storage technologies

prof. dr. ir. Pavol Bauer, dr. Laura Ramirez Elizondo, dr. Gautham Ram Chandra Mouli Dr Ten, TU/e. HET, LeydenJar Technologies, VITO, Summerheat, Recoy, DC Opportunities, The Green Village, Emmet Green

Summary

Most of the energy we consume at our homes, comes from elsewhere and is mostly used as electrical energy and for heating or cooling. Innovative in this project is cross energy coupling -electrical energy and heat with innovative way of electrical energy and heat storage. The energy neutral house can generate its own solar energy which can be stored in a battery, connected electrical vehicle and heat. The researchers aim to develop an integral system for the intelligent and integrated control and implementation of hybrid energy storage technologies in the built environment. They are working on making the collective heat supply and the general energy consumption more sustainable. This system of generating and storing energy will be managed through an intelligent management system that can switch between the various energy resources available at the house.

What’s next? To further the innovation hydrogen storage will be added, more ancillary services for the grid have to be developed with corresponding regulations and business case.

Contribution to the Energy Transition

Flexinet contributes to the transition as it demonstrates how existing houses can become energy neutral by having the cross coupling of energy usage, storing the needed power electronics underground and having different energy storing option including heat.

38


Energy

Social Impact

Sw. Tech. & Int. Syst.

EEMCS

Large scale use of solar panels in cities ir. Maarten Verkou, dr. Hesan Ziar, dr. Olindo Isabella

TRL

Mr. Paul Voskuilen (AMS)

Summary

Solar panels are a well-developed technology for capturing renewable energy. One of the biggest challenges for installing these panels is finding enough and the right space to do so, especially in highly urbanized environments. Besides the space or location challenge, there are also a lot of unanswered questions about the stability of the grid when so many panels are installed and the development of green roofs. The researchers aim at developing a model that takes all these challenges into account but that can still create insight in the potential for placing solar panels on roofs. Through 3D modelling, simulations, and calculations on the possible yield in a given geographical area, the researchers have developed a prototype that combines different layers of information through which it can create such insights needed to further accelerate the deployment of more solar panels in cities.

What’s next? The next step for this innovative idea is to offer a similar service to other cities and grid companies. For this purpose, the start-up company PV Works B.V. has been founded.

Contribution to the Energy Transition

The system that is being developed allows municipalities, grid companies or house owners to get insight in the potential for capturing solar energy in an urban environment.

39


Energy

Software Technology & Intelligent systems

EEMCS

TRL

The Photovoltatronics Age dr. Olindo Isabella, dr. Patrizio Manganiello

Summary

The usage of available renewable energy sources will be critical in the electricity-driven energy system of the future. Photovoltaic (PV) systems can pave every surface in the urban providing useful green electricity for the sustainable electrification of society. For this the researchers are combining expertise in material science; engineering hybrid tandem devices; PV powered multi-functional building elements and xiPV systems. Shade-resilient, high-performance modules integrated with storage of energy and communication capabilities will constitute PV-based intelligent energy agents. This new PV-based intelligent energy agents will also integrate sensing capabilities to identify the operation and environmental conditions. These PV-based intelligent energy agents will cover the whole conversion chain from photons to electrons to bits, marking the advent of photovoltatronics age.

What’s next? The next step is to start incorporating as much PV systems in building and shaping our environment as possible.

Contribution to the Energy Transition

The development of SMART photovoltatronics will enable society to turn as many surfaces as possible in energy capturing sites – generating high energy yields.

40



4. Energy & sustainable industry


Energy

High-Tech

Materials

Chem., bio- & pr.tech

3ME

Direct Air Capture prof. dr. ir. Earl Goetheer

TRL

prof. dr. ir. Wiebren de Jong

Summary

Society needs to recarbonize. The researcher is developing new ways to be able to capture & convert CO2 out of the air we breathe. This will create circular carbon. The technology is based on by flowing air containing CO2 through a special washer. The washing liquid will capture the CO2. The CO2 loaded washing liquid is subsequently used as an electrolyte in an electrochemical CO2 conversion process into valuable chemicals. These chemicals could be commodity chemicals such as ethylene and carbon monoxide. The researcher is developing equipment that can execute both steps - capturing & converting – at the same time. Next to the development of this special equipment another challenge is to design it in such a way that the electrolyte remains stable and the machinery is durable and sustainable.

What’s next? The first system under development start from capturing and conversion of CO2 derived from flue gases. But initial research is going on the extrapolate towards air capture. The capture media is made more selective, due to the much lower concentration of CO2 in air (400 parts per million (ppm); 0,04%) compared with flue gases (4 to 20%). By first focusing on flue gas application creates a clear pathway forwards for implementation on the midterm, while air capture implementation is foreseen for the long term.

Contribution to the Energy Transition

The energy transition is linked to many other transitions. One of the important aspects has to do with the question how we can create energy as cheaply as possible – not only economy wise but also taking people and planet into account. This can be achieved if we can capture energy where is its widely available. The electrochemical based conversion process depends strongly on the availability of cost effective green energy. This technology will help in transforming renewable energy (for instance in sun rich countries) into useful high value products that can transported to be used elsewhere.

43


Energy

Chemistry, bio- & process technology

3ME

TRL

Electrocatalysis for Energy Storage & Conversion dr. Ruud Kortlever

Summary

The researcher focusses on electrocatalysts that are involved in electrochemical conversions that are relevant for renewable fuel production and the electrification of the chemical industry. Current catalysts exhibit high over potentials; meaning you have to invest more energy for the reaction to take place than theoretically needed. He tries to get a better understanding of how electrocatalyst work in order to develop novel catalysts He aims to develop novel stable, selective and cheap catalysts by manipulating the various atoms in catalytic particles. Besides designing catalysts he also aims to develop sequential catalytic processes to produce chemicals for which we currently don’t have an electrochemical process. The major advantage of turning thermochemical conversions into electrochemical ones is that you would only need electricity to run the process at an ambient pressure and temperature, leading to possibly smaller, more energy efficient and safer factories.

What’s next? The next step for this research is to find the optimal process conditions for the developed catalysts and to subsequently integrate them into an (industrial) reactor for it. For a further scale-up of these reactors the research would benefit from more contacts with industry so they can be applied in a relevant environment.

Contribution to the Energy Transition

With the help of mechanistical insights, modelling and theory predictions the researcher contributes to solving contemporary energy problems by developing new electrocatalytic systems and devices.

44


Energy

3ME

TPM

RELEASE- Reversible Large Scale Energy Storage

TRL

dr. Ruud Kortlever, prof. dr. ir. Andrea Ramirez Ramirez, prof. dr. ir. Wiebren de Jong

Summary

The energy transition is not only a technological challenge. It is also a societal challenges as the way we produce, transport, store and use energy has to transform. The researchers aim to take the whole value chain into account spurring innovation at different levels at the same time enhancing performance whilst reducing costs of large-scale energy storage systems, based on electrochemical conversion of electricity into molecules for short and long term energy storage. The project focusses on hydrogen production via water electrolysis, hydrocarbon production from CO2 electrolysis and redox flow batteries. With these technologies the project emphasizes that the energy transition is interwoven with the resource transition. It focuses on development of electrodes and membranes, reactor designs, process control and intermittency to integration with industrial processes, and social innovations such as feasible business models and fair governance arrangements.

What’s next? Everybody feels the urgency of the energy transition. However, since a shift of an entire system is required nobody knows exactly how to do this. RELEASE takes a complete value chain into account, developing technologies, business models and societal implementation is parallel. The goal is to accelerate innovation.

Contribution to the Energy Transition

This research contributes to the energy transition as it questions how we can make the transformation that is needed. By taking the whole value chain into account it tries to accelerate technical and social innovation at the same time.

45


Energy

Chemistry, bio- & process technology

AS

TRL

Understanding Electrochemical Flow Cells dr. ir. David Vermaas Rose Sharifian MSc, Lorenz Baumgartner MSc, Jorrit Bleeker MSc, Nathalie Ligthart MSc, Andrey Goryachev

Summary

With a growing demand for green energy carriers it becomes more important to develop electrochemical systems that convert renewable electricity into useful products and fuels. For that, we need to understand the processes that occur in electrochemical flow cells in order increase the speed of the energy conversions that take place in such cells. The researcher is looking how liquid and gas bubbles can be transported quickly through flow cells such as electrolysers, flow batteries and methods for capturing and converting CO2. He develops new electrolyzers that rely on suspensions, and finding clever ways how the produced energy carriers can be (re)moved or separated. The challenge is to find such clever ways that are not only feasible but also interesting to the market.

What’s next? With this new knowledge on the production rate in electrochemical flow cells can be enhanced, the next step is to see if these processes can be scaled to practical implementation of the innovation. The research expects to further advance the conversion steps making that process more efficient.

Contribution to the Energy Transition

This research will enhance our understanding of the processes in electrochemical flow cells such as electrolysers, for capturing and converting CO2,and storing energy in flow batteries. With this new knowledge such processes can be further optimized and be made more efficient.

46


Energy

Structural Engineering

Kop onderzoeker

Materials

TRL

i.s.m.

Summary text

What’s next? text

Contribution to the Energy Transition text

47


5. Energy & Transport


Energy

Aerospace

AE

IDE

Flying V – an energy efficient aircraft design Dr. ir. Roelof Vos

TRL

prof. dr. ir Peter Vink, prof. dr. ir. Leo Veldhuis, dr. ir. René Alderliesten, dr. Feijia Yin, dr. ing. Saullo Castro, dr. ir. Coen de Visser, dr. ir. Erik-Jan van Kampen, Daniel Atherstone, ir. Olaf Stroosma, ir. Nando van Arnhem, ir. Malcom Brown, ir. Alberto Ruiz García, dr. Xuerui Wang, ir. Pieter-Jan Proesmans, ing. Eddy J. van den Bos, prof. dr. ir. Mirjam Snellen, Carmine Varriale MSc

Summary

Energy neutral flying is a huge challenge. There are many aspects of the aircraft that can be altered or changed in order to make flying more energy. The idea of the project was to design an aircraft that is as energy efficient as possible while being able to fulfill the same function as our conventional aircrafts. This has resulted in the flying V, a highly energy-efficient aircraft design for long distance flights. A completely new type of aircraft with a completely different plane configuration; this aircraft no longer has a tail, the passenger cabin is located in the wing, the aircraft is more aerodynamic and lower structural weight. However, it can still fulfill the same functions of carrying people and freight. A scale model prototype has been built to demonstrate the flying abilities and measure the flight dynamics and control of the aircraft.

What’s next? The next step is to build an ecosystem Flying V. An ecosystem in which as many stakeholders as possible are engaged to further mature the design of the Flying V. With more industrial support we hope to be able to make some steps towards building a full-scale prototype

Contribution to the Energy Transition

With this radically different aircraft configuration an efficiency of 20% compared with flying a conventional plane can be achieved without compromising in functionality. This is achieved by its improved aerodynamic shape and reduced weight.

49


Energy

Software technology & Intelligent Systems

EEMCS

TRL

Smart Trolley Grid/Trolley 2.0 ir. Ibrahim Diab dr. ir. Gautham Ram Chandra Mouli and prof. dr. ir. Pavol Bauer

Summary

The infrastructure of trolleybus grids is already part of our urban environment. The researcher is looking at how this grid can become an active part of the city’s electricity network. The into sections divided trolley grid has no single point of origin that electrifies this network. Each section is only being used when a trolleybus passes under it, and is overdesigned to handle the improbable worst-traffic case scenarios. Consequently, the trolley grid is both underutilized and oversized. The researcher is working on creating a smart and more sustainable trolleybus network for the future Through modelling, simulations, and a cluster of measured trolleybus and trolley grid data, the researcher is exploring various functionalities that could be added or linked to this transportation network such as storage, charging of electric vehicles and integrating solar panels and wind turbines.

What’s next? It would be interesting to look at how In-Motion-Charging buses can fit into this grid as well. IMC buses are buses with a battery on-board that can be charged while the bus is moving, and then operate on batterymode when the bus leaves from under the catenary. They offer the advantages of both trolleybuses and electric buses. Also interesting would be to see if non smart-grid, city loads can be integrated into the trolleybus grid, such as street lighting. In larger cities, research can also be done on the combination of multiple transportation grids such as trams, buses, and metro’s.

Contribution to the Energy Transition

Electric transportation networks, solar energy, and electric vehicle chargers are all important elements of the sustainable electrical grid of the future. However, these systems are not always technically and/or financially feasible in every urban environment. Combining these systems together, counter-intuitively, actually makes them more feasible and less costly, and offers cities a more sustainable grid with multiple functionalities.

50


Energy

Aerospace

AE

Advanced Propulsion & Power Unit Dr. A. Arvind Gangoli Rao

TRL

prof. dr. ir. Leo Veldhuis, dr. Ferry Schrijer, prof. dr. -ing. Georg Eitelberg, dr. Ivan Langella, dr. ir. Maurice Hoogreef, dr. ir. Roelof Vos, dr.ir. Tomas Sinnige, dr. Feijia Yin, dr. Anexander Heidebrech, ir. Kaushal Dave, Martijn van Sluijs MSc, ir. Sarah Link

Summary

Current aircraft use kerosene for propulsion, which is stored in the wings. When you would want to fly on hydrogen, storage in liquid form within the wings is impossible. In order to store hydrogen onboard, you would need to find space in the fuselage of the aircraft, thereby changing the shape, drag and other specifics of the aircraft. The researchers try to design an aircraft that can carry and fly on both, hydrogen and kerosene as not every airport would have hydrogen available at the same time. In the new design, the aircraft has a fuselage tail mounted propeller with a third engine that can burn the different types of fuels in its dual-fuel combustion chamber. This new type of engine and propeller configuration enhances the efficiency of the aircraft and also allows for steeper take offs and descends.

What’s next? The current configuration can store approximately 15 to 20% of the total energy in form of hydrogen, thereby reducing the aircraft emissions by around 25%. So for the next configuration, the researchers hope to bring increase the hydrogen percentage gradually to around 50 %, using the multi fuel combustor technology.

Contribution to the Energy Transition

Whereas small aircraft can be electrified, this solution is not scalable. So for bigger aircraftas used in civil aviation, an alternative has to be found. With the APPU project – introducing the possibility to fly on an energy mix - allows for a scalable, feasible, producible and economical aircraft that will use hydrogen in a synergistic way along with other innovative technologies and fuels. This will make the aircraft more efficient and will cut emissions significantly.

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Energy

Water & Maritime

3ME

TRL

Use of Fuel Cells in the Maritime Sector Dr. ir. Lindert van Biert dr. ir. Henk Polinder, ir. Klaas Visser, ir. Berend van Veldhuizen

Summary

Electrifying propulsion of huge ships can be done by using fuel cells on board. The researcher focusses on tailoring the system surrounding the fuel cell to the requirements of the maritime sector. The cell should be able to produce the needed power to move or maneuver a ship and be flexible enough to deal with variations in the power level. In this sector fuel cells are expected to run continuously, 24/7 for weeks on end. This raises questions on the wear or fatigue of such a cell. Fuel conversion to hydrogen and electrochemical oxidation of hydrogen take place simultaneously in the cell but how these process take place in in the cell, interact and affect the performance of fuel cells. The biggest challenge is to make these fuel cells smaller, cheaper, easier to operate and control, and more reliable and efficient.

What’s next? The next step is to develop and validate models of individual components and integrate them to develop and test new system integration configurations and improved control algorithms.

Contribution to the Energy Transition

Fuel cells are the next step for sectors in which batteries are insufficient or the direct use of renewable energy is unavailable Shipping, especially the powering of large ships is such a sector. This research contributes to the transition that it makes fuel cells more equipped for the heavy duty that is needed to power a ship. And at the same time they become more flexible to operate increasing their efficiency.

52


Energy

Water & Maritime

3ME

Ammonia Drive for Ships Dr.ir. Peter de Vos

TRL

ir. Klaas Visser, dr. ir. Lindert van Biert & prof. dr. ir. Rudy Negenborn

Summary

Sustainably produced ammonia is an interesting alternative to replace fossil fuel to power a ship. However, using ammonia raises a lot of questions related to the ship’s design and operation. The researcher is looking at what the impact of using ammonia will be on the ship. Various aspects are considered. For the burning of ammonia a second fuel is needed. The researcher is looking into how this second fuel can be freed by coupling the engine with an ammonia fuel cell. The beauty of this coupling is that hydrogen is released from the ammonia in the fuel cell. Moreover the coupling can also be used for dealing with quick variation in power that is needed for maneuvering; an option that is not allowed by fuel cell only power options.

What’s next? Once we have demonstrated that using ammonia for fueling ships is feasible the next step is to implement this system. For that we need ship designers and engineers that will build these ships and ship owners who are willing to use these ships.

Contribution to the Energy Transition

Ships also need to find alternatives for their use of fossil fuels. The energy demand to move a ship is enormous when sailing intercontinentally. This constant high energy demand excludes batteries as an option, resulting in the exploration of energy storage in chemicals that can easily be transported. Hydrogen, Methanol and Ammonia are possible options with their specific pro’s and con’s; ammonia seems to be the best option for large ocean-going vessels. Using these alternative fuels will also require different engines and power plant designs; AmmoniaDrive is one of the most promising candidates.

53


Energy

Water & Maritime

3ME

TRL

EEMCS

MAGPIE -sMArt Green Ports as Integrated Efficient multimodal hubs dr. ir. Jeroen Pruyn & dr. ir. Dingena Schott

dr. Jovana Jovanova, dr. Yusong Pang, Prof. dr. ir. Rudy Negenborn, Pedro Vergara Barros, Simon Tindemans

Summary

The transport sector is also expected to make a transition becoming more green in the way it functions and operates. On the energy part the researchers are exploring the techno-economic competition between new fuels over time and the socio-technical impact of policy on the efficient transition to new fuels for green shipping including the conversion to different power trains and smart grids to support this. The project also looks at if most ships will be electrified what type of actions are then needed for balancing the electrical grid. Speeding up the implementation of sustainable energy and enhancing its roll-out on a larger scale is dependent on the development of new digital tools, new market mechanisms and non-technological frameworks. Another important aspect of the project is demonstrating autonomous barges and develop concepts for the autonomous loading and unloading of electrically powered autonomous barges.

What’s next? The MAGPIE project aims to have zero emission transport in the port in 2050 It develops a master plan for ports to steer this implementation, that will not only be usable by the Port of Rotterdam, but in general by all Ports in Europa and to a large extend also outside of Europe and covers all transport sectors of rail, inland shipping, trucking and ocean shipping and all aspects including production, supply, bunkering and transshipment of cargo.

Contribution to the Energy Transition

The project will create demonstration and pilot projects in the living laboratory environment of the Port of Rotterdam. It aims to advance the technological, operational, digital and organisational aspects of energy use in ports.

54


Energy

Structural Engineering

Kop onderzoeker

Materials

TRL

i.s.m.

Summary text

What’s next? text

Contribution to the Energy Transition text

55


6. Future Energy Labs


Energy

S.Tech & Int.S.

3ME

ABE

AE

Social impact

AS

CEG

EEMCS

IDE

High-Tech

TPM

24/7 energy lab: A local, CO2-neutral energy system for the built environment

TRL

prof. dr. Miro Zeman, prof. dr. ir. Zofia Lukszo, dr. Phil Vardon, dr. ir. Martin ten Pierik

Summary

The 24/7 energy lab is located at The Green Village at TU Delft campus. At this site all components that are needed to solely use renewable energy for everything that you would do at home is integrated into one experimental energy system. This house has no cables or pipes that connects it to the external grid. It will demonstrate that with the developed technologies it can function totally autonomous. With PV panels renewable solar energy is converted into electricity which can be used either directly or can be stored in batteries and/or as hydrogen. Subsequently the hydrogen can be used in a fuel cell to generate electricity when there is not enough sun or wind available. This basic set up of the autonomous energy system can be extended with other technologies and devices over time.

What’s next? With the realization of the 24/7 energy lab the next step is to learn from what happens when different types of technologies and devices are integrated or connected to the site. Users, construction companies, legislators, municipalities, grid companies and researchers will work together to learn and create new knowledge about how this sustainable energy system can be realized and will function. This learning process will raise new research questions about how to design and expand the system and how it works in a real-life working setting. This will also include legal, socio-economic and governance aspects.

Contribution to the Energy Transition

The realization of this site contributes to the energy transition by demonstrating the integration of the various renewable energy conversion and storage components on residential level. By making households and/or residential areas energy autonomous, fully relying on renewable energy sources, the pressure to expand or replace the underground local grid with thicker cables will be reduced.

57


Energy

Software technology & Intelligent Systems

EEMCS

TRL

Electrical Sustainable Power Lab prof. dr. ir. Peter Palensky, prof. dr. Miro Zeman, prof. dr. ir. Pavol Bauer, dr. ir. Olindo Isabella

Summary

Developing a robust grid that is fed with fluctuating renewable resources is a major challenge. Additionally, making everything that can be attached to the grid smart enhances the complexity of the integration. It is hard to say what will happen when we electrify our entire society. The ESP lab is a unique facility at the TU Delft campus where all sorts of electrical energy technologies can be researched, developed and demonstrated. There is even a super computer and a control room that can be used for running grid simulations. At the lab different applications or real devices can be added to the (simulated) grid in order to investigate their impact or to train human operators on future scenarios. These simulations help to make the grid more resilient, efficient, flexible, safe, and reliable.

What’s next? With so many different electrical engineering disciplines gathered in one location the next step is to work on integrating these new technologies, principles, methods, and components to the electricity grid – to make it future proof.

Contribution to the Energy Transition

58

The Energy transition is full of uncertainty – nobody can foresee which technology or development will make the biggest impact. Planning, designing, and operating complex systems requires robust decision making. The ESP lab is a unique facility – a single location where different types and even combinations of innovations can be researched, experimented and tested. Innovations that need to hit the market quickly to accelerate the change of our grid and the way how we produce, distribute and use electrical energy.


Energy

Sw. Tech. & Int. Syst.

AE

3ME

CEG

Water & Maritime

AS

Floating Renewables Lab dr. ir. Axelle Viré, prof. dr. ir. Jan-Willem van Wingerden, prof. dr. ir. Andrei Metrikine, dr. -ing. Sebastian Schreier, dr. Amin Askarinejad, dr. Carey Walters, Friso Lippmann

TRL

Summary

The potential for capturing renewable energy at sea is huge. Floating energy devices – wind turbines, solar panels, wave energy convertors – are key enablers to harness renewable energy in deep sea. However, they combine many different research disciplines that need to be addressed in a coupled way to efficiently design and engineer the next-generation of floating offshore renewable energy systems. The Floating Renewables Lab brings together unique facilities and researchers in different fields to achieve this goal. A number of facilities will be connected virtually using a so-called ‘hardware-in-the-loop’ set-up. This bridges physical experiments with numerical modelling. Complex aerodynamics, floater stability, sea-keeping system, and even storage and transportation of energy are interesting challenges that can be addressed at the Floating Renewables Lab. Through the combination of these facilities and expertise, the engaged Principle Investigators aim to accelerate floating renewable innovations, research and education.

What’s next? The first step is to virtually connect and upgrade all the facilities that play a role in developing floating renewable energy at TU Delft. The next steps are to build new facilities – including an extension to full scale measurements at sea.

Contribution to the Energy Transition

Offshore renewable energy harnessed by wind turbines, solar panels, and wave capturing devices offer great potential. However, eighty percent of our oceans are too deep to economically mount these devices on the seabed. A solution is to place them on floating support structures. The beauty of making all these devices float is that they can also be located much further out the coast. Additionally, they can also be used to convert renewable energy into an alternative energy carrier – such as H2. Floating offshore renewables will thus be a key enabler to make Europe climate neutral by 2050.

59


Energy

CEG

Campus Geothermal Well

TRL

dr. Phil Vardon, prof. dr. David Bruhn dr. Susanne Laumann, dr. Lora Armstrong, prof. dr. ir. Kees Wapenaar, dr. ir. Guy Drijkoningen, dr. Auke Barnhoorn, dr. Hemmo Abels, prof. dr. ir. Evert Slob, dr. Denis Voskov, prof. dr. ir. Jan Dirk Jansen, dr. Maren Brehme, dr. Tobias Schmiedel, dr. Kees Weemstra, dr. ir. Deyan Draganov, dr. ir. Martin Bloemendal TU Delft Campus Real Estate, Hydreco Geomec, EBN and Shell Geothermal.

Summary

Geothermal energy is a fairly well developed technology but there are still many unknowns. The construction of a deep geothermal well serves to do further research into geothermal energy and to supply part of the buildings with low carbon heat. This deep geothermal project will have two wells of 2 to 2.5 km deep. The walls of the wells will be lined with different materials transforming them essentially into a plumbing system to transport warm water upwards and cool water downwards. Each of the wells will be fitted with a lot of sensors over the complete length of the wells and in monitoring stations at the surface. Through the sensors the researchers can gather data on how the wells interact with the environment. This project is unique as it will be constructed in an urban environment. This will generate valuable knowledge about how future geothermal projects can be done in other urban locations.

What’s next? The current plan is to start installing the wells in 2022. There are a lot of remaining research questions that the researchers want to address with this project on site and several PhD projects are underway. A subsequent step is to look into high temperature heat storage so that heat that is brought to the surface when it is not needed, i.e. during the summer, can be stored to be used at an another moment in time (e.g., in winter).

Contribution to the Energy Transition

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Part of the Dutch mission for the energy transition is to create more geothermal wells. To better understand such systems will allow more efficient and more reliable use of the geothermal resource, without unwanted impacts. Geothermal energy has the potential to contribute several tens of percent of the heat demand, and will need to be constructed and operated in urban environments to effectively deliver heat to where it is demanded.


Energy

Chemistry, bio- & process technology

AS

EEMCS

3ME

TPM

e-Refinery Centre

AE

TRL

prof. dr. Bernard Dam, ir. John Nijenhuis, dr. A. Gangoli Rao, prof. dr. H. Geerlings, dr. W.G. Haije, prof. dr. W de Jong, dr. L. Jourdin, dr. R. Kortlever, prof. dr. A. Ramirez Ramirez, dr. D.A. Vermaas, prof. dr. M. Zeman, dr. M. Alimoradi Jazi

Summary

The e-Refinery Institute combines researchers from across the university to work on developing processes and devices to produce fuels and base chemicals from water, air and electricity without the use of fossil resources. For these processes and devices to replace the current operations, they have to be demonstrated at a relevant scale. The e-Refinery Centre is going to be a place where researchers investigate the scaling of various new processes under relevant scale and conditions - for instance for the renewable production of ethylene; one of the main components for the production of plastics.

What’s next? Through the realization of a e-Refinery Centre the researchers can learn to, experiment and gather new knowledge about how e-refinery installations, set-ups and processes are to be scaled. This centre will facilitate many innovative ideas to bridge the so called valley of death and reaching the demonstration phase instead of doing only simulations that show that it can work on a bigger scale.

Contribution to the Energy Transition

The e-Refinery Centre will contribute to the transition as it is expected to accelerate innovation of current industrial processes. Process that currently require fossil resources will be replaced by e-refinery processed and tools making our industry more sustainable.

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Energy

Chemistry, bio- & process technology

3ME

TRL

Power & Heat Generation Lab prof. dr. ir. Bendiks Jan Boersma

Summary

At the Heat & Power lab the research is focused on enhancing efficiency of processes of how energy in the form of chemical bonds can be converted into electricity or power capturing and putting as much of the released heat to good use. This power can be generated in all sorts of ways; for instance through using fuel cells for conversion hydrogen or ammonia. All these reactions have in common that part of the energy is turned into heat instead of 100% electricity. At the lab they design components that can capture this heat and use that energy too instead of letting it go to waste. Another venture for the lab is that they look into how fuel cells can burn cleanly. Combustion processes use air instead of pure oxygen you also emit nitrogen oxides and that needs to be removed afterwards. They experiment by building components or systems that can perform or enhance the reaction under scrutiny.

What’s next? The next step is for industry to include, embed and integrate the developed system components to increase the efficiency of their processes. Another next step is to develop components that are allow direct air capture – building components that can directly capture CO2 and convert it into power.

Contribution to the Energy Transition

The components that are being developed at the Heat & Power lab not only enhance the effectiveness of the process for which they are being developed. They also increase the efficiency of the process with the given context in mind.

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Energy

Social Impact

Sw. Tech. & Int. Syst.

TPM

TPM Energy Transition Lab dr. Gerdien de Vries & dr. Emile Chappin

TRL

Summary

The TPM Energy transition lab is more an institute which aims to capture and connect all the different types of social science expertise that is being furthered and developed within the TPM faculty focused on the energy transition. At this lab the researchers are trying to quantify and model different kinds of human aspects related to the energy transition. They are building models predicting how people are going to behave in order to create insight in what this means for society. Together they are developing new approaches, methods and tools for fostering an effective fair and legitimate energy transition. Their biggest challenge is to model human behaviour in such a way that it does not violate the richness of this behaviour and to be able to create insight into what is fair for the energy transition.

What’s next? Besides creating more insights for the energy transition a next step for the Lab is to contribute to building a (systems)theory that will capture more of the psychological side of how a system works or can be changed. With the creation of the valuable insights for the transition the researchers also hope to stay at the forefront of their research field attracting more excellent researchers and stimulating or facilitating interdisciplinary research and education.

Contribution to the Energy Transition

Our energy system cannot be transformed by simply changing and replacing current ways of doing things for new technologies. Reality is much more complex as also policies, laws and regulations, people’s behaviour and opinions – depending on which stakeholder they represent - play a role. The TPM energy transition lab brings together various types of social science expertise to create insights into the complexity of the transitions and decisions that need to be made.

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7. Start-ups in the TU Delft ecosystem

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Energy

TRL

Chemistry, bio- & process technology

Battolyser Systems Mattijs Slee

TU Delft, Proton Ventures, Koolen Industries

Summary

Currently, the intermittency of renewable energy generation makes it difficult to meet the society’s energy consumption needs. Batteries and electrolysers only offer partial solutions. Integrating the two gives a special flexibility: it creates an electrolyser that can switch as fast as a battery, and a battery that cannot be full. The integrated Battolyser System provides a balancing power in the electricity market as well as hydrogen for fuel and feedstock. It stores electricity from the grid at low prices when there is a surplus, turning it into hydrogen when the battery is already full, and sells electricity when there is a shortage, at a higher price. This creates a brilliant and unique business model for Battolyser System’s clients.

What’s next? The Battolyser System is currently experimenting with demonstrators, and is working on increasing its scale to provide Megawatt capacities. To do so, they currently grow their team for which they see much interest even in the growingly competitive market.

Contribution to the Energy Transition

A Battolyser System balances the electricity grid by delivering energy at a high price to the grid when there is a shortage; and by cheaply buying energy from the grid for battery capacity charging and hydrogen production when there is a surplus.

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Energy

Chemistry, bio- & process technology

DAB – Delft Advance Biorenewables Eric van der Meer

TRL

Summary

Currently we can make almost anything from renewable feedstock through fermentation processes. However, due to the inefficiency of the traditional fermentation process, these solutions are not easily scalable nor cost-effective enough to compete with fossil derived products. Microbes often die of the (by)products they produce during the fermentation process – reducing the cost effectiveness. DAB is making this fermentation process several times as efficient as well as 20-50% cheaper. This is achieved by adding a solvent and using an in situ product removal technique. The novelty of this solution is the combination of different existing concepts, applied in an innovative way to the fermentation process. By making the fermentation significantly more (cost-)efficient, DAB creates a business case for hundreds of compounds that can currently not compete with their fossil counterparts.

What’s next? DAB is currently commissioning a demo plant at Biobase Europe Pilot Plant in Ghent. This fully industrial plant enables DAB to move straight to TRL 8. To proceed to full commercialisation, there needs to be a full size plant, as well as a fine-tuned business model and scaled organisation.

Contribution to the Energy Transition

To compete with fossil-based molecules, the production of bio-renewable molecules needs to be scalable and affordable. For hundreds of molecules, DAB’s increase in efficiency and reduction in costs will enable companies to provide a viable and sustainable alternative to fossil-based production.

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Energy

TRL

H2Fuel Frank Dobbelaar

Gerard Lugtigheid

Summary

Hydrogen is widely accepted as a promising technology to replace fossil fuels. However, it is challenging to store hydrogen, requiring high pressure, cold temperatures or e.g. ammoniac. H2Fuel provides a way to produce, store and release hydrogen in powder form under atmospheric conditions. Hydrogen is produced in an exothermal reaction by adding ultra-pure water to sodium borohydride (NaBH4), and does not require additional energy. Once the hydrogen has been issued, the residual substances can be returned to the powder state with hydrogen stored in them: this makes H2Fuel the world’s first circular fuel. By storing hydrogen in a powder, it does not need to be connected to the electricity grid. It can therefore replace generators in rural areas, or provide energy on location.

What’s next? H2Fuel is looking to license its patented technology, or sell it to the right third party.

Contribution to the Energy Transition

Enables the wider use of hydrogen by making it easy to produce, store and release hydrogen under atmospheric conditions and on off-grid locations.

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Energy

Robotics

Sw. Tech. & Int. Syst.

ROCSYS Crijn Bouman

TRL

Joost van der Weijde, Kanter van Deurzen

Summary

Professional fleet owners are experimenting with pilots to electrify their fleets. Ensuring that vehicles are always charged sufficiently to run the business’ operations is the major bottleneck. Connecting the vehicle to the charger is only a small act, but it comes with a huge responsibility. If the vehicles fail to charge, the entire schedule of the next day needs to be reworked. Moreover, when transitioning to autonomous vehicles, the necessity of someone to plug in the charger, makes the entire process once more reliant on humans. Therefore, Rocsys (Robotic Charging Systems) came up with an autonomous charging system that relies on three technology pillars: soft robotics, computer vision and cloud connectivity. The soft robotics ensures robustness and safety when vehicles move e.g. while cargo is loaded, or when employees accidently bump into the robot. Through cloud connectivity, Rocsys integrates with planning software, which ensures all vehicles are charged sufficiently according to their schedule.

What’s next? Rocsys is mainly focusing on improving the algorithms that the computer vision uses to detect the socket, so it can deal with all kinds of weather conditions. This outdoor testing is necessary to build credibility about the reliability of the automatic charging system. Moreover, Rocsys is exploring solutions to allow multiple vehicles to make use of one charger, by automatically removing the charged vehicle. Lastly, it is preparing for broader use case scenarios, for example for autonomous driving in public spaces – where there is a higher unpredictability, lack of uniformity in vehicles and more safety concerns.

Contribution to the Energy Transition

Rocsys enables fleet owners to adopt electric transport on a large scale, with the reliability and robustness that is required for a professional fleet.

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Energy

TRL

Supersola Joren de Goede

Summary

Buying solar panels is a big decision for people due to the financial investment, complexity of the jargon and distrust of installers. To address these challenges SuperSola developed a plug & play solar panel. Sockets are capable of power input as well as output so this solar panel has a cable which you just plug into a regular socket feeding power to the grid. Moreover, the solar panel does not need to be installed by a professional. It is simply placed on a flat surface. Because they are not fixed to the roof, there is no risk of leaking and it enables taking the solar panels with you. Supersola decided to focus on flat roofs to ensure safety for its users during installation, and because its standalone panels can easily be used on small surfaces such as garden sheds.

What’s next? Supersola is available on the market and is expanding to other countries. Because plug&play solar panels are quite unknown, awareness of consumers is still lacking, and legislation is lagging. Supersolar is working on building awareness for their innovation. Next to geographical expansion, they are also looking at ways to diversify their product, for example to make them suitable for use on campside and boats (off-grid).

Contribution to the Energy Transition

Make solar energy available to everyone by making it a standalone and plug & play system. This makes it more affordable and easy to use.

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Energy

Tarnoc Vincent Wijdeveld

TRL

Summary

Sustainable solutions for heating our homes are often not powerful enough to replace gas boilers. Most residential heat pumps have low power and low efficiency at high temperatures. To warm an entire house extra insulation and low-temperature heating systems are needed. Moreover, a heat pump requires a noisy outdoor unit and uses harmful refrigerants when released. Tarnoc sets out to be a one-on-one replacement for the classic boiler. Their turbine heat pump is an open system without refrigerants. It draws in air through a centrifugal compressor and releases the heat inside the home through the existing radiator system. The energy from the compression is recovered in the turbine and is converted back into mechanical energy, to power the compressor. Through these cycles it is possible to create high temperature heating with a large capacity in a relatively small installation.

What’s next? Having won multiple awards, Tarnoc is currently piloting its turbine heat pump in different locations. They will do more pilots with big housing corporations and they will place an installation at The Green Village.

Contribution to the Energy Transition

When switching to a fully electric system one has more control over the environmental impact, as green energy can be used to operate Tarnoc.

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Index Index by TRL TRL 1: pages 18, 27, 58 TRL 2: pages 18, 27, 35, 43, 49, 58 TRL 3: pages 1 9, 27, 28, 35, 43, 44, 45, 49, 50, 51, 52, 58 9, 20, 21, 22, 27, 28, 29, 30, TRL 4: pages 1 35, 36, 44, 45, 46, 50, 51, 52, 58, 59, 62

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

9, 22, 23, 24, 28, 30, 31, 36, TRL 5: pages 1 37, 38, 39, 44, 45, 52, 53, 54, 57, 58, 59, 61, 62, 68 TRL 6: pages 23, 24, 32, 36, 37, 38, 39, 54, 57, 58, 59, 63, 66, 71 TRL 7: pages 24, 32, 40, 54, 60, 63, 66, 67, 69, 71 TRL 8: pages 60, 63, 69 TRL 9: pages 60, 70

Index by Theme Energy Page: All projects

High-Tech Page: 23, 27, 30, 43, 57

Chemistry, bio- & process technology Page: 23, 43, 44, 46, 61, 62, 66, 67

Materials Page: 18, 23, 43

Software Technology & Intelligent Systems Page: 21, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 50, 57, 58, 59, 63, 69

Robotics Page: 27, 69

Structural Engineering Page: 18, 20

Social Impact Page: 31, 39, 57, 63

Water & Maritime Page: 19, 20, 22, 24, 52, 53, 54, 59

Aerospace Page: 22, 27, 49, 51

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Colophon December 2021 Production: TU Delft | Innovation & Impact Centre Text & Editing: Susanne Sleenhoff Leonie Levrouw Jurjen Slump Ruth de Vries Cartoons: CVIII Ontwerpers – Erwin Suvaal Infographic (page 14/15): Iris Jönsthövel Design, Layout lizzil creative Print: Edauw + Johannissen About the cover: The flame is an important symbol for the University. It refers to the Myth of Prometheus – bringing the flame from Mount Olympus to the people enabling progress and civilisation - who is sometimes considered as the first engineer. Here Prometheus meets Benjamin Franklin - who is capturing electricity with a kite – who want to encourage him that we can make the energy transition happen.

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Research at the Delft University of Technology is characterised by its inter- and multidisciplinary thinking spread across science, engineering and design disciplines. With ground breaking research we intent to make significant contributions to a sustainable society. Aiming to enhance collaboration with external partners this booklet presents a small selection of ideas that are being developed in Delft.

www.tudelft.nl/innovation-impact