Page 1

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OYSTER Annual Report

Building Pearl and concluding the tender


Colophon Text Reactor Institute Delft, TU Delft

Graphic design Atelier Pan

Cover design Kennis in Beeld

Text editing De Taalfax

TU Delft Reactor Institute Delft Mekelweg 15, 2629 JB, Delft +31 015 27 86744 www.rid.tudelft.nl


1 OYSTER

Foreword We are very proud of our first OYSTER beam instru-

responsible for building a cold neutron source in

ment, PEARL, which is about to be taken into opera-

our reactor. This will allow us to increase the inten-

tion. PEARL will permit the unravelling of the crystal

sity of low-energy neutrons which will improve the

structure of (energy) materials, such as lithium

sensivity of our instruments. Following an intensive

batteries, hydrogen storage materials and magneto

and careful selection process with the pre-selected

caloric devices. The PEARL-team started the ‘hot

suppliers the contract agreement with consortium

commissioning phase’ of this neutron powder diffrac-

KHC; KAERI, Hyundai Engineering and Hyundai

tometer in 2014. The experiments to-date show that

Engineering & Construction was signed on Novem-

they are building a competitive instrument with very

ber 3. His Majesty the King of the Netherlands and

promising results. The instrument will be calibrated

the President of the Republic of Korea attended the

in the first half of 2015. It will enable scientists to

ceremony. We are happy to notice that the Korean

perform experiments in Delft and not at other neu-

companies are highly motivated to introduce their

tron sources such as in France or the UK.

innovative nuclear designs to the European market. The current annual report provides an update to all

In addition to this, our scientists have built the

these areas along with more OYSTER related issues

science case for attracting external funding for

of interest.

another beam instrument called FISH. FISH refers to First Imaging Station Holland and is a neutron

This third OYSTER year was a very rewarding year

instrument by which a very versatile way of looking

enabling us to look with confidence to the future. For

in the inside of objects becomes possible without

next year we will continue building and expanding

having to destroy them. It will serve a broad

our instruments and irradiation facilities. And, it goes

community of users from industry, material science,

without saying that the necessary preparations for

cultural heritage to biology.

the reactor modifications are being continued.

The funding we attracted for our positron instrument PALS will enable us to get a better understanding of how very small defects in materials are created

Prof. dr. Bert Wolterbeek

through prolonged exposure to humidity and light.

Director of the

This technique is, among other things, very import-

Reactor Institute Delft

ant in developing production methods for improved

Head of the Department on

long-term stability of solar cells.

Radiation Science & Technology

We have finalised the European tendering process for selecting the main contractor who will be

Annual OYSTER report 2014 | Reactor Institute Delft


OYSTER

3

Contents

Foreword OYSTER in short Reactor & Utilities Instruments Developments in the irradiation facilities The European Spallation Source Review by NWO Financial overview Communication Planning

1 4 8 12 22 26 28 30 31 32

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OYSTER

OYSTER in short

An introduction (pages 4-7) to the OYSTER programme and RID.

The OYSTER programme (Optimized Yield - for Science, Technology and Education - of Radiation), co-funded by the Dutch government, TU Delft and a number of commercial parties, is to expand the potential of the research reactor by improvements and expansions of the RID infrastructure (reactor, instruments, facilities).

This expansion will enable current and future educational, scientific and societal questions to be better addressed. RID also contributes in-kind, through OYSTER, to the ESS (European Spallation Source in Lund, Sweden), by means of the development of neutron instruments.

The Reactor Institute Delft The Reactor Institute Delft (RID) of TU Delft is a knowledge centre for nuclear issues. It operates the reactor, the irradiation facilities and laboratories, as well as neutron- and positron instruments. In conjunction with the Department of Radiation Science & Technology (RST) of the Faculty of Applied Sciences, RID accommodates resident and visiting scientists and other users from a variety of (scientific) disciplines. RID educates students, professionals and scientists, and serves as an independent source of information for society on radiation- and nuclear-related issues.

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Our five main goals 1

To further develop RID as a coordinating centre for the application of neutron, positron and radiochemistry science and techniques, as well as radiation detection and reactor technology, thereby supporting and uniting the Dutch scientific community.

The technique

2

To create a home base for neutron scattering and mobi-

The installation of a Cold Neutron Source (CNS), which will cool

lize the scientific community

neutrons from room temperature to -250 ÂşC and will therefore in-

to secure Dutch collaboration

crease the intensity of low-energy neutrons by more than an order

with major international neu-

of magnitude. This will improve the sensitivity of existing top-class

tron sources.

instruments. The design and construction of new research instruments.

3

To establish RID as a knowledge centre and training institute in Europe, and there-

The (re-) design and construction of (new) irradiation facilities,

fore a coordinating partner in

which permit the (development of) production of radioisotopes with

European research networks.

unprecedented purity and which will increase the sensitivity and opportunities of research with isotopically enriched stable isotopes.

4

To stimulate ground-breaking innovations in the field of

The design and installation of a miniature hot-cell/decanning facility

neutron, positron, reactor and

for submerged access of irradiated samples from the irradiation

radiochemistry science.

facilities. The hot cell serves mainly as a decanning facility of canisters containing samples, irradiated for the research programme by innovative production methods of (medical) radioisotopes, and for subsampling of these samples to study radiation damage effects.

5

To sustain RID’s leading role in the use and knowledge of world-class instruments, such as continuous positron

The design of irradiation facilities positioned in the tangential beam

beams, as well as the devel-

tube of the reactor, to undertake research into alternative production

opment of new routes for ra-

methods for e.g. Molybdenum-99 (99 Mo).

dioisotope production and the ISO 17025 accredited laboratory for Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis.


6

OYSTER

Participation in large international and national collaborations

RID participates in the development of the European Spallation Source (ESS, www.EuropeanSpallationSource.se) in Lund, Sweden, which is an international collaborative facility for materials research using neutron scattering techniques. The Dutch contribution to the pre-construction phase of the ESS is partly financed through OYSTER. For this purpose RID works on the development of novel instrumental concepts for the ESS and in close collaboration with the ESS scientists. RID participates in the R&D of Holland Particle Therapy Centre (Holland PTC, www.HollandPTC.nl) dedicated to innovative radiation treatment of cancer, using proton beams, as well as in a collaborative R&D program at TU Delft, the Leiden University Medical Centre (LUMC) and the Erasmus University Medical Centre Rotterdam (Erasmus MC). HollandPTC is under construction and will be located on the RID premises. OYSTER research also strengthens the role of RID in supplying innovative ideas towards the envisioned PALLAS reactor (www.pallasreactor.com), which is to become one of the world’s leading production sites for medical isotopes. The OYSTER-initiated new irradiation facilities enhances RID’s position in DIVA (Dutch Isotope Valley). This is an R&D collaboration set up between URENCO, RID and NRG/PALLAS, aimed to optimize efforts to develop, engineer and produce the best possible medical isotopes for clinical use in both (radio)diagnostic and (radio) therapeutic hospital protocols. Finally, OYSTER highlights the role of TU Delft’s RID as an International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Collaborating Centre by demonstrating the many innovative scientific opportunities in the utilization of a medium-sized university research reactor.

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Reactor & Utilities The modification of the reactor deals with a modification of the connection between core and instrument facilities in order to allow the installation of a Cold Neutron Source (CNS). The objective of this modification is to increase the cold neutron flux in order to realize the best conditions for experiments connected to the neutron beam.

Closing out the EU competitive dialogue tender

Photo: Signing of contract agreement in South Korea (Robin Utrecht Fotografie)

Annual OYSTER report 2014 | Reactor Institute Delft

Cold Neutron Source Utilities consist of the installation of all utility systems to the CNS which will be located outside the reactor building. This includes a new CNS Utility building with a cryogenic installation next to the Reactor hall and all associated equipment required to produce cooling capacity for cooling the Cold Neutron Source.


OYSTER

In Q2 2014 all pre-selected parties

After this intensive and careful selec-

schedule is planned after receiving

presented their final tenders for the

tion process, the clear decision could

the basic engineering design. This

realisation of the OYSTER project.

be made to select the consortium

milestone was included as during the

Many technical discussions took

KHC; KAERI, Hyundai Engineering

time of contract award the impact of

place between RID and the potential

and Hyundai Engineering & Con-

the DSR legislation on the original

suppliers as part of the tendering pro-

struction, as the winning contractor to

scope as well as the final cost of the

cess. In order to support the decision

implement the OYSTER Engineering,

OYSTER project was not known.

9

process our External Expert Team (see Box) was consulted. A major contribution by the expert team was

The external expert team

made to the evaluation of the various contractor designs during the Europe-

Toni Scheuer

an tendering procedure. The team’s

Nuclear Technology Consultant for TUV Rheinland Group.

conclusions were used as an impor-

Specialized in licensing issues, and material- and component

tant background to independently

qualification.

support the decision making process.

Welding procedures, Materials, Codes & standards

Further involvement of the Expert Team is foreseen after the final sup-

Stephan Welzel

plier selection to support the engi-

Chief coordinator reactor upgrade Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin

neering and construction phase (from

specialized in CNS process technology and operational aspects

Q2 2015 until 2018).

CNS process technology

Stuart Ansell During 2014 scientist at ISIS STFC (UK) specialized in Cold Neutrons equipment design for research reactors. •

Leading specialist for optimization processes neutronics

Procurement & Construction (EPC).

Besides the involvement of the expert

On November 3 the contract agree-

team, Nuclear Research and consul-

ment between TU Delft and consor-

tancy Group (NRG) was hired for the

tium KHC was signed in South Korea

preparation of the Safety Analysis

attended by his Majesty King of the

Report and the environmental impact

Netherlands and the President of the

assessment. In a joint effort between

Republic of Korea.

RID, the supplier and the Regulator, the DSR will be further worked out to

As part of the OYSTER contract, a

a final status.

Go/No-Go decision based on a total cost estimate and a fixed project Annual OYSTER report 2014 | Reactor Institute Delft


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OYSTER

Start of the basic engineering design

The main issues were the sizing of the thermosyphon as part of the In-Pool-Assembly for the Reactor Modifications. The basis for this is the correct simulation of our core performance together with the new CNS equipment.

The basic design phase of

The basic safety philosophy for the CNS has already been estab-

the Reactor Modifications

lished, including the safety classes, quality classes and the codes

and CNS Utilities started in

and standards to be used. This resulted in a document that has

2014.

been discussed with the Regulator. The choice of cryogenic unit became the most important challenge for the CNS Utilities package. Firstly, given it had to be located near

Figure: Cross section of the Cold Neutron Source (KAERI)

the reactor in a separate building as yet to be designed, this was also partly due its size. The simulation also plays a crucial role here in determining the total cooling capacity. The cost estimate based on the above detail of the original OYSTER Scope of Work will become available in Q2 2015 together with the best estimate of extra costs related to the new Dutch Safety Requirements (DSR). However this extra cost will remain uncertain as long as the final DSR legislation is not established.

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11 OYSTER

Licensing ‘Environmental Impact

invited to participate in the discussion

2014 the ministry issued notice that

Assessment’ (MER)

with the Dutch regulator for advice

the formal publication of the DSR had

One of the conditions for obtaining

and comments regarding the further

been postponed to mid-2015. There-

a new operating permit for the RID

development of these new require-

fore the original overall delay due

reactor is to describe the impact of

ments.

to the DSR impact estimated at one year might increase.

the OYSTER modification project on the environment, through a so-called

As presented during the workshop in

Environmental Impact Assessment

June 2013 a draft version of the DSR

(milieueffectrapportage, MER). The

was expected mid-2014. In Decem-

Ministry of Economic Affairs issued a

ber 2013 the Ministry of Economic

detailed set of MER guidelines for the

Affairs reported that the draft version

OYSTER project (‘Notitie Reikwijdte

of the DSR would be ready for inter-

en Detailniveau’) in 2013. An elabo-

net consultation by mid-2014 and the

ration of the study has been started

implementation would follow at the

since this point. The MER prepara-

end of 2014. However, in December

Figure: View of the building with future modifcations (Kaan Architecten)

tions will take until the end of 2015. Dutch Safety Requirements (DSR) The OYSTER project necessitates a renewal of the existing license for the RID reactor. From the start of 2013 onwards the required licensing procedures and the associated review schedules for the OYSTER project approach have been discussed with the regulator at the Ministry of Economic Affairs. In June 2013, new and more stringent Dutch Safety Requirements (DSR) for new nuclear reactors were presented at a workshop and the Dutch nuclear community was

Annual OYSTER report 2014 | Reactor Institute Delft


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Instruments

The instruments: developments during 2014 •

PEARL – a neutron powder diffractometer (under construction)

FISH – a new multi-purpose neutron imaging facility, unique within a radius of 500 km. from RID (first preparations to attract external funding)

POSH-PALS – positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy, using positrons from POSH (external funding granted, first preparations for execution)

SANS – a new small angle diffractometer with a dedicated cold beam line (under construction)

NDP – neutron depth profiling spectrometer (first results)

MÖSSBAUER SPECTROSCOPY – a new in-beam Mössbauer facility (first preparations to attract external funding)

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Commissioning PEARL: a competitive neutron powder diffractometer The neutron powder diffractometer PEARL will unravel the crystal structure of materials, for example, energy materials such as batteries and hydrogen storage materials. To achieve that, PEARL reflects neutrons of a particular wavelength from the reactor core to the sample. The neutrons scattered by the sample are measured by the detector, which is located around the sample. The distribution of the intensity of scattered neutrons around the sample (i.e. the resulting diffraction pattern) is the ‘fingerprint’ of crystal structure inside the sample.

The ‘hot commissioning phase’ of the PEARL neutron powder diffractometer started in 2014. The PEARL team built prototypes of the detector and the monochromator to be able to perform those first experiments. The design and construction of the final detector and monochromator was continued in parallel during the year. By the end of the year 18 out of 24 monochromator crystals had been aligned and installed and the design of the detector was finalized in collaboration with the detector experts of the ISIS neutron facility at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory Photo: Fibres of the PEARL instrument (Herman Kempers Fotografie)

Annual OYSTER report 2014 | Reactor Institute Delft

in Oxfordshire (UK). All the main


OYSTER

hardware parts had been ordered.

in 20101. Those experiments demon-

The in-house construction of the

strated that PEARL will be a competi-

11 128-pixel detector banks was

tive medium resolution diffractometer,

finalized and all of the 1408 pixels

despite the relatively low core bril-

had been calibrated in a neutron

liance.

beam. This final detector will be installed in the beginning of 2015.

In the first half of 2015 all major components of PEARL will be

The ‘hot commissioning’ started off

installed and the instrument will be

with copper foil measurements at

calibrated. The first experiments

the monochromator position and the

will then be performed on energy

sample position, which confirmed the

materials, such as magneto-caloric,

thermal neutron fluxes simulated in

battery and hydrogen-storage.

2011 and 2012. Using the prototype detector of 64 pixels in 2Θ, diffraction data was collected ‘manually’ to inspect the performance of the new concept as proposed by Leo Cussen

1. L. D. Cussen, Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A 583 (2007) 394–406.

15

Photo: Topview of the PEARL instrument (Herman Kempers Fotografie)


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Photo: PEARL-team (Herman Kempers Fotografie)

First Imaging Station Holland

Neutron imaging is a very versatile technique to reveal secrets inside materials without the need to destroy the object. Water or air bubbles inside concrete while it’s hardening or plastic parts trapped in steel housing can be seen with neutron imaging, whereas this is not possible with X-ray imaging. FISH refers to First Imaging Station Holland and is a neutron imaging station that will be unique within a 500 km radius from Delft. This instrument

– FISH

is designed for neutron radiography and tomography, which given the nature of neutron radiation is complementary to X-ray imaging.

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A pilot investigation entitled “Paving the way for a neutron imaging setup Delft” was undertaken to study the possibilities of a neutron imaging sta-

A piece of Glare (used on Airbus A380) mounted on a

tion in Delft. This pilot was designed

stepper motor to make 400 projections and the shiny

to support the science case within an

surface of the neutron camera. The possible inter-

upcoming proposal to attract external

nal damage around the small hole is the focus of the

funding. Potential users were se-

investigation (left). One of the images where the lam-

lected and the researchers deci-

inated structure of the glare is clearly visible (middle).

ded what could already be achieved

Tomographic reconstruction where we can make virtual

using an improvised setup in the RID

cuts in the material so damage around the hole can be

experimental hall. Several approach-

detected (right).

es to obtain the best images and best reconstructions were studied at the ‘state of the art’ imaging station at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) in Switzerland. This resulted in many improvised imaging experiments with neutrons and X-rays, new reconstruction software and a new neutron camera. The conclusion of the pilot investigation was that a Delft neutron imaging station would be a very powerful neutron application and serve a broad

An example of a biological sample, a rhino Beetle,

community of users from industry,

where the thickness of the protective armour was inves-

material science, cultural heritage to

tigated without destroying the specimen (left). Several

biology. The instrument will be de-

views of the tomographic 3D reconstruction of the

signed to be very flexible to cope with

sample (middle). A virtual cut can be made with ease to

all the potential sample environments.

measure the armour thickness (right).

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OYSTER

Positron Annihilation Lifetime Spectroscopy - POSH-PALS

Photo: Positron remoderation lens system in the B to E convertor section

Positron Annihilation Lifetime

therefore very important in developing

Spectroscopy (PALS) is a unique

production methods for improved

method for identifying defects and

long-term stability of solar cells.

their concentrations in materials.

These are an important building block

These defects, ranging from atomic

for future renewable energy supply

vacancies to nano-voids, have a

in the Netherlands. Recent research

significant influence on the properties

into solar-cell materials shows that

of many materials, but are usually

the presence of defects significantly

too small to be made visible (e.g.

affects the performance of promising

with electron microscopy). An

thin-film solar and amorphous silicon

understanding of how such defects

solar cells.

are created through prolonged exposure to humidity and light is

In 2014, the proposal “Thin-film positron annihilation lifetime spectrometer POSH-PALS for advanced characterization of defects and nanostructures of thin film solar cell layers� was approved in the second phase of the ADEM (A green Deal in Energy Materials) programme. This includes a budget for the components required to construct the POSH-PALS positron lifetime spectrometer. As of the beginning of February 2015 we will start working on computer simulations to optimise the POSH

Annual OYSTER report 2014 | Reactor Institute Delft


OYSTER

Magnetic guiding of positrons from the reactor

19

Timing system

Radiation

for PALS using

detector registers

secondary

annihilation

electrons

photons from target

Transfer from magnetic to

Acceleration of

electrostatic guiding and re-moderation stage

positrons Energy filter for separation of moderated Target

positrons Figure: Schematic representation of the working of the POSH-PALS instrument

beam for a first detailed design for

several microns) corresponds one-to-

cell materials, amorphous silicon,

the POSH-PALS spectrometer. In

one to the thicknesses of the solar-

transparent conducting oxides and

POSH-PALS, the magnetically guided

cell layers. With a time resolution

doped layers for silicon wafers will

positron beam will be converted into

of 150 ps it will also be possible to

be researched in the coming years in

an electrostatically guided beam with

investigate the behaviour of defects

collaboration with various universities,

a sub-millimetre focus diameter. By

in self-healing metal alloys and in

the Netherlands Organisation for

generating secondary electrons as

materials with applications in fusion

Applied Scientific Research (TNO),

a starting signal for measuring the

and fission reactors, and to study

the Energy Research Centre of the

time that elapses between positron

their thermal stability. In addition,

Netherlands (ECN) and Dutch

implantation and positron annihilation,

POSH-PALS will be an excellent

solar-cell technology companies.

the expectation is that a time resolu-

instrument for studying the free

tion of 100-150 pico-seconds (ps) will

volume in polymers.

be achieved developing an ultra-fast annihilation-radiation detector.

The POSH-PALS spectrometer will be constructed and set up in 2015,

The depth resolution of the POSH-

and the expectation is that the first

PALS spectrometer (10 nanometer to

experiments will start in 2016. Solar

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OYSTER

Small-Angle Neutron Scattering instrument - SANS

In 2014, the separate components of the SANS instrument were mechanically positioned in the experimental hall, aligned and fixed in their final

Photo: View of the SANS instrument under construction (Marc Blommaert)

The small-angle neutron scattering

position. The velocity selector was

instrument (SANS) allows the user to

tested successfully and its software

investigate structures with particles

control was modernized.

of sizes from 1 up to a 100 nanometres. For larger particles neutrons

In 2015, the 2D detector will be tested

scatter under smaller angles. This

and the calibration of the instrument

allows for a direct characterization

will be performed using the ther-

of the particle size distribution within

mal neutrons of the current reactor

the material. Using this technique

source. The period before the installa-

typically proteins, micelles, polymers,

tion of the cold source the instrument

porous media and precipitates are

gives the opportunity to study strongly

investigated. These are of interest for

scattering samples and will enable

the development of new products in

preliminary neutron imaging studies.

the field of polymer science, colloids,

After the installation of the CNS the

emulsions, food science and metal

instrument will be able to perform at

alloys.

full capacity.

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Neutron Depth Profiling – NDP The Neutron Depth Profiling setup

It is only at the highest rates where

at the RID has recently started

ionic transport through the electrodes

delivering its first results on working

is rate limiting.

Li-ion batteries, which are nowadays so popular in smartphones, cars etc.

This novel insight in electrode kinetics

One of the key challenges of Li-ion

is imperative for the improvement of

electrodes is the enhancement of

Li-ion batteries and demonstrates

(dis-) charge rates. This is severely

the significant value of Li-ion battery

hindered by the absence of a

research and development using the

technique that allows direct and non-

NDP capability to observe the inside

destructive observation of lithium ions

structural changes.

in operating batteries. Direct observation of the Li-ion concentration profiles using Neutron Depth Profiling reveals that the ratelimiting step is not only dependent on the electrode morphology, but also on the cycling rate itself. In the LiFePO4 electrodes phase nucleation limits the charge transport at the lowest cycling rates, whereas electronic conductivity is rate-limiting at intermediate rates.

In-situ NDP spectra during C/10 cycling of a Li-ion battery electrode that contains a double layered electrode with different particle sizes (small (70 nm) particles at the current collector side and large (140 nm) particles at the electrolyte side. The evolution of the Li-ion distribution during a full charge discharge cycle shows that Li-ions preferentially react with smaller particles, giving direction to future high performance electrode design for Li-ion batteries.

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OYSTER

Catalysts are used abundantly in

Producing and using Mössbauer-

the chemical and oil industry for

sensitive nuclei in-beam will largely

synthesizing, e.g. ammonia, natural

increase the number of nuclei usable

gas, hydrogenating oil fractions, etc.

for industrial experiments. Neutrons

Our globally unique state-of-the-art

capture prompt-gamma nuclei for

facility for combined Mössbauer/

in-beam excitation. Continuously

infrared spectroscopy has proven

activated prompt-gamma Mössbauer

to be very valuable for the studies

nuclei will be used in catalysis,

of heterogeneous catalysts under

high-temperature superconductors,

realistic industrial conditions. The

magnetic layers and nuclear waste

high penetrating power of the gamma

research studies.

rays makes Mössbauer spectroscopy

MÖSSBAUER SPECTROSCOPY

a very versatile technique to study

The first Mössbauer-business plan

catalysts while they are at work,

was drafted in 2014. This includes

providing promising information to

these new ideas, and has been used

develop a better understanding of

as the basis for the expression of

the catalytic sites and opening ways

thoughts and approaches on how to

to synthesize novel or improved

fund these new developments.

catalysts.

Developments in the irradiation facilities The irradiation facilities of the RID reactor are used to irradiate various materials with neutrons or other types of radiation in a well-controlled environment. Their major application is related to research focusing primarily on production of radioisotopes, and for analytical purposes such as Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA)

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Radioisotope research and decanning (hot) cell Nuclear reactors are essential

due to, amongst others, the

new irradiation facilities are required

in producing radioisotopes for

risk of proliferation of nuclear

where the irradiated material can be

diagnostics and therapy, such

material. As an alternative, Delft

cooled and shielded against reactor

as Molybdenum-99 (99Mo),

scientists developed a process for

radiation such as gamma-rays.

and increasingly also for the

the production of similar quality

production of radioisotopes such

Molybdenum-99 without the

In addition, in order to show the

as Holmium-166 (166Ho) and

use of uranium. In this process,

potential of these production

Lutetium-177 (177Lu). In addition

Molybdenum is made radioactive

processes at industrial level, it is

to production, nuclear research

by irradiation with neutrons. An

necessary to at least partly scale-up

reactors play an important role

innovative method is applied to

the production of medical isotopes.

in development of new and the

separate the produced medical

For this purpose a decanning

improvement of existing irradiation

isotope from the chemically identical

(hot) cell for handling highly

facilities that can meet the rapidly

stable Molybdenum.

active materials has been further

changing requirements of the medical industry.

optimised during 2014. The selected In this research, just as the one

positioning of the decanning cell on

involving 166Ho microspheres, it has

the reactor’s second platform has

For instance, Moybdenum-99

been shown that radiation damage

been revisited in view of simplifying

(the mother isotope of the most-

effects occurring during irradiation

the logistics of the irradiation, under

used diagnostic isotope 99mTc)

have tremendous influence on the

water transport and handling of the

is currently mostly produced by

quality of the product. Therefore

irradiation containers. Alternatives

fission of highly enriched uranium

more insight is needed into radia-

are currently being studied.

targets. This is a debated process

tion damage effects. Consequently

Small-target irradiation facilities

Carbon fiber Autonomous Facility for

unpacking the irradiation container.

Irradiation and Analysis (CAFIA) is a

As an example, tens of thousands of

special system allowing the combina-

Selenium measurements – using its

tion of an irradiation facility and spec-

short half-life radioisotope Selenium

trometer into a single instrument. This

77m - have been carried out in Delft

enables the activity of very short-lived

since the end of the 1970s for epi-

radioisotopes (i.e. half-lives down to

demiological studies. This research

1 second) to be measured without

focuses on finding the relation

>>

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24

OYSTER

>> between this element and the

that the neutron flux in this facility

occurrence or prevalence for various

will increase by a factor 3 to 5.

forms of cancer, such as prostate

A mechanism is currently under

cancer.

investigation for disconnecting the tubing system in case the reactor

A pre-design of a new carbon-carbon

bridge has to be moved towards the

composite irradiation end, housed in

large reactor pool for maintenance

an aluminium encapsulation suitable

or in emergency situations, including

for mounting on the reactor grid

the new CAFIA irradiation end on the

plate has been evaluated in 2014

grid.

for further detailing. It is expected

Shielded Irradiation Pneumatic Facility – SIPF and Resonance Irradiation Facility – RIF The SIPF will facilitate irradiations

ray intensity ratio. This facility will

with shielding against gamma-

expand the opportunities of irradiating

radiation using lead filters of

materials having organic nature, as

adjustable size and thickness for

radiation damage will be reduced.

optimizing the neutron/gamma-

Alternative Mo99 production route

Medical isotopes are foremost used

Molybdenum is then extracted from

for early diagnosis of tumours.

the solution and fed into so-called

One of the best-known isotopes

generators to be transported to users.

is Technetium, which can be

This production method is compli-

obtained by radioactive decay of

cated and generates a lot of (radio-

Molybdenum-99. Molybdenum

active) waste relatively speaking.

is produced by nuclear fission of

Research is being conducted on a

Uranium-enriched plates, which

new production method whereby

after irradiation in a high flux reactor,

Molybdenum can be produced

are dissolved in an acid. The

continuously in a beam tube running

Annual OYSTER report 2014 | Reactor Institute Delft


OYSTER

This facility is especially important

The facility’s design will also provide

a world-unique facility and can result

for the production of polymeric

the opportunity for orientating

in unprecedented improvements

microspheres containing radioactive

experiments with target shielding by

to radioisotope purity and specific

Holmium-166 (166Ho) with specific

neutron filters as intended to be used

activity. It is currently being

activities of at least 25 GBq (per

in the RIF. These neutron filters will

investigated if SIPF and RIF can

100 mg Ho). Radiation therapy with

allow for production of radioisotopes

be designed as a single combined

Holmium microspheres is expected

by activation in a neutron energy

facility.

to become a major procedure for

spectrum with the highest intensity

the treatment of liver tumours. In

in the region of specific resonance

A research proposal for additional

ad dition, the SIPF will be used for

neutron energies. If necessary the

funding for the design, implemen-

other research projects such as the

reduction of the thermal neutron

tation and testing of this facility will

upscaling of the Molybdenum-99

production of interfering radioisotopes

be submitted in 2015 to Technology

neutron capture production process.

could also be achieved. This will be

Foundation STW, as a collaboration

25

of TU Delft and the University of Utrecht, supported by NRG and two other industrial partners.

Figure: Near-Core FlexBeBe with cooled sample position

beside the HOR reactor core. This

world production could be produced

production. On top of that a first

beam tube will be filled with a circula-

in such a way. This method could

judgement was made in terms of the

ting uranyl-sulphate or a uranyl-

be produced in a reactor like the

relevant safety related items. In 2015

nitrate solution, which will have an

proposed new reactor PALLAS to

the system will be further optimised

increased Molybdenum concentration

increase the production scale.

and investigations will start to develop the separation chemistry.

after each core passage. Because of its presence in a solution,

In 2014 research was undertaken to

Molybdenum is expected to be more

optimise the Uranium concentration

easily extracted than in the present

and the liquid flow of the Uranium

commercial processes. About 2% of

solution to maximise the Molybdenum

Annual OYSTER report 2014 | Reactor Institute Delft


26

OYSTER

The European Spallation Source (ESS)

The European Spallation Source (ESS) in Lund (Sweden) is a new multi-disciplinary research centre based on the world’s most powerful neutron source. This new facility will be around 30 times brighter than today’s leading facilities, enabling new opportunities for researchers in the fields of life sciences, energy, environmental technology, cultural heritage and fundamental physics. This next generation neutron source will facilitate a large number of neutron instruments enabling scientists to see and understand basic atomic structures and forces. It will allow the study of various materials, from plastics and pharmaceuticals, to engines, and molecules

. Photo: ESS/Team Henning Larsen Architects Annual OYSTER report 2014 | Reactor Institute Delft


OYSTER

27

Through the OYSTER project RID

is needed and many European

RID organised a special ‘Science

is able to invest in the ESS pre-con-

countries have already partnered up

Meets Industry day’, at which ESS

struction program with four RID

with the host countries Sweden and

representatives discussed options

developmental work packages. The

Denmark. The Netherlands has also

with a large number of Dutch interest-

RID approach is to play special

expressed its interest, but has not

ed (industrial) companies.

“tricks” with the spin of the neutron

made a formal financial commitment

that basically allows scientists to

yet and, as a result, has the official

In 2015, RID, together with NWO

reach a much higher resolution than

status of observer.

representing the Netherlands within

by conventional methods. This is one

various ESS consortia, will continue

of the RID’s specialisms and is one

A full partnership of the ESS would

to support and promote Dutch scien-

of the reasons the ESS likes to have

mean, for instance, the Dutch indus-

tific and industrial involvement in the

RID on board.

try delivering engineers or high tech

ESS.

systems in the construction- and subBecause of the (financial) size of the

sequent phases of the ESS, which is

ESS project an international approach currently under construction. In 2014,

Annual OYSTER report 2014 | Reactor Institute Delft


28

OYSTER

Review by NWO

Recommendations Locate additional funds for instruments and instrument support as a “guaranteed” part of the OYSTER project.

Implementation In May 2014 the second review on the OYSTER project was undertaken by the

Preparations for external

NWO OYSTER Advisory Committee of

funding applications are ongoing

external experts.

for FISH and Mössbauer instruments, and for the several

The committee concluded that

Irradiation Facilities. The

OYSTER “is replaced a great project

preparations are being funded

with huge potential” and made various

from OYSTER budget.

recommendations of which the most important ones are summarized on the right:

The team

Prof. K.N. Clausen

Dr. Dimitri N. Argyriou

Head of the Neutron and Muon

Director for Science at

Research Department and vice

the European Spallation

Director of the Paul Scherrer Institute

Source

(Switzerland)

Annual OYSTER report 2014 | Reactor Institute Delft


OYSTER

Not to enter into any contract

Organisational aspects with

More involvement of the RID

with a vendor before the

respect to a common vision

scientists in the decision

budget for instruments and

between the various units

making process is advised to

instrument support has been

should be addressed.

strengthen the feeling of joint

fixed.

29

responsibility for its success.

Contract awards will only

RID management has

The involvement of the RID

be granted with sufficient

published its vision, which has

scientists in the OYSTER

financial support. Based on

been amply discussed. The

decision process was already

our successful fund raising

2015 RID activities will be a

established and will be

record we believe we will be

direct result of this vision. In

continued. Senior scientists

able to raise the necessary

2015 a new communication

to act as “champion” have

funds to realize the OYSTER

advisor will be assigned in

been appointed and plans

instrumentation and irradiation

order to support this process.

for both scientific projects

facilities during the coming

and valorisation involving

years.

“their” instrument are under development.

Prof.dr. J.F. Verzijlbergen

Dr. Nico Kos

Head of the Department

Senior Manager (International) Programme

of Nuclear Medicine at the

Innovation at the Chemical & Physical Sciences

Erasmus MC

Division of the Netherlands Organisation For Scientific Research (NWO)

Annual OYSTER report 2014 | Reactor Institute Delft


30

OYSTER

Financial overview

OYSTER amounts to € 117 million,

OYSTER investment amount to a

covering the initial investments as

total of € 1.3 million. In 2014 ADEM

well as the basic reactor-associated

Innovation Lab granted € 200,000 for

operational costs over a period of 10

POSH-PALS and in addition external

years. In 2012 the Dutch government

funding of € 165,000 was attracted.

awarded € 38 million for OYSTER.

SANS is funded by in-kind TU Delft

TU Delft contributes € 74 million in

contribution. To further realise instru-

kind. Furthermore, TU Delft stands

ments and irradiation facilities, plans

surety for an additional € 5 million.

are being formulated to attract exter-

This is part of the co-funding (in-

nal funding (e.g. for FISH, Mössbauer

dustrial, scientific etc.) that has to be

and Irradiation Facilities).

added to RID/OYSTER to fund the development, commissioning and

The KHC consortium has been

exploitation of instruments and facili-

awarded the contract for the reactor

ties over the total 10-years OYSTER

modification in June 2014. Work

program period and beyond.

to be conducted by KHC has been split in two phases. The Basic

In 2014, a total of € 2.5 million was

Engineering Phase, started in August

spent on the license process, ten-

2014 (contract value € 1.9 million).

dering process, including reimburse-

At the end of Q2 2015 a final cost

ments of tendering parties, the po-

calculation is expected for the entire

sitioning of the OYSTER facility and

reactor modification including the

Dutch Safety Requirements (DSR)

estimation of the extra cost due to the

related costs. TU Delft contributed

new DSR requirements. Based on

€ 9.3 million in kind to the OYSTER

these cost calculations a ‘Go/No go’-

project in 2014.

decision will precede the Construction Phase. Assignment of extra funding to

For the construction of PEARL the

cover the DSR items is an essential

in-kind contribution of TU Delft and

part of this decision.

Annual OYSTER report 2014 | Reactor Institute Delft


OYSTER

31

Communication

The OYSTER programme will

At the end of 2014 it was decided to

result in improved and expanded

expand the communication hours for

infrastructure around the reactor in

OYSTER. A communications advisor

order to better address current and

(0.6 FTE) dedicated for the OYSTER

future educational, scientific and

project was recruited. The commu-

societal questions. This is the key

nications advisor will start at the

message that we want to share and

RID in the beginning of 2015. New

instil across the relevant research

internal and external communication

communities and other stakeholders.

actions based on the strategy will

We want to inform researchers and

be formulated for the coming years.

scientists, whether from academia,

New communication tools will be

SMEs or large companies, as well

developed and a number of existing

as non-governmental organizations

communication tools such as the

about the opportunities, instruments,

OYSTER website and brochures will

facilities and know-how available at

be expanded and updated.

the Reactor Institute Delft. In 2013, the implementation of the communication strategy was started and focussed mainly on external communication, whereas in 2014 the focus was on the employees of the RID/ RST institute itself. A common vision has been developed and a merged management-team consisting of both the management teams of RID and RST has been established in order to discuss about strategy, instrument/ facilities issues and timelines.

Annual OYSTER report 2014 | Reactor Institute Delft


32

OYSTER

Planning

Activity name TOTAL INSTALLED COST OVERALL ESTIMATE

OYSTER REACTOR MODIFICATIONS PROJECT Construction Phase (Preliminary)

FABRICATION EQUIPMENT REACTOR MODIFICATIONS CONSTRUCTION SECURITY CHECK SHUT-DOWN REACTOR START-UP REACTOR CLOSE-OUT OYSTER PROJECT

The original project schedule of the

GENERAL

OYSTER project was based on terms

TIC OVERALL ESTIMATE

and conditions as defined during the

CONSTRUCTION SCHEDULE CONSTRUCTION SECURITY CHECK

first half of 2013. After notification of the new DSR legislation in June

REACTOR MODIFICATIONS

2013, the original schedule was

‘MILIEUEFFECTRAPPORTAGE’ PREPARATION + REVIEW

adjusted anticipating the availability of the final DSR by the end of 2013. Closing out of the OYSTER project

DUTCH SAFETY REQUIREMENTS DEFINITION PREPARATION CONCEPT LICENCE SAFETY REPORT (SAR) PREPARATION + REVIEW LICENSING PROCEDURE BUILDING PERMIT

was foreseen for the end of 2016.

OBJECTION PROCEDURE

However, in June 2013 the Ministry

BASIC ENGINEERING REACTOR MODIFICATIONS

of Economic Affairs reported that the

FABRICATION EQUIPMENT REACTOR MODIFICATIONS

earliest date of issuing a draft version of the DSR would be in the middle of 2014 and the implementation of the final revision would follow at the end of 2014. During 2014 it was anticipated that the OYSTER project would be closed out in Q1 2018.

DETAILED ENGINEERING REACTOR MODIFICATIONS SHUT-DOWN REACTOR AND DISMANTLING CORE DRAINING REACTOR BASSIN 1ST STAGE INCL. DISMANTLING HANGER ETC. AS-BUILD CHECK CORE AND BASSIN CONFIGURATION DRAINING REACTOR BASSIN 2ND STAGE FOR BEAM TUBES DRY DISMANTLING MIRROR GUIDE SYSTEM BEAM TUBE R2 MODIFICATIONS BEAM TUBE R2 AND REACTOR CORE MODIFICATIONS REACTOR BASSIN INSTALLATION HOTCELL, ISOTOPE - AND LOOPSYSTEM FACILITIES REFILL REACTOR BASSIN 1ST STAGE INCL. INSTALLATION NEW CONTROL RODS AS-BUILD 0-MEASURING AND REFILL REACTOR BASSIN 2ND STAGE INSTALLATION INPILE PART

At the end of 2014 however the ministry reported that the date of

DETAILED ENGINEERING HOTCELL FACILITIES DETAILED ENGINEERING E&I MODIFICATIONS RELATED TO CNS INPILE PART MODIFICATIONS E&I RELATED TO CNS INPILE PART

issuing the DSR had been postponed

CNS UTILITIES CONTROL ROOM

to the middle of 2015. This might

DETAILED ENGINEERING CNS UTILITIES AND CONTROL ROOM

result in a further delay to the project

BUILDING PERMIT INSTALLATION NEW CNS UTILITIES CONTROL ROOM

schedule. Because the final DSR

DETAILED ENGINEERING CNS COOLING SYSTEM AND COMPRESSOR

requirements are not known yet, it

DETAILED ENGINEERING CNS E&I MODIFICATIONS

is difficult to predict a fixed closeout date for the OYSTER project.

Annual OYSTER report 2014 | Reactor Institute Delft

INSTALLATION CNS UTILITIES EQUIPMENT INSTALLATION PIPING AND E&I START-UP / COMMISSIONING


2014 Start

Finish

Q1

Q2

Q3

2015 Q4

Q1

Q2

31/May/15 31/Dec/17 31/Dec/15 1/Apr/17 1/Jan/18 31/Mar/18

1/Apr/14

31/May/15

1/Apr/14

31/May/15

1/Apr/15

31/Dec/15

1/Jun/14

30/Sep/15

1/Jan/13

31/Dec/14

1/Jan/15

30/Jun/16

1/Jan/15

30/Jun/16

1/Jul/16

31/Jan/17

1/Jan/17

31/Jan/17

1/Jan/17

31/Mar/17

1/Apr/14

31/Mar/15

1/Jan/15

31/Dec/15

1/Jan/16

31/Dec/17

1/Apr/17

31/Dec/17 1/Jan/15

30/Jun/15

1/Jan/15

30/Jun/15

1/Jul/15

31/Mar/16

1/Jan/15

31/Dec/15

1/Jan/17

31/Jan/17

1/Apr/17

30/Sep/17

1/Jan/15

30/Jun/15

1/Jul/17

31/Dec/17

1/Jul/15

31/Dec/15

1/Oct/17

31/Dec/17

1/Jan/18

31/Mar/18

Date 1 Sept 2014

1 Dec 2014

31 Jan 2015

Revision

Rev. 14

Rev. 15

Rev. 13

Q3

2016 Q4

Q1

Q2

Q3

2017 Q4

Q1

Q2

Q3

2018 Q4

Q1

Q2

Q3

Q4


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