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Wildflowers a field guide to Flowering plants of S o u t h e r n A r i z o n a by Maggie Moe Milinovitch


Copyright Š 2011 Connection, Arivaca, AZ, Publisher.

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ny part of this book may be reproduced and used without permission for educational purposes, however, reproduction of the book for financial gain is prohibited under copyright law.

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ayout, text, cover design, and all photographs, except where noted, are by the author. or information on obtaining a copy contact: Connection, POB 338, Arivaca, AZ 85601. Or email: AdobeAlbatross@aol.com


Foreword I

grew up in a family of wildflower lovers and every spring we drove to my father’s favorite spots — including Picacho Peak for poppies, and dozens of nameless dirt roads for lupine and mariposa lilies. If he didn’t like the name of any flowering plant, he simply gave it a new name. “Bladderpod” for instance, became “Desert Gold.” Fortunately, this book has no made up names, but the author’s love of desert wildflowers is obvious. I can vouch for the fact that she can spot an unusual blossom while driving down a country road and will stop to photograph that flower as well as making notes on nearby plants. Of course, wildflowers in any desert area vary from year to year depending on the temperature and rains. We know that years can pass without the spectacular variety and masses of color perfect conditions bring — all the more reason to drop everything and go out to watch the Sonoran Desert when it blooms.

Byrd Baylor


Acknowledgements

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ortune seems to have been smiling when I decided to do this book. Despite the fact that I have no credentials in plant sciences, my goal was to put together a guide focusing on the area where I live, with hopes it would be of benefit to other wildflower lovers. As it turned out, working on this guide offered a challenge and a learning experience not to be missed. Also, I had the good fortune to have encouragement and help from people aound me, without whom the guide might have remained in the realm of wishful thinking. First, I’d like to thank my dear friend Penny Shepard who so willingly went with me hiking and driving through the hills, (often on heart-stopping two-track roads) during the many months of wildflower hunting and photographing. And thanks to Penny’s husband Steve; he led us to many blooming flowers in Las Guijas Mountains where he prospects for gold. More good fortune came when needed — an introduction to Daniel Austin, PhD., adjunct professor of plant sciences at the University of Arizona and research associate at both the ArizonaSonora Desert Museum in Tucson and the Desert Botanical Gardens in Phoenix. He generously consented to help identify my plant photographs when I had questions. As plant taxonomy is an evolving system, Dr. Austin provided up-to-date scientific names. He also provided many of the Spanish names listed in back. His gift of time, patience and knowledge is greatly appreciated. Many thanks to others for their help: my son Joseph Birkett, Mary Kasulaitis, Coey Stern, Alison Deming, Steve Steinberg. Thanks for the help and enthusiastic encouragement from Byrd Baylor and Richard Conway. For being happy kayakers, paddling along the shoreline of Arivaca Lake with me in search of wildflowers, I thank Kathy Sheldon, Penny Shepard, Sheila Wallen and Monica Tilley. For his patient understanding of my long months of heading into the hills, research and working at the computer, and for his support of this project, much gratitude to my darling husband, Rich Milinovitch.


Introduction T

here were three inspirations for compiling this book. Foremost was a love of local wildflowers; the showy and the shy. I found that available Arizona wildflower books include plants from all of Arizona. They cover diverse zones with species adapted to regions from alpine forests to the low desert valleys. This book identifies plants growing in the desert grasslands, canyons and foothills of Southern Arizona (3,000 to 4,500 ft.). It also includes many flowers not found in other Arizona wildflower books. Finally, I wanted to create a field guide showing both a close-up of the flower and a photograph of the entire plant - unusual in most field guides but essential for successful identification.

About the book

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esigned for amateur wildflower enthusiasts, the descriptions are limited to just enough information to enable field identification. They are written in easily understood terminology. There are some terms described at the back of the book. Once a plant is identified there are many excellent reference books available at the library for further research. The flowers are arranged by color first and next by family group. Similiar plants are placed together to help in noting the differences. Each of the species has a number for indexing purposes; there are no page numbers. A corresponding index in the back gives the Spanish common names. Using a hand lens will help you see the details of flowers and photos.

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he text was written from observation and research. All possible effort has been given to presenting correct information. Caution: While I have munched some of the plants noted as edible, the reader should exercise extreme caution and consult an expert in the identification of a plant before tasting. There are many plants in the desert that may look innocent but are highly toxic.



This book is dedicated to my mother, Virginia Butler Moe, whose delight in the desert in bloom became generational,

and to the delights of my heart, Laura, Ray and Joseph.


1 Sotol

Dasylirion wheeleri a.k.a. Desert Spoon Lily Family Perennial Native Arizona Protected Plant Bloom: Late Spring, Summer. Flower: Thousands of tiny; cream to greenish white flowers clustered on stalk. Male and female flowers on separate plants. Plant: Leaf rosette to 3 feet; flower stalk to 15 feet. Leaves: In basal rosette; grayish-green; tough and leathery; linear to 1” wide; curved teeth on margins. Notes: The individual leaf bases are shaped like spoons. Plant does not die after flowering. Core of flower stem is edible and used to make the alcoholic beverage “sotol”, however this native plant is protected and should not be damaged or killed. Habitat: Dry slopes. Photo: Las Guijas Mts. in June.

2 Beargrass

Nolina microcarpa Agave Family Perennial Native Bloom: Late Spring, Summer. Flower: Creamy white; tiny branched clusters on stalk. Plant: Large clump; grass-like appearance; stalks to 8 feet. Leaves: To 4 feet long; loose fibers at tips; no teeth on margin. Note: Leaves used by the Tohono O’odham for basketweaving. Habitat: Rocky hillsides and grasslands. Photos: Las Guijas foothills in June.


3 Soaptree Yucca

Yucca elata Century Plant Family Native Arizona Protected Plant Bloom: Late Spring. Flower: Cream to white; 2� long; bell shaped; drooping; loosely clustered along flower stalk. Plant: Up to 20 feet without the flower stalk, usually less. Stalk to 6 feet. Leaves: Long, narrow with pointed tips; white, string-like fibers at margins; leaves in a basal rosette in young plants; old leaves dry to tan and droop to cover the trunk. Notes: The flowers are edible (and tasty) fresh or cooked. The roots contain toxic saponins; were used to make soap. Habitat: Grasslands. Photo: Hills NE of Arivaca in June. Yucca Pollination: Yuccas are visited by many insects but only pollinated by the yucca moth. The moth rolls pollen into a small ball and transfers it from plant to plant. While pollinating the flower, the female lays her eggs in the plant’s ovary. The growing larva feed upon the developing fruit. When the larva is ready to pupate, it leaves the pod (eating its way through many of the seeds) and crawls down the stem and burrows into the ground.


4 Mountain Yucca

Yucca schottii Native Arizona Protected Plant Bloom: Spring. Flower; Creamwhite; crowded along stalk. Plant: 6-20 ft tall. Often with a single trunk or with a few simple branches. Leaves: Blue- to gray-green; rigid; smooth to the touch; 2-3 feet long; 1 to 2.5” wide; concave in cross section; terminal spine. Leaves do not have separating fibers at the margins. Habitat: Hillsides and canyon slopes. Photo: Hills NE of Arivaca.

5 Banana yucca Yucca baccata a.k.a. Datil Yucca Native Arizona Protected Plant

Bloom: Spring to early Summer. Flower: Creamy white; waxy; bell-shaped to 3” long; tightly clustered along flower stalk. Followed by large, to 5” long, banana-like, fleshy pods. Plant: Short stemmed; flowering stalk may barely rise above the leaves. Leaves: Large, to 3 feet long; 1” to 2” wide; stiff with end sharply pointed; arranged spirally at the base of stem; white fibers on margins. Notes: Flowers, fruit and young stalk are edible. Leaf fibers used in basketmaking. The saponinrich roots used to make soap-like lather. Habitat: Dry hillsides. Photos: Arivaca Lake Road in August.


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Shin dagger

Agave schottii a.k.a. Schott’s Agave Century Plant Family Native Arizona Protected Plant Bloom: Spring, Summer. Flower: Light yellow; tubular; on unbranched spike. Plant: Leaves to 16”; flower stalk to 9 feet. Plant dies after flowering. Leaves: Basal rosette; narrow, sharp spine at tip; no spines on margins. Note: Forms large colonies. Photo: Ruby Road in Nat’l Forest in July.

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Palmer’s Agave

Agave palmerii var. palmerii a.k.a. Century Plant Perennial Native AZ Protected Plant Bloom: Summer. Flower: Brilliant golden yellow in dense clusters (flower stalk above was photographed just prior to full bloom). Plant: Leaf rosette to 3 feet tall; flower stalk to 20 feet. Plant dies after flowering. Leaves: Crowded basal rosette; stiff with sharp spines along margins; pointed tip. Habitat: Dry, rocky slopes. Photo: Ruby Road in August.


8 Engelmann’s Prickly Pear Opuntia engelmannii Native Arizona Protected Plant

Cactus Family

Bloom: Spring. Flower: Yellow (fading to salmon with age) to 3” wide. Followed by deep red “pears.” Plant: To 5 feet, usually less; pads dull green; Up to 6 drooping spines with tiny spines (glochids) at base of spine cluster. Notes: After spines and glochids are removed pads and fruits are edible . The most common prickly pear in our area. Photo: Las Guijas foothills in May.

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Santa Rita Prickly Pear Opuntia santa-rita

Cactus Family

Native Arizona Protected Plant

Bloom: Spring. Flower: Lemon yellow to 3” wide, with no red at base of sepals. Plant: To 5+ feet; pads round and usually spineless having only glochids (tiny spines). Pads are green-purple, becoming more purple when stressed. Photo: Tres Bellotas Road in early May.


10 Staghorn Cholla

Cylindropuntia versicolor Native Arizona Protected Plant Bloom: Late Spring, Summer. Flower: As the Latin name suggests, the flowers come in a wide variety of colors; followed by plump, smooth, mostly spineless fruits that remain on the plant while flowering. Plant: To 6+ feet; spreading green/purple branches. Readily hybridizes with other chollas making it variable in appearance. Photo: Las Guijas foothills in August.

11 Cane Cholla

Cylindropuntia spinosior Native AZ Protected Bloom: Late Spring, Summer Flower: Magenta (the most common), red, orange, brown, yellow or yellow-green; 3� wide; showy; followed by spineless, very bumpy, bright yellow fruit. Plant: To 8 feet; branched stems. Stems spiny with 6 to 18 grayish spines per areole. The side stem branches are held more horizontal than upright. Photos: Hills NE of Arivaca in June.


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Macdougal’s Nipple Cactus Mammillaria macdougalii Native Arizona Protected Plant Flower: Creamy yellow. Plant: To 8” diameter; flattened, often barely above ground level. Habitat: Rocky slopes. Photo: Hills NE of Arivaca.

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Pincushion Cactus

Mammillaria grahamii a.k.a. Graham’s Nipple Cactus, Arizona Fishhook Native Arizona Protected Plant Bloom: Spring, Summer. Flower: Pink, 1” wide followed by red fruit. Plant: To 6”; grayish spines cover plant. When present, the central spines are darker and shaped like fishhooks. Habitat: Rocky hillsides. Note: Mammillaria are so named because of the nipple-like structures from which the spines grow.

14 golden crested Beehive Cactus

Coryphantha recurvata Rare Native AZ Protected

Bloom: June. Flower: Creamy-yellow. Plant: To 6” diameter; 4-10” tall; Clusters in large groups 50 stems have been recorded. Stems obscured by the 15 to 20 yellow radial spines; central spine curves downward. Habitat: Rocky, grassy hillsides.


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Pink-flower Hedgehog

Echinocereus fendleri var. rectispinus Native Arizona Protected Plant Bloom: Spring. Flower: Magenta pink, 3” wide; green stigma. Plant: To 12+”; solitary or multistemmed; covered with stout spines. Central spine longest and tipped with dark brown. Habitat: Dry, rocky hillsides. Photo: Ruby Road in April.

16 Rainbow Cactus

Echinocereus pectinatus Native Arizona Protected Plant Bloom: Summer. Flower: Pink to magenta; up to 3” wide; yellow/white at base of petals. Plant: To 8”; usually solitary. Densely covered with a comb-like web of backward- curved spines showing rainbow-like bands of varying tones of pink and white. No erect central spines. Habitat: Dry, rocky slopes. Photo: Hills NE of Arivaca.

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Fishhook Barrel

Ferocactus wislizenii Native Arizona Protected Plant Bloom: Summer. Flower: Orange, red or yellow; 2.5” wide followed by yellow, waxy, edible fruit. Plant: To 8 feet tall; generally single stem covered with spines. Large central spine flattened and hooked; 3 smaller erect spines and white, flexible radial spines. Habitat: Grassland slopes. Photo: Hills NE of Arivaca.


18 Velvetseed Milkwort

Polygala obscura Milkwort Family Perennial Native Forb Bloom: Summer. Flower: Delicate; irregular; greenish in appearance; 2 petal-like sepals enclose fused, lavender petals. Plant: To 8�+; stems covered with fuzzy hairs. Leaves: Alternate, lance-shaped. Photo: Arivaca Road, early August.

19 Mexican Passion Flower

Passiflora mexicana Perennial Native Vine Forb Bloom: Summer. Flower: 5 Green oblong sepals; petals inconspicuous; filaments open red fading to violet-purple; followed by green fruit. Plant: Climbing to 25 feet using tendrils. Leaves: Distinctive, two lobed. Note: You will probably smell this stinky plant before you see it. Habitat: Riparian areas. Photos: Arivaca Cienega Walk in mid-August.


20 Desert mountain Manihot Manihot angustiloba Spurge Family Perennial Native Sub-shrub

Bloom: Summer. Flower: Greenish white; no true petals – 5 narrow sepals resemble petals. Plant: To 3+ feet; reddish stems. Leaves: Palmately lobed. Photo: Rocky hillside NE of Arivaca in August.

21 Desert Poinsettia

Poinsettia cuphosperma Spurge Family Annual Native Bloom: Early Spring through October. Flower: Greenish white; tiny; followed by mottled green seed capsules. Plant: To 15�; has milky sap. Leaves: Linear; primarily at base of floral cluster. Habitat: Dry, shaded areas. Photo: Hills NE of Arivaca.

22 Wild Poinsettia

Poinsettia heterophylla Spurge Family a.k.a. Mexican Fireplant Annual Native. Flowers: Tiny, greenish-white. Plant: Milky sap. Leaves: Fiddle-shaped. Photo: Arivaca Cienega Walk in August.


23 Rattlesnake Weed Chamaesyce albomarginata a.k.a. White margin spurge Spurge Family Perennial Native Forb

Bloom: Spring to Fall. Flower: Tiny, flower-like, but lacking true petals and sepals. Leaves: Tiny; round Plant: About 1/2” high; sprawling to 12+” wide. Stems with milky sap Notes: Name comes from belief that sap was remedy for rattlesnake bites. The word “spurge” comes from the French to purge. A very similar species Red-glamd spurge C. melanadenia does not root at stem joints and has red stems. Photo: Ruby Road cut bank, May.

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Spotted spurge Chamaesyce maculata Spurge Family Annual Native Weed Bloom: Summer. Flower: So tiny that a hand lens is needed to appreciate. Leaves: Oval; spotted with purple. Plant: Prostrate; sprawling; stems with milky sap. Photo: Hills NE of Arivaca, August.


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Leatherweed Croton pottsii a.k.a. New Mexico Croton

Spurge Family

Perennial Native Forb

Bloom: Summer. Flower: White; tiny; rayless in terminal clusters. Plant: To 18�. Leaves: Gray-green; covered with hairs; folded at mid-vein Photo: Arivaca Road early August.

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Chiricahua Milk Spurge

Chamaesyce florida Spurge Family Annual Native Bloom: With monsoon rains. Flower: White; 4 round petal-like lobes (bracts) above a green ovary. Plant: To 24�; very slender; reddish stems with milky sap. Leaves: Linear; opposite; minutely toothed. Photo: Arivaca Road early August.


27 Mala Mujer Cnidoscolus angustidens Spurge Family

Perennial Native Forb

Bloom: Summer. Flower: White; 3/4� wide male flowers in clusters with white stamen and 5 petal-like lobes. The small, round female flowers are at the base of these clusters. Plant: To 3 ft. Leaves: Heart-shaped; toothed; dotted with stinging hairs, each with a white base. Note: Do Not Touch Spines – stinging will last for days! Translation of Mala Mujer - Bad Woman Photo: Ruby Road in August.

28 Common Bedstraw Galium aparine a.k.a. Stickywilly Madder Family Annual Native

Bloom: Spring. Flower: White; 4 petals; tiny. Plant: Sprawling weak stems covered in tiny hooked hairs. Leaves: Narrow; point-tipped; whorls of 6 to 8 around the stems. Photo: In hills NE of Arivaca in May.


29 Arizona Wrightwort Carlowrightia arizonica Acanthus family Perennial Native Subshrub

Bloom: Spring. Flower: White; 1� wide; 2 lateral petal lobes; 2 upper lobes fused together and a keeled bottom lobe. Yellow spot with purple streaks on the upper petal lobe. Plant: To 3 feet. Leaves: Simple; opposite; lance-shaped. Photo: Las Guijas foothills in mid-May.

30 Hairy Fournwort

Tetramerium nervosum Acanthus Family Perennial Native Forb

Bloom: After monsoon rains. Flower: Cream; emerges from leafy bracts on hairy, 4-sided flower spikes. Individual flowers are tubular with 4 lobes. Plant: To 1 foot. Leaves: Lance-shaped; opposite on stem. Photo: Bank of sandy wash NE of Arivaca in August.


31 Popcorn Flower

Cryptantha sp.

Borage Family

Annual Native

Bloom: Spring. Flower: White; tiny; in coiled terminal cluster. Plant: Variable species from 4� to 2 feet; hairy. Note: 36 species of Cryptantha in AZ, most are white-flowered Spring annuals. Habitat: Dry, gravely soils.

32 Small Matweed Guilleminea densa Amaranth Family Perennial Native Forb

Bloom: Summer. Flower: Inconspicuous flowers enclosed in white, papery bracts in clusters along stems. Plant: Numerous prostrate, mat-forming stems from taproot. Leaves: Opposite; ovate; the pair unequal; woolly beneath. Habitat: Dry hillsides. Photo: Hills NE of Arivaca in August.


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Tufted Globe Amaranth

Gomphrena caespitosa Native Perennial Forb Amaranth Family Bloom: Spring. Flower: Creamy white; straw-textured floral bracts contain inconspicuous yellow flowers. Plant: Generally to 3�. Leaves: Oblong; covered in dense grayish white hairs. Photo: Hills NE of Arivaca in April.

34 Sonoran Globe Amaranth Gomphrena sonorae Amaranth Family Perennial Native Forb

Bloom: Summer to Fall. Flower: White to pink; 1/2� wide composed of pointed bracts surrounding tiny, inconspicuous flowers. Rounded flower heads feel like dried straw. Clustered at stem nodes and stem tips. Plant: To 2 feet. Leaves: Opposite on stem; point-tipped, and generally linear. Photos: Hills NE of Arivaca in September.


35 Horehound

Marrubium vulgare

Mint Family

Perennial Naturalized Herb

Bloom: Spring through early Autumn. Flowers: White; small; tubular; at leaf axils. Plant: To 3 feet tall. Square stems are covered in woolly hairs. Leaves: Oval; lighter green on underside; wrinkly; opposite. Notes: Edible leaves are pungent; used as a flavoring, medicinal tea, ale and in herbal cough drops. Escaped cultivated plant. Photo: Arivaca Cienega Walk in May.

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Cutleaf water-parsnip

Berula erecta

Parsley or Carrot Family Perennial Aquatic Forb Bloom: Summer. Flower: White; tiny; 5 notched, twisted petals in umbels at stem ends. Plant: To 3 feet. Leaves: To 18�; pinnate; leaflets opposite and lobed. Photo: Arivaca Cienega Walk in August.


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Miniature Wool Star

Eriastrum diffusum Phlox Family Annual Native Bloom: Spring. Flower: White; pale blue to lavender; tubular; tiny; 5 lobes; clustered in woolly, spiky heads. Stamen shorter than lobes. Plant: To 4�+. Woolly in leaf axils. Leaves: Shiny, narrow, sharply pointed tip. Habitat: Dry, rocky open areas. Photo: Las Guijas foothills in April.

38 Wild Buckwheat

Eriogonum inflatum Buckwheat Family Annual Native Bloom: Summer. Flower: No petals; bracts enclose tiny flowers. Plant: to 18�+. Stems redden at maturity. Notes: This plant covers the hills after the rains and is very common in our area on dry hillsides and along roads. There are 53 members of this genus in Arizona. Habitat: Dry open areas.


39 Arizona Grape Vitis arizonica a.k.a. Canyon Grape

Grape Family Native Perennial Deciduous Vine

Bloom: Spring. Flower: Greenish-white; tiny; numerous in drooping floral spikes followed by small, green ripening to dark purple-blue edible but very tart grapes. Plant: Woody vines to 16 feet using neighboring trees and shrubs as support. Leaves: Heart-shaped, toothed margins. Photo: Arivaca Creek Walk in May.

40 White Watercress

Rorippa nasturtium-aquaticum Mustard Family Perennial Non-Native Naturalized Forb Bloom: Spring. Flower: White; terminal cluster of 4 rounded petals. Seed pods slim; upturned; shiny. Plant: Grows in standing water. Leaves: Pinnately compound; leaflets shiny with wavy margins. Photo: Arivaca Cienega Walk in early May.


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Doubting Mariposa Lily Calochortus ambiguus Lily Family Perennial Native Forb

Bloom: Spring. Flower: White; 2� across with 3 petals, some show crescent-shaped petal glands; usually dark purple anthers. Plant: To 12� or more to grow above surrounding vegetation. Stems upright and branched. Leaves: Linear, grasslike. Photo: Las Guijas foothills in April.

42 Onionweed

Asphodelus fistulosus Lily Family Annual/Shortlived Perennial Invasive Exotic Noxious Weed Bloom: Spring. Flower: White with brownish stripe; 6 petals; widely spaced on stem. Plant: Roots are a series of tuber-like parts at base. Leaves: Hollow. Photo: Arivaca Road 2 mile marker in April.


43 Pepperweed Lepidium thurberi Mustard Family Annual/Biennial Native Forb

Bloom: Spring and Summer. Flower: White; four tiny petals; clustered along stalk. Leaves: Light green; lobed Photo: Arivaca Lake Road in June.

44 Pepper Grass Lepidium sp. Mustard family Annual Native

Bloom: Spring. Flowers: White; tiny; 4 petals followed by notched seedpods. Plant: To 16�. Note: Pungent, hot taste; used by Native Americans to flavor food. Photo: Hills NE of Arivaca in April.


45

Yerba Mansa

Anemopsis californica

Lizard Tail Family

Perennial Native Forb

Bloom: Late spring, Summer. Flower: Yellow cone-shaped flower heads surrounded by 4 to 8 unequal, 3/4-inch long, petal-like bracts. Plant: To 18”. Leaves: Thick and leathery; oblong; mainly basal. Notes: Forms large colonies. Native Americans use this plant for medicinal purposes. Habitat: Marshland. Photo: Arivaca Cienega Walk in June.

46 Bluestem Prickly poppy Argemone pleiacantha a.k.a. Cowboy’s Fried Eggs Poppy Family Perennial Native Forb

Bloom: Spring through Fall. Flower: White; up to 5” across; ricepapery petals. Plant: To 3 feet. Stem and leaves covered with spiny hairs; ooze yellow sap if broken. Note: Entire plant is poisonous. Habitat: Dry sandy areas. Photo: Wash area NE of Arivaca in August.


47 Rock trumpet

Macrosiphonia macrosiphon a.k.a. Longtube trumpet Dogbane Family Perennial Native Subshrub Bloom: Spring. Flower: White; showy; 2 to 4” propeller-petaled trumpet; borne at end of branches. Plant: 6–12” tall. Woody stems. Leaves: Dark green; grow close together on stem; point at leaf tip. Habitat: Dry hillsides.

48 Sacred Datura

Datura wrightii Nightshade Family a.k.a. Thorn-apple, Jimsonweed Perennial Native Forb Bloom: Summer. Flowers: White; large trumpet; open in evening, generally withering with morning sun. Plant: To 4 ft. Coarse foliage; stout branches; rank-smelling. Leaves: Grayish-green; oval to heart-shaped to 6” long. Note: All Parts Extremely Poisonous. Habitat: Sandy wash areas. Photos: Fraguita Wash in August.


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Long-flower Four O’Clock

Mirabilis longiflora a.k.a. Sweet Four O’Clock Four O’Clock Family Perennial Native Forb Bloom: Summer. Flower: White to pale pink; 6+” long trumpet with magenta center and curling, magenta stamens projecting up to 2” beyond trumpet. Plant: To 5 feet. Course stems a deep red. Leaves: Opposite; ovate to heart-shaped. Notes: These are nocturnal flowers best seen in early morning. Photos: Arivaca Cienega Walk in August. (Also observed along Arivaca Creek Walk & Ruby Road.)

50 Field Bindweed

Convolvulus arvensis Morning Glory Family Perennial Non-Native Naturalized Noxious Weed. Bloom: Summer. Flower: White to pale pink; 1” wide funnel grows from leaf axil. Plant: Vine with creeping roots. Leaves: Dark green; arrow-shaped. Photo: Arivaca Cienega Walk in June.


51 Long-leaf Morning Glory Ipomoea longifolia a.k.a.: Pink-Throat Morning Glory Morning Glory Family Perennial Native Forb Bloom: After summer rains. Flower: Nocturnal; Large white trumpet with red-purple throat. Plant: Sprawling, heavy stems. Leaves: Long; narrow; standing upright on prostrate stems.Photo: Las Guijas foothills in late August. (Also observed along Tres Bellotas Road.)

52 Spreading Fleabane Erigeron divergens Biennial Native Forb Sunflower Family

Bloom: Spring, Summer, Fall. Flower: White; rays open lavender-pink, later turning white. Buds are nodding with pink outer petals. Plant: To 18� tall; stems hairy. Leaves: Upper alternate, small and narrowly linear. Lower are larger and pinnately lobed. Basal leaves soon drop off the plants, leaving only the stem leaves. Habitat: Open areas; roadsides. Photo: Wash area NE of Arivaca.


53 desert Pincushion Chaenactis stevoides Sunflower Family Annual Native

Bloom: Spring. Flower: White to cream; 3/4” across; rayless. Plant: 4 - 8”. Leaves: Slender; pinnate and lobed. Photo: Arivaca Road in March.

54 Desert Zinnia

Zinnia acerosa a.k.a. Wild or White Zinnia Sunflower Family Perennial Native Subshrub Bloom: Spring and after monsoon rains. Flower: White; 1” wide; 4 to 6 broad, overlapping rays. Yellow disk flowers turn brown with age. Plant: Mound to 1 foot tall. Leaves: Gray-green; small, stiff, linear and opposite. Note: A wellbehaved desert landscape plant. Habitat: Open, rocky areas. Photo: Las Guijas foothills in September.


55 White Cudweed

Sunflower Family Perennial Native Forb

Pseudognaphalium leucocephalum a.k.a. Pearly everlasting

Bloom: Summer, Fall. Flower: White bracts; yellow disk flowers in terminal cluster. Plant: To 3 feet. Aromatic - smells lemony; woolly; spreads by underground rhizomes forming large colonies. Leaves: Linear; alternate; graygreen above and white-woolly below. Habitat: Sandy washes. Photos: Wash NE of Arivaca in September.

56 Rock Purslane Calandrinia ciliata a.k.a. Red Maids Purslane Family Annual Native

Bloom: Spring. Flower: Very white, pink, pinkish red; 5 rounded petals; to 1/2”wide. Plant: Prostrate to 12+”. Leaves: Succulent; hairy; to 3”. Habitat: Washes and hillsides. Note: See red variety in red section photo #152. Photo: Disturbed site, hills NE of Arivaca.


57 Woolly Daisy Eriophyllum lanosum Sunflower Family Annual Native

Bloom: Spring. Flower: White; to 1/2” wide; 8 to 10 notched rays; yellow disk flowers. Leaves: Linear; grayish, covered with woolly hairs. Plant: Only 1.5 inches tall. With good rains forms a carpet of flowers. Habitat: Dry, rocky hills. Photo: Hills NE of Arivaca in April.

58 Baby Aster

Leucelene ericoides Sunflower Family Perennial Native Subshrub Bloom: Spring. Flower: White; petals curved back; orange disk flowers; 1/2” wide; at end of stems. Leaves: Narrow, graygreen, along entire stem. Plant: to 6”. Habitat: Dry slopes. Photo: Ruby Road late April.


59

White Tackstem Calycoseris wrightii Sunflower Family Annual Native

Bloom: Spring. Flower: White; up to 1.5”wide; square-tipped, toothed rays. Underside of rays have rosy streaks. Plant: To 1 foot tall. Leaves: Hairless; blue-green; pinnately divided into linear lobes. Note: The common name comes from the tiny, tack-shaped glands on the stems and flower bases. Habitat: Gravely soils, roadsides Photo: Arivaca Road in April.

60 Desert Chicory

Rafinesquia neomexicana Sunflower Family Annual Native Bloom: Spring. Flower: White; 1.5”across; square-tipped, 5-toothed rays; no disk flowers. Rays maroon-streaked on underside. Plant: To 20” tall. Stems erect; grayish green; hairless. Leaves: Grayish green; alternate; elongated; toothed or narrowly lobed. Note: The similar White Tackstem has more rays and tack-shaped glands on the stems and flower bases. Habitat: Common along roadsides. Photos: Jalisco Road on a windy April morning.


61 Stemless Evening Primrose Oenothera caespitosa a.k.a. Tufted Evening Primrose Evening Primrose Family Perennial Native Forb Bloom: Primarily Spring. Flower: White, turns to pink when wilted; fragrant; 4 heart-shaped petals to 4” across. These noctural bloomers, pollinated by moths, open in late afternoon and wilt by the next mid-morning. Flower held above foliage by long calyx tube, which to most appears to be a stem. Plant: To 6+” tall. Leaves: To 7” long; lobed or toothed, in dense basal rosette. Note: One of the joys of early morning Spring strolls in the desert is this showy wildflower. Habitat: Rocky outcrops near watercourses. Photos: Both taken on Ruby Road in late April; wilted pink photo by Sheila Wallen.


62 Pine-needle milkweed

Asclepias linaria Milkweed Family

Perennial Native Bloom: Long bloom period dependent on elevation Flower: White clusters with 5 reflexed petals followed by typical milkweed seedpod. Plant: To 3+ feet. Leaves: Pine needle-like; densely cover the stems. Note: Good in desert landscaping.Photo: Warsaw Canyon in May.

63

Arizona Milkweed Asclepias angustifolia Milkweed Family Perennial Native Forb

Bloom: Late Spring/Summer. Flower: White umbels at the stem tips. Each flower is up to 1/2 “across with 5 reflexed petals and a hooded central column. Plant: Erect stems to 2+ feet tall. Leaves: Linear; opposite. Habitat: Riparian Photo: Side canyon off Ruby Road in August. Milkweed, named for its milky juice, contains alkaloids, latex, and other compounds. Some species are known to be toxic. Asclepias species produce their seeds in pods. The seeds have white silky hairs (pappus). The ripe pods split open and the seeds are blown by the wind. Milkweeds are host plants for Monarch butterflies and a nectar source for many other butterfly species. Milkweed flowers also attracts hummingbirds.


64 White-rim Milkweed

a.k.a. Dwarf Milkweed

Asclepias involucrata Milkweed Family Perennial Native Forb

Bloom: Spring. Flower: White starburst. Plant: Prostrate stems; grows to less than 8� in height. Leaves: Folded; wavy; covered with hairs; narrowly trianglar. Photo: Dry, sandy flats 5 miles NE of Arivaca in March.

65 Mojave Milkweed Asclepias nyctaginifolia Perennial Native Forb

Bloom: Summer. Flower: Greenish white; rounded terminal clusters. Each flower has 5 reflexed petals and 5 upright hoods. The flower hoods are slightly shorter than the petals. Plant: To 1 foot. Leaves: Large; wavyedges; opposite; lanceolate. Photo: Dry wash bank NE of Arivaca.


66 Antelope Horns Asclepias asperula Perennial Native Forb

Milkweed Family

Bloom: Spring. Flowers: Creamy greenish-white with maroon tinges in fragrant clusters to 3” across followed by 4+” long seedpods. Plant: To 1 foot. Leaves: 6” linear. Photo: Dry grasslands along Ruby Road in April.

67 western Whorled Milkweed Asclepias subverticillata a.k.a. Horsetail or Poison Milkweed Milkweed Family Perennial Native Forb Bloom: Summer. Flower: White to cream; 1/2” wide in terminal clusters; followed by 4” long, slender pod. Plant: To 3 feet. Leaves: Linear; in whorls of 3 to 5 at stem joints. Note: Poisonous. Habitat: Riparian. Photo: Arivaca Cienega Walk in July.


68 Climbing Milkweed Funastrum cynanchoides a.k.a. Fringed Twinevine

Milkweed Family Perennial Native Vine Forb

Bloom: Summer. Flower: White to pinkish-white; 4” wide, umbel-like clusters; 5 petals and 5 sepals fringed with white hairs. Plant: Climbing to 10+ feet on slender, twining stems. Broken stems and leaves exude milky juice. Leaves: Hairless; opposite; variable in shape. Note: The foliage smells like burning rubber. Photo: Arivaca Ranch Road as it crosses the Cienega, in August.

69

Odora

Porophyllum gracile Sunflower Family Perennial Native Subshrub Bloom: Spring, Summer, Fall. Flower: White tinged with purple; 1/2” wide; no petals; surrounded by 5 blue-green, purple-tinged bracts dotted with dark purple oil glands; at end of branches. Plant: To 30” mound of thin, wiry, upright stems. Has rank odor when crushed. Leaves: 2” long; thread-like; dotted with oil glands. Photo: Las Guijas foothills in May.


70 Desert Cotton

Gossypium thurberi a.k.a. Wild or Canyon Cotton Mallow Family Perennial Native Decidious Shrub Bloom: Late Summer. Flower: White to pale pink; 5 crinkly petals with lavender spots at base. Fruit: Marble-sized; open like cotton boll with cotton-like filaments on seeds. Leaves: Palmate; 3 to 5 leaflets; dark green above, paler under; turning dark red in the Fall. Plant: To 7 feet; shrubby. Habitat: Near water courses. Photos: Joseph Birkett in September.

71 Desert Broom

Baccharis sarothroides Aster Family Evergreen Native Shrub Bloom: Fall, Winter. Flower: White to cream; rayless; male and female flowers on separate plants. Slender female flowers followed by downy seeds covering the plant in seed masses that become airborne. Plant: To 8+ feet. Leaves: Course; narrow. Notes: Hard to eradicate once established. Branches were used as brooms. The pollen is a severe allergen. Habitat: Roadsides, disturbed areas. Photos: Arivaca Road near town in October.


72

Bee Brush

Aloysia lycioides a.k.a. White Brush Verbena Family Native Evergreen Shrub Bloom: In response to rain. Flower: White; tiny; in spike at stem ends. Remarkably sweet smelling. Plant: To 8 feet; many branched, open and airy; upright. Leaves: Small; narrow oblong; pointed. Photo: Ruby Road at turnoff to Warsaw Canyon in late July

73 Seep-willow

Baccharis salicifolia a.k.a. Mule-fat Sunflower family

Perennial Native Evergreen Shrub

Bloom: Spring, Summer, Fall. Flower: Creamy white disks; no ray flowers. Produces fluffy seeds with a feathery, white pappus (hairs on seeds in the Sunflower family). Plant: To 8+ feet. Leaves: Dark green; 6� long; lanceshaped; toothed; sticky. Notes: Not a true willow. Causes allergic reaction in some people. Habitat: Riparian. Photos: Tres Bellotas Road in August.


74

Mexican Elderberry

Sambucus nigra ssp. cerulea Honeysuckle Family Perennial Native Semi-evergreen Tree/Shrub Bloom: Spring, Early Summer. Flower: Creamy white in flat terminal cluster. Individual flowers have 5 lobes. Fragrant. Followed by black to powdery blue berries favored by birds. Plant: To 30 feet tall. Bark ridged; light gray-brown. Leaves: Pinnate; 3 to 9 lance-shaped, serrated leaflets. Note: Ripe berries and aromatic flowers are edible. The sweet, juicy berries can be made into jelly, wine, or used in pies. The leaves, stems, and green, unripe berries are poisonous. Habitat: Where deep soils and extra moisture available. Photos: Arivaca Creek Walk.

75 Cooley’s Bundleflower

Desmanthus cooleyi Pea Family Perennial Native Subshrub Bloom: Summer. Flower: White ball aging to pink. Plant: To 1+ foot. Leaves: Feathery, bipinnate. Habitat: Rocky hillsides. Photo: Hills NE of Arivaca in August.


76

White ball acacia

Acacia angustissima a.k.a. Fern Acacia Pea Family Perennial Deciduous Native Shrub Bloom: Summer. Flower: White stamens clustered into 1/2� fuzzy balls. Followed by brown seed pods. Leaves: Graceful bipinnate; tiny leaflets. Plant: Generally to 3 feet; stems reddish and spineless. Photos: Hills NE of Arivaca in August.

77

Catclaw Acacia

Acacia greggi

Pea Family

Perennial Native Deciduous Shrub/Tree

Bloom: Late Spring, Summer. Flower: Cream colored; fragrant; densely clustered cylindrical flower spikes followed by twisted seed pods. Plant: To 20+ feet, usually less. Branches have sharp, curved, catclaw-like thorns. Leaves: Alternate; bipinnate compound with oval leaflets. Habitat: Grows in same habitat as mesquites. Note: To distinguish from a distance, note its wedge-shaped structure with most branches originating at ground level. Photos: Hills NE of Arivaca in June.


78 Kidneywood Eysenhardtia orthocarpa Pea Family Deciduous Native Shrub Bloom: Summer. Flower: White spike of small flowers. Plant: 10+ feet. Leaves: Pinnate; pungent order when crushed. Note: Used medicinally to treat kidney ailments. Attractive in landscape. Habitat: Rocky hillsides and canyons. Photo: Las Guijas north foothills in late July.

79

Wait-a-minuite bush a.k.a. Catclaw Mimosa

Mimosa aculeaticarpa var. biuncifera Pea Family Perennial Native Shurb

Bloom: Summer. Flower: Creamy white ball. Plant: To 4+ feet. Leaves: Bipinnate; tiny leaflets. Habitat: Along sides of dry washes and canyons. Note: Often forms dense thickets providing excellent wildlife cover. Photo: Hills NE of Arivaca.


80 Desert Rosemallow Hibiscus coulteri a.k.a. Coulter’s Hibiscus Mallow Family Deciduous Native Shrub Bloom: Sporadically in response to rains in Spring and Summer. Flower: Pale yellow to cream; 2� wide; 5 fan-shaped petals. Plant: To 4 feet. Stems slender, covered with flattened hairs. Plants scraggly and difficult to spot unless blooming. Leaves: 3-lobed; hairy; alternate. Photo: Las Guijas foothills, May.

81 Western Soapberry Sapindus drummondii Deciduous Native Tree Bloom: Summer. Flower: Creamy white; 5 tiny petals. In large, showy, branched clusters at end of branches. Followed by open clusters of one-seeded, translucent berries. Plant: To 20+ feet in our area. Rough, gray-brown bark. Leaves: Pinnate; 7 to 19 sickle-shaped leaflets. Notes: The toxic berries contain saponins that can rubbed in water to make soap for washing clothes. Habitat: Observed at base of rock outcrops where extra moisture is available. Photo: Hills NE of Arivaca in August.


82 Fiddleneck

Amsinckia menziesii Annual Native

Borage Family

Bloom: Spring. Flower: Yellow; tiny, tubular; atop coiled terminal spike. Plant: To 2 feet. Stems upright; covered in sharp, brittle hairs that may irritate skin. Leaves: Bristly; alternate; linear. Notes: Seeds are toxic. Grows in dense patches after good winter rains. Photo: Arivaca Cienega in April.

83 Tansy mustard

Descurainia sophia a.k.a. Flixweed Annual Non-Native Naturalized Weed Bloom: Spring. Flower: Yellow; tiny; followed by upright, slim seedpod. Plant: To 3 ft. Leaves: Finely divided; bright green. Habitat: Disturbed areas. Photo: Hills NE of Arivaca.

84 London Rocket

Sisymbrium irio Mustard Family Annual Non-Native Naturalized Weed Bloom: Spring. Flower: Yellow; 1/4� wide with 4 tiny, oblong petals; followed by upright, slender seedpods. Plant: To 3 feet. Leaves: Mainly basal; triangular and pinnately lobed. Notes: Flowers, young leaves, and seeds are edible, but pungent. Habitat: Disturbed areas.


85 Gordon’s Bladderpod

Lesquerella gordonii a.k.a. Bladderpod Mustard Mustard Family Annual/Bi or Perennial Native Forb Bloom: Late Winter to Spring. Flower: Yellow; 4 rounded petals; followed by pea-like seedpods with slender, pointed tips. Plant: Up to 16�, usually less. Leaves: Narrow. Note: This is the flowering plant that turns the hills a bright yellow at the same time the Mexican Poppies are turning other hills golden after good winter rains. Photos: Closeup along Arivaca Road; photo below taken on Universal Ranch Rd., both in March.


86 Common Purslane

Portulaca oleracea a.k.a. Garden Purslane Portulaca Family Annual Listed Arizona Noxious Weed Bloom: Summer. Flower: Yellow; 1/4” across; 5 notched petals. Plant: Prostrate; trailing up to 2 feet from taproot; reddish stems; mat-forming. Leaves: Plump; fleshy; rounded tips; reddish margins. Note: Leaves and young stems are edible raw or cooked - rich in iron. Eat in moderation. Habitat: Disturbed sites.

87 Puncture Vine Tribulus terrestris a.k.a. Goat-Head Caltrop family Annual Naturalized Noxious Weed

Bloom: Summer. Flower: Yellow; tiny; 5 petals; followed by “goat-head” seeds – close encounters painful; horns stout enough to puncture bike tires and the soles of shoes. Plant: Prostrate; radiating to 8 feet from shallow taproot. Leaves: Pinnately compound. Habitat: Disturbed areas.


88 Sensitive Partridge-pea

Chamaecrista serpens

Pea Family

Annual Native

Bloom: Summer. Flowers: Yellow; irregular. Plant: Slender-stemmed up to 1 ft. tall. Leaves: Pinnately compound. Small, yellow-green leaflets fold together when touched. Photo: Warsaw Canyon late July.

89 Yellow Sweetclover

Melilotus indicus Pea Family Annual Non-Native Naturalized Bloom: Spring. Flower: Yellow; tiny; pealike; on long, narrow floral spikes. Plant: To 3 feet. Stems are long, slender, and upright. Leaves: Alternate; pinnate with 3 oblong, toothed, blunt-tipped leaflets. Note: Larval food plant for a number of butterfly species. The flowers attract honey bees. Photo: Arivaca Creek Walk in May.

Pea Family Members of this family

require the presence of micro-organisms that inhabit nodules on their root systems and produce nitrogen compounds necessary for the plant’s survival.


90 Hairy Deer Vetch Lotus humistratus

Pea Family

Annual Native

Bloom: Spring. Flower: Tiny, yellow pea-like blossom with orange tint at back of banner petals. Plant: 1� high; mat-forming. Leaves: Palmate - typically with 4 oval, point-tipped leaflets covered in soft white hairs. Photo: Ruby Road late April

91

Greene’s Lotus Lotus greenei Pea Family Perennial Native Forb

Bloom: Spring. Flower: Yellow; upright; pea-like; dark orange backs and buds; on long stems. Plant: Prostrate; tangled. Leaves: Gray hairy, 3 to 7 leaflets in fan-like clusters. Habitat: Gravely soils. Photo: Hills NE of Arivaca in April


92 Desert Senna

Senna covesii Pea Family Perennial Native Subshrub Bloom: Late Spring, Summer Flower: Golden; 5 cupped petals; 1� across in terminal clusters; followed by fuzzy, brown bean pods that become woody and twisted. Plant: To 2 feet. Stems fuzzy. Leaves: Dull gray-green pairs of elliptical leaflets. Habitat: Dry hillsides. Notes: Makes an excellent desert landscaping plant. Photo: Hills NE of Arivaca in late Spring.

93 Slim pod Senna Senna lindheimeriana Pea Family Perennial Native Forb

Bloom: Summer. Flower: Yellow; 5 oval petals - 2 lowest petals cupped. Unpleasant aroma. Flowers followed by 6 to 10� long slender pods. Plant: To 3+ feet tall. Leaves: Alternate; pinnately compound; even number of lanceshaped leaflets. Habitat: Sandy washes. Photo: Hills NE of Arivaca in August.


94 Low Rattlebox

Crotalaria pumila Pea Family Annual/Perennial Native Forb Bloom: Summer, Fall. Flower: Yellow to reddish yellow-orange; pea-like on stalk; followed by plump, seedpods. When dry, shaken pods sound like an excited rattlesnake. Pods later explode open with a pop to eject the seeds. Plant: To 1+ feet. Leaves: Bright green; alternate with 3 oblong leaflets. Note: Poisonous. Photo: Sandy wash east of Arivaca in late Summer.

95 Milk Vetches & Locoweeds Astragulus Pea Family

Bloom: Spring and Summer. Flower: Pea-like. Colors in this genus range from creamy white to purple. Seed pods vary from 1/2� slender pods to inflated, papery pods. Plant: Generally sprawling from central taproot. Leaves: Pinnately divided. Notes: Poisonous to livestock. Over 6 dozen species of Astragulas in Arizona. Photos: Yellow flowered photos by Shiela Wallen, Ruby Road in April. Pods at Bear Grass Tank in July. Also see purple flower section #190.


96

Buffalo Burr

Solanum rostratum a.k.a. Mexican Thistle Nightshade Family Annual Native Bloom: Spring, Summer. Flower: Yellow; 5 lobes; 1” across; followed by round, spiny, green burs. Plant: To 30”. Leaves: Dark green; deeply pinnately lobed. Note: Poisonous, especially leaves and green fruit. Entire plant covered with sharp spines that can cause intense pain if touched. Even after burs are removed the pain persists. Photos: Sandy wash NE of Arivaca in September.

97 Bottle Evening Primrose

Oenothera primaveris a.k.a. Desert, Spring or Yellow Evening Primrose Primrose Family Annual Native Bloom: Early Spring. Flower: Yellow; 4 notched, heart-shaped petals. Nocturnal, closes in morning. Plant: Close to the ground. Leaves: To 4”; lobed with purplish spots. Photo: Hills NE of Arivaca in March.


98 Large Buttercup Ranunculus macranthus Buttercup Family Perennial Native Forb

Bloom: Spring, Early Summer. Flower: Bright golden yellow; rounded petals. Plant: Highly variable species. Notes: Toxic to livestock. May cause skin irritation in humans if touched. Habitat: Grows in wetlands, often forming large colonies. Photos: Arivaca Cienega Walk in May.

99 Arizona Beggarticks

Bidens aurea Sunflower Family Perennial Native Forb Bloom: Summer, Fall. Flower: Bright yellow-gold; 5 rounded petals. Plant: Highly variable species. Note: Common name comes from its bristly seeds. Photo: Arivaca Cienega Walk in August.


100 Slender Gaillardia

Gaillardia pinnatifida a.k.a. Red-dome Blanket Flower Sunflower Family Perennial Native Forb Bloom: Spring. Flower: Yellow; lobed rays 1 3/4” wide with fuzzy, domed, red disk atop a leafless flower stalk. Plant: To 20”. Leaves: Linear; grayish green; covered in fine, whitish hairs; variably pinnately-lobed with at least a few lobed leaves per plant. Habitat: Dry, sunny, grassy areas. Photo: Wash bank NE of Arivaca in April.

101 Fendler’s Dandelion

Malacothrix fendleri Sunflower Family Annual Native Bloom: Spring to early summer. Flower: Yellow; 1” wide; many petals, notched; pink stripe on underside of rays. Plant: to 6”. Leaves: Basal; grayish-green; lobed to 2” long. Habitat: Sandy flats. Photo: Wash area NE of Arivaca in April.


102 Prickly Lettuce

Lactuca serriola Sunflower Family Annual/Biennial Naturalized Weed

Bloom: Early Summer. Flower: Pale yellow, 1/2” wide; square toothed rays ; no disk flowers; at tips of branched stems. Plant: To 4 feet. Sticky residue when stem touched. Leaves: Prickly; clasp stems; lower leaves larger; coarsely lobed. Broken leaves and stems ooze milky sap. Habitat: Disturbed sites.

103 Silver Puffs

Uropappus lindleyi Sunflower Family Annual Native Bloom: Spring. Flower: Yellow, with pointed flowerhead bracts apparent. Followed by a dandelion puff-like seedhead. Plant: To 12”. Leaves: To 5” long; gray-green; linear. Habitat: Grasslands.

104 White Sagebrush

Artemisia ludoviciana a.k.a. Silver Wormwood Sunflower Family Perennial Native Subshrub Bloom: Summer to Late Fall. Flower: Yellowish-gray; tiny; rayless in narrow clusters at stem ends. Plant: Many erect non-woody stems; to 3 feet. Plant covered in wooly, silverywhite hairs. Leaves: Lance-shaped to 4”; silver-white. Aromatic when bruised. Habitat: Rocky slopes. Photo: Hills NE of Arivaca in November.


105 Yellow Thimblehead Hymenothrix wislizeni Sunflower Family Annual/Biennial Native Forb

Bloom: Summer to Fall. Flower: Yellow; narrow, toothed rays in terminal clusters. Plant: 2 + feet. Stems slender; branched near tips. Leaves: Primarily near base; alternate; divided into 3 narrow lobes. Habitat: Along roadsides, washes, areas with loose, sandy soil. Photo: Universal Ranch Road at Arivaca Road in August.

106 Sparse-Flowered Goldenrod

Solidago velutina subsp. sparsiflora Sunflower Family Perennial Native Forb Bloom: Late Summer to Fall. Flower: Bright yellow clusters along arching stem. Plant: To 2 feet. Leaves: Dull gray-green; rough. Photo: Along dry wash NE of Arivaca in November.


107 Silverleaf BahIa Bahia absinthifolia Sunflower Family Perennial Native Forb

Bloom: Responds to rainfall. Flower: Bright yellow rays – 10 to 13; 2” across; orange-yellow disk flowers. Plant: To 14”. Leaves: Silvery-green; fuzzy; 3 lance-shaped lobes; some smaller teeth. Photo: Road to Arivaca Lake in August

108 Lemmon’s Butterweed Senecio lemmonii a.k.a. Lemmon’s Ragwort, Lemmon’s Groundsel Sunflower Family Perennial Native Forb

Bloom: Spring. Flower: Yellow; round-tipped rays; orange disk flowers. Plant: To 3 feet. Upright; branched; reddish at base. Leaves: Dark green; clasp stem; alternate; toothed; lance-shaped. Photo: Rocky hillside on Ruby Road in April.


109

Desert Marigold Baileya multiradiata Sunflower Family Annual/Biennial/Perennial Native Forb

Bloom: Spring, Summer, Fall. Flower: Yellow disks and rays; up to 2” across; multiple, stacked layers of toothed rays. Plant: To 18”. Stems and leaves woolly gray-green. Leaves: Pinnately-lobed; mostly basal. Notes: Attracts butterflies, good landscape plant – long blooming. May be toxic to livestock. Photo: My garden, but found along Arivaca Road and back roads.

110 Lacy Tansy-Aster Xanthisma spinulosum var. gooddingii Sunflower Family Perennial Native Forb

Bloom: After summer rains. Flower: Golden yellow; 15 or more narrow ray flowers. Yellow disk flowers. To 1/2” wide. Plant: Generally to 12+”. Leaves: Gray-green; sometimes woolly; pinnately toothed; bristle tipped. Habitat: Along dry wash banks Photo: Gravely area NE of Arivaca in September


111 Spiny Sowthistle Sonchus aspera a.k.a. Prickly Sow Thistle Sunflower Family Annual Naturalized Weed

Bloom: Spring, Summer, Fall. Flower: Yellow; dandelion-like; 1”across. Plant: To 5 feet. Leaves: Spiny-toothed margins; pinnately lobed. Photo: Arivaca Cienega in June.

112 common Sowthistle

Sonchus oleraceus Sunflower Family Annual Naturalized Weed Bloom: Spring. Flower: Yellow; dandelion-like. Plant: To 5 feet. Leaves: Pinnately divided; pointed lobes; often tinged with purple. Note: Tender, young leaves are edible – cooked or in salads. Habitat: Disturbed sites. Photo: April

113 Yellow Star Thistle

Centaurea solstitialis Sunflower Family Annual/Biennial Non-Native invasive Weed

Bloom: January to October. Flower: Yellow; at end of branches; no ray flowers; bracts are spine-tipped. Plant: Gray-green; stems erect to 24”. Leaves: Upper leaves small; clasp stem. Habitat: Roadways; riparian areas. Photo: Arivaca Road near town in June


114 Trixis

Trixis californica a.k.a.: American Threefold Sunflower Family Perennial Native Subshrub Bloom: Spring or in response to rain. Flower: Yellow; 3/4” wide; rayless but appear to have rays which are extensions of the outer lip of the disk flowers. Plant: To 3 feet. Leaves: Yellow-green; often curled-under margins; lanceshaped up to 2” long. Habitat: Rocky outcrops, dry hills Photo: Las Guijas foothills in April.

115 Annual Sunflower

Helianthus annuus Sunflower Family Annual Native Bloom: After summer rains. Flower: Yellow rays; red-brown disk flowers. Up to 5” across. Plant: Up to 9 feet. Leaves: Heart-shaped; alternate; covered with stiff hairs. Notes: Small seeds are edible but best left to the birds. Hairs on the leaves may cause allergic reaction in sensitive individuals (sunflower allergy). Photo: Ruby Road in August.


116

Annual Goldeneye

Heliomeris longifolia var. annua Sunflower Family Annual Native Bloom: Fall, Winter. Flower: Golden-yellow; about 12 rays; 1 to 2� across. Plant: To 3.5 feet. Slender; erect; stems reddish and hairy. Leaves: Narrow; rough; rolled under at margins; crushed leaves smell resinous. Note: Poisonous to grazing cattle. Often turns the landscape golden with millions of flowers. Photos: Arivaca Lake in October.

117 Common Monkey Flower Mimulus guttatus a.k.a. Seep Monkeyflower

Figwort Family Annual/Perennial Native Forb

Bloom: Spring, Summer. Flower: Yellow; tubular; 5 lobes (2 upper, 3 lower); to 1� wide; orange-spotted lower lip. Followed by inflated seedpods. Plant: To 3 feet. Leaves: Oval; scalloped; fleshy; opposite. Notes: A variable species. Leaves edible. Habitat: Riparian. Photos: Arivaca Cienega, June.


118 desert Mariposa Calochortus kennedyi Lily Family Perennial Native Forb Arizona Protected Plant

Bloom: Spring. Flower: Primarily bright yellow in Arivaca, however some plants have brilliant orange petals; up to 3” across; three fan-shaped petals with black or purple at base. Plant: To 16”. Stems upright and slender; grows from underground bulb. Leaves: Grayish green; narrowly linear and grass-like with margins curved upward. Habitat: Dry, grassy slopes. Photos: Ruby Road in late April.

119 Mexican Poppy

Eschscholzia mexicana a.k.a. Gold Poppy Poppy Family Annual Native

Bloom: Spring. Flower: Golden yellow, orange and pinkish-white; up to 2” wide; 4 cupshaped petals. Flowers only open in daytime on sunny days. Plant: Up to 1 foot tall, usually less. Leaves: Bluish green; finely dissected. Note: This flower is one of the first of Spring and covers the hills in a riot of color after good winter rains. Photo: Hills NE of Arivaca in April.


120 Plains Flax

Linum puberulum Flax Family Perennial Native Forb Bloom: Spring and after rains. Flower: Golden yellow; to 2� wide; 5 petals with dark red at base. Plant: To 1 foot. Wiry stems. Leaves: Linear; covered with fine hairs giving gray-green appearance. Habitat: Dry, open hills. Photo: Las Guijas foothills in mid-May.

121 Slender Janusia

Cottsia gracilis Malpighia Family Perennial Native Vine Bloom: Spring - long bloom period. Flower: Yellow; up to 1/2� wide; 5 wrinkled, spoon-shaped petals; followed by 3-winged, reddish, hairy seedpods. Plant: Slender, hairy stems twine through other plants. Leaves: Gray-green; hairy; opposite; linear. Photo: Las Guijas foothills in May.


122 Golden Corydalis

Corydalis aurea Fumitory Family a.k.a. Scrambled Eggs, Golden Smoke Annual/Biennial Native Forb Bloom: Spring. Flower: Yellow; inflated spurs; appears to float on stem. Plant: To 1 foot. Leaves: Blue-green; finely dissected - lacy. Note: Poisonous Habitat: Sandy areas Photo: Tres Bellotas Road April.

123 Buffalo Gourd

Cucurbita foetidissima a.k.a. Stinking Gourd Cucumber Family Perennial Native Forb Bloom: Summer. Nocturnal. Flower: Orange-yellow; fuzzy; urn-shaped; 5 ruffly lobes to 4� long. Female flowers followed by green striped gourds that dry to a solid tan. Plant: Trailing to 20 feet from massive taproot. Leaves: Large; triangular; upright on vine; gray-green. Note: Seeds are edible as in pumpkins. Gourds edible when very young. The rest of the foul-smelling plant is poisonous and stinky. Habitat: Open fields. Photo: Ruby Road in August.


124 Melon Loco

Apodanthera undulata Cucumber Family Perennial Native Vine Bloom: Summer. Flower: Yellow; 5-lobes about 1.5� long; followed by green, ridged, bitter melons. Plant: Trailing to 10 feet. A gender diphasic (sex-switching) plant, it switches from having numerous male flowers to larger, solitary female flowers. Leaves: Rounded, hairy and ruffled. Habitat: Dry, rocky or sandy soils. Photo: Bank of wash NE of Arivaca in August.

125 Finger-leaf Gourd

Cucurbita digitata a.k.a. Coyote Melon Cucumber Family Perennial Native Vine Forb Bloom: Summer. Flower: Yellow; star-shaped tubular; open for a short time at dawn; followed by green-striped gourd (perfect for a short game of gourd ball). The fruits turn tan with age. Plant: Trailing to 20 feet from large tuber. Leaves: Pedate (like a bird’s foot) with 5 white-veined lobes. Note: Coyotes eat the seeds of this gourd before it dries out, hence one of the common names. Habitat: Dry and disturbed areas. Photo: Hills NE of Arivaca in late August.


126

Saiya

Amoreuxia palmatifida a.k.a. Mexican Yellowshow Lipstick Tree Family Perennial Native Forb Bloom: Summer; early response to monsoon rains. Flower: Lovely bright yellow-orange; lop-sided. Stamen deep red on one side, yellow on the other. Followed by lantern-like seedpod. Plant: Many stemmed to 12� from large tuber. Leaves: Palmate; toothed. Note: Roots and seeds used by indigenous peoples of US and Mexico for food. Habitat: Rocky slopes. Photo: Hills NE of Arivaca in July.

127 Woolly Tidestromia

Tidestromia lanuginosa Amaranth Family Annual Native

Bloom: Summer. Flower: Light yellow; inconspicuous clustered at leaf axils. Plant: Low; mat-forming; reddish stems with fine white hairs. Leaves: Oval to spoon-shaped; densely covered in woolly, grayishwhite hair. Habitat: Open sunny areas. Note: Considered a weed in cultivated land. Photo: Hills NE of Arivaca.


128 Algerita

Berberis haematocarpa a.k.a. Red Barberry Barberry Family Evergreen Native Shrub Bloom: Spring, Early Summer. Flower: Yellow; 6 petals; 1” wide in clusters; followed by red berries. Plant: To 10 feet. Often grows under larger “nurse” trees when young. Leaves: Graygreen; leathery; sharp spines along leaf margins. Notes: Berries used for jams and jellies. Used medicinally by Native Americans. Photos: Tres Bellotas Road, May; Berries: Arivaca Creek Walk in July.

129 Broom Snakeweed

Gutierrezia sarothrae Sunflower Family Perennial Native Weed (range pest) Bloom: Fall. Flower: Yellow; 3 to 8 rays clustered at the end of branches; resinous. Leaves: Yellow-green; threadlike to 1.5”; undivided. Plant: To 2+ feet; many slender, branching stems with woody base. Note: Poisonous to livestock. Its presence in large numbers indicates poor range management. Used as treatment for snakebite. Bundled, dried stems made primitive brooms. Photo: Hills NE of Arivaca in October.


130 Mexican Palo Verde

Parkinsonia aculeata Pea Family a.k.a. Jerusalem Thorn Native Deciduous Tree Bloom: Spring. Flower: Yellow; 5 pea-like petals to 1� wide; followed by tan pods. Plant: To 20 feet. Spiny trunk and branches are yellow-green allowing photosynthesis year-round. Leaves: Bipinnately compound with 6 to 9� long, needle-like, green midribs and 10 to 40 pairs of small leaflets that are often dropped. Habitat: Along roadways and ditches. Photo: Universal Ranch at Arivaca Road in May.

131 Burroweed

Isocoma tenuisecta Perennial Native Subshrub (range pest)

Sunflower Family

Bloom: Late Summer, Fall. Flower: Golden yellow rayless flower heads in rounded clusters at tips of woody stems. Old flowers dry, turn tan and remain on the plant. Plant: 1 to 3 feet tall. Resinous. Leaves: Gray-green; glanddotted; pinnately-divided with linear, point-tipped lobes. Notes: Poisonous to animals that eat large quantities; foul tasting, usually avoided. Photos: Arivaca Road, August & November.


132 Spreading Fanpetals

a.k.a. Spreading Sida, Prostrate Sida

Sida abutifolia Mallow Family Annual/Perennial Naturalized Forb

Bloom: Spring, Summer, Fall. Flower: Yellow to pale orange; 1� wide; emerging at leaf axils; 5 notched, lopsided, fan-shaped petals. Plant: Trailing up to 2 feet. Stems hairy, prostrate; often reddish brown in color. Leaves: Dark green; hairy; narrow with scalloped edges. Habitat: Roadsides, sandy areas. Photo: Arivaca Cienega in July.

133 Tuberous Sida

Rhynchosida physocalyx a.k.a. Buffpetal, Bladderpod Sida Mallow Family Perennial Native Forb Bloom: Spring, Summer, Fall. Flower: Buff to orangeyellow; 3/4�; 5 petals which overlap and are equal in length to sepals. Plant: Trailing stems from large taproot. Plants covered with scattered hairs. Leaves: Oblong; toothed; alternate; stiffly hairy. Habitat: Where extra moisture is available. Photo: Plant collected in garden NE of Arivaca.


134 Fendler’s Globemallow

Sphaeralcea fendleri Mallow Family Perennial Native Forb Bloom: Spring, Summer, Fall. Flower: Orange or pink; 5 broad, fan-shaped, uncupped petals with notch; flowers on tall, slender stalks. Plant: To 4 feet. Leaves: 3-lobed; hairy; variably scalloped; about twice as long as wide. Photo: Cedar Canyon near Arivaca Lake in October.

135 copper globemallow Sphaeralcea angustifolia a.k.a. Narrowleaf globemallow Mallow Family Perennial Native Forb

Bloom: Summer. Flower: Orange; 5 wedge-shaped petals. Plant: Few to many erect stems. Leaves: Woolly graygreen; lance-shaped; wavy or slightly lobed margins. Photo: Arivaca Cienega Walk in June.


136 Desert Globemallow

Sphaeralcea ambigua Mallow Family

Perennial Native Forb

Bloom: Spring. Flower: Orange; 1 1/2� across; 5 fan-shaped, cupped petals. Plant: To 3 feet. Large, rounded mounds of numerous stems. Leaves: Variable; tri-lobed; ruffled edges; dull green; covered in tiny hairs. Photo: Arivaca Cienega where it meets Ruby Road in April.

137 Mountain Stickleaf Mentzelia asperula Loasa Family Annual Native

Bloom: After summer rains. Flower: Orange; 5 petals; 5 long narrow sepals. Plant: To 1 foot. Leaves: Hairy; alternate; narrow; lobed and toothed. Stick to clothing like Velcro. Habitat: Rocky slopes. Photos: Hills NE of Arivaca.


138 Orange Flame flower

Portulaca suffrutescens Purslane Family

Perennial Native Forb

Bloom: Summer. Flower: Pale orange to coppery orange; 1” across; 5 petals; perched at top of stem in a cluster of round, narrow leaves. Plant: To 1 foot - usually less. Leaves: Succulent; cylindrical; tapering at both ends; round in cross section. Habitat: Dry hillsides. Photo: Hills NE of Arivaca in July.

139 Showy Flame Flower Phemeranthus aurantiacus Purslane Family Perennial Native Forb

Bloom: After monsoon rains. Flower: Orange to reddish-orange; 1” wide; 5 petals. Petals often have red, flame-like streaks. Single flower produced above each leaf up the stalk. Plant: To 16“ tall. Stems fleshy; red-brown. Roots large and tuberous. Leaves: Dark green; succulent; narrowly linear; flattened in cross-section, alternate. Habitat: Dry hills. Photo: Hills NE of Arivaca in August.


140 Caltrop

Kallstroemia grandiflora a.k.a. Arizona poppy, Summer poppy Caltrop family Native Annual Bloom: After summer rains. Flowers: Orange; to 2.5�; 5 petals with raised orange veins; dark red-orange at base. Plant: Sprawling to 3 feet; hairy stems. Leaves: Hairy; pinnate with oval leaflets. Note: Not a true poppy. Habitat: Open fields and hillsides. Photo: Hills NE of Arivaca in September.

141

Supine Bean

Macroptilium supinum Pea Family Perennial Native Forb Bloom: Summer. Flower: Salmon-orange, pea-like blossoms on upright flower stalk. Plant: Stems prostrate; woody at base; from rhizomes. Leaves: Alternate; compound with 3 leaflets. Photo: Open, rocky area in Las Guijas foothills in August.


142

Desert Columbine Aquilegia desertorum Buttercup Family Perennial Native Forb

Bloom: Summer, Fall. Flower: Red sepals with yellow-green tips. Nodding flowers with long spurs. The blades yellow or red and yellow. Spurs red; broad at the base; narrow at tip and straight. Stamen extend beyond the blades. Leaves: Three lobed leaflets. Note: This species is rare in our area. Photos: Arivaca Lake in August and October.

143

DESERT HONEYSUCKLE

Anisacanthus thurberi Acanthus Family Perennial Native Deciduous Shrub Bloom: Spring, Summer. Flower: Orange to red; slender tube with flared petals. Plant: Woody shrub; drought tolerant. Leaves: Dark green; narrow; generally in clusters along branches. Habitat: Along dry washes and canyons. Photo: Wash bank NE of Arivaca in May.


144 Beardlip Penstemon

Penstemon barbatus a.k.a. Scarlet Bugler, Beard Tongue Perennial Native Forb Bloom: Late Spring through Fall. Flower: Red, narrow, tubular ; 2 forwardprojecting upper lobes and lower lip bent down and abruptly back with a golden tuft in the throat. Plant: To 3 feet tall. Flowers along tall stalks. Leaves: Opposite; narrow with wavy edges. Photo: Arivaca Lake early July.

145

scarlet creeper

Ipomoea cristulata a.k.a.:Trans-Pecos Morning Glory Morning Glory Family Annual Native Vine Bloom: Summer. Flower: Red; trumpet-shaped; to 1+� long. Plant: Twining vine. Leaves: 3 to 5 lobes. Note: The similar (Ipomoea hederifolia) a.k.a. Scarlet Creeper is not found in Arizona. Photo: Arivaca Cienega Walk in July.

146 Arizona Thistle

Cirsium arizonicum Sunflower Family Bi-/Perennial Native Forb Bloom: Summer. Flower: Red; slender. Plant: To 4 feet; spiny. Leaves: Gray-green; hairy; alternate; spiny toothed. Photo: Ruby Road in July.


147 Hummingbird Trumpet

Epilobium canum ssp. latifolium Perennial Native Forb

Evening Primrose Family

Bloom: Summer, Fall, Winter. Flower: Bright red; 1.5� long; tubular with 4 notched lobes. Plant: To 2 feet tall; shrubby. Leaves: Linear to oval; slightly hairy and may have toothed edges. Habitat: Protected moist areas. Photo: Arivaca Lake in October.

148

Firecracker Bush

Bouvardia ternifolia a.k.a. Smooth Bouvardia Coffee Family Perennial Native Evergreen Subshrub Bloom: Late Spring to Early Fall. Flower: Scarlet red; narrow to 1.5� long; trumpet-shaped with 4 to 5 lobes; clusters at stem ends. Plant: To 3+ feet; shrubby. Leaves: Ovate, pointed tips; often in whorls of 3. Habitat: Shady, moist hillsides. Photo: Warsaw Canyon just off Ruby Road late July.


149 Scarlet Sage

Stachys coccinea a.k.a. Texas Betony, Scarlet Betony Perennial Native Forb

Mint Family

Bloom: Spring, Summer, Fall. Flower: Scarlet red; tubular to 1.25� long; singlelobed upper lip and a tri-lobed lower lip; in multiple whorls near stem tips. Plant: To 3 feet tall. Stems are square as with most mints. Leaves: Triangular; deeply veined; toothed margins. Photo: by Penny Shepard along Ruby Road in May.

150 Ocotillo

Fouquieria splendens a.k.a. Coach Whip Perennial Native Deciduous Arizona Protected Plant Bloom: Spring. Flower: Red; 1� tubular; clusters at tips of branches. Plant: To 20 feet. Slender branches from base; covered with spines. Leaves: Alternate; oval; appear after rains. Note: On new growth, leaf stalks become spines. Habitat: Rocky, open slopes. Photos: Arivaca Road in April and August.


151 southWestern Coral Bean

Erythrina flabelliformis Bean Family Perennial Deciduous Native Shrub Bloom: Summer. Flower: Red; 3� tubular in showy clusters at tips of the woody stems appearing before the plant leafs out. Flowers followed by large, brown pods with several large, red beans. Plant: To 8 feet. Most of year stems are bare; short, curved spines on stems and leaf stalks. Leaves: Divided into 3 fan-shaped leaflets. Notes: Attracts hmmingbirds. All parts of this plant are poisonous, but the red beans are highly toxic. Habitat: Canyon hillsides. Photos: Tres Bellotas Road. Seed pod photo by Joseph Birkett.

152 Red Maids

Calandrina ciliata a.k.a. Rock Purslane See flower number 56, a white flowered Calandrina for description. Photo: Tres Bellotas Road early Spring.


153 pink baby’s breath

Talinum paniculatum a.k.a. Jewels of Opar Purslane Family Perennial Native Herb

Bloom: Summer. Flowers: Pink; tiny; in spreading panicle; followed by jewel-like fruits. Plant: To 3 ft. tall. Tuberous roots; erect stems. Leaves: Succulent; elliptical; become smaller moving up the stem. Habitat: Moist and shady. Photos: Arivaca Library grounds in August.

154 Red Spiderling

Boerhavia coccinea Four O’Clock Family Perennial Native Forb Bloom: Summer. Flowers: Small scarlet clusters followed by gummy seeds that adhere to clothing. Plant: Prostrate; sprawling to 3 feet; sticky stems. Leaves: Oval; wavy margins; green above, lighter green below; sticky. Habitat: Disturbed areas. Photo: Hills NE of Arivaca in August.


155 Ribbon Four O’Clock

Mirabilis linearis a.k.a. Narrowleaf Four O’Clock Four O’Clock Family Perennial Native Forb Bloom: Spring. Flower: Pale pink to brilliant magenta; funnel-shaped to 3/4” across; 5 rounded, notched lobes; 3 long, often coiled stamens. Plant: To 3 feet tall. Sticky stems; very delicate looking. Leaves: Opposite; grayish green; narrow linear up to 4” long. Habitat: Shaded, moist areas. Photo: Arivaca Lake in May.

156 Trailing Four O’Clock Allionia incarnata

Four O’Clock Family

Annual/Perennial Native Forb

Bloom: Spring into late Summer – very long lasting bloom period. Flower: Magenta; 1” wide; is actually a cluster of 3 bilaterally symmetric flowers. Flowers emerge from leaf axil; deeply scalloped petals. Plant: Prostrate; trailing up to 5 feet; hairy and sticky. Leaves: Hairy; oval; paired opposite each other but unequal in size. Habitat: Open sandy areas. Photos: Hills NE of Arivaca in June.


157 Abert’s Buckwheat

Eriogonum abertianum Buckwheat Family Annual Native Bloom: Spring. Flower: Ball-like cluster of pink/white flowers. Plant: Low; covered in woolly hairs. Leaves: Hairy; prominent midvein; wavy edges. Habitat: Open, sandy soils. Photo: Jalisco Road in April.

158 Skeleton Weed Eriogonum polycladon Annual Native

Bloom: Late Fall. Flower: Pink and white; tiny blossoms along leafless branches. Plant: To 30� tall. Leaves: At base of plant, die back prior to bloom. Note: This is one of many buckwheats in our area; what makes this one notable is the pink to reddish blush of thousands of flowers collectively changing the color of the landscape. Habitat: Washes, flatlands. Photo: Hills NE of Arivaca in November.


159 Lady’s Thumb Polygonum persicaria a.k.a. Smartweed Buckwheat Family Short-lived Naturalized Forb

Bloom: Summer. Flower: Pink to white; dense spike to 2” long. Plant: To 32”. Leaves: Lance-shaped to 6”; clasp stem. Habitat: Marsh areas. Photo: Arivaca Cienega Walk in August.

160 Henbit

Lamium amplexicaule Mint Family Annual/Biennial Naturalized Weed Bloom: Spring, Summer. Flower: Pink, pinkishviolet; tubular; hairy; emerge from bowl-like, leafy bracts in whorls around stem at leaf axils. Plant: To 20”. Square stems. Leaves: Round; hairy; deeply veined; scalloped margins. Upper leaves clasp stem. Habitat: Along washes and moist areas. Photo: Tres Bellotas Road in April.


161 Scarlet Gaura

Gaura coccinea a.k.a. Scarlet Beeblossom Evening Primrose Family Perennial Native Forb Bloom: Spring, Summer. Flower: White, pink, pinkish-red (opens light, darkens with the day). Four asymmetrical, spoon-shaped petals; exotic looking. Plant: To 20� tall. Leaves: Small; alternate; linear. Photos: Closeup -Ruby Road near Nat’l Forest in April; plant Arivaca Cienega Walk in May.

162

Lizard Tail Gaura

Gaura parviflora a.k.a. Tall, Velvet-leaf or Small-flower Gaura Evening Primrose Family Bloom: May to September. Flower: Pink; on long floral spike. Plant: To 6 feet. Often found in dense colonies. Leaves: Wavy edge; oblong; pointed end. Photos: Close - Arivaca Lake; colony - Arivaca Cienega Walk in July.


163 Pink Evening Primrose Evening Primrose Family

Oenothera rosea Perennial Native Forb

Bloom: Spring. Flower: Pink; 4 petals; to 3/4� wide. Plant: To 2 feet. Leaves: Alternate; lance-shaped. Habitat: Moist shaded areas. Photo: Arivaca Cienega Walk in April

164 Rouge plant

Rivina humilis a.k.a. Bloodberry Pokeweed Family Perennial Native Forb Bloom: Summer. Flower: Light pink to white spike; followed by bright red berries. Plant: Leafy; attractive. Notes: Berries contain rouge-like red dye. This plant is poisonous, especially the leaves. Berries favored by birds. Habitat: Moist, shaded areas. Photo: Arivaca Creek Walk, August.


165

Hoary Bindweed

Morning Glory Family

Convolvulus equitans Perennial Native Forb

Bloom: Spring, Summer, Fall. Flower: Pink; 3/4� wide funnel; prominent veins. Plant: Weak, trailing; hairy (hoary)twining stems (photo at right) to 3 feet long. Leaves: Gray-green; hairy; narrow; few. Photos: Ruby Road in April.

166

Crest-rib Morning glory

Ipomoea costellata Morning Glory Family Annual Native Vine Bloom: After summer rains. Flower: Pinkish lavender; funnel-shaped to 1/2� wide; long stalk; light green sepals. Plant: Stems slender; trailing and twining. Leaves: 5 narrow palmate leaflets. Note: Often found with Birdsfoot Morning Glory but overlooked because of similar leaves and small flower. Photo: Plant collected in hills NE of Arivaca in August.


167

Perezia

Acourtia wrightii a.k.a. Brownfoot Sunflower Family

Perennial Native Forb

Bloom: Spring. Flower: Pink-lavender; showy; at end of stems; pleasantly aromatic. Plant: To 3 feet; multi-stemmed. Leaves: Oval to oblong; spiny margins; twisted. Habitat: Rocky canyons. Photo: Tres Bellotas Road in May.

168 Ragged Jatropha

Jatropha macrorhiza Spurge Family a.k.a. Ragged Nettlespurge Perennial Native Forb Bloom: After summer rains. Flower: Pale pink; 5 oval petals; followed by large, 3-seeded capsules. Plant: To 20�. Stems bleed milky sap when broken. Root an enlarged, potato-like tuber. Leaves: Fleshy; palmately-lobed (5 to 7 lobes); ragged, irregularly-toothed margins. Beware: This entire plant is poisonous, especially the seeds which contain a fatal phytotoxin curcin (similar to ricin). Tuberous roots look like potatoes and taste sweet, but are poisonous. Photo: Tres Bellotas Rd in August.


169 Parry’s Penstemon

Penstemon parryi Figwort Family Perennial Native Forb Bloom: Spring. Flower: Magenta; 2 upper and 3 lower lobes; lower lobes project forward; flared tubes with hairy lower “mouth”; along tall spike in spaced whorls. Plant: To 40”. Leaves: Bluish green; smooth; opposite; narrowly triangular; no leaf stalk. Habitat: Where extra moisture is available. Photos: Hills NE of Arivaca in May.

170 Range Ratany

Krameria erecta Ratany Family Perennial Native Subshrub Bloom: Spring, Summer, Fall. Flower: Brilliant magenta; 5 petal-like cupped sepals; bottom sepal is curved up. Plant: To 1+ foot. Low, dense branching. Leaves: Gray-green; linear; small; hairy; alternate. Note: This plant is a partial root parasite on neighboring plants. Habitat: Open, rocky hillsides. Photos: Hills NE of Arivaca in September.


171 Fairy Duster

Calliandra eriophylla a.k.a. Huajilla (o), False mesquite

Pea Family

Perennial Native Shrub

Bloom: Anytime moisture is available. Flower: All shades of pink to pinkish white; round, 2� diameter puffballs are clusters of flowers with long, slender stamens. Plant: 1 to 2 feet tall. Leaves: Bipinnate with tiny leaflets. Note: Important as feed for butterflies, hummingbirds, bees and cattle. Habitat: Open, rocky slopes. Photos: Hills NE of Arivaca in May.

172 Velvetpod Mimosa

Mimosa dysocarpa Perennial Native Deciduous Shrub

Pea Family

Bloom: Summer, Fall. Flower: Pale to dark pink; bottle-brush flower spikes made up of many individual flowers; followed by velvety pods. Plant: To 6 feet, usually 3+ feet. Branches have large, sharp thorns. Leaves: Feathery, bipinnate. Habitat: Open, rocky hillsides. Photo: Jalisco Road in August.


173 Desert Willow

Chilopsis linearis Bignonia Family Perennial Native Deciduous Tree Bloom: Spring, Summer. Flower: Pink to lavender; orchid-like; 5 lobed; tubular; ruffled upper lobes, striped lower lobes; fragrant. Followed by long, slender, brown seed capsules. Plant: To 25 feet. Bark brown; rough-textured. Leaves: Narrow, willow-like; curved; untoothed; to 6” long. Note: Not a true willow. Habitat: Along washes. Photos: Tres Bellotas Road in late May.

174 Owl’s Clover Castilleja exserta Figwort Family Annual Native

Bloom: Spring. Flower: Magenta to purple; dense spike of narrow, hairy, two toned flowers; surrounded by magenta bracts. Plant: To 16”. Leaves: Hairy; thread-like; dense on stem; blend into flower bracts. Habitat: Open areas, flats and slopes. Photo: Hills NE of Arivaca in April.


175 Devil’s Claw

Proboscidea parviflora Unicorn Plant Family Annual Native Bloom: Summer. Flower: Lavender to pink; wide-mouth tubular; to 1” wide; 5 lobes, top two with magenta spots; hairy yellow throat. Followed by curved, fuzzy seedpod which when dry splits to eject seeds. Woody “claw” catches on passersby further distributing the seeds. Plant: To 2 feet. Plump, hairy stems; entire plant feels clammy. Leaves: Hairy; to 6”, generally with wavy, lobed margins. Notes: The immature pod is edible; the seeds taste like melon. Mature seedpods are used for their dark fibers in Tohono O’odham basketry. Habitat: Open hillsides. Photos: Hills NE of Arivaca in August.

176 Verbena

Glandularia gooddingii a.k.a. Goodding’s Verbena Verbena Family Perennial Native Forb Bloom: Spring, Summer, Fall. Flower: Lavender to pink; clustered at stem tips; individual flowers are tubular, 1/2” wide, with 5 notched lobes. Plant: To 1 foot tall. Stems square and hairy. Leaves: Triangular; 3 to 5-lobes; softly hairy. Habitat: Dry open areas, along roads and common along banks of Arivaca Lake. Photo: Ruby Road in May.


177 Stork’s Bill Filaree

Erodium cicutarium a.k.a. Redstem Filaree Geranium Family Annual/Biennial Naturalized weed Bloom: Spring. Flower: Pinkish violet; 1/4” wide; 5 petals; 5 sepals. The fruits look like a stork bill. Mature seeds are point-tipped. When wet they coil and uncoil their tail to self-bury. Plant: Prostrate; reddish, hairy stems sprawl to 15”. Leaves: Pinnate, with cleft leaflets in flat basal rosette. Note: Seeds may be a problem to dogs as the sharp tip and coiling motion cause them to get tangled in dog’s fur then penetrate the skin resulting in pain and/or infection. Habitat: Disturbed sites. Photo: Hills NE of Arivaca in April.

178 Desert Hyacinth

Dichelostemma pulchellum a.k.a. Blue Dicks, Wild Hyacinth Lily Family Perennial Native Forb Bloom: Spring. Flowers: Lavender-blue; clustered atop slender, bare stem. Plant: 10-12” high. Bulb sends a single leaf up in early spring, weeks before leaves and flowering stalks. Leaves: Long; narrow; grass-like. Note: Bulbs, used as food by Native Americans and pioneers, are up to 12” deep. Habitat: Open hillsides. Photo: Hills NW of Arivaca in April.


179 Violet Wild Petunia Ruellia nudiflora Acanthus family Perennial Native Forb

Bloom: Summer Flower: Violet to light purple; in loose terminal clusters; individual flowers tubular to 2.5” long; 5 ruffled; dark purple-streaked lobes - 2 upper and 3 lower. Followed by woody seed capsules that burst open explosively when mature. Plant: To 18”. Stems slender; erect. Leaves: Opposite; generally ovate; to 5” long. Note: Not a true petunia. Photo: Arivaca Cienega Walk along paved entrance path in August.

180 Water Speedwell Figwort Family

Veronica anagallis-aquatica Biennial/Perennial Native Forb

Bloom: Spring, Summer. Flower: Pale violet-blue; tiny 1/4” wide; 4 lobes with dark purple stripes; clustered on short spikes emerging from leaf axils. Plant: To 3+ feet. Leaves: Ovate; smooth; without stalks. Note: Edible raw or cooked. Habitat: Riparian. Photo: Arivaca Creek Walk in Spring growing in dense colonies in the water course.


181

New Mexico Thistle

Cirsium neomexicanum Sunflower Family Biennial/Perennial Native Forb Bloom: Spring. Flower: Lavender; showy; to 3” across; surrounded by spine-tipped bracts. Plant: To 6 feet. Leaves: Pinnately lobed; spiny; to 7” long. Notes: Flowers are an important nectar source for bees and butterflies. Seeds feed finches, etc. The stems are edible, particularly the interior which is not too tough. Habitat: Gravely areas. Photo: Hills NE of Arivaca in April.

182 Wire Lettuce

Stephanomeria pauciflora a.k.a. Brown-plume, Desert Straw Sunflower Family Perennial Native Subshrub Forb Bloom: Spring, Summer, Fall. Flower: Pale pinkish lavender; 3/4” wide; toothed rays; pinkish purple stamens. Plant: To 2 feet tall. Many branched; smooth, wiry stems. Photo: Hills NE of Arivaca in mid-May.


183 Tansy-leaf Aster

Machaeranthera tanacetifolia Sunflower Family

Perennial Native Forb

Bloom: June through November. Flower: Bright lavender; numerous very narrow rays surround a yellow center; to 2” wide; aster-like; at end of branches. Plant: To 16”. Branched stems densely covered with leaves. Leaves: Graygreen; sharp-pointed; deeply cut leaves. Habitat: Dry, open areas. Photo: Hills NE of Arivaca.

184 Silverleaf Nightshade

Solanum elaeagnifolium a.k.a. Purple Nightshade, White Horsenettle Potato Family Perennial Native Forb Bloom: Responds to rain. Flower: Purple to violet-blue; 1”wide; 5 ruffled, wrinkled lobes; 5 non-fused stamens. Followed by green tomato-looking seed pods ripening to yellow. Plant: Generally 1 foot tall; spiny stems. Leaves: Silvery green; wavy edges; alternate; hairy; lanceshaped. Notes: All parts of the plant are poisonous. Habitat: Dry, open areas. Photos: Arivaca Cienega Walk in June.


185

Pink Windmills

Schoenocrambe linearifolia a.k.a. Slimleaf Plains Mustard Mustard Family Perennial Native Forb Bloom: Spring, Summer, Fall. Flower: Lavender to purplish/pink; to 1” wide; spoon-shaped petals; windmill-like; darker colored veins. Plant: To 4 feet. Tall; slender. Leaves: Gray-green; narrow. Photos: Arivaca Lake July and October.

186 Purple Mustard

Chorispora tenella a.k.a. Crossflower, Blue or Musk Mustard Mustard Family Annual Introduced Noxious Weed Bloom: Spring. Flower: Lavendar; to 1” wide; 4 petals in cross emerging from a sepal tube. Plant: To 18”. Unpleasant odor. Leaves: Sticky; oblong with pointed lobes. Photo: Tres Bellotas Road in April.


187 Babyslippers

Hybanthus verticillatus Violet Family Perennial Native Forb Bloom: Spring. Flower: White; tiny; nodding from leaf axil; purple sepals. Plant: 6”tall. Stems erect; leafy. Leaves: Linear. Photo: Ruby Road, dry road cut, late April.

188 Bird’s Foot Morning Glory Ipomoea ternifolia Annual Native Forb

Bloom: After summer rains. Flower: Purple to pink; 2” wide; funnel-shaped with cream to white mouth. Remains open during the daytime. Plant: Vine trailing to 3 feet long. Leaves: Pedately divided (like a bird’s foot) into 3 to 5 narrowly linear primary lobes. Habitat: Grassy hillsides and flats. Photo: Hills NE of Arivaca in September.


189 Bajada Lupine Lupinus concinnus Pea Family Annual Native

Bloom: Spring. Flower: Variable shades of purple; petals edged in deeper colors and fade to white near the base; small pea-like flowers on short spike surrounded by leaves. Plant: To 8�tall, usually less. Entire plant covered in dense woolly hair. Leaves: Palmate with 5 to 9 rounded-tip leaflets. Habitat: Open, sandy areas. Photo: Grassy flat NE of Arivaca in April.

190 Locoweed Astragulus ssp. Pea Family

Bloom: Spring, Summer. Flower: Pea-flower type. Colors in this genus range from creamy white to purple. Seed pods vary from slender to inflated, papery pods. Plant: Generally sprawling from central taproot. Leaves: Pinnately divided. Notes: Poisonous to livestock. Over 6 dozen species of Astragulas in Arizona. Photos: Fraguita Wash area in June. See #95.


191 Prairie clover Dalea ssp.

Bloom: Spring. Flower: Feathery terminal clusters. Plant: Prostrate to 3� high. Leaves: Gray-green; hairy; bipinnate. Photo: Dry cut-bank, Ruby Road, late April.

192 Indigo Bush

Dalea pulchra a.k.a. Dalea, Pea Bush Pea Family Perennial Native Semievergreen Shrub Bloom: Late Spring. Flower: Purple and white; ball-shaped fuzzy clusters with pea-like flowers on terminal spikes. Plant: To 4 feet tall. Leaves: Gray-green; velvety; pinnately compound with 3 to 9 oval, folded leaflets. Habitat: Rocky soils with a bit of extra moisture. Photo: Arivaca Road near town in May.


193

Wild Heliotrope

Phacelia crenulata a.k.a. Scorpionweed, Scalloped Phacelia Waterleaf Family Annual Native Forb Bloom: Spring. Flower: Purple to violetblue; 5 lobed; 1/2” wide; clustered on coiled stem end. Plant: To 18”. Stems hairy; sticky; reddish cast. Leaves: Hairy; undivided; scalloped margins. Note: Crushed leaves smell like onions. Habitat: Dry, open areas. Photos: Various locations.

194 Blue Phacelia

Phacelia distans a.k.a. Distant Phacelia, Scorpion Weed Waterleaf Family Annual Native Bloom: Spring. Flower: Violet-blue to purple; 5 rounded lobes on coiled stem ends. Plant: Generally 6+” tall; hairy stems. Leaves: Divided; fern-like appearance. Note: Forms a lavender carpet under trees. 28 species of Phacelia in Arizona. Habitat: Likes some shade on dry, rocky hills. Photos: Various locations.


195

Arizona Blue Eyes Evolvulus arizonicus Morning Glory Family Native Perennial Forb

Bloom: Spring, Summer. Flowers: Blue; 3/4” wide; flat; ruffled; tubular on slender stalk. Plant: To 1 foot tall. Leaves: Grayish green; narrowly lanceshaped; up to 1” long. Habitat: Dry, open areas. Photo: Hills NE of Arivaca in September.

196 Ivy Leaf Morning Glory

Ipomoea hederacea a.k.a. Woolly Morning Glory Morning Glory Family Annual Non-native Naturalized Vine Bloom: After summer rains. Flower: Blue (sometimes purple, magenta, white); funnel-shaped; up to 2” wide; 5 long, slender, hairy sepals. Only open in morning. Plant: Climbing to 8 feet. Stems slender; hairy; twining. Leaves: Hairy; usually 3-lobed, also 5-lobed or heart-shaped. Habitat: Open areas. Photo: Dry wash NE of Arivaca.


197 Blue Gilia

Ipomopsis longiflora a.k.a. Blue Starflower, White Gilia Phlox family Annual/Biennial Native Forb Bloom: In response to rains. Flower: Pale violet-blue to white; 5 point-tipped lobes at right angles to the long, narrow tube. Plant: To 18 “tall. Stems slender. These plants are so thin and wispy that they are difficult to spot unless flowering. Leaves: Threadlike. Habitat: Dry open areas. Photo: 10 mile marker Arivaca Road in April.

198

Blue-eyed Grass

Sisyrinchium demissum Lily Family

Perennial Native Forb

Bloom: Spring. Flower: Dark blue; 6 pointed petals. Plant: Generally upright (this one is in the path and was trod upon). Leaves: Long, narrow, grass-like appearance. Photo: Arivaca Cienega beside boardwalk in May.


199 White mouth DayFlower

Spiderwort Family

Commelina erecta

Perennial Native Forb

Bloom: Summer. Flower: Blue; 1” wide; enclosed by a hairy, green, boat-shaped spathe (a leaf-like bract); these 3-petaled flowers have 2 blue side petals and a small, white lower petal. Plant: To 1 foot tall. Leaves: Alternate; linear to lance-shaped. Habitat: Heavy shade in moist soils. Photo: Arivaca Creek Walk late July.

200 Barestem Larkspur

Delphinium scaposum Buttercup Family Perennial Native Forb Bloom: Spring. Flower: Royal blue on a tall, slender, leafless stalk; individual flowers are 1” wide with 1 white petal, 3 blue petals, 5 blue, petal-like sepals, and a long, backward-projecting spur. Plant: To 32” tall. Leaves: Occurring at the base only; palmately divided into round-tipped lobes. Note: The entire plant is poisonous as are most Delphiniums. Habitat: Open, rocky hillsides. Photo: Hills NE of Arivaca in April.


201 Desert Lupine

Lupinus sparsiflorus a.k.a. Coulter’s Lupine Pea Family Annual Native Bloom: Late Winter through Spring. Flower: Violet-blue; pea-like; on hairy flower spikes. Individual flowers have spotted throat that becomes magenta-tinged with age. Lower keel petal curves upward. Plant: To 16” tall. Leaves: Palmate; 7 to 9 narrow, partially folded leaflets. Leaflets hairy on topside, especially near edges. Note: Entire plant is poisonous, especially the seeds. Photo: by Rich Milinovitch - Ruby Road near Nat’l Forest boundary in April.

202 Blue Toadflax

Nuttallanthus texanus Figwort Family Annual/Biennial Native Forb Bloom: Late Winter through Spring. Flower: Pale blue-violet; tiny; 2-lobed upper lip, 3-lobed lower lip; long downcurved spur at back of flower; on tall, slender stem. Plant: To 32” tall. Leaves: Linear; narrow; mainly at the base of plant. Habitat: Open areas. Photo: Cota Road in April


203 Arizona Passionflower Passiflora arizonica Annual Native Vine

Bloom: After monsoon rains. Flower: White with large lilac to blue filaments giving the flower a blue hue; to 2� across. Night blooming, very showy at dawn, but soon fades. Plant: Up to 8+ feet long; hairy; coiling tendrils. Leaves: Hairy; maple leaf-like; saw-tooth lobes. Habitat: Rock outcrops. Photo: Las Guijas foothills in September, (too late in the morning).

204 palmer’s BlueStar

Amsonia palmeri Dogbane Family Perennial Native Subshrub Bloom: Spring. Flowers: Very light blue; star-shaped; in terminal clusters. Plant: to 2 feet. Leaves: Dark green; slightly hairy; linear. Habitat: Along watercourses or also found on shaded hillsides where extra moisture is available. Photo: Chimnea Canyon east of Arivaca Lake in April.


Leaves Bipinnate - a compound leaf that is divided to its mid-rib, then divided again with leaflets on secondary midribs. Pinnate - a compound leaf divided to its mid-rib with leaflets attached to that rib.

Lobed: A leaf blade segmented but not fully cut to the mid-rib. May be 2, 3, 5 or more lobes.

Palmate - leaf blade segmented and arranged hand-like with leaflets attached and radiating from a central point.

Leaf Axil - the point at which the leaf joins the stem. Lance-shaped long, narrow and pointed at the ends.

Linear long and narrow with margins parallel to midrib for most of the length.


flowers Disk flowers Ray flowers.

Sepal

Petal

Bract - Sunflower family Stamen

{

Anther Filament

Areole - the raised area on cactus where the spines emerge.

Funnel-like flowers have broad openings into tube of united petals.

Pea-like - flower with 5 petals - a banner, two wings and a 2-part keel .

Trumpet-like flowers have a long tubular section behind flared, united petals.


References Plants that are protected under Arizona state law are noted in the description. For a complete list go to: www.azda.gov/esd/nativeplants.htm To conserve space alternative scientific names were not included. To find synonyms visit http://swbiodiversity.org/seinet.

Resources used in research for this book: Austin, Daniel F. 2010. Baboquivari Mountain Plants, Identification, Ecology and Ethnobotany, The University of Arizona Press, Tucson. Benson, Lyman. 1977. The Cacti of Arizona. University of Arizona Press, Tucson, AZ. Benson, Lyman and Darrow, Robert A. 1981. Trees and Shrubs of the Southwestern Deserts. University of Arizona Press, Tucson, AZ. Epple, Anne Orth. 1995. A Field Guide to the Plants of Arizona. Falcon Press Publishing Co., Inc., Helena, MT. Kearney, Thomas H. & Peebles, Robert H. 1979. Arizona Flora. University of California Press, Berkley, CA. Niehaus/Ripper/Savage. 1984. Southwestern and Texas Wildflowers, Peterson Guide, Houghton Mifflin Company. Parker, Kittie F. 1972. An Illustrated Guide to Arizona Weeds. University of Arizona Press, Tucson, AZ. Quinn, Meg. 2000. Wildflowers of the Desert Southwest. Rio Nuevo Publishers, Tucson, AZ. Spellenberg, Richard, 2003. Sonoran Desert Wildflowers. The Globe Pequot Press, Guilford, CT.

James Reveal, retired professor, Univ. Maryland; adjunct professsor at Cornell contacted for an identification. On the World Wide Web: http://www.fireflyforest.com/flowers An excellent resourse for our area. http://www.desertmuseumdigitallibrary.org/public/species.php?c=plants http://plants.usda.gov http://www.delange.org/ArizWFlowers http://www.wildflower.org http://swbiodiversity.org/seinet


Index of Common Names a

Acacia Catclaw 77 Fern 76 Whiteball 76 Agave Palmer’s 7 Schott’s or Shindagger 6 Algerita 128 Amaranth Sonoran Globe 34 Tufted Globe 33 American Threefold 114 Antelope Horns 66 Arizona Blue Eyes 195 Arizona Fishhook 13 Arizona Poppy 140 Arizona Rainbow Cactus 16 Arizona Thistle 146 Aster Baby 58 Lacy Tansy 110 Tansyleaf 183

b

Baby Aster 58 Babyslippers 187 Bahia, Silverleaf 107 Bajada Lupine 189 Banana Yucca 5 Barberry, Red 128 Barestem Larksbur 200 Barrel, Fishhook 17 Beard-tongue 144 Beard-lip Penstemon 144 Beargrass 2 Bedstraw, Common 28 Bee Brush 72 Beeblossom, Scarlet 161 Beehive Cactus, Golden Crested 14 Beggarticks, Arizona 99 Bindweed Field 50 Hoary 165

Bird’s Foot Morning Glory 188 Bladderpod Gordon’s or Mustard 85 Sida 133 Blanket Flower, Red-dome 100 Bloodberry 164 Blue Dicks 178 Blue-Eyed Grass 198 Blue Gilia 197 Blue Phacelia 194 Blue Starflower 197 Blue Toadflax 202 Bluestar, Palmer’s 204 Bluestem Prickly Poppy 46 Bottle Evening Primrose 97 Bouvardia, Smooth 148 Broom Snakeweed 129 Brownfoot 167 Brown-plume 182 Buckweat, Wild 38 Buckwheat, Abert’s 157 Buffalo Bur 96 Buffalo Gourd 123 Buffpetal 133 Bundleflower, Cooley’s 75 Burroweed 131 Buttercup, Large 98 Butterweed, Lemmon’s 108

c

Caltrop 140 Cane Cholla 11 Canyon Cotton 70 Catclaw Acacia 77 Catclaw Mimosa 79 Chicory, Desert 60 Chiricahua Milk Spurge 26 Cholla Cane 11 Staghorn 10 Climbing Milkweed 68 Coach Whip 150 Columbine, Desert 142


Copper Globemallow 135 Coral Bean, Southwest 151 Corydalis, Golden 122 Cotton, Desert, Wild or Canyon 70 Coulter’s Hibiscus 80 Coulter’s Lupine 201 Cowboy’s Fried Eggs 46 Coyote Melon 125 Crest-rib Morning Glory 166 Crossflower Mustard 186 Croton, New Mexico 25 Cudweed, White 55

d

Daisy, Woolly 57 Dalea 192 Dandelion, Fendler’s 101 Datil Yucca 5 Dayflower, Whitemouth 199 Desert Broom 71 Desert Chicory 60 Desert Cotton 70 Desert Globemallow 136 Desert Honeysuckle 143 Desert Hyacinth 178 Desert Lupine 201 Desert Marigold 109 Desert Mountain Manihot 20 Desert Senna 92 Desert Spoon 1 Desert Straw 182 Desert Willow 173 Desert Zinnia 54 Devil’s Claw 175 Doubting Mariposa Lily 41 Dwarf Milkweed 64

E

Elderberry, Mexican 74 Engelmann’s Prickly Pear 8 Evening Primrose Pink 163 Tufted or Stemless 61 Bottle, Spring or Yellow 97

f

Fairy Duster 171 False Mesquite 171

Fanpetals, Spreading 132 Fendler’s Dandelion 101 Fern Acacia 76 Fiddleneck 82 Field Bindweed 50 Filaree, Stork’s-bill 177 Fingerleaf Gourd 125 Firecracker Bush 148 Fishhook Barrel Cactus 17 Fishhook Pincusion 13 Flame Flower Orange 138 Showy 139 Flax, Plains 120 Fleabane, Spreading or Desert 52 Flixweed 83 Four O’Clock Longflower or Sweet 49 Ribbon 155 Trailing 156

g

Galliardia, Slender 100 Gaura Lizard Tail, Tall, Small-flower 162 Scarlet 161 Gilia, Blue or White 197 Globemallow Copper or Narrowleaf 135 Desert 136 Fendler’s 134 Goat-Head 87 Golden Crested Beehive Cactus 14 Golden Smoke 122 Goldeneye, Annual 116 Goldenrod, Sparse-flowered 106 Goodding’s Verbena 176 Gourd Buffalo or Stinking 123 Coyote 125 Graham’s Nipple Cactus 13 Grape, Arizona or Canyon 39 Groundsel, Lemmon’s 108

H

Hairy Deer Vetch 90 Hairy Fournwort 30 Hedgehog, Pink-flowered 15 Heliotrope, Wild 193


Henbit 160 Hibiscus, Coulter 80 Hoary Bindweed 165 Honeysuckle, Desert 143 Horehound 35 Horsetail Milkweed 67 Huajilla 171 Hummingbird Trumpet 147

I

Indigo Bush 192 Ivy Leaf Morning Glory 196

j

Janusia, Slender 121 Jatropa, Ragged 168 Jersalem Thorn 130 Jewels of Opar 153 Jimsonweed 48

k

Kidneywood 78

l

Lacy Tansy Aster 110 Lady’s Thumb 159 Larkspur, Bare Stem 200 Leatherweed 25 Lemmon’s Butterweed, Ragwort or Groundsel 108 Lizard Tail Gaura 162 Locoweed 190 London Rocket 84 Longflower Four O’Clock 49 Longleaf Morning Glory 51 Lotus, Green’s 91 Lupine Bajada 189 Coulter’s or Desert 201

M

Mala Mujer 27 Manihot, Desert Mountain 20 Marigold, Desert 109 Mariposa. Desert 118 Doubting 41

Matweed, Small 32 McDougal’s Nipple Cactus 12 Melon Melon Loco 124 Coyote 125 Mexican Elderberry 74 Mexican Fireplant 22 Mexican Gold Poppy 119 Mexican Palo Verde 130 Mexican Passion Flower 19 Mexican Thistle 96 Mexican Yellow Show 126 Milk Spurge, Chiricahua 26 Milk Vetch 95 Milkweed Antelope Horn 66 Arizona 63 Climbing 68 Mojave 65 Horsetail or Poison 67 Pine-needle 62 Western Whorled 67 White Rim or Dwarf 64 Milkwort, Velvetseed 18 Mimosa Catclaw 79 Velvetpod 172 Mojave Milkweed 65 Monkey Flower, Common 117 Morning Glory Bird’s Foot 188 Crest-rib 166 Ivy Leaf or Woolly 196 Longleaf or Pink Throat 51 Scarlet Creeper 145 Mountain Stickleaf 137 Mountain Yucca 4 Mule Fat 73 Mustard Bladderpod 85 Blue, Musk or Purple 186 Crossflower 186 Slimleaf Plains 185 Tansy 83

N

Narrowleaf Globemallow 135 New Mexico Croton 25 Nightshade, Silverleaf 184 Nipple Cactus, McDougal’s 12


O

Ocotillo 150 Odora 69 Onionweed 42 Orange Flame Flower 138 Owl’s Clover 174

P

Palmer’s Agave 7 Palmer’s Bluestar 204 Palo Verde, Mexican 130 Parry’s Penstemmon 169 Partridge-pea, Sensitive 88 Passion Flower, Arizona 203 Passion Flower, Mexican 19 Pea Bush 192 Pearly Everlasting 55 Penstemon Beard-lip or Beard-tongue 144 Parry’s 169 Peppergrass 44 Pepperweed 43 Perezia 167 Petunia, Violet Wild 179 Phacelia Blue or Distant 194 Scalloped leaf 193 Pincushion, Desert 53 Pine-needle Milkweed 62 Pink Baby’s Breath 153 Pink Throat Morning Glory 51 Pink-flowered Hedgehog 15 Poinsettia Desert 21 Wild 22 Poison Milkweed 67 Popcorn Flower 31 Poppy Arizona or Summer 140 Gold 119 Mexican 119 Prickly 46 Prairie Clover 191 Prickly Lettuce 102 Prickly Pear Engelmann’s 8 Santa Rita 9 Prickly Poppy, Bluestem 46 Primrose Bottle Evening 97

Pink Evening 163 Spring Evening 97 Stemless Evening 61 Tufted Evening 61 Yellow Evening 97 Prostrate Sida 133 Puncture Vine 87 Purslane Common or Garden 86 Rock or Red Maids 52

R

Ragged Jatropa 168 Ragged Nettlespurge 168 Ragwort, Lemmon’s 108 Rainbow Cactus 16 Ratany, Range 170 Rattlebox, Low 94 Rattlesnake Weed 23 Red Barberry 128 Red Maids 152 Red Spiderling 154 Redstem Filaree 177 Ribbon Four O’Clock 155 Rock Purslane 56 Rock Trumpet 47 Rosemallow, Desert 80 Rouge Plant 164

S

Sacred Datura 48 Sagebrush, White 104 Saiya 126 Santa Rita Prickly Pear 9 Scarlet Beeblossom 161 Scarlet Betony 149 Scarlet Bugler 144 Scarlet Creeper 145 Scarlet Gaura 161 Scarlet Sage 149 Schott’s Agave 6 Scorpion Weed 193, 194 Scrambled Eggs 122 Seep Monkey Flower 117 Seep Willow 73 Senna Desert 92 Slim pod 93 Shindagger 6 Showy Flame Flower 139


Sida Prostrate or Spreading 132 Tuberous or Bladderpod 133 Silver Puffs 103 Silverleaf Bahia 107 Silverleaf Nightshade 184 Skeleton Weed 158 Slender Gaillardia 100 Slimleaf Plains Mustard 185 Slimpod Senna 93 Smartweed 159 Smooth Bouvardia 148 Snakeweed, Broom 129 Soapberry Tree, Western 81 Soaptree Yucca 3 Sonoran Globe Amaranth 34 Sotol 1 Sow Thistle, Common 112 Spiny 111 Sparse-Flowered Goldenrod 106 Speedwell, Water 180 Spiderling, Red 154 Spreading Fanpetals 132 Spreading Sida 133 Spring Evening Primrose 97 Spurge, Spotted 24 Staghorn Cholla 10 Starflower, Blue 197 Stemless Evening Primrose 61 Stickwilly 28 Stickleaf, Mountain 137 Stinking Gourd 123 Stork’s-bill Filaree 177 Summer Poppy 140 Sunflower, Annual 115 Supine Bean 141 Sweet Four-O-Clock 49 Sweetclover, Yellow 89

T

Tackstem, White 59 Tansy Mustard 83 Tansyleaf Aster 183 Texas Betony 149 Thimblehead, Yellow 105 Thistle Arizona 146 Mexican 96 New Mexico 181

Yellow Star 113 Thornapple 48 Tidestromia, Woolly 127 Trailing Four O’Clock 156 Trixis 114 Tufted Globe Amaranth 33 Twinevine, Fringed 68

V

Velvetpod Mimosa 172 Velvetseed Milkwort 18 Verbena, Goodding’s 176 Violet Wild Petunia 179

W

Wait-A-Minute Bush 79 Watercress, White 40 Water-parsnip, Cutleaf 36 White Brush 72 White Gilia 197 White-margin Spurge 23 White Rim Milkweed 64 Whiteball Acacia 76 Whorled Milkweed, Western 67 Wild Cotton 70 Wild Heliotrope 193 Willow Desert 173 Seep 73 Windmills, Pink 185 Wire Lettuce 182 Wool Star, Miniature 37 Woolly Morning Glory 196 Woolly Tidestromia 127 Woolly Daisy 57 Wormwood, Silver 104 Wrightwort, Arizona 29

Y&Z

Yerba Mansa 45 Yucca Banana or Datil 5 Mountain 4 Soaptree 3 Zinnia, Desert or White 54


Index of Scientific Names Acacia angustissima 76 Acacia greggi 77 Acourtia wrightii 167 Agave palmerii var. palmerii 7 Agave schotti 6 Allionia incarnata 156 Aloysia lycioides 72 Amoreuxia palmatifida 126 Amsinckia menziesii 82 Amsonia palmeri 204 Anemopsis californica 45 Anisacanthus thurberi 143 Apodanthera undulata 124 Aquilegia desertorum 142 Argemone pleiacantha 46 Artemisia ludoviciana 104 Asclepias angustifolia 63 Asclepias asperula 66 Asclepias involucrata 64 Asclepias linaria 62 Asclepias nyctaginifolia 65 Asclepias subverticillata 67 Asphodelus fistulosus 42 Astragalus ssp 95 & 190 Baccharis salicifolia 73 Baccharis sarothroides 71 Bahia absinthifolia 107 Baileya multiradiata 109 Berberis fremontii 128 Berula erecta 36 Bidens aurea 99 Boerhavia coccinea 154 Bouvardia ternifolia 148 Calandrinia ciliata 152 Calliandra eriophylla 171 Calochortus ambiguus 41 Calochortus kennedyi 118 Calycoseris wrightii 59 Carlowrightia arizonica 29 Castilleja exserta 174 Centaurea solstitiali 113 Chaenactis stevoides 53 Chamaecrista nictitans 88 Chamaesyce florida 26 Chamaesyce maculata 24 Chilopsis linearis 173 Chorispora tenella 186 Cirsium arizonicum 146

Cirsium neomexicanum 181 Cnidoscolus angustidens 27 Commelina erecta 199 Convolvulus arvensis 50 Convolvulus equitans 165 Corydalis aurea 122 Coryphantha recurvata 14 Cottsia gracilis 121 Crotalaria pumila 94 Croton pottsii 25 Cryptantha sp 31 Cucurbita digitata 125 Cucurbita foetidissima 123 Cylindropuntia spinosior 11 Cylindropuntia versicolor 10 Dalea pulchra 192 Dalea ssp. 191 Dasylirion wheeleri 1 Datura wrightii 48 Delphinium scaposum 200 Descurainia sophia 83 Desmanthus cooleyi 75 Dichelostemma pulchellum 178 Echinocereus fendleri var. rectispinus 15 Echinocereus rectispinus 16 Epilobium canum ssp. latifolium 147 Eriastrum diffusum 37 Erigeron divergens 52 Eriogonum abertianum 157 Eriogonum inflatum 38 Eriogonum polycladon 158 Eriophyllum lanosum 57 Erodium cicutarium 177 Erythrina flabelliformis 151 Eschscholzia mexicana 119 Euphorbia albomarginata 23 Evolvulus arizonicus 195 Eysenhardtia orthocarpa 78 Ferocactus wislizenii 17 Fouquieria splendens 150 Funastrum cynanchoides 68 Gaillardia pinnatifida 100 Galium aprine 28 Gaura coccinea 161 Gaura parviflora 162 Glandularia gooddingii 176 Gomphrena caespitosa 33 Gomphrena sonorae 34


Gossypium thurberi 70 Guilleminea densa 32 Gutierrezia sarothrae 129 Helioanthus annus 115 Heliomeris longifolia 116 Hibiscus coulteri 80 Hybanthus verticillatus 187 Hymenothrix wislizeni 105 Ipomoea ternifolia 188 Ipomoea costellata 166 Ipomoea cristulata 145 Ipomoea hederacea 196 Ipomoea longiflora 51 Ipomopsis longiflora 197 Isocoma tenuisecta 131 Jatropha macrorhiza 168 Kallstroemia grandiflora 140 Krameria erecta 170 Lactuca serriola 102 Lamium amplexicaule 160 Lepidium thurberi 43 Lepidium virginicum 44 Lesquerella gordonii 85 Leucelene ericoides 58 Linum puberulum 120 Lotus greenei 91 Lotus humestratus 90 Lupinus concinnus 189 Lupinus sparsiflorus 201 Machaeranthera tanacetifolia 183 Macroptilium supinum 141 Macrosiphonia macrosiphon 47 Malacothrix fendleri 101 Mammillaria grahamii 13 Mammillaria macdougalii 12 Manihot angustiloba 20 Marrubium vulgare 35 Melilotus indicus 89 Mentzelia asperula 137 Microseris linerifolia 103 Mimosa aculeaticarpa var. biuncifera Mimosa dysacarpa 172 Mimulus guttatus 117 Mirabilis linearis 155 Mirabilis longiflora 49 Nolina microcarpa 2 Nuttallanthus texanus 202 Oenothera caespitosa 61 Oenothera primaveris 97 Oenothera rosea 163 Opuntia engelmanni 8 Opuntia santa rita 9 Parkinsonia aculeata 130

79

Passiflora arizonica 203 Passiflora mexicana 19 Penstemon barbatus 144 Penstemon parryi 169 Phacelia crenulata 193 Phacelia distans 194 Phemeranthus aurantiacus 139 Poincettia cuphosperma 21 Poincettia heterophylla 22 Polygala obscura 18 Polygonum persicaria 159 Porophyllum gracile 69 Portulaca oleracea 86 Portulaca suffrutescens 138 Proboscidea parviflora 175 Pseudognaphalium leucocephalum 55 Rafinesquia neomexicana 60 Ranunculus macroanthus 98 Rhynchosida physocalyx 133 Rivina humilis 164 Rorippi nasturtium-aquaticum 40 Ruellia nudiflora 179 Sambucus nigra ssp. Cerulea 74 Sapindus drummondii 81 Schoenocrambe linearifolia 185 Senecio lemmonii 108 Senna covesii 92 Senna lindheimeriana 93 Sida abutifolia 132 Sisymbrium irio 84 Sisyrinchium demmisum 198 Solanum elaeagnifolium 184 Solanum rostratum 96 Solidago velutina ssp. sparsiflora 106 Sonchus aspera 111 Sonchus oleraceus 112 Sphaeralcea ambigua 136 Sphaeralcea angustifolia 135 Sphaeralcea fendleri 134 Stachys coccinea 149 Stephanomeria pauciflora 182 Talinum paniculatum 153 Tetramerium nervosum 30 Tidestromia lanuginosa 127 Tribulus terrestris 87 Trixis californica 114 Veronica anagallis-aquatica 180 Vitis arizonica 39 Xanthisma spinulosum var. gooddingii 110 Yucca bacata 5 Yucca elata 3 Yucca schotti 4 Zinnia acerosa 54


nombres vulgaris 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 13 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 34 35 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48

sotol sacahuista palmilla, yuca, sota soco, yuca datil amole lechuguilla nopal duraznilla, nopal morado cholla [choya] tasajo cabeza de viejo cabeza de viejo biznaga de agua poligala itamo real pata de gallo golondrina casalina [catalina] golondrina hierba de paloma encinilla golondrina mala mujer cuajaleche ramoneada flor blanco hierba peludita tapeta amor de rato cordon del obispo marrubio trompeta del desierto uva del monte berro mariposa gamoncillo, gamonita lentesilla pasote hierba del mansa, yerba del manzo chicalote san juanito toloache

49 maravilla 50 correhuela, garrotilla 51 estrella de la mañana 52 hierba pulguera 53 xantiana de Chaenactis 54 zinia del desierto 55 gordolobo 58 rosa de los páramos 61 onagra , borriquera, hierba del asno 62 hierbo de cuervo 63 talayote 66 hierba lechosa, talayote 67 hierba lelchosa 68 güirote 69 hierba del venado 70 algadoncillo 71 romerillo 72 canelilla, hierba dulce, vara dulce 73 batamote 74 tápiro 76 guajillo 77 uña del gato 78 palo cuate, rosilla 79 gatuño, gatuña 80 tulipán, hibisco 81 amolillo, jaboncillo 82 cedkam 83 Pamita 84 pamito 86 verdolaga 87 meliloto , trébol de olor 88 loto 89 loto 92 ejotillo 93 hierba de piojo 94 tronador 95 hierba loca 96 mala mujer 97 onagra 99 té de milpas 100 árnica


102 lechuga silvestre 103 hierba de Pasmo 104 estafiate 105 flor de papel 106 vara de oro 109 hierba amarilla 111 chinita 112 chinita 114 hierba de pasmo 115 girasol, mirasol, flor de sol 116 tacote 117 lama 118 cobena amarilla 119 amapolita del campo 120 lino 121 fermina 122 corídale 123 calabaza amargosa 124 melón loco 125 chichicoyote 126 saiya 127 hierba ceniza 128 palo amarillo 129 escoba de la víbora 130 guacaporo 132 malva 134 mal de ojo, yerba de la negrita 135 mal de ojo, malva 136 mal de ojo, malva 137 pega-pega 139 falsa verdolaga 140 baiburín, baiborín 141 frijol 142 colombina del desierto 143 cola de gallo, chuparrosa 144 pichelitos, jarritos 145 trompillo, quiebraplato 146 cardo santo 148 trompetilla 149 betónica 150 ocotillo 151 chilicote 153 rama de sapo, verdolaga 154 juaninipili 155 maravilla 156 hierba de la golpe

157 cenicillo narajana 158 trompeta del desierto 159 hierba pejiguera 160 lamio 161 linda tarde, hierba del golpe 162 latiguillos 163 yerba del golpe 164 coralillo 165 correhuela 166 trompeta 168 sangre de drago 169 pichelitos 170 cósahui,mezquitillo 171 huajillo, pelo de ángel 172 gatúno 173 mimbre, jano, janos 174 escobita 175 cuernitos 176 verbena 177 alfilerillo 178 cobena, coveria 179 cuetito 180 verónica de arroyos, bérula 181 cardo 182 pionilla 184 mariola 187 hierba de San Nicolás, tripas de ratón 188 trompetillo 189 trébola, lupino 190 cascabelito 192 popotillo 193 phacelia 194 phacelia 195 oreja de ratón 196 trompillo 198 hierba de ojos azules 199 hierba de pollo 200 espuelita cimarrona 201 chicharito, lupino 202 linaria 203 ojo de venado 204 estrella azul


T

he wildflowers in this book were photographed within a 10-mile radius of Arivaca as shown on this map.

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Arivaca

Buenos Aires Nat’l Wildlife Refuge

Arivaca Creek Walk Arivaca Cienega Walk

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Arivaca Lake

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About the Author

M

aggie Milinovitch, an Arizona native, has lived in the hills NE of Arivca since 1980. For the majority of those 30 years she has gone out daily hiking the hills observing the desert in all its seasons. For the past 25 years she has published Arivaca’s Connection newspaper.


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