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On the fly at Clarendon

NATIONAL TRUST

Australia

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19 A Lizard Island Tragedy

22 Hit the Roof at Rippon Lea

Koonamore’s natural delights


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Discover Australiaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s National Trust heritage places and have a great day out! National Trust members gain FREE and discounted entry* *except for special events

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Inside

with editor Gina Pickerin g

Vol 6 No 2 2013 Trust News is published quarterly for National Trust members and subscribers in February, May, August and November. Publication is coordinated by the National Trust of Australia (WA) on behalf of the National Trusts of Australia and supported by the Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities. National Trust of Australia (WA) ABN 83 697 381 616 PO Box 1162 West Perth WA 6872 T: 08 9321 6088 F: 08 9324 1571 W:www.ntwa.com.au Editor: Gina Pickering gina.pickering@ntwa.com.au T: 08 9321 6088 Advertising: For advertising rates, contact the Editor.

may – july 2013

Partnerships are vital to the National Trust’s work. In this edition, we explore some innovative collaborations which include the new Australian Fly Fishing Museum at Clarendon, the preservation of an endangered Aboriginal language in the WA Goldfields and a chance to be part of a landmark roofing project at Rippon Lea in Victoria. 2013 is a year for anniversaries which

Cover: An exhibit from the new Australian Fly Fishing Museum. M Stevens

highlight the values of some fascinating National

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Queensland’s

properties,

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heritage

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transformed the nation. There’s a compelling perspective on Lizard Island gained through a tragic Please help us to save our environment and circulate this magazine as widely as possible. This magazine is printed on recyclable paper and packed in 100% degradable wrap. The views expressed in Trust News are not necessarily those of the National Trusts or the Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities. The articles in this magazine are subject to copyright. No article may be used without the consent of the National Trust and the author.

Pressures on Australia’s Priceless Indigenous Rock Art

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Talking it up on the Goldfields

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On the Fly at Clarendon

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A Fabulous Heritage Festival

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A Tragedy on Lizard Island

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New Plan for Perth’s Riverscape

Greetings

Design: Dessein Graphics

Next Issue: August 2013 Copy deadline:10 June 2013

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my W o r d

ISSN: 1835-2316

story, while Perth’s riverscape is the focus of new cultural plan.

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Australia’s mining heritage

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A Trans Australian transformation

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Rippon Lea raises the roof

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Milestones: Hou Wang Temple - 110 Years Old

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Natural treasures of Koonamore

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Experiment Farm Cottage: open to the public for 50 years

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New prospects for Stamford Park

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Celebrating Lindesay at Darling Point

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Australia’s World Heritage Convict Sites

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National Trust Way Holiday Tours

Enjoy Gina Pickering | Editor

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Pressures on Australia’s Priceless Indigenous Rock Art Greg Hunt MP | Shadow Minister for Climate Action, Environment and Heritage

Australia’s built and natural heritage is crucially important to our sense of who we are and our place in the world.

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s well as contributing to the aesthetic of our everyday lives, our heritage serves as a potent reminder of our cultural identity and as an important point of permanence in a constantly changing world. In terms of cultural heritage, Australia is fortunate to be home to one of the oldest living cultures on earth. Our oldest surviving Indigenous rock art is believed to be up to 30,000-40,000 years old and it is estimated that we have at least 100,000 rock art sites. New sites are being discovered every year. Our rock art forms a rich legacy of thousands of years of Indigenous culture. It provides an important record of the history, stories and beliefs of the earliest human beings to occupy this continent and, in that respect, is of world significance. During a visit to Kununurra late last year I met with local Indigenous elders and, among other issues, we discussed the rich rock art heritage of the region. The elders were keen to discuss some of the threats and challenges to the preservation of rock art in the area, including the inadvertent effect of uncontrolled, highintensity burning on vulnerable rock art sites. Elders have also talked about stopping unauthorised

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burning being done in their name. It is clear that we need to give serious consideration to these concerns. One of the ways in which we might address this threat is with smaller, low-intensity burning of northern Australia’s savannah land. The frequency and severity

of both wildfire and uncontrolled fire later in the dry season can be significantly reduced by carrying out controlled burns early in the dry season, soon after the rains have finished. This practice is consistent with traditional Indigenous land management practices and has the added benefit of allowing pastoralists and Indigenous land owners to earn income in the form of carbon credits under the Carbon Farming Initiative. This is potentially one way in which we can work with traditional owners to help preserve our priceless Indigenous rock art. There is more work to be done in this field, however, in terms of a comprehensive study into the threats to our Indigenous rock art sites and what needs to be done to ensure their preservation. Above all, it is important that we work closely with Indigenous elders on finding the most appropriate methods of addressing these concerns. Australia’s Indigenous heritage is an important and cherished part of our national culture, as integral to our sense of who we are as our British heritage. We need to ensure that this rich and ancient element of our national heritage is protected and preserved for future generations.

Style Bradshaw/Gwion figures which have an estimated age between 17,000 and 30,000 years. D Goodgame

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Talking it up on the Goldfields Sue Hanson | Linguist Ngalia Foundation National Trust (WA)

The traditional Aboriginal language of the Leonora district in the Goldfields of Western Australia is Ngalia. The language is highly endangered with only three speakers and a number of partial speakers remaining. The Ngalia Foundation is one of the National Trust of Australia (WA)’s Aboriginal foundations which is committed to preserving language and ensuring current and future generations use it in their daily lives. Ngalia Foundation is currently working on the recording, analysis and preservation of six Goldfields languages.

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here are now less than 20 of the estimated 350 original Aboriginal languages of Australia still in everyday use. Many more languages have been relegated to minimal or cultural use only. The loss of these languages means a loss of a critical part of our national identity. Ngalia Foundation Anthropologist Kado Muir and Linguist Sue Hanson have been working with the Ngalia community over the past two years to record, analyse and create a database as well as produce preservation documents such as a dictionary and grammar. This work is informing an innovative education program at Leonora District High School in Western Australia. “Place, landscape and country play a critical role in the shaping of cultural heritage and identity. The Goldfields has a distinctive identity that reflects history, geography and the population. This identity

can best be expressed through the languages that were developed to describe the place, landscape and country,” Mr Muir said. Aboriginal cultures are some of the oldest living cultures on earth. Their enduring legacy enriches the lives of all Australians and is a critical factor in the development of our national identity. “A substantial portion of the community identifies as being of Ngalia descent and there is a very significant desire by this community to ensure the children of the area maintain and develop strong links to Aboriginal language and culture,” he said. The aim of the program is to develop linguistic proficiency in Ngalia and a high level of appreciation and understanding of Ngalia culture. More than ever, Aboriginal children need ways in which to form their identity as an Aboriginal and engage with a national

identity. These children need to develop a sense of what it means to be proudly Aboriginal. Volumes of research clearly point to the fact that children need to engage with their heritage and history in order to develop a strong sense of pride, self-esteem, self-understanding and self-worth. Linguist Sue Hanson who has worked with Aboriginal communities across WA said the outcomes of an Aboriginal language program reach much further than the learning of a language and the development of a stronger sense of identity. “There are broader community outcomes including positive community perception of the school, engagement with the school and children’s education and a sense for parents of supporting and assisting their children’s education,” she said.

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Wonyabong of Leonora has played a key role in the research of the Ngalia Foundation. R Martin tin shed is at Gwalia Townsite and is a preserved example of accommodation in the area from a century ago during during the gold rush. R Martin above right  Ngalia man Peter Muir with his son anthropologist Kado Muir. R Martin Centre  This

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On the Flayrendon at Cl Mike Stevens | Chairman  Australian Fly Fishing Museum

National Trust property Clarendon is the new home to the Australian Fly Fishing Museum. While there are existing fishing museums including one dedicated to trout, this innovation pays homage to the art, craft and joy of fly fishing in an Australian first that opened to the public in May.

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he National Trust property Clarendon House built by James Cox in the 1830s is a heritage icon which has just taken on new significance through its latest commitment. Situated in Tasmaniaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s northern Midlands, a few minutes south of Evandale, the western side of the property is flanked by the South Esk River. This river provides an important link to Symmons Plains and James Arndell Youl who was primarily responsible for the successful acclimatisation of trout in the southern hemisphere. After many attempts, the first little trout hatched in Tasmania in 1864. The same James Youl had married Eliza Cox, sister of James Cox at Clarendon in 1839. It was an association that two keen fly fishers, Mike Stevens and Ron Dennis, had firmly in their minds when they were looking for a place to house a fly fishing museum.

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Discussions took place with the National Trust (Tas) Managing Director, Chris Tassell, and accommodation for the museum was suggested in the shepherd’s cottage at Clarendon. Clarendon was to become home for Australia’s first fly fishing museum. There is a Museum of Trout Fishing at Plenty near Hobart which explores methods and trout fishing only. While the Australian Fly Fishing Museum will enhance the Plenty museum by encouraging patronage by anglers, the new museum is passionate about building a relevant, outstanding and lasting legacy focussed on fly fishing in both fresh and saltwater in Australia. Tasmania has a long and rich heritage of fly fishing that dates to March 1833 when the pastime was first mentioned in print. Trout were not the first target of keen anglers. Thomas Richards published ‘A Day’s Fishing in the Plenty’ in the Hobart Town Magazine thirty years before the acclimatisation of trout. Richards writes about catching mullet on a ‘red hackle’ or ‘fern fly’, but it is certain the fish were Australian grayling. He writes that they filled their baskets, stopped to lunch on ‘broiled fish, new potatoes, and bottled porter’ and then continued ‘to the river side, to renew our murderous sport, which we pursued with unrelenting vigour, till our baskets [would] positively contain no more’. The adaptation of trout to the Tasmanian environment really progressed fly fishing across Australia. R.H. (Dick) Wigram was, in later life, well known for his fly

fishing writing and commercially tied flies. Dick came to Tasmania in 1921 with his brother John (Jack). They were direct descendants of Money Wigram who donated space on the ship Norfolk which brought the first trout ova to successfully hatch in Tasmania. Wigram wrote several keenly sought and collectable books on fly fishing and his important contribution will be captured at the Australian Fly Fishing Museum. Whilst Clarendon seemed like a perfect fit for somewhere to house a fly fishing museum, the venture is underpinned by sound practice. A strong acquisitions policy was important, as were charitable donations, grants, insurance, liabilities, curating, conservation, financial controls and more. Starting a museum from scratch and ensuring all necessary requirements were covered seemed impossible, but it was realised that the National Trust had the expertise, and had successfully provided these skills for many years. In addition, it was realised that being closely associated with the National Trust would bring huge benefits. It was proposed that the new museum operate in a similar way to other ‘Friends of the National Trust’ groups. This gave control to the Australian Fly Fishing Museum committee, and provided all the guidance, knowledge and benefits

of the National Trust experience. A committee was formed and includes: David Grisold, Tony Wright, Jennie Chapman, Michael Youl, Rex Hunt, Chris Tassell, Mike Stevens, Todd Lambert, Janet Lambert, Ron Dennis, Hugh Maltby, Greg Peart, Peter Boag and Stuart Cottrell. The committee has developed both a strategic and business plan. The Museum through the National Trust has been successful with a $25,000 grant and more than $180,000 of private money has been donated and pledged. for more information 

Visit www.affm.net.au

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Australian Fly Fishing Museum at Clarendon on the banks of the South Esk River. M Stevens Hackle - as dressed by Mary Orvis Marbury Body: Red Floss.Rib: Oval gold tinsel.Hackle: Brown. M Stevens bottom right  The Red Hackle has been adopted as the Australian Fly Fishing Museum Logo. Fly sketch by Trevor Hawkins Top right Red

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A Fabulous Alexandra Hill | National Heritage Festival Coordinator

With over 1,000 events nationally, the National Trust Heritage Festival has dazzled us again in 2013. Celebrated in April and May, there are still fantastic events to attend across the country. The festival is about more than events, it’s about people and their stories... Amid great excitement and celebration in 1857 the great Northern Railway was extended to East Maitland and to West Maitland in 1858 and a steam tram was established. Join the Gloucester Business Chamber and the Stroud Road Progress Association in celebrating the commemoration of the official opening of the North Coast rail line through many townships to Taree 100 years ago. The festivities captivate the essence of country life through the years and mark the importance of rail which continues to make our region prosperous. Centenary of Rail Gloucester & Stroud Road King Street, Gloucester, New South Wales Saturday 18 May, 2.00 pm - 5.00 pm Sunday 19 May, 10.00 am - 3.00 pm

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Why did Robert Towns, entrepreneur and businessman, agree to provide financial assistance for a new settlement in Northern Queensland in 1866? What was it about the region, described by Captain Cook in 1877, that was so appealing? Find out and help celebrate the Tenth Annual Townsville Heritage Day with almost three dozen community groups promoting Townsville’s rich history. There will also be the popular guided cemetery tours, free rides on the vintage Chevy Bus, children’s activities and live entertainment. Bring along a family heirloom and learn its history from an Antiques Assessor. Townsville Heritage Day 2013 West End Park & Cemetery, Ingham Road, West End, Townsville, Queensland Sunday 19 May, 10.00 am - 2.00 pm


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The Pioneer Women’s Trail honours the early European settlers from Hahndorf who supplied Adelaide with fresh produce at a time when most foodstuffs had to be imported into South Australia. This British colony was barely two years old when three sailing ships arrived in 1838 carrying Lutheran refugees from Prussia eager to build new lives free from persecution. The sympathetic captain of the ‘Zebra’, Dirk Meinertz Hahn, helped fifty-four Lutheran families establish farms in the picturesque Onkaparinga River Valley near Mount Barker. Within weeks the women and girls carrying baskets of vegetables and dairy products on their backs or on yokes across their shoulders, left the village at midnight to walk the rough bush track to Adelaide 35 km away. At about 4.00 am the women reached a stream in the foothills near Beaumont which became a favourite place to rest, wash their sore feet and tidy themselves before walking into Adelaide to hawk their wares. Their load on the homeward journey contained sewing thread, needles, sugar, tea, some tobacco for the menfolk and two bricks each for building the new church in Hahndorf. As more villages were established in the hills, their inhabitants also followed the Trail with goods on their backs. This manner of provisioning Adelaide continued until the late 1850s. The Pioneer Women’s Trail Run/Walk honours these through retracing their steps. The Pioneer Women’s Trail Run/Walk - Hahndorf to Beaumont House Hahndorf Institute, 59 Main Street, Hahndorf Sunday 19 May, 8.00 am - 5.00 pm

An inaugural exhibition initiative of Arts Tasmania’s Roving Curators. The exhibition will feature selected objects and their accompanying stories, from small museums and collections around the state. The main aim of the exhibition is to celebrate the important role that the community museum sector plays as story tellers and custodians of our state’s unique cultural heritage. 10 Objects - 10 Stories: Celebrating Community Collections 146 Artspace, 146 Elizabeth Street, Hobart Wednesday 1 May - Thursday 16 May, Weekdays 9.00am - 5.00pm Since its first recorded use in the battles between the Chinese and the Monguls, gunpowder has played a pivotal role in the history of human kind. Empires have risen and fallen upon their ability to capitalise the elemental force unleashed by this discovery. Experience battlefield re-enactments with blank firing and pyrotechnics, weapons demonstrations, restored military vehicles, period encampments and a whole lot more! Australian WWI and WWII battlefield reenactments will be augmented by British, US and German military encampments, displays of classic military vehicles, weapons, equipment and uniforms.

What was it really like to live in the bush in the 1890s? Immerse yourself in a weekend reliving the heyday of life in the bush staying at historic Faversham House or any of the character accommodation for which York is renowned. A rollicking romp of an evening is in store, with a vintage gambling den, spit roast and damper, a bush dance and a real bush poet to entertain you in pioneer spirit. Faversham House in the Naughty (and nice!) Nineties! Faversham House, 24 Grey St, York, Western Australia Saturday 11 May, 5.00 pm – Sunday 12 May, 11.30 am

The Age of Gunpowder Barwon Park, 105 Inverleigh Road, Winchelsea, Victoria Saturday 4 May - Sunday 5 May, 10.00 am - 4.00 pm The Australian Government supports the National Trust Heritage Festival through funding and through the Australian Heritage Week website for registration of events during Australian Heritage Week.

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A Tragedy on Lizard Island Dr Melanie Piddocke

An important artefact directly linked to the Lizard Island tragedy has recently been rediscovered, lying unregarded in a packing case in the stores of the National Trust’s James Cook Museum in Cooktown.

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he tragic story of Mary Watson of Lizard Island is an important episode in Cooktown’s history. Mary Oxnam, an emigrant from Cornwall, had married Robert Watson in Cooktown in 1880, after which she resided on Lizard Island, her husband’s bêche-de-mer fishing base. In 1881, Mary visited Cooktown for the birth of her son, Thomas Ferrier, but soon returned to Lizard Island. Frequently left alone with her baby and Chinese servants while her husband and his business partner P.C. Fuller were away, Mary often occupied herself with keeping a diary of day to day events and shipping movements observed from the island.

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Fuller sketches (JC.12.005) and detail showing the Watson dwelling and store house on Lizard Island. James Cook Museum Watson’s funeral, unusual for the number of women in attendance (JCM-GP-416). James Cook Museum

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This regular routine was shattered on 29 September, 1881 when one of the Chinese servants, Ah Leong was killed. Although only his hat was found, it was thought he had been killed by Aboriginal people from the mainland, whose fire smoke had been observed over the previous days. Another attack was made on 1 October, in which the second Chinese servant, Ah Sam, received seven spear wounds. Fearing further attacks, Mary Watson floated an iron tank used for boiling bêche-de-mer, loaded it with some supplies, baby Ferrier and Ah Sam, and cast off from Lizard Island. Reports from passing ships observing swinging doors and abandoned buildings triggered a frantic search for Mrs Watson, Ferrier and Ah Sam, but their fate was not known until 18 January 1882. A fishing vessel calling at No 5 Howick Group (north east of Lizard Island), discovered firstly the body of Ah Sam, then that of Mrs Watson cradling her baby. A diary kept by Mrs Watson during their ordeal revealed that they had drifted and searched fruitlessly for water for ten days before succumbing to thirst. Mary Watson’s last diary entry is dated 11 October, 1881. Mary was aged 21, Ferrier just five months. The public shock and sadness at the news was apparent when over 600 people attended the funerals of the victims. Ah Sam was buried in the Chinese section of Cooktown cemetery her baby were buried together. Their graves can still be seen today. Retribution killings followed swiftly and mercilessly on Indigenous people in the area.

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The James Cook Museum houses several artefacts relating to the Lizard Island tragedy, including an egg cup belonging to Mrs Watson, a stone from the house (the ruins of which are still visible at Lizard Island), and several glass plate images of Mrs Watson’s funeral, as well as a replica of the tank used by Mrs Watson to escape the Island (the original is on display in the Queensland Museum). To this can now be added an ink sketch, attributed to Robert Watson’s partner P.C. Fuller, made during the search for Mary Watson. It depicts the dwelling and storehouse on Lizard Island, the walls of the latter displaying artwork in tar supposedly left by the attackers. The image appears in a National Trust of Queensland publication from 1971, The Tragic Story of Mrs Watson. According to Allan McInnes, the sketch’s provenance can be determined from a photograph of the sketch authenticated by Lady Tooth, daughter of P.C. Fuller. As well as the image of the Watson residence, the sketches also include an unidentified street scene, Newcastle Harbour, the Road to the Palmer

(depicting two miners brewing tea on a camp fire amongst lush vegetation) and a number of profile studies, predominantly of Chinese. Amongst the latter is the profile of a woman who may be Mary Watson. The sketches are made on the cloth reverse of a map of Australia. The sketches are breathtaking in their honesty and detail. There is evidence of past water damage, requiring conservation, but the images themselves remain clear. The Cooktown and District Historical Society is conducting new research on the Lizard Island story, with the new evidence of the sketches and Indigenous accounts of the incident as a focus. Local Nugal-warra Elder Willie Gordon discusses the importance of Lizard Island to the local Indigenous groups and possible reasons behind the attack on his blog http://guurrbitours.blogspot. com.au/2012/03/mrs-watsonstory-of-jiigurru-lizard.html The tragic story of Mary Watson is one of the many conflicts and confrontations between settlers and Indigenous people in the Cape York region, and highlights the gulf of understanding between the two cultures at the time.

Watson’s Memorial – a drinking fountain – in Cooktown’s main street showing the Watson dwelling and store house on Lizard Island 11

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New Plan for Perthâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Riverscape Gina Pickering | Editor

Noongar Elders arrived at the Royal Perth Yacht Club on a February morning for a meeting that would inform the future direction of the Swan and Canning Riverpark.

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he venue overlooks Derbarl Yerrigan/the Swan River and toward the City of Perth skyline. This is a Whadjuk Noongar riverscape and it has continuing spiritual significance to its traditional owners. The inaugural meeting of the Noongar Advisory Panel (NAP) was a vital element of the National Trust of Australia (WA) project that will deliver the Interpretation Plan for the Swan and Canning Rivers. The NAP was established with the assistance of the South West Aboriginal Land and Sea Council and will work with a dedicated National Trust team this year as it develops a new plan for the Swan and Canning Rivers. The riverscape is an internationally recognised environment which has sustained the Noongar community for more than 40,000 years and the broader community since settlement. The site includes more than 200 km of heritage trail that weaves along and beside shorelines of the Rivers Derbarl Yerrigan/Swan River and Djargarro Beelier/Canning River, as well as twenty one local government authorities. There are 72.1 square kilometres of public land and adjoining river reserve in the Riverpark which extends from the Fremantle Traffic Bridge to Moondyne Brook, and Helena River from the lower diversion dam; and to the Southern River and Canning River from the Stinton Creek confluence. The Interpretation Plan is a once in a generation opportunity for heritage professionals to recommend ways of making accessible Perthâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s natural, Aboriginal, and historic values to local and international visitors.

The riverscape is an internationally recognised environment which has sustained the Noongar community for more than 40,000 years and the broader community since settlement.

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The team comprises Dr Sue Graham Taylor AM, Sue Campbell, Andrew Stumpfel, Nicholas Green, Catherine Czerw, Anne Brake and Gina Pickering as project manager and contributor. The project builds on some key ideas and research which have been developed since 2008 and reflect a UNESCO world heritage framework. This work includes the Statement of Significance for the Swan and Canning Rivers and an extensive audit of natural, Aboriginal and historic values associated with the riverscape. The heritage practitioners will deliver for the first time a comprehensive social audit of the Swan and Canning Riverpark. This component will be a key driver for interpretive approaches and strategies particularly associated with the extensive heritage trail. The Interpretation Plan aims to be a guiding document for the Swan River Trust that will support social, environmental and economic benefits for the entire community for generations to come. It will recommend policies, initiatives and projects that will not only educate the community about the natural and cultural heritage values of this unique and internationally recognised riverscape but also lead to a better future for the Riverpark itself.

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The Interpretation Plan for the Swan and Canning Riverpark is a once in a generation opportunity for heritage professionals to make accessible Perth’s natural, Aboriginal, and historic values to local

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Green, Anthropologist on the National Trust Interpretation Plan team. B Strahan/NTWA 2. Catherine Czerw, Art Consultant. B Strahan/NTWA 3. Marion Collard is a member of the Noongar Advisory Panel who has been invited to provide cultrural advice during the project. B Strahan/NTWA 4. Noongar custodians Ezra Jacobs-Smith and Fred Pickett at the initial Swan and Canning River Interpretation Plan meeting. B Strahan/NTWA 5. The National Trust of Australia (WA) team, Swan River Trust representatives and Noongar Advisory Panel members at the inaugural meeting of the Swan and Canning Rivers Interpretation Plan. S Stahan/NTWA opposite page 

A Swan River sunset. G Pickering/NTWA

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T Main image Eliza is dressed to celebrate Cadel Evan’s 2011 Tour de France win. J Harris below  A dressing up prank in process at Eliza. Being sited 15 metres into the river has proved no barrier to endless jokes and celebrations. J Harris

Eliza and Social Value Dr Jennifer Harris | Curtin University

When Eliza appeared in Crawley on the Swan River in 2007, a subtle transformation of the meanings of the shoreline began. This slightly larger than life realistic bronze, became the centre of a good natured playfulness rarely seen in public. Almost immediately, the statue became the focus of dressing and undressing pranks which have sometimes commented on current events and sometimes reflected on private moments such as anniversaries. The statue is the work of sculptors, Tony Jones and Ben Jones. Cast in China, it was installed by the Perth City Council to mark the site of the Crawley Baths, once the biggest in the southern hemisphere.

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he Crawley Baths were constructed in 1923 and upgraded to Olympic size in 1933. They were demolished in 1964 before heritage legislation could offer any protection for such an important place associated with Perth’s long hot summers and swimming culture. From 1964 until 2007 there was nothing to show, neither marker nor surviving heritage fabric, that the great baths had once stood on this spot. The arrival of Eliza filled the gap and instantly activated intense public affection. As the years pass, the fate of most public statuary is to become, more or less, invisible, it blends into the background of the flux of life and thus, despite the best of intentions, often contributes to public amnesia. Eliza, however, has been the stage for years of often hilarious play that has never involved damage and has delighted thousands of us. Few can drive along the foreshore without glancing at Eliza to see what she is wearing today. This continuous play raises questions about heritage values, absent historic fabric, intangible cultural heritage and community participation at heritage places. One of the core heritage values described by the Burra Charter is social value; it is often considered a rather nebulous value in comparison to the tangible evidence usually required for historic and aesthetic value. When a heritage site has striking material remains, it is often easier for people to grasp some of its meanings. By contrast, social value encompasses the feelings that people have about a place, and the actions that they have performed there, that is, it encompasses intangible qualities. Continuous play at Eliza reminds us of the fun


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of the Crawley Baths. Some older Perth residents remember the baths, but many do not. Whether people remember or not, the widespread affection reflected in today’s dressing up jokes is reminiscent of the fun of the old baths. The meaning effects of Eliza include the production of community affection, fun and intensely positive feelings about being Western Australian. The revitalization of people’s attachment to this place has been achieved without preservation of original fabric. Usually, the attraction of a heritage site resides in the chance to see real material evidence of the past. Many sites offer excellent material evidence of the past, but it is extremely rare to see people’s active engagement linking the past and the present. Although the Perth City Council has arrangements with some early morning river users to keep the statue free of adornment, the council seems to take a benign, handsoff approach to the play that has so enriched community life. Eliza is now one of the most vibrant heritage places in the state. One of the impacts of this statue has been to produce a new community within the wider Perth community. I call this a “passing-through-community”. Most people who see Eliza do so while they are moving. The passing-throughcommunity is cycling, rollerblading, jogging, rowing, paddling, driving, walking or sitting on buses. This mobile community comes into being through anticipation and appreciation of the changes at the statue. The members of this community are linked by affection. It is a special Perth experience to be undertaking a tedious commute to work and to realize that all around you are hundreds of fellow travellers enjoying a bright spot in the day. Extended discussion on Eliza by Jennifer Harris can be found in “Guerilla art, social value and absent heritage fabric”, International Journal of Heritage Studies, vol.17 (3), May 2011, pp. 214-229.

Between the lines J J Clark: Architect of the Australian Renaissance Author:

Andrew Dodd

Publisher: NewSouth Publishing, University of New South Wales Press Ltd Reviewer: Brian McMillan, Councillor, National Trust (SA) On 20 April 1872 the engraving of the week proffered by the Australian Town and Country Journal was “a view of the pile of buildings at the top of Collins-street, Melbourne, known as the Treasury”, a building “handsome and capacious”, and further described in some detail. “The building”, it was said, “was designed by the Public Works Department”. There was an individual behind that label: John James Clark. He is the subject of this biography. “The Melbourne Treasury is a work of immense skill. It is the most distinguished work of Clark’s sixty-three-year career and exemplifies his genius for synthesis, the characteristic that above all others distinguishes his work. It is also the finest example of the Renaissance Revival style in Australia.”1. Other leading examples of Clark’s work are the Public Offices, Brisbane (now the Brisbane Casino); Auckland Town Hall; Government House, Melbourne (with W W Wardell and Peter Kerr); and the Melbourne City Baths (with E J Clark). J J Clark was born in England on 23 January 1838. With his family he arrived in Melbourne on 7 March 1852. He gained employment in the Colonial Architect’s Office on 26 April 1852 – aged 14. “Clark was still nineteen when he signed drawings for the first stage of the basement and ground floor [of the Melbourne Treasury] on 22 December 1857”2. Clark died in Melbourne on 25 June 1915. So precocious a talent and so lengthy a career are amply covered in this book. Its scope may be discerned from the Chapter Headings: Precocious immigrant; Adolescent architect; The riddle of the Treasury; Designing the colony; Beyond Black Wednesday; A hiatus in Sydney; Victim of his own success; Outcast in Brisbane; The rush to Western Australia; Redemption in Brisbane; Coming home; Legacy. Details of Clark’s personal and professional life are provided, with appropriate context. Photographs and drawings of buildings (built, unbuilt, destroyed) and discussions of architectural principles and practices assist the understanding of the general reader. This is an interesting book, shedding light on how some of the most distinguished buildings in Australia came into existence. It is correct to say that “Andrew Dodd puts flesh on the bones of this talented but little-known designer, enabling him to finally take his place in the pantheon of great Australian architects”3. for more information  visit

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Page 32, J J Clark: Architect of the Australian Renaissance Page 33, ibid Clive Lucas OBE, LFRAIA quoted on back of dustcover

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Australia’s mining heritage Chris Tassell | Managing Director National Trust (Tas)

While the National Trust movement in Australia is commonly associated with the conservation and preservation of historic houses, it manages a variety of heritage properties across the country. More than 300 places are in the care of the National Trust and more than 160 of them are heritage places that are open to the public in some way.

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ess well known is the National Trusts’ role in managing a substantial social history collection including a very significant art collection. Together the properties and collections provide an insight into and understanding of many of the major currents that run through Australia’s history. Included amongst the Trust properties are more than 30 that together document the essence of Australia’s mining heritage. From Australia’s first mining boom, (the South Australian copper boom of the 1840s), mining has profoundly transformed the economies of both the states and the nation, driven immigration, underpinned the development of many of our towns and cities, stimulated massive infrastructure projects and acted as a catalyst for the nation’s industrial

development. The National Trust properties and collections contribute significantly to this national story. Nowhere can this be seen to better effect than in the conservation and interpretation of those sites and collections associated with the South Australian copper boom. Both at Burra and the “Copper Triangle” of Kadina, Moonta and Wallaroo on the Yorke Peninsula, are a range of heritage properties that include mining sites and the infrastructure required to support mining enterprises. Importantly, the profound impact of the copper boom on the economic development of South Australia is perhaps best seen in another National Trust property, Ayers House prominently located on North Terrace in the centre of Adelaide. A house built from the wealth generated by the mines at Burra.

top right  Pump

Engine No 1 Pump Station, Mundaring, Western Australia. C Tassell Pump House, Moonta South Australia. C Tassell top left  Battery from Bridge Creek. C Tassell bottom left  Broken Hill Association Smelter Painting by T R Digsdin 1944. C Tassell top centre Hughes

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Significantly these heritage sites and collections also document the profound impact of the many miners and their families who came from Cornwall to work these mines. Their contribution is visible in the mining technology brought from Cornwall such as the distinctive pump houses built to support the mines operations. It is also evident in the character of the mining communities themselves, a contribution that continues to be celebrated today. The National Trust’s Chinese Temple at Bendigo speaks of another group of immigrants attracted to Australia by the chance of securing a fortune. It is one reminder of a presence on many mining fields around Australia that more often than not was resented by other miners. National Trust properties outline this complex story whether it is at the James Cook Museum in Cooktown representing the Chinese miners on the Palmer River Goldfields, the Pine Creek heritage sites south of Darwin documenting the contribution of


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the Chinese miners to this the first major mining field in the Northern Territory, or the Customs House at Robe detailing the efforts of many thousands of Chinese miners who landed there to journey to the Victorian goldfields while avoiding immigration bans. While the National Trusts sites and collections document many of Australia’s great mining fields as importantly they also extend to include the infrastructure to support these enterprises. C Y O’Connor’s visionary pipeline to bring water to the Western Australian goldfields is an internationally recognised example and one of the nation’s great engineering enterprises. The National Trust manages key sites along the pipeline such as the Number 1 Pump Station at the Mundaring Reservoir near Perth and works with the communities to tell the stories of those who worked on the pipeline or whose lives were changed by it. National Trust sites and collections also document the way mining has acted as a catalyst for the development of the nation’s industrial capacity such as the lead smelters at Port Pirie established to process the ore from Broken Hill and which in turn led to the establishment of Whyalla as a centre for iron ore mining and processing. The National Trust museums at the Port Pirie Railway Station and Mount Laura Homestead, Whyalla tell these stories in places intimately associated with the development of these industries. One of the many challenges facing the National Trust movement is i n c re a s i n g c o m mu n it y awareness of the breadth of its contribution to Australia’s heritage, a contribution that far exceeds a perception that the National Trust is only about house museums.

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Between the lines ‘We’re a dreaming country’: Guidelines for interpretation of Aboriginal heritage (2012) Author: Susan Hanson Reviewer: Anne Brake Interpretation Manager National Trust (WA)

While a number of other organisations across Australia have developed guidelines, protocols and policies for working with Aboriginal people focusing on the conservation and interpretation of their cultural heritage, ‘We’re a dreaming country’: Guidelines for interpretation of Aboriginal heritage (2012) is the first to tackle the area of interpretation by and with Aboriginal people of Aboriginal stories. The volume is designed as a companion document to Sharing our stories: Guidelines for heritage interpretation (2007). Also produced by the National Trust of Australia (WA), Sharing our stories aimed to provide guidelines for community groups, local councils, government agencies and funding bodies to better understand the principles of heritage interpretation and the role it plays in community development. The document outlines various processes, policies and procedures that underline rich, thought provoking interpretation of heritage places. As a companion document, ‘We’re a dreaming country’ does not revisit these elements of the earlier edition but rather refers to them as background reading. The aim of this publication is to offer a starting point for people who are interested in issues particularly relevant to the interpretation of Aboriginal heritage. It provides Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal people with a set of shared principles, protocols and guidelines to undertake interpretation at heritage places utilising a base of Aboriginal values to guide interpretive work. The document also aims to address the tensions that exist when people from a diversity of backgrounds begin to work together, recognising many of the principles outlined could be used when dealing with any minority cultural group. Developed by the National Trust of Australia (WA) to help guide its own work, it is freely available online. The Trust in WA has taken a holistic view of heritage (natural, Aboriginal, historic) for many years and has worked with a number of Aboriginal groups to provide assistance and support to those keen to conserve and interpret their culture in a way that ensures respect, acknowledgement and ownership of Aboriginal places and stories. The document was led by the Trust’s Aboriginal Reference Group and also utilised the knowledge and experience of an industry reference group in its development. The text is divided into three main sections: Underpinning rights and understandings; Protocols and Guidelines, and; Getting started with interpretation of Aboriginal heritage. Like Sharing our stories, case studies from a wide variety of National Trust projects are used to help illustrate the principles outlined. There is also a comprehensive set of appendices including a range of useful information, pro formas and guidelines. Launched by Prof Carmen Lawrence, Chair of the Australian Heritage Council, on 18 April 2013 (International Day of Monuments and Sites), ‘We’re a dreaming country’ will be an invaluable guide to anyone interested in the interpretation of Aboriginal heritage including Aboriginal groups, those taking their first tentative steps and long term professionals. It is a welcome addition to the dialogue around the desire to provide sensitive and respectful interpretation of Australia’s Aboriginal cultural heritage values in a way that ‘acknowledges the past, reconciles the present and ensures custodianship for the future’. To download a free copy   visit

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www.nationaltrust.org.au/wa/reports-papers

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A Trans Australian transformation Philippa Rogers | Historian

In February 1913 Prime Minister Andrew Fisher arrived in Kalgoorlie to ‘turn the first sod’ for the construction of the Trans Australian Railway from the Western end. He was accompanied by Sir John Forrest, who had been Western Australia’s advocate for this railway.

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here were so many guests that two special trains were needed to convey them to Kalgoorlie overnight. The journey took just under 16 hours – typical of the time. The ‘turning of the first sod’ ceremony was led by the Prime Minister and 10,000 people turned out to witness the event. Its location was next to the then existing Kanowna line, opposite Wordsworth Street, approximately 500 metres east of Maritana Street. The voting power of the Kalgoorlie people ensured WA joined the Federation of Australia. The carrot was the promise of the construction of the Trans Australian Railway. When the Trans Australian Railway connected Australia in 1917, it provided a physical link which was to be of major commercial and strategic importance. Following the

route determined by earlier survey parties, construction began at each end – Port Augusta in South Australia and from Parkeston a suburb of Kalgoorlie in Western Australia – working towards each other for 1,691km. It was the first major public work to be undertaken by the Commonwealth Government and at that time it was the largest construction project ever undertaken in Australia. One hundred years later this railway line still incorporates the longest length of straight track in the world. On 15 February 2013, 48 members and friends of Rail Heritage WA (RHWA) enjoyed the comfort of the Prospector journeying to Kalgoorlie to mark this special occasion and the first stop after arrival in Kalgoorlie was a visit to the site where the first sod was turned back in 1913.

Boulder Town Hall was the venue for a lavish civic function in 1913 and so too for a gala dinner to celebrate the centenary. The Hon Tim Fischer AC (former Deputy Prime Minister and train advocate), delivered the after dinner speech: “Tango in Transcontinentals: ours is the straightest and thanks to Boulder Kalgoorlie it helped build a nation!” Rail Heritage WA produced a commemorative plaque for use at the ‘Turning of the First Sod’ site which was unveiled by Tim Fischer and presented to Councillors of the City of Kalgoorlie-Boulder. There are four years to create a fitting celebration for the Centenary of the Opening of the Trans Australian Railway in October 2017.

Left  Kal arrival – showing the crowd who gathered at the Kalgoorlie Railway Station to meet the Prime Minister and to then watch the Turning of the First Sod ceremony. Rail Heritage WA top right Rail Heritage WA members and friends at the site of the Turning of the First Sod in Kalgoorlie for the Trans Australian Railway. P Rogers bottom right  Boulder Town Hall dinner – photo of Centenary Gala Dinner held in Boulder Town Hall. G Higham Insert  The First Sod menu – menu for breakfast on the train run for the invited guests from around Australia. Rail Heritage WA

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Rippon Lea raises the roof

restoration

Sharron Clark |Marketing Manager National Trust (Vic)

The National Trust of Australia (Vic) is about to undertake one of its most substantial restorations to the historical Rippon Lea House and Gardens with the installation of a new roof and a carbon footprint reduction program.

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ippon Lea House and Gardens was the first historic house to be added to the National Heritage List and is one of Australia’s great nineteenth century suburban estates. It is a rare surviving example of a large intact private estate consisting of an urban mansion, large gardens, and outbuildings. The house is an outstanding example of the Victorian Italianate style, popular during Victoria’s gold-rush period. Rippon Lea is one of the finest polychrome buildings in Victoria, and established this fashion for other mansions and houses. This project will restore the roof tiles and repair the roof structure to enhance the significance of the site, and preserve the significant interiors from water damage.  The

project will also bring Rippon Lea into the twenty first century through the installation of photovoltaic panels, greatly improving the environmental sustainability of the property. These extensive restoration works are partly funded by a grant from the Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities along with matched funding from an endowment from the Andrews Foundation. National Trust members now have the opportunity to be part of this landmark project and leave their mark in history, literally, by purchasing one of the roof tiles being used in the project. The tile will be marked with your name

and dated before being placed on the roof. The National Trust of Australia (Vic) aims to raise $100,000 for the Roof Restoration Appeal, which will be contributed to the total $1.2million needed for the repairs. Martin Purslow, CEO of the National Trust of Australia (Vic), says the donations will ensure the Rippon Lea Estate can be enjoyed by locals for many years to come. “Purchasing a tile not only contributes to the physical restoration of the roof, but also offers residents a unique chance to leave their own special mark on the Estate and immerse themselves in the historic tales of the Rippon Lea Mansion,” Martin says. Donate now by visiting  www.nationaltrust.org.au/vic/appealsdonations or call 03 8663 7260.

This project will restore the roof tiles and repair the roof structure to enhance the significance of the site, and preserve the significant interiors from water damage. 

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Hou Wang Temple - 110 Years Old Rhonda Micola von Furstenrecht

The Chinese came to North Queensland in search of gold in the 1870s and left an indelible mark on the region.

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s the returns from gold dwindled, jobs in the Atherton Tableland timber industry lured many Chinese to the area. Many settled on the outskirts of Atherton at Cedar Camp which, by 1910, had become the centre for more than a thousand Chinese. Today, the site is commonly referred to as Atherton Chinatown. The Hou Wang Temple remains as testimony to the communityâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s presence. While Chinese temples built from corrugated iron were once quite common, the Atherton temple is now the only one remaining in Australia and New Zealand.

above and rightâ&#x20AC;&#x201A; Interiors

of the temple. G Grimwade

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In 2013, Hou Wang Temple celebrates 110 years of existence. It has assumed a position of relevance which its original builders could never have foreseen and is now one of the golden crowns of the National Trust of Queensland’s properties.

Atherton Chinatown thrived until the return of the soldiers from World War One when a by-law was passed effectively banning Chinese from farming. By the late 1920s most had moved away and Chinatown became all but derelict. Although, Hou Wang Temple suffered as a result, today it imparts a poignant and powerful story. Thanks to the generosity of the Fong On family, the Temple continues to demonstrate the legacy of the Chinese on the Atherton Tablelands and more generally in Northern Australia. The Fong Ons had established themselves as store keepers and gradually secured ownership of the Atherton Chinatown site. In the late 1970s , the Fong Ons donated the Temple to the National Trust and, later much of the adjacent land. The Trust undertook some conservation work in the 1980s but it was Centenary of Federation grant money which supported major conservation and restoration to be undertaken, along with some excellent interpretation on the Chinatown site and within the adjacent museum. As Australian society evolves, recognition is increasingly being given to all who have contributed to the growth of Australia’s national identity. Places such as the Hou Wang Temple are developing stronger voices and their stories are increasingly seen as revealing important social values. In 2013, Hou Wang Temple celebrates 110 years of existence. It has assumed a position of relevance which its original builders could never have foreseen and is now one of the golden crowns of the National Trust of Queensland’s properties.

Completed in 1903, it became the ‘cultural hub’ for local Chinese. Its humble and unassuming, corrugated iron exterior contrasts with the interior walls of red cedar timber and the floors of black bean, both of which are no longer generally available. The choice of timbers creates a particularly warm ambience within the temple itself. There was no compromise when it came to the temple furnishings which were imported all the way from China and are particularly ornate and elaborate. The quality of their workmanship is striking. The oldest of these artefacts pre-date the completion date of the Temple and help explain one of the wooden banners which hangs within and translates as, ‘These works with the people’s help will soon be finished.’

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the Atherton Chinatown Museum - Cedar Camp display.

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pea Swainsona Formosa. R Sinclair Below left Mending the fence at Koonamore, 2004. D Ladd Main image  Bindy-I cottage. J Trezise

Natural treasures of Koonamore Russell Sinclair | National Trust (SA)

The TGB Osborn Vegetation Reserve at Koonamore, South Australia is located in the middle of Koonamore station, a pastoral lease about 400km north-east of Adelaide, 60km north of Yunta. The country is chenopod shrubland, largely saltbush (Atriplex spp), bluebush (Maireana spp), with scattered trees including mulga (Acacia aneura) false sandalwood (Myoporum platycarpum) blackoak (Casuarina pauper) and bullock bush (Alectryon oleifolius).

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Vegetation records

86 years o n & countin g

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heep were brought to the area in about 1863, and rabbits arrived in the early 1880s, reaching plague proportions soon afterwards. Theodore George Bentley (TGB) Osborn was Adelaide University Professor of Botany in the 1920s and he had a keen interest in the problems associated with serious degradation of soils and vegetation in pastoral country. He arranged with the Koonamore leaseholders to set up a reserve to study the vegetation, and especially its responses to the removal of grazing pressure by introduced animals. In July 1925 a paddock site was chosen in “the worst eaten-out area” and fenced to exclude sheep and hopefully rabbits. Kangaroos and emus were never excluded because of their ability to jump fences.

Permanent quadrats and photopoints were set up to record changes, and a cottage, Bindy-I, was built beside the Reserve for scientific workers. For the first few years a research officer, TB Paltridge and his wife lived permanently on site and carried out the early intensive measurements. After 1931 the work was continued by parties of students and others who travelled from Adelaide. It was a

strenuous journey at the time, by train (2 different gauges) and mail truck north from Yunta. The tradition of student work-camps has continued to this day, so that now there are 86 years of records of vegetation changes on the Reserve, the longest record of its type in Australia and one of the longest in the world. Despite the rabbit-proof fence, rabbits were never eradicated completely, and numbers returned to plague proportions by the late 1930s, fluctuating with seasons thereafter. Myxomatosis and later the calicivirus checked them, and since the 1970s regular, systematic warren fumigation and fence repair have reduced the numbers further. Consequently the Reserve has had 50 years without sheep, followed by 36 years without either sheep or significant rabbit numbers. The results are very striking. The early years saw a rapid recolonisation by salt-bush, but very little regeneration of trees or larger shrubs as the rabbits would eat off their seedlings, while ignoring the saltbush. The beginning of rabbit

control in the 1970s coincided with a series of exceptionally wet years, and thereafter was an explosion of tree and shrub seedlings, which survived since rabbit numbers were kept low. Interestingly, there were exceptions. The numbers of blackoak trees and bluebush (M. sedifolia) have changed little. Blackoak produces viable seed, and bluebush flowers and fruits, but not prolifically. Both species are very long-lived, and it may simply be that they depend on rare events to allow seedlings to survive. There is a now a wealth of valuable data available to answer many questions about the biology of this arid vegetation and also to be used as a resource for those who study climate change. There’s also a valuable long standing accessibility to Koonamore and volunteers are always welcome to participate in annual work camps during November. Recent sponsors of this special place include the Native Vegetation Council of South Australia and Nature Foundation South Australia.

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mail truck and students, 1946. Koonamore Archives. point 9, 1931. Koonamore Archives. Top right  Photo point 9, 2012.  R Sinclair. bottom left  Wendy Telfer sitting among Sturt pea Swainsona Formosa. R Sinclair Top left  Photo

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Experiment Farm Cottage: open to the public for 50 years Angela Le Sueur | National Trust (NSW)

In 1961, Experiment Farm Cottage on the outskirts of Parramatta was the first property to be purchased by the NSW National Trust. The property stands on the site of Australia’s first land grant, made to the ex-convict James Ruse following the success of an experiment vitally important to the new colony, to prove that a free settler could be self-sufficient. In 1794 Ruse sold the land to John Harris and in recent years there has been some disagreement as to whether the cottage was built c1794 during the early years of Harris’s ownership or c1835 during the latter years. However, there has never been any doubt of the property’s significance and in 1961 the Trust was anxious to acquire it to protect it for the nation.

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he nail-biting time which followed as the Trust struggled to raise the funds needed for its conservation was a celebration of what could be achieved with community support. The doors of Experiment Farm Cottage opened to the public in 1963. ‘Experiment Farm Cottage – a challenge to Trust members’ So said the headline of the 1961 Trust Bulletin. At a cost of £4,350, it was estimated that repairs to the Cottage bought by the Trust in March 1961 would cost almost half its purchase price – some £2,000. Although donations from members poured in (the sum of £1,204 was acknowledged with thanks in the May Bulletin), there was a long way to go before it was ready for public to access. It was clear that a not-for-profit organisation which was starting to acquire heritage properties was in desperate need of a fundraising committee. By August 1961, the Bulletin was able to report that work on repair and restoration had commenced under the supervision of the Trust’s

Honorary Architect at Parramatta, Mr L J Buckland. The grounds, too, were receiving attention, with Professor E G Waterhouse preparing a master plan for their development. Also that year, Helen Blaxland (to become Dame Helen Blaxland, DBE) founded the National Trust Women’s Committee. The aim was to attract funds and furniture for the property and to create events to attract new members. By the time Experiment Farm Cottage opened in 1963, the Committee had raised £2,500 towards its restoration. The Cottage was emerging as a rural but elegant home furnished with pieces donated by supporters. These donations were the founding blocks of the Trust’s collection of Australiana, now arguably the most significant in the nation. In 2001 as part of the nation’s celebration of the Bicentenary of Federation, Experiment Farm Cottage received funding under the Commonwealth Federation Cultural & Heritage Project Program to allow the Trust to reinstate aspects of the cottage’s original colonial

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setting. Works included demolition of 20th century encroachments which had almost entirely eroded the rural context and character of the setting, and reinstatement of elements of planting. This was based on documentation which included photographs taken at the turn of the 19th century showing mature trees and shrubs, an 1871 Purchase’s catalogue and a database developed by NSW Historic Houses Trust for nearby Elizabeth Farm. In 2013, the Helen Blaxland Foundation and the NSW State Heritage Grants have funded further extensive restoration works and landscaping, which has seen the property closed since January. The re-opening of Experiment Farm Cottage will be celebrated on 20 July 2013, the same date as its opening to the public in 1963. For more information about Experiment Farm Cottage and the 20 July 2013 celebrations, please see www.nationaltrust.org.au or call Old Government House (02) 9635 8149.

Farm Cottage, Harris Farm. Recent works included painting, plastering, stonework, plumbing and electrical fittings. D Hoffman The hazardous flagstones on the front and rear verandahs have been lifted, levelled and repointed. D Hoffman

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New prospects for Stamford Park David Wetherell | Deakin University

‘Stamford Park’ outside Melbourne is a quintessential example of the smaller stately home in Australia. Situated below the foothills of the Dandenong ranges, the 22-room homestead was built in 1881-2 by Edward Row, nephew of Richard Goldsbrough the wool magnate. The property was the traditional land of the Wurundjeri people. It is a single-storey rendered masonry building arranged on a rectangle with pavilion-like bays, containing large reception rooms, two rear wings and a courtyard at the back. Around the house are a bunya bunya pine, English elm and Italian cypresses, and a Port Jackson fig. Edward Row’s brother Richard was Goldsbrough’s heir. At the time when Richard Row received his inheritance in 1887, Victoria was enjoying an economic boom. The Rows were successful fellmongers and manufacturers, and later horse breeders, who sought to create a rural idyll in creating the homestead and gardens of Stamford Park. The ‘picturesque gothic’ style of the house, with its bay windows, pointed arches and carved fretted bargeboards, emphasised the Rows’ wish to establish an English-style country seat. Edward embraced the life of a country gentleman at Stamford Park, developing his interest in horses both for racing and export purposes; he supplied artillery horses to the Indian Army. He was also known to have chartered trains from Melbourne for his guests and their horses

above  Stamford

which joined him for hunts. Among his many visitors was another keen huntsman, Lord Hopetoun, governor of Victoria, and Lady Hopetoun. However, stories of the first governor general of Australia sleeping overnight in the shearers’ quarters of Stamford Park before the morning’s hunt are fables. Edward’s wife Emmeline Row suffered internal injuries when she was pinioned by a falling chandelier being hoisted to one of the 16 foot high ceilings. This accident, combined with her husband’s declining financial fortunes, culminated both in her ill health and his death in 1911. After the Rows’ departure, Stamford Park was managed by a succession of owners until 1987. The City of Knox at Rowsville purchased the property following the last owner’s death. By then it had become derelict, the marble fireplaces torn out and

rubbish stacked against the walls. A Conservation Management Plan was drawn up in 2002 and a landscaping design in 2009. The present restoration of the homestead is being made possible by a one million dollar grant by the Knox Council to create a garden sympathetic to Stamford Park’s picturesque gothic style. This will contain an eclectic mixture of features including meandering pathways, sweeping lawns, wild and unkempt garden nooks where the picturesque love of texture and rough surfaces abound, with a lily pond and rotunda. The verandahs will have a vista overlooking Corhanwarrabul Creek, a view framed by the Elm and the Bunya Bunya pine originally planted by the Row family in 1882.

Park was built in 1881-2 by Edward Row, nephew of Richard Goldsbrough the wool magnate. P Kavan 25

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Celebrating Lindesay at Darling Point This year, the Women’s Committee celebrates 50 years of NSW National Trust ownership of the 1834 property, Lindesay, in Sydney’s Darling Point. Not only is it one of the ‘jewels’ in the NSW Trust’s extensive property portfolio, it has also been the meeting point for the Women’s Committee which, since its formation in 1961 to raise much-needed funds for the Trust, has used the property extensively to boost its very successful fundraising ventures.

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on each side. This was a style much favoured by professional families at the time in rural Britain but, although bearing similarities to designs in English Regency pattern books the design of Lindesay is simpler, reflecting a mix of Scottish austerity with a good dose of colonial disregard for convention. The Riddells moved into Lindesay with their two year old son in 1836, but remained there for only two years. Following their departure the property had a number of owners including Sir Thomas Mitchell who, as Surveyor General in the 1830s, conducted three major expeditions into the interior of Australia. In 1841 he sold to his friend Sir Charles Nicholson, an avid collector of rare books and antiquities and future Chancellor of the University of Sydney. Nicholson housed his library, thought to be one of the largest private libraries in the colony, at Lindesay, with a special room set aside for his statues.

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In 1849 Nicholson sold to William Bradley, a wealthy pastoralist who had married Emily Hovell, daughter of the explorer William Hovell. He died at Lindesay in 1868. After changing hands twice more, Lindesay was bought in 1926 by the wealthy pastoralist, Charles Pye. He died there in 1927 but his widow, Mary Pye, remained at Lindesay until her death in 1961. Lindesay was bequeathed to her eldest son John who had spent much time with her during the long lonely years. On his death two years later, the property passed to Walter, a younger son, who donated it to the National Trust in 1963. On acquiring the property, the National Trust faced the considerable task of peeling back the layers accumulated over more than 13 decades, to uncover the features and character of its days as the home of the Riddells. On stepping into Lindesay now it is possible to imagine oneself back in 1834, in surroundings

which to the Riddells would have been elegant and comfortable, but which to us are exquisite in their expression of a graciousness long gone. There is the garden, carefully recreated to include plants Caroline Riddell would have known and possibly been able to plant (thanks to the invention of the Wardian Case which allowed cuttings to travel from England), along with the colour and vibrancy of the subtropics. There is the poignancy of the Harbour vista which can also be viewed from the first floor, and the excitement which must have been felt when a new ship with news from home made its way past the house. Lindesay, 1 Carthona Avenue Darling Point, Sydney: is open to the public on the first Thursday of each month (except January). Guided tours at 10am, 11am and 12 noon. For information about weddings, group tours and other events please call (02) 9363 2401.

Maypole dancing on the front lawns at Lindesay. NT/NSW 27

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Australia’s World Heritage Convict Sites Dr Peter Dowling | National Heritage Officer Australian Council of National Trusts

How ever we wish to acknowledge it, the European colonisation of Australia was largely based upon and supported by convict transportation. When 548 male and 188 female convicts struggled ashore during a thunderstorm in February 1788, the British convict system had become part of Australia’s history and heritage. Over the following years Australians, particularly those with genetic ties to Britain, struggled with the reality of a convict heritage, selectively ignoring it or conceding it as the ‘convict shame’ or the ‘convict birthstain’ of the country. But in more recent times the so-called convict shame has metamorphosed into ‘convict pride’. A sense of self-confidence and self-identity and even a degree of snobbishness has been attributed to the convict era of our history.1

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ut the historical significance of our convict past has gone further than just self-recognition. In July 2010, eleven complementary convict sites across Australia and Norfolk Island were inscribed on the World Heritage List because of their outstanding universal values. They include Fremantle Prison in Western Australia; Brickendon Estate, Cascades Female Factory, Coal Mines Historic Site (Little Norfolk Bay), Darlington Probation Station and Port Arthur Historic Site in Tasmania; Cockatoo Island, Hyde Park Barracks, Old Government House and the Old Great North Road in New South Wales; and the Kingston and Arthurs Vale Historic Area on Norfolk Island. 2 Below and insert  Port

Transportation to Australia ended with the last transportees arriving in Western Australia in 1868. During eighty years of operation 166,000 prisoners were sent to its many convict stations. The convicts were often from Britain’s working classes, convicted and transported for a wide range of crimes, trivial and major, or for political activities deemed by the

Arthur Historic Site, Tasmania. J Wherrett. Copyright PAHSMA

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British Government as undesirable. Women accounted for 16% of the total. Quite a few children from nine years of age were also punished with transportation to the other side of the world for the so-called crimes they committed.3 The listed sites on the World Heritage List illustrate the different types of convict incarceration, living conditions and forced labour the convicts had to endure, transported far from their homes, deprived of freedom and often subjected to forced labour. The Norfolk Island and Port Arthur sites represent the isolation and harshness often a part of the transportation system. Old Government House, Parramatta and Hyde Park Barracks, Sydney,


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represent the governors and military - the administrators of the convict system. Brickendon Estate and Darlington Probation Station on Maria Island, Tasmania, represent the attempts to rehabilitate the convicts with a view of ultimately integrating them into the society, albeit one of a distant penal colony. The Old Great North Road near Wisemans Ferry, New South Wales, is a 7.5 kilometre stretch of road built under great hardship with the forced labour of convicts. The Coal Mines Historic Site on the Tasman Peninsula represents another form of the forced labour used by the system to assist in the productivity of the Van Diemen’s Land settlements. Cascades Female Factory in Hobart accommodated and punished female convicts but with an aim to reforming them. Cockatoo Island in Sydney Harbour

was a settlement for re-offending male convicts keeping them isolated from the growing colonial population of Sydney. Fremantle Prison was built by convicts to incarcerate them away from the free community while keeping them close enough to utilise their labour in the development of the colony.

Together the sites represent the use of penal transportation as a strategic method of expanding British influence into the other side of the world and at the same time to punish and deter crime in the homelands. The geo-political results of this system strengthened British influence in the southern hemisphere for many decades and eventually led to the establishment of a new nation. The ‘convict stain’ of the transportation system is now recognised as a significant part of world history. 1

Smith, B. 2008, Australia’s Birthstain: The Startling Legacy of the Convict Era, Allen & Unwin, Crows Nest.

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Commonwealth of Australia, 2008, Australian Convict Sites, World Heritage Nomination, Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts, Canberra

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Government House, Sydney. ACNT Row administration, accommodation and barracks, Kingston, Norfolk Island. P Dowling Lower Right  Cemetery, Norfolk Island. P Dowling Bottom Left  Woolmers, part of Brickendon Estate, Tasmania. NTTAS Upper Right  Quality

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Holiday Tours

above  Fall in love with the villages of Lake Como.

above right  Drayton:

NORTHERN ITALY: LAKES, MOUNTAINS & THE RIVIERA 14-26 September 2013

SOUTHERN STATES OF THE USA September/October 2014

SOUTH WEST OF ENGLAND SPRING TOUR June 2014

This tour has been tailor-made for National Trust members in conjunction with Ugo and Barbara Mariotti, who have been conducting enjoyable Trust tours in Italy over the past ten years. Unpack only twice as we stay in centrally located hotels first in Como, set in an idyllic landscape of mountains on the lake of the same name, then in the resort of Santa Margherita Ligure in the heart of the Italian Riviera. Visit the spectacular gardens of Villa Carlotta and Villa Melzi; Bellagio; the Swiss town of Lugano and the gloriously decorated Certosa di Pavia. Leisurely daily excursions on the Riviera include Portofino, the famous villages of the ‘Cinque Terre’ coastline and the heritage listed small port of Porto Venere. A day tour to Lucca, one of the most beautiful towns in northern Tuscany, is also included.

Following the success of the National Trust Tour to New England (USA) in October 2012, a tour of the Southern States is planned for 2014. A tour of the cities in Georgia, South Carolina and Virginia transports you to yesteryear’s days of gracious living. From historic sites in Georgia, travel to antebellum sites in South Carolina and colonial Virginia. Relish the gracious elegance of southern living in the rarefied world of plantations, 19th century mansions and enormous live oaks hung with Spanish moss. Visit Savannah’s beautiful historic district including its lovely Square, River Street and City Market. See Charleston’s ‘Museum Mile’ which features the richest concentration of cultural sites open to visitors. See Colonial Williamsburg which has been restored to its 18th century glory and inhabited by interpreters living its 18th century lifestyle. There is much to discover about the colonial times today.

This exciting new tour to Somerset, Devon and Cornwall in springtime is tailor-made for National Trust members. The itinerary includes wonderful gardens, National Trust properties, seaside and moorland villages, medieval market towns and historic sites. Travel in a small group at a relaxed pace spending multiple nights in distinguished, historic accommodation. For further details please contact David Smith on the toll free number below.

Cost per person twin share: $6,190 Single room supplement: $ 990 Note: Costs do not include airfares Expressions of interest: David Smith, Travelscene on Capri P: 1800 679 066 License No: TA1091 Leader: Jill Bunning T: 02 9798 8914

Please note: Due to demand this very popular tour will be repeated in September 2014.

Trust News Australia may 2013

one of many delights in store in the Southern States of the USA.

Expressions of interest: David Smith, Travelscene on Capri P: 1800 679 066 License No: TA1091 Leader: Lorraine Collins T: 0439 947 479

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Expressions of interest: David Smith, Travelscene on Capri P: 1800 679 066 License No: TA1091 below  The

Tarr Steps: picturesque England


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botanica

house tour: Barbara Brownlow & Alexandra Brownlow rearrange

An APT Company Botanically themed boutique cruises & small group discoveries for the discerning traveller

Mr Johnston’s ColleCtion

16 Day Dutch Gardens, Seine River & Chelsea Flower Show Departing 11 May 2014

12 March 2013 – 19 June 2013

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Visit historic Dutch Gardens before boarding our river ship to explore the gardens and landscapes along the Seine River. Finish your journey with a visit to the world famous Chelsea Flower Show. Included highlights:  7 night cruise onboard the luxurious MS AMALegro  Aalsmeer Flower market & Keukenhof Gardens  Piet Oudolf, Mien Ruys & Ada Hofman Gardens  Clivedon & Savill Gardens  Monets Garden at Giverny

Prices from $10,595* per person, twin share

WoMen MAKinG historY:

Writers, Thinkers, Makers, Icons 1700- 1900

Neeether therlands erlands nds England

Amsterdam 2 Apeldoom 2

London 4

12 March 2013 – 19 June 2013 Rouen Les Andelys Hornfleur Giverny (Monet’s Garden) Bayeaux Normandy 7

Vernon Malmaison River Ship Conflans Paris

FAIRHALL a house museum with a superb collection of georgian, regency & louis XV antiques regularly rearranged within a domestic setting

France

Call Botanica on 1300 305 202 for your free colour brochure or visit www.botanica.travel

GAllerY showcasing special exhibitions, lectures & workshops FrienDs enjoy the benefits

Register today for your free colour Botanica brochure. Mr/Mrs/Ms/Miss/Dr: ����������������������������������� Address: ��������������������������������������������� State:����������������������� Postcode: ���������������� Phone: ���������������������������������������������� Email: ����������������������������������������������� Please send completed form to: Botanica World Discoveries Level 4, 1230 Nepean Highway, Cheltenham, VIC 3192 National Trust

Individual & group bookings available on: www.johnstoncollection.org +61 3 9416 2515 info@johnstoncollection.org Follow us on the Johnston Collection is an independent not-for-profit museum

the johnston collection

Australian Pacific Touring Pty Ltd ABN 44 004 684 619 Lic. No. 30112 MKT11505

QUILT Y TOURS - 2013 FLINDER S RANGES

O U T B AC K AUST R A L I A (including Lake Eyre)

12 days

Adelaide to Sydney 22 August – 2 September

For full details of these tours go to

14

$4,475 (twin share)**

days

Sydney to Sydney

$5,475

25 May to 7 June

(twin share**

www.quiltytours.com.au

OR Contact Richard Quilty personally on

0418 201 677

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** Single Supplements are available

Trust News Australia may 2013

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COMMUNITY

MILESTONES APRIL â&#x20AC;&#x201C; MAY | 2013

Download the app and programs at www.nationaltrust.org.au/heritage-festival

NATIONAL TRUST


Trust News - May 2013