Tame Valley wetland park Viet Trinh Tran - Thesis design
...a day, come back to nature... a day in Wetland park ...
Contents Section 1: Site analysis and investigation River Tame and Tam Valley Wind and Sun analysis Lea Marston Lake Spacial quality and key Issue Opportunities
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Section 2: Theoretical position Research Case study
Section 3: Concept proposal Design brief Design principle Inspiration Strategy 1: Zoning Strategy 2: The Living landscape Strategy 3: Habitat creation and education Proposal master plan 1/1250 Proposal master plan 1/500 Detail master plan scale 1/200
30 32 34 36 40 54 66 68 70
Section 1 SITE ANALYSIS & INVESTIGATION
River Tame and Its valley The River Tame is the largest tributary of the River Trent. The river flows eastwards to the north of Birmingham City Centre and flows into a series of purification lakes at Lea Marston. After the lakes, the Tame continues to flow northwards, entering the River Trent. The Trent then flows north, finally flowing into the sea. The river through without of authority boundary, rising from Black Country to Birmingham, passing North Warwich and toward TameWorth. The catchment of the Tame contains a population of about 1.7 million people.
River Tame and its valley play an important role for holding water for a wide area of region, dealing with flooding, provingding drinking water, as well as the threat of losing wetland and biodiversity
The infrastructure (|HS2 and railway has framed the valley in a middle. It isolates the wetland but it is also protected the area from human daily activities
Wind and Sun analysis
Lea Marston Lakes Oporation Lake 1 has an area of 25 ha and an average depth of 2.3 m. Almost the entire length of Lake 1 is split in half by a central berm, which provides the base for dredging. Lake 2A (Lake Lester) covers an area of 18 ha and its average depth is 2 m. Eighty per cent of the river flow passes through this lake with the remaining twenty per cent going down the existing channel.
Above: Plan of Lea Marston Lake 1
Above: Orignal plan of the Lea Marston purification system
Key issue - Fishes passing - Flooding - Noise - Accessibility - Unknown place
History and tendency
Opportunities Water abundance Water abundance and located in the series of Wetland
The Hams Hall site was the largest power station in Europe. By 1993 all threeÂ power stations had been closed and demolished, and the site was sold for redevelopment. The site is nowÂ the Hams Hall Distribution Park and is home to many large companies, including E.ON, Sainsburyâ€™s and BMW
The landscape of Valley w 1930s, by large scale sand mand continued to rise in meet demand, new quarr Valley, some covering ma river side meadows, wood
Located in East Atlantic flyway, each year England is a destination of many millions mitigated birds, especially water birds. It would be a important site of international migratory birds. Take the advantage of birds mitigation to enhence the sense of place, make it is more special with birds watching. And be a role of International Wetland Park
The landscape was productive has longtime affected by industrial activities. Additionally, as well as the expanding of urban area leads to the decline of natural and agricultural area, the more place the water took to settle in the valley
was dramatically altered in d and gravel extraction. Den the decades after the war. To ries were dug across the Tame any acres, destroying ancient dlands and hedgerows.
Landscape and climate change It is widely accepted that our climate is changing and that these changes are at and climate change least in part a result of human activity. The impacts of these changes in the UK have been comprehensively researched by the UK Climate Impacts Programme (UKCIP) and, via UKCIP02, a number of forecast scenarios have been established for the coming century based upon different future emission trends. These include: — hotter, drier summers — warmer, wetter winters — an increase in the frequency of some extreme weather events — rising sea levels
Healthy wetland, healthy people A wide range of research show a strong case of the important of wetland habitat and why is essential to recreation and conservation wetlands. Scientists (Mitsch & Gosselink, 2015; Hume, 2008; Horwitz et al., 2012) agree that wetlands are “kidneys of landscape” in the planet because of their ecological functions such as supplying water, controlling flood, purifying water and protecting shorelines. Furthermore, wetlands are productivity hotpots of fauna and flora due to their extensive food chain and rich biodiversity that they support (Mitsch & Gosselink, 2015; France, 2002; Kirby et al., 2004). As well as a place for wildlife, France (2002) and Kirby (2004) highlighted other benefits of wetland for people amenities, namely: psychological support (aesthetics and wild open space), recreation, culture, and education. However, despite their values, wetlands are being drained by human activities, namely population expansion, urbanisation and agriculture (Ramsar Secretariat, 2012). For example, since the Industrial Revolution, English landscape lost 100,000 hectares wetland per year between 1840 and 1880 alone (Hume, 2008). As a consequence, many related environmental problems occurred, wetland-dependent species declined rapidly, and human health and well-being are affected (Horwitz et al., 2012; Ramsar Convention on Wetlands, 2018).
The invention of River Naturally river systems are in dynamic equilibrium (Das, et al, 2014, p.7). This means that the river system, if alterred by natural conditions, will always find and readjust itself, through process of sedimentation and erosion, in regards to profile, dimension, amd pattern to reach its former balance (Couture, 2008). The author integrates history, art, cultural studies, hydrology, and geography to tell the story of how rives have been culturally constructed and giving deeply knowledge about the river itself.
The Wetland centre The centre plays a role of rasing the knowledge about Wetland and promote Wetland conservation activities. Therefore a wetland centre or wetland education centre or wetland learning centre is defined by Wetland Link International (WLI – the global network of wetland centres) as ‘any place there is an interaction between people and wildlife and CEPA* activity occurs in support of wetland conservation’.
Reducing noise Summary There are several factors to be considered before deciding to create a tree and shrub barrier against noise. Noise is more effectively reduced by completely screening the source from view. A noise barrier should be planted as close to the noise source as possible. Wide belts of high-density trees and shrubs are required to achieve significant noise reductions. Effectiveness of noise reduction is closely related to the density of stems, branches and leaves. For all year-round noise reduction use broadleaved evergreens or a combination of conifers and broadleaved evergreen species. Soft ground is an efficient noise absorber. Cultivating ground before planting and the addition of well-rotted organic matter to the soil surface may also help to reduce noise whilst vegetation becomes established. References APN6 Trees and Shrubs for Noise Control HIGHWAY TRAFFIC NOISE ANALYSIS AND ABATEMENT POLICY AND GUIDANCE by the Dept of Transportation et al
How to establish a wetland centre is described carefully in the Ramsar Wetland Centre report.
Case study Hong Kong Wetland Park Upgraded from a mitigation area which was originally a compensation for the wetland lost due to the development of a new town Size: 1-hectare visitor centre and a 60-hectare Wetland Reserve. Location: Hong Kong, China Landscape character: Located on on an important migration route for birds. Visitor center facilities: exhibition galleries, theatre, souvenir shop and indoor play area. Other facilities: Stream Walk, Succession Walk, Mangrove Boardwalk and three Bird Hides lead visitors to venture in different habitats.
Inspiration The Wetland Reserve is constructed wetlands of habitats specially designed for waterbirds. The Wetland Discovery Centre located in the Wetland Reserve allows visitors to encounter a vast diversity of wetland creatures
Case study Sungei Buloh Wetland Park Size: 1-hectare visitor centre and a 202-hectare Wetland Reserve Location: Singapore Landscape character: Nature park & wetland area reserve known for migratory birds, with a visitor center. Visitor center facilities: exhibition galleries, theatre, souvenir shop and indoor play area. Other facilities: Stream Walk, Succession Walk, Mangrove Boardwalk and three Bird Hides lead visitors to venture in different habitats.
Inspiration the site links people through a diverse range of habitats, it also acts as a biodiversity corridor for both flora and fauna through successful three strateges: 1st - Living Wetland 2nd - Bio learning 3rd - The Destination Difference
Case study Brockholes Wild Nature Reservation Transformed from a sand and gravel quarry Size: 0,28 hectare flooting visitor centre and a107-hectare Wetland and Woodland nature Reserve Location: Northwest England Landscape character: Wetland and woodland nature reserve, home to rare bird species, with a floating visitor village Visitor center facilities: Conference center, information center, gift shop, Cafe/refreshments, Picnic area, Outdoor play area Other facilities: Bird hides, trails
Inspiration The highlight of this case is a fascinating design of visitor village that brings visitors into the territory amongst the reeds at the waterâ€™s edge by a floating structure. The design adapts to the fluctuated water level by using techniques, sustainable materials, as well as establishes a unique, poetic landscape.
Case study Purifying park Design: DELVA Landscape Architects and the Association Ceuvel Location: Amsterdam Project Years: 2014
Examples of phytoextractive and hyperaccumulator plants and their target contaminants include: - Fireweed (Achillea millefolium) - Chinese Brake Fern (Pteris vittata) - Arsenic - Alpine pennycress (Thlaspi caerulescens) Cadmium, zinc, - Willow (Salix viminalis) - Cadmium, zinc, copper - Sunflowers (Helianthus annuus) - Arsenic, caesium-137, strontium-90 - Indian mustard (Brassica juncea) - Lead - Ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia) - Lead - Hemp dogbane (Apocynum cannabinum) Lead - Poplar trees (Populus) - Lead -Water hyacinth - Arsenic - Halophytic barley (Hordeum vulgare) - Sodium chloride (reclaiming fields flooded by sea water) - Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) - Sodium chloride (reclaiming fields flooded by sea water) - Transgenic plants - Mercury, selenium, polychlorinated biphenyls
Epilobium angustifolium Wiligenroosje
Typha latifolia Grote Lisdodde
Digitalis purpurea Vingerhoedskruid
Achillea millefolium Zwarte willg
Salix nigra Zwarte willg
Lolium perennce Raaigras
Agrostis capilaris Strulsgras
Festuca arundinacea Rietzwenkgras
Section 3 DESIGN PROPOSAL â€œThe earth does not belong to us, we belong to the earthâ€? - Chief Seattle
Design brief Despite of the facts that the number of wetland in England has been decline year by year, Tame Valley and its wetlands is continuing a mysterious treasure that is hidden, unknown and isolated. Its extraordinary landscape that has a rich wildlife, culture and history is a potential place to creating an international wetland park that not only providing a place for wildlife and people, but also addressing these region environment issue such as climate change, food, water security, and stimulating health, contributing the economy and prompting a sense of place identity.
Design principle - Water is the central elements, surrounded by wetland landscape. - A balance between human and wildlife. - Adapting with fluctuate water level - Promote wetland knowledge and conservation - Increasing the water storage capacity
Inspiration Which is more impressive than nature itself? It could be a majestic mountain ranges or fields stretching endlessly. Or it could be familiar as home garden. Whatever it is, in which, ... ... wind blowing, clouds floating, water flows, ... and life continues.
intense and tender, ephemeral and movingâ€?
Strategy 1: Zoning During the planning process, it is essential to think about the various functions of the wetland educational centre. There will always be the need to strike a balance between the needs of the visitor and wildlife needs. Centre facilities need to work from a visitor perspective, but they must also compromise wildlife. One of the best ways to consider this is through appropriate zoning. Identify and zone areas based on their level of disturbance
Strategy 2: A living wetland â€œIt will be as it should beâ€?; this is the slogan that I always take into account during my designing process. Why? Because everything has their character, creating its identity as well as stand out of the crowd. Eventhough, design is a process of creative and modify aspects of a subjects, the design proposal aim to retain the most characteristic and highlight the most dramatic and impressive of the subject.
Well-established trees can stabilise and protect fragile earth riverbanks with their extensive root systems and also provide ideal habitat for many invertebrates, birds and mammals that in turn will attract other wildlife to feed on them.
Common Alder Alnus glutinosa (hight to 25m)
Common Alder carr
Weeping Willow S. x sepulcralis hight to 20m
Grey Willow Salix cinerea (hight to 6m)
Crack - Willow Salix fragilis (hight to 25m)
Proposal taged shurb
The plants selected not only support soil and water conservation and aesthetic landscape but also provide an ideal place for leisure and water birds.
Scarlet willow Salix alba Britzensis (hight to 4m)
Goat Willow Salix caprea (hight to 12m)
White Willow Salix alba (hight to 25m)
Swamp Cypress Scots pine Taxodium distichum Pinus sylvestris (5 - 6m)
Native plantings cleanse water and create habitat
NATIVE WET PLANTS
MA R S H & BA N K S I DE PL A NTS
Meadow buttercup Meadowsweet Flipendula Ulmaria Ranunculus acris (1m)
Bugle Ajuga reptans (20cm)
Hemp Agrimony Marsh Woundwort Salat Burnet Eupatorium cannabinum Stachys palustris Sanguisorba minor (35cm) (1.5m) (1m)
Fritillary Horestail Reed Grass Fritillaria meleagris (30cm)
Ragged-robin Lychnis flos-cuculi (65cm)
FLOATING -LEAVED & BOTTOM-ROOTED PLANTS Where the plant has leaves or fronds that float on the surface of the water
White Water - lily Nymphaea alba
Yellow Water - lily Nymphar lutea
Fringed Water - lily Nymphoides peltala
SUBMER Where the plant
Spiked Water Myriophyllum s
MA RG INA L P L A N TS Cope with water up to 15cm deep
Yellow Iris Purple loosestrife Water mint Iris pseudacorus (Iridaceae) Lythrum salicaria (1.5m) Mentha aquatica (50cm)
Water - plantain Brooklime Water Forget-me-not Alisma plantago-aquatica (1m) Veronica beccabunga (30cm) Myosotis scorpioides (12cm)
Marsh marigold Caltha palustris (25cm)
Lesster Spearwort Ranunculus flammula (50cm)
EM E RG E N T P L A N TS With derect leaves and stems that grow up out of the water
Lesser reedmace Typha angustifolia (2m)
Flowering - rush Bogbean Greater spearwort Menyanthes trifoliata (1m) Ranunculus lingua (1m) Butomus umbellatus (1m)
Branched Bur-reed Sparganium erectum (1m)
RGED PLANTS has its leaves under the surface of the water
r - milfoil Curled Pondweed spicatum Potamogeton crispus
Rigid Hornwort Ceratophyllum demersum (Native oxygenating plant)
Common Water - starwort Callotriche stagnalis
Mareâ€™s - tail Hippuris vulgaris
Strategy 3: Habitat creation & education According to the definition of Ramsar Convention and Wetland Link International: â€œWetland educational centre is a place where there is an interaction between people and wildlife and regular CEPA (Communication, Education, Participation and Awareness) activity occurs in support of wetland conservation aimsâ€?, the role of education and raising awareness in WEC cannot deny. Therefore, base on its zoning, ecological function, and habitat, the series of educational facilities are allocated along the site to facilitate these purpose.
Above: Entrance view 2
Right: Wetland park view 1
Above: View 3 from Railway
The Wetland community This communities shows a case of living with nature, expescially with wetlandside
Above: Wetland community view 1
1 2 3
Right: Wetland community view 2
Right: Wetland community view 3
IDEA The form comes from nature and play a part of ecological function.
Typhography Take the advantages of typography to create a Wetland Centre
WETLAND CENTRE MASTER PLAN SCALE 1/500@A1
Scupture garden view 1
Right: Wetland desk view
Scupture garden view 2
Right: Green roof above Scupture garden
Right: View next to childrent play ground
Proposal for Wetland Centre
Lilac Syringa vulgare Primrose (3m)
Soft Trees ferns Dicksonia antarcica (2.5 m)
Swamp Cypress Taxodium distichum (5 - 6m)
Agapanthus Agapanthus africanus (1.5m)
Jescot Julie Dahlia
Plume poppy Macleaya microcarpa
Plaintain lily Hosta Francee
Bungbane Actatea simplex
Bird of paradise Strelitzia reginae (1m)
Betty bowring Brunnera macrophylla
Bressing beauty Astibe
Pagei Hebe pinguifolia 0.3m
Masterwort Astrantia ‘Hadspen Blood”
Scarlet willow Salix alba Britzensis (hight to 4m)
Burgundy Glow Ajuga reptans
The rocket Ligularia
G RO U N D COV E R S
Foxglove Tree Paulownia tomentosa (8m)
Scots pine Pinus sylvestris
Crack - Willow Salix fragilis (hight to 25m)
Hard shield fern Polysticchum aculeatum
Masterwort Astrantia “Roma”
Species Rich Lawn Turf
Barrenwort Epimedium x perralchicum
Blue birds Hydrangea serrate
Principle - Natural look
Proposal for Wetland Centre
- Texture - Grey and warm color - Environmentally friendly
Blue Limestone Color: Grey Finish: Tumbled
Color: Yellow Finish: Flamed
Yorkstone Color: Buff Finish: Sawn
Kellen crossover kerb Color: Grey
Color: Light grey Finish: Rough
Kellen Half battered kerb Color: Grey
Kellen Sferio design range
Color: Grigio Brillare (Light Grey ) & Grigio Argento (Dark Grey)
Composite Wood Color: Dark brown
Color: Light Grey Finish: Rough
Loose pebble washed Color: Black
Resin Bound Gravel Color: Brown
Composite Wood Color: Light brown
Color: Dark Grey Finish: Rough
Gabion wall Color: Grey
Self-binling Gravel Color: Brown
Concrete Grass Pavers Color: Grey
Color: Light Grey Finish: Flamed
The idea is creating the series of different spaces while visitor coming to the Wetland park. This is started with usual scale to narrow and higher of woodland space and coming to a wide and lower scale of drop off. Then, passing the entrance, this is a breaktaking view of enless horizone.
Drop off marterial Scale 1/200 @ A1
Drop off planting Scale 1/200 @ A1
Detail drawing Drop off area
American Society of Landscape Architects, 2010. ASLA Professional Awards 2010: The Sungei Buloh Wetland Reserve Master Plan. [Online] Available at: https://www.asla.org/2010awards/147.html [Accessed 15 12 2018]. Chan, S. & Lee, E., 2010. Revisit and Discover: Sungei Buloh Wetland Reserve. [Online] Available at: www.nparks.gov.sg/-/media/cuge/ebook/citygreen/cg3/cg3_17.pdf [Accessed 20 12 2018]. France, R. L., 2002. Wetland design: principles and practices for landscape architects and land-use planners. New York: W.W. Norton. Hong Kong Wetland Park, 2018. Hong Kong Wetland Park: About us. [Online] Available at: https://www.wetlandpark.gov.hk/en/aboutus/index [Accessed 10 12 2018]. Horwitz, P., Finlayson, M. C. & Weinstein, P., 2012. Healthy wetlands, healthy people: a review of wetlands and human health interactions, Gland, Switzerland: Secretariat of the Ramsar Convention on Wetlands & The World Health Organization. Hough, M., 1989. City form and natural process. London: Routledge. Hume, C., 2008. Wetland Vision Technical Document: Overview and reporting of project philosophy and technical approach. S .l.: The Wetland Vision and Partnership. Jonatan, A.-G., José, S.-M. L. & José, G.-Z., 2016. Fauna in wetland landscape: a perception approach. Landscape Research , Volume 41:5, 510-523, DOI:10.1080/01426397.2015.1081160. Kirby, J. et al., 2004. Waterbirds & Wetland Recreation Handbook: A review of issues and management practice. 1st ed. Oxford: The Wildfowl & Wetlands Trust. Mitsch, W. J. & Gosselink, J. G., 2015. Wetlands, 5th ed. New York: John Wiley & Sons. Ramsar Convention on Wetlands, 2018. Global Wetland Outlook: state of the World’s Wetlands and their Services to People. Gland, Switzerland: Ramsar Convention Secretariat. Ramsar Convention Secretariat, 2016. An introduction to the Convention on Wetlands. Gland, Switzerland: Ramsar Convention Secretariat. Ramsar Secretariat, 2014. Best Practices for the Planning, Design and Operation of Wetland Education Centres. Gland, Switzerland: Ramsar Convention Secretariat. SAA Group Architects, 2010. Sungei Buloh Wetland Reserve. [Online] Available at: http://www.saagroup.com/project/sungei-buloh-wetland-reserve/ [Accessed 20 12 2018].