LED-backlit TVs have Taken the World by Storm Cover Story ★ The Inside Scoop on the Features of LED TVs ★ Survival of the Fittest: Evolution of the LED TV Market
LED Price Remained Stable in 4Q09 LED-backlit Monitors Will Boom 2011
How to Choose LED Driver IC? Key Elements of LED Streetlight Design
2010 Global LED Streetlight Market Forecast LEDforum 2009 Snapshot
CONTENTS Cover story 6
- Is LED Backlighting the Ideal Energy-saving Solution of Large-sized LCD TVs? Major Korean brand vendors have coined the term “LED
TV” to promote their LCD TV models that adopt the LED backlight technology. Thereafter, other TV manufacturers have also followed suit. - The Inside Scoop on the Features of LED TVs Even though ‘LED TV’ is simply a marketing buzzword, its advantages outweigh its drawbacks.
- Survival of the Fittest: Evolution of the LED TV Market In a consumer electronics market where LCD TV is the central focus, Samsung, the leading global TV manufacturer, managed to jump into the limelight with a new design concept – the ‘LED TV’.
- LED Price Remained Stable in 4Q09 According to LEDinside’s latest price trend report, the growing shipment in LED backlight and lighting
- Demand for LED Streetlights in China Will Surge in 2011 2009 has been a dramatic year for the LED industry. Due to the global economic
- WitsView: LED-backlit Monitors Will Boom in 2011 Eco-friendly and energy-saving requirements accelerated the replacement of LED
application led to a shortage in the chip supply. -by Doris Yang crisis, the industry has suffered one of the worst downturns in decades at the beginning of 2009. -by Roger Chu backlight as the major light source in medium- and large-sized panel applications. -by Eric Chiou
Feature: LED Streetlight 22
- The Rise of LED Ambient Lights and LED Night Safety Street Lights in Japan Japan is the birthplace of LED outdoor lighting, including LED ambient lights, LED night safety street lights, and other novel lighting fixtures.
- 2010 Global LED Streetlight Market Forecast In the beginning of 2009, under China’s “Ten Thousand Lights in Ten Cities” project, LED manufacturers worldwide had great expectations in the prospect of the LED market.
- SHOWCASE: A Brief Introduction of LED streetlight Manufacturers 2010 Benefiting from the enhancement of LED specifications, the current LED streetlight manufacturers upgraded luminous efficacy of LED components to 100Lm/W from the 70~80Lm/W used in 1H09.
- Veeco: Phenomenal Growth Momentum of the Chinese Market in 2010 Widespread application of LED backlight in LCDs has led to a shortage of LED chips in 2009. This shortage encouraged chipmakers to expand production capacity and make large-scale equipment purchases.
- China Solid State Lighting Alliance: to Cultivate Enterprises with Brand Competitiveness Founded in 2004, China Solid State Lighting
- VisEra: The Next Milestone of LED Package Technology - Wafer-Level Silicon-based Package The launch of 8” wafer-level silicon-
Alliance facilitates cooperation between solid state lighting production and research. based LED package technology by VisEra Technologies Company is regarded as the latest breakthrough of high power LED package.
Feature: LEDforum 2009 Snapshot 37
- Global Energy Policies Brighten up the Future of LED Lighting
- Technology Trends in LED Lighting
- Lighting Class LED & Energy Star for Solid State Lighting Applications
- LED Outdoor Lighting
- Advanced Technology & Market Development of LED TV
- Automotive LED Lighting Application: Opportunities & Challenges
- Development of China's solid state lighting industry
- How to Choose LED Driver IC? LED has established its unshakable position in the backlighting of portable devices. Even in the backlighting for the large-sized LCD panel, it has started to challenge the mainstream CCFL.
- Key Elements of LED Streetlight Design In recent years, cross-strait development of various types of LED streetlights have been booming. Particularly in 2008, Taiwan and China both initiated several LED streetlight demonstration projects.
2010 International LED Events
Green Energy Trend Drives the Leap in LED Lighting Market Energy-saving is one of the key focuses of current social concerns. There are significant differences between various energy-saving technologies. While some technologies reduce power consumption, save electricity costs, and reduce environmental pollution by lowering carbon dioxide emission levels, other technologies consume so much energy that they offset the amount of energy saved. Nonetheless, these technologies help lower pollution levels. Green Economy is expected to stimulate great demand for energy-saving lighting for the next few years. In this volume, we have put together a wide range of relevant LED topics, such as LED TV, backlight trends, outdoor lighting, LED road lamps, etc. Additionally, we have also included reports on LED pricing review 2009, LED industry outlook 2010, as well as a wide array of technical columns and exclusive interviews with leading LED firms. We believe this market-driven magazine offers value-added information at your fingertips.
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BeLight vol.02, 2010
Cover Story Nowadays, many consumers should have noticed the intense promotion campaign launched by TV vendors for LED TVs. Major Korean brand vendors have coined the term â€œLED TVâ€? to promote their LCD TV models that adopt the LED backlight technology. Some TV manufacturers in Japan, China, and Europe have also followed suit and introduced a series of LED-backlit LCD TV. In the 21st century when resources are scarce, the high energy consumption of large-size TVs has become a topic of increasing concern.
The larger the TV size, the higher the energy consumption Typical 42inch and 50inch LCD TVs consume between 250W to 400W of electricity depending on their technical specifications. Among them, the models with 1980 x 1080 resolution (or 1080P) or Full HD (high definition) feature consume more energy than ordinary HD 720P models. The high energy consumption of LCD TVs can be well explained by their usage of cold cathode fluorescent lamps (CCFLs) as backlight source. CCFL is similar to the commonly used fluorescent lamps, but smaller, with higher luminous efficacy. It is used to provide stable light from behind the LCD panel to ensure the image formed on the panel is shown to viewers. Due to the obvious disadvantage of CCFL backlight, plasma TVs were favored in the market for some years for they emit light and eliminate the need for backlight.The drawback is that these TVs generate a tremendous amount of heat which also wastes energy. For this reason, as the production capability improves and technology advances in LCD TV field, the plasma TVs are losing their leading position in the market in recent years. In light of the evolution of backlight technology for LCD TVs, will CCFL backlit LCD TVs soon be swept out of the market by LED technology? Compared to CCFL, one of the important advantages of LED backlight is its low energy consumption. An LCD TV with LED backlight uses 50~70% less power than its CCFL-backlit alternative of the same panel size.
New ENERGY STAR specification U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) jointly launched the ENERGY STAR programme which requires large-size TVs to reach the new standard by May, 2010 to receive the ENERGY STAR Certification. According to ENERGY STAR Version 4.0, electrical appliances must offer at least 40% energy saving to get ENERGY STAR qualified. That means LCD TVs should be more efficient than they are now to receive the energy saving qualification. In May, 2012, U.S. government will implement the more challenging ENERGY STAR Version 5.0, which will require the ENERGY STAR qualified TVs to offer at least 65% energy saving features. There are reasons behind these standards the U.S. has established to promote energy saving products. According to data from the U.S. government, some 2750 million TVs are currently used in the country, which consume over 50 billion watts a year, accounting for about 4 percent of the total household electricity consumption. If saved, the power could supply all households in New York State for a whole year.
Insights from LEDinside According to ENERGY STAR specifications, LCD TVs larger than 50inch would not meet the energy saving standards even if they have strong energy saving features. The U.S. government estimates that more than 190 million LCD TVs larger than 40inch will enter American households in 2010, which could generate immense energy consumption if energy saving is not emphasized enough. The Version 4.0 specification requires that 46inch and 50inch TVs offer a saving of 50 percent than models currently on the market. From a market perspective, only TVs based on LED technology have the potential to be ENERGY STAR qualified under the Version 4.0 specification. There are even more challenging regulations in the State of California. The state plans to permit only ENERGY STAR qualified large-size TVs to be sold on the market in 2011, and will further raise the standard in 2013. According to estimates by The California Energy Commission, the average overall energy consumption of DVD players, DVD recorders, cable TVs, play stations, STB and TVs accounts for around 10% the total power used in households. The State expects the amount to be reduced by 33% by 2011 when the new energy saving specification goes into effect.
According to EPA, televisions, especially large-size TVs, consume over 4% the power used in a home, thus should be considered as energy-wasting, rather than energy-saving products. And any TV sets larger than 50inch should be regarded as resource-wasting products. EPA requires an On Mode power consumption of 108W for these TVs to get ENERGY STAR qualified. On the other hand, none of the 52inch TVs currently available on the market has met this standard, including the CCFL backlit TVs and the LED backlit products. Therefore, the overall energy saving technology must continue to evolve.
vol.02, 2010 BeLight
THE INSIDE SCOOP ON THE FEATURES OF LED TVS Even though ‘LED TV’ is simply a marketing buzzword, its advantages outweigh its drawbacks An increasing number of TV vendors, including Sony, Sharp Samsung, and LG, are launching their so-called "LED TV" products on the market. But in fact, LED TV is not a completely different product to LCD TV – it is, in essence, an LCD TV that adopts LED backlighting technology. The biggest difference lies in the backlight technologies adopted – traditional LCD TVs use CCFL (cold cathode florescent lamps) backlight, while the new generation of LCD TVs use LED (Light-Emitting Diode) backlights. And because of the difference between LED and CCFL backlighting technologies, it generates the difference in contrast, energy consumption, profile thickness, and the production cost in their respective TV sets. LED-backlit LCD TV is not without its drawbacks, but its advantages outweigh its drawbacks; moreover, LED-backlit TV has already become the future trend of LCD TVs, such technology cannot be replaced easily in the short run.
the term ‘LED TV.’ Thereafter, other brand vendors such as Sony, Sharp, and Toshiba,have also begun to launch LED-backlit LCD TVs, and naturally adopted the term ‘LED TV’ either intentionally or passively. Even though using the term ‘LED TV’ to market the LED-backlit LCD TV may mislead consumers to believe that the ‘LED TV’ is a new type of TV, the term effectively promotes the visibility of LED-backlit TVs, and its definition is logical to a certain extent. However, under stricter definition, it would be more appropriate to use the term ‘LED-backlit LCD TV’. Whether it is the mainstream CCFL-backlit LCD TVs, or the increasingly popular LED-backlit LCD TV, both require light bars to cast light onto the LCD panel, to display the color and contrast of the image to viewers. Similarly, this requirement applies to LCD monitors and notebook monitors. In the past, plasma TVs and OLED TVs (Organic Light Emitting Diode television) which were favored in the market for some years for they emit light and eliminate the need for backlight. After the screen is powered, each pixel on the panel emits light.
2. The main purpose of using LED backlight ─ its energy-saving attributes As discussed in our previous LED TV feature story, ‘The Energy Saving Challenge of Large-Size TVs - LED TV’, according to ENERGY STAR specifications, LCD TVs larger than 50inch simply do not meet the energy saving standards, regardless of any enhancement in their energy saving features. The Version 4.0 specification requires that 46inch and 50inch TVs offer a saving of 50 percent than models currently on the market. From a market perspective, only TVs based on LED technology have the potential to be ENERGY STAR qualified under the Version 4.0 specification.
Photo Source: TOSHIBA
LEDinside explores the true features of LED TVs through the following aspects: 1. The conception of the term ‘LED TV’ The biggest promoter behind the grand hype of LED TV is Samsung, which began to promote the LED-backlit LCD TVs as early as 2007, when they coined
BeLight vol.02, 2010
One of the main reasons for adopting the LED backlight is the energy-saving attribute. LED backlight modules consume 30~50% less power than its CCFLbacklit alternatives of the same luminous efficacy. In terms of unit light source, LEDs ‘theoretically’ generate higher lumens per watt (lm/w) than that of the CCFL. Currently, some specially-formulated CCFL backlights offer similar luminous efficacy to that of LED backlights. However, with the continuous improvement of LED luminous efficacy, upgraded CCFL no longer poses threat to LEDs. Furthermore, there is another advantage to LED backlight modules – the instant on and off switch, contrast control, and optimized energy efficiency, which makes LED backlights more energy-efficient than CCFLs. The difference is even more pronounced when compared to plasma TVs – the power consumption of LED TV is three times as energy efficient as plasma TV.
Photo Source: VIZIO
3. The second purpose of using LED backlight ─ its eco-friendliness After the EU released the ROHS directives, countries across the globe became more conscious of eco-friendliness of materials used in electronic products. The environmental directive states that display devices require low mercury content. There are CCFL-backlit products which contain extremely low levels of mercury, however, to be completely mercury-free, it would be more appropriate to adopt LED backlighting.
dispersed to the central region of the screen through a light guide plate, providing sufficient amount of backlight for the overall LCD screen. There are two advantages in edge-type LED backlight: 1. more cost-effective – through reducing the number of LEDs used; 2. slimmer profile – as the LED modules are configured on the edges of the LCD panel, and not behind it, it reduces the overall thickness of the screen, making them slimmer than the direct type models.
As for the eco-friendliness of the production process of CCFL backlight modules and LED backlight modules – it is still controversial, but for the ultimate usage purpose, not only is LED backlighting more eco-friendly, it is also relatively more energy-efficient.
4. The third purpose of using LED backlight - to enhance the contrast LED TV "claims" it offers higher contrast ratio due to the difference in the light source - direct-type LED-backlit LCD TV offers a ‘local dimming’ feature, which allows adjustments of a specific dimming level on any particular block of the LCD screen, allowing clearer contrast across different blocks, therefore, higher contrast ratio for the entire image. When displaying black on direct type LED TVs, the LEDs behind the black block can be turned off, showing a perfect black. This feature also allows some vendors to use another marketing buzzword, claiming that their products achieve ‘dynamic contrast’ of 100,000:1. This, in reality, is simply another buzzword; such high contrast ratio is implausible. As there is no local dimming technology in CCFL backlit screens, its backlight is achieved through the combination of CCFLs and a light guide plate, brightness adjustments spans over the entire screen. Therefore, the only way to enhance brightness contrast is through changing the colors. There is another type of LED backlight source: the edge-type LED backlit TV, which has no local dimming function.
5. Two main types of LED backlighting – direct-type and edge-type There is significant difference between direct-type and edge-type LED backlighting, in terms of light source, cost, and in their retail prices. The former is the most common type adopted by TV makers when LED-backlit LCD TV was introduced – the uniform distribution of LEDs over the entire LCD panel allows the light source to be transmitted uniformly across the entire screen, making the image more delicate and vivid. The downside is, directtype backlighting uses more LEDs compared to that of edge-type. The advantage of direct-type backlighting is its individual blocks of backlight modules. In theory, the brightness of each LED can be independently controlled, but such circuit design is not cost-effective. In practice, the screen is sectioned into multiple blocks, and the brightness of each block can be adjusted independently. A large-sized direct-type LED-backlit TV is lit by thousands of LEDs; therefore, the cost is extremely high. In particular, in the early stages when the LED TV has just been launched, RGB tri-color LED was used to improve the color rendering index, (making colors more vivid). The costs of such models are inevitably high. Recently, industry players have been adopting the less expensive white-LEDs as backlight; despite its poor color rendering index in the beginning, substantial improvement has been achieved. As for the edge type LED backlight, LEDs are configured on the edges of the LCD screen; when light is emitted from the LED backlight module, it is
The aesthetic style in design of the back of Samsung's LED TV
6. The drawbacks of direct-type LED backlight – blooming and energy consumption As mentioned earlier, the advantage of direct-type LED backlight is local dimming, which offers better dynamic contrast, and more vivid image on the LCD screen. But are there any drawbacks? In addition to the relatively higher costs, there are several drawbacks. Blooming – even though local dimming offers higher contrast in image, but during the process of image shift, i.e. adjusting the bright block to dark ones, the gray scale intensity in the adjacent regions will be reduced, hence creating the ‘blooming’ effect. The extent of this drawback varies across different brands and models. In theory, for direct type LED backlight modules, if the density of LEDs configured behind the LCD screen is higher, or if there are more local dimming blocks, it will minimize the occurrence of blooming. However, with edge-type LED backlit TV, blooming would not be an issue though it has other drawbacks which will be discussed later. Another drawback is its high power consumption – as direct-type uses more LEDs than edge-type ones, it consumes more power, though, on the whole, power consumption of both are still lower than that of CCFL-backlit LCD TV. The other one is the viewing angle of the LCD screen itself, and this problem becomes more obvious in direct type LED TVs. It is a commonly accepted fact that the viewing angle of LCD screen is quite narrow, and adopting the LED backlight in fact intensifies the issue, rather than improves it. Viewers are to center themselves in front of the screen to see the "best" image. If the viewer watches the LED TV in a location that is slightly off-center, there will be a significant difference in the image. This issue of narrow viewing angle exists both horizontally and vertically, and there is also a difference in standing and sitting positions; however, the extent varies on a case-by-case basis.
vol.02, 2010 BeLight
7. The shortcomings of Edge type LED backlight - poor image uniformity THe biggest advantage of edge-type LED-backlit TV is its ultra-slim profile and its low production cost (although this cost advantage is not necessarily reflected in its retail price). And the drawbacks? Currently, the biggest drawback of edge type LED backlight is its poor uniformity. Even though the edge type LED TV is thinner, and uses fewer LEDs, the light is dispersed to the center through a light guide plate, which makes the edges of this type of TV brighter than the center of the screen. This drawback is seen in both allblack and all-white image test. Moreover, the temperature on the edges of the TV screen is higher than that of the center, as LED lights produce heat.
Insights from LEDinside:
Continuous technological and cost improvement in both LED backlight technologies Although there are drawbacks in both types of LED backlighting methods, novelty attracts consumers, and LED TVs will undoubtedly become increasingly popular in the future. The goal of many global manufacturers is to improve the blooming, thickness, and cost of direct-type LED TV (through optimizing the LED configuration, enhancing luminous efficacy, and lowering LED prices), and to improve the image uniformity of the edge-type LED TV (through improving the luminous efficacy, and reducing the number of LED light bars from 4 to 2, ultimately, aiming for a 1 light bar configuration). At this stage, there is no absolute answer to whether direct type or edge type LED TV is better; however, according to LEDinside, backed by consumersâ€™ growing preference of slim TVs, sales of edge type LED TVs will outshine that of direct type ones, and their prices will soon be more reasonable, too. The direct type LED TV will also be well-received for its superior performance in image quality, particularly among consumers who seek high-end audio-visual equipment. In the near future, the price gap between LED-backlit LCD TVs and CCFL ones would be narrower; at that time, LED TV will gain widespread popularity, securing a stable and sustainable capacity in the LED industry.
Photo Source: SAMSUNG
SURVIVAL OF THE FITTEST: EVOLUTION OF THE LED TV MARKET In a consumer electronics market where LCD TV is the central focus, Samsung, the leading global TV manufacturer, managed to jump into the limelight with a new design concept – the ‘LED TV’. Even though this LED-backlit LCD TV cannot be considered a product with a total innovative concept, with the combination of features such as Samsung’s edge-type LED backlight, new ID design, and the ultra slim 2.99cm profile, a star product was born and it has become an instant hit in 2009. Since 3Q09, various other highly-recognized TV brands have also jumped on the bandwagon with their own LED TV models. In this article, Eric Chiou, WitsView's Optoelectronics BU manager will discuss the product features and product positioning of different LED TV models, and explore the potential opportunities and future development of this market. Photo source: all photos above are courtesy of their respective brand vendors.
-by Eric Chiou
vol.02, 2010 BeLight
SURVIVAL OF THE FITTEST: EVOLUTION OF THE LED TV MARKET
At its initial launch, Samsung introduced the 6, 7, 8 series LED TV, with a wide selection of sizes ranging from the mainstream 32W to 55W. Take 46W for example, the price range of different LED models falls between $2,499 ~ $2,699, about 1.4 to 1.5 times that of CCFL models. In addition, the breakthrough design of adopting edge-type white LEDs has slimmed down the TV profile to only 2.99cm, making other brands of LCD TVs seem obsolete in comparison.
LG made a huge leap to take second place in the LCD TV sales worldwide. Having witnessed Samsung’s success with its LED TVs, LG also began its counter strategies. Yet, LG seems unwilling to follow Samsung’s footsteps in emphasizing the ultra slim design; instead, it aims at differentiating its product line through product positioning and characteristics.
Sony, the Japanese TV giant, has been facing serious issues with its TV sales in 2009 – apart from reluctantly losing its number two position to LG, the production of the new generation of LED products has also been delayed due to its organizational restructuring.
On the performance, Samsung offers 120Hz refresh rate with 3,000,000:1 contrast ratio in its standard package across all its series; and in the 8 series, it upgraded the specifications to 240Hz and 5,000,000:1, creating a close-knit association of LED TVs with vivid and crisp image quality. In addition, the integration of internet connectivity and multimedia playback also added to the diversity of the product. All these features are part of the successful packaging of the Samsung’s LED TV. Yet, if we were to assess Samsung’s LED TV by a stricter measure, the product has not incorporated any new elements in its design apart from the adoption of edge-type LEDs. Nonetheless, Samsung has mastered the key to its success – the market will only remember the first. In addition to enjoying a lucrative ‘honeymoon’ period, Samsung’s launch of LED TV has successfully gained foothold in the market and solidified its position as the flagship brand in the consumer electronics market.
BeLight vol.02, 2010
LG launched a total of three series of LED TVs; among them, only the entry-level SL series adopts the edgetype design, the 3cm in thickness is similar to that of Samsung, while mainstream 47W is strategically priced at $2,399, a significant $100 lower than Samsung ’s entry-level 6 series 46W. This price strategy makes it evident that LG intends to capture market share through price competition. In contrast, LG’s other two series LH and LHX adopt the more costly direct-type light source. Its 10cm profile will certainly not be the focus of LG’s marketing campaign; instead, it highlights the 240Hz refresh rate, as well as the Local Dimming function which cannot be achieved through edge-type lighting. Also, for the first time, LG is adding 1080p Wireless Transmission to its flagship model LHX. Although the practicality of this function is quite limited, through this new product, LG demonstrates the originality of its products and its excellent integration technology in televisions. LG tries to create a new segment of its own. Although the cost of direct-type backlight cannot be reduced in the short-run, LG’s attempt in gaining market share at the expense of its profits is quite evident, case in point – LG’s LH series 47W is priced at $2,099, $400 cheaper than Samsung’s entry-level 6 series 46W at $2,499.
Sony was the first TV manufacturer that launched LED TVs. Yet, because of the high cost of using RGB direct-type backlight, the product eventually faded out of the market. Thereafter, Sony bounced back and launched its new Bravia ZX5 series; two new models 46W and 55W in November, 2009. The ZX5 product design shifted to the mainstream edgetype backlight, and one of the most prominent feature in its design is the integrated wireless 1080p connectivity and the 1.6cm ultra slim profile. Sony has always been recognized for its cutting-edge design, by introducing an LED TV that is almost as thin as a cell phone handset, with only half the thickness of Samsung’s LED TV, Sony has done it again in setting a milestone in the television market. On the downside though, the price of the ZX5 is out of line with the mainstream market, both its 46W and 55W cost twice the price of their same-range counterparts, at $5,660 and $6,669. Ultimately, there is no harm in testing the waters with the price of the ZX5, since Sony’s full 2010 series of LED TV has yet to be unveiled; but if the full range its 2010 series adopts the same price strategy, Sony may have trouble taking back the crown through its LED TV sales.
Toshiba’s Regza also joined the LED TV battlefield by promoting its SV670 series. Although Toshiba only offers two different sizes (46W and 55W), both are equipped with impressive features – since these models adopt direct-type light source, Toshiba boasts its Local Dimming function in the "Focal Light". In addition, combined with the most advanced 240Hz refresh rate and 10 bit panel, and Toshiba’s cutting edge image processing technology, this TV set includes all the basic functions required for an LCD TV.
Sharp, the same as Sony, was the other founding brand of LED TV, and failure in their introduction due to the high cost of using RGB direct-type LED backlight. Although the XS1 series, with RGB LED is still available on the market, the product is reaching the decline phase as its price is still too high for widespread acceptance.
Although the new rising star Vizio has not had ex te n s i ve ex p e r i e n c e i n t h e T V m a r ke t , i t s outstanding features and affordable prices posted excellent sales performance in the U.S. Of all LED TV brand vendors, Vizio is the most aggressive non-toptier brand, and has launched the VF series.
Price-wise, the most high-end 55W model is priced under $3,000, in line with that of LG’s LH series – this price strategy hits the market at core, offering consumers high performance at a reasonable price, in an attempt to gain market share from existing market leader. If Toshiba offers vertical product extension, namely 40W/42W models, the full range of product offering should help the company achieve pleasing sales performance.
In the new generation of LED TVs, Sharp adopts drastically different strategies both in the price and specifications. In the recently launched LE series, Sharp introduced a full-range of sizes, offering models from 32W to 52W; among them, the 32W is priced at $999, the first LED TV in the market that is priced below $1,000. Sharp also adopted the directtype light source; however, this new definition of "Ultra Brilliant LED System" includes no mention of any Local Dimming features in any of its catalogues. Furthermore, the LE series adopts Sharp’s own X-Gen LCD panel, the full range is only equipped with 120Hz refresh rate; therefore, without the Local Dimming feature in its direct-type light source, it seems to lose a crucial selling point against LG and Toshiba’s models.
Although the VF series is only available in 55W, but with direct-type light source, Local Dimming control in 80 blocks, and a 240Hz panel, the specifications have surpassed that of the mainstream models. With an incredibly low price of $2,199, which virtually matches the price range of first-tier 55W CCFL models, Vizio once again demonstrated its ambition of dominating 50% of the LED TV market by 2010. Judging from competition and cooperation, Vizio’s current LED TV panels are supplied by LG Group’s LG Display, this indicates that LG’s LED TV products are available across different segments including directtype, edge-type, high-end, and the affordable entrylevel models – such diversity of product offering is unprecedented in the market.
INSIGHTS FROM LEDINSIDE LED backlights are replacing CCFL ones as the major light source in medium and large sized panel applications; and its eco-friendly and energy-saving attributes help accelerate the process. Various brands have launched series of LED backlit TVs, especially after Samsung successfully tapped into the market with its ultra “thin” TV design. LEDinside predicts that the penetration rate of the LED-backlit TV will rise to 13% next year from 3% this year and that of the LED backlit monitor will rise to 11% next year from less than 1% this year. Its slim design and low cost make the edge type LED backlight design the mainstream. However, the direct type, with its superior picture quality, will not be replaced easily. In terms of entry barriers for backlight sources, edge type LED backlight has a head start, but when high picture quality is emphasized in the future, the direct type LED backlight, capable of local dimming, will be the first choice. LEDinside forecasts that beginning as of year 2011, when the cost structure of direct-type products is optimized, these products will begin to blossom and compete with edge-type products in the LED TV arena. Photo source: all photos above are courtesy of their respective brand vendors.
vol.02, 2010 BeLight
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Product Test and Analysis
LED Price Remained Stable in 4Q09 According to LEDinsideâ€™s latest price trend report, the growing shipment in LED backlight and lighting application led to a shortage in the chip supply. As a result, the white LED prices remained flat in 4Q09: Prices for backlighting dropped slightly by 1-3%, while prices of high power LEDs remained stable.
BeLight vol.02, 2010
LED for Netbook Application For the mature LED-backlit Netbook market in 4Q09, mainstream package types are 3020 and 3014, priced between US$0.04 to US$0.07, down by 2%. On an annual basis, prices declined by around 20% in 2009.
LED for Notebook Application LED backlight modules have gradually replaced CCFL to become the mainstream backlight for notebooks. The LED price for NB application in 4Q slightly fell 1% to US$0.07~0.11, and the mainstream package types are 0.8t and 3014.
High Power LED for Lighting
On the other hand, 90-100 lm/w gradually became the mainstream in high power LED for lighting applications. The growing demand in large-sized LED backlit products and lighting applications has led to the tight supply of high power LEDs. Hence, prices in 4Q09 remained flat at US$0.6~2. However, the price of high power LEDs declined more significantly in the first half of 2009; and on an annual basis, prices declined by 40% in 2009.
No Pressure to Lower Prices in the Coming Quarter With robust demand for backlighting and lighting applications, chip supply should still be tight in the short term, given the long lead time for capacity expansion. Therefore, in the coming quarter, there should be less pressure to lower prices, noted LEDinside. However, we expect more price volatility in LEDs used in LCD TV backlighting, as this field is drawing more attention, hence its market potential and packaging supply will likely expand.
Doris Yang Research Manager
vol.02, 2010 BeLight
LEDinside: Demand for LED streetlights in China will surge in 2011 The year of 2009 has been a dramatic year for the LED industry. Due to the global economic crisis, the industry has suffered one of the worst downturns in decades at the beginning of 2009. However, the situation changed since March – as Samsung launched its first “LED TV” worldwide, the competition in the LED backlit TV market has intensified. As a result, chip supply has not ramped up in time, and demand has not been met. In this article, LEDinside Research Director Roger Chu proposed his viewpoint on the LED industry trend in 2010.
Roger Chu Research Director
High brightness LEDs, used in large-size backlights and lightings, will be the key growth driver of the LED market – with compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of large-size backlight reaching 73%, and that of lighting market up by approximately 32%, according to Chu. As for China’s LED streetlight market, he projected that the market will not witness explosive growth until 2011 and 2012, because China’s government LED promotion strategies veered, and LED standards have yet to be established. In the backlight market, the sharp YoY price drop of LEDs for backlight applications prompted more NB brand vendors to adopt LED backlight. However, as LED chips are still in tight supply in 2009, the price decline was in fact more modest compared to that of previous years. According to LEDinside’s latest price quote, LEDs for NB backlight are priced at about $0.04~0.11, and the LEDs for TV backlight are $0.16~0.18. Chu noted that as the IT segment has only begun to adopt LED backlight, price decline of backlight LEDs will be limited in the next two quarters. Analyzing market demand, LEDs for NB backlight has reached its mature stage, with 61% penetration rate in 2009, and that figure is forecast to reach 83% in 2010. Meanwhile, the adoption of LED backlight in monitors may be constrained by variables such as LED supply shortage. That said, if LED prices fall substantially in 2011, penetration of LED backlight in monitors may potentially witness the same growth pattern as that of notebooks. Finally, the penetration rate of LED backlight in TVs will be between 10-15% in 2010. In light of the above, the shortage in chip supply is expected to ease in the second half of 2010. In high-power LED lighting application – LED manufacturers continue to roll out new specifications, though the reduction in price quotes is limited, there is still room for decline in price per lumen. Additionally, the Japanese government subsidized firms with energy-saving products, creating massive demand for LED lighting in Japan’s commercial space, and reinforcing the overall market demand.
BeLight vol.02, 2010
Column Chu further noted that according to China’s “10 thousand lights in 10 cities” project, more than one million streetlights are expected to be installed by the beginning of 2010. Yet, based on LEDinside’s statistics, less than 300,000 streetlights were installed in 2009. This shows that LED streetlight is still in its introduction stage, and that its quality and quantity still need to stand the test of time. Furthermore, as the Chinese government holds a rather conservative attitude towards installing LED streetlights in its cities, China’s LED streetlights are only estimated at about 400,000 lamps in 2010. Not until LED standards are set in 2011-2012 will demand for LED streetlights surge.
25 November 2009 Page 18
ARC Solid-State Lighting Corporation
Address ：14F-2 NO.700,Chung-Cheng Rd.,Chung-Ho City,Taipei County 235,Taiwan TEL: +886-2-82278217 FAX: +886-2-82273747 Web：www.arclight.com.tw E-MAIL：firstname.lastname@example.org
Eco-friendly and energy-saving requirements accelerated the replacement of LED backlight as the major light source in mediumand large-sized panel applications. Looking forward to 2010, Eric Chiou, Optoelectronics BU Manager of WitsView, shares his insights on the LED backlighting market.
WitsView: LED-backlit Monitors Will Boom 2011 LED Backlight Market Overview & Forecast
With energy saving and slim design being the most emphasized features in laptop design, Chiou estimates the penetration rate of LED backlight in large-size laptops will continue to surge and reach 80% in 2011.
LED BLU Penetration Rate – NB Segment CCFL
P e rc e nta ge
9 6 .1 %
NB 9 9 .2 %
1 0 0 .0 %
8 3 .7 %
6 0 .5 %
60% 100 40% 50
9 .9 %
LED Backlight Market Overview & Forecast
As to LED application in monitors, Chiou said, with no major problems in the design of LED backlight modules, the price gap between LED and traditional CCFL will be the main barrier in the promotion of LED backlight in 2010. In light of that, WitsView has a conservative estimate of 11% for the penetration rate of LED backlight in this market for 2010. However, according to Witsview, as the price gap between LED and CCFL narrows over time, the LED-backlit monitor is expected to be fully fledged in 2011, according to Witsview.
◎ Penetration of large-sized LED backlit NBs are forecast to reach the 60% mark this year
LED BLUofPenetration Rate - Monitor ◎ Shipments LED backlit NB panels of 2010 grew by 6-foldSegment compared to last year
◎ Penetration rate is estimated to reach 84% in 2010; and in 2011, almost all NBs will adopt LED backlight. CCFL
P e rc e nta ge
% Nov 7 0 . 3 25
2009 | Page 5
ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. REPRODUCTION PROHIBITED WITHOUT WRITTEN PERMISSION.
100 1 1 .4 %
◎ Penetration of LED Monitors is estimated to reach 11.4% in 2010; as price gap between CCFL and LED narrows, its penetration may see explosive growth in 2011
BeLight vol.02, 2010
◎ Non-top-tier brands will also promote the LED BLU as the backlight technology barrier is quite low ◎ Small-sized LED monitors will be star products in 2010 as their price gap is narrower 25 Nov 2009 | Page 9
LED Backlight Market Overview & Forecast
Television Lastly, talking of the current hot topic of LED-backlit TVs, Chiou noted that there is still much room for improvement in both design and cost control of LED backlight module used in TVs. For 2010, Chiou estimates the major players in the LED-backlit TV field will still be top-tier brand companies, and the products will be aimed at the high-end market as before, with the market penetration to be around 13%. Edge-type backlight design, with energy saving and comparatively lower cost, will still be the mainstream technology for LED-backlit TVs, according to Chiou. At the same time, with the popularization of next generation play station, blue light disks, digital broadcast in many countries, and other high quality technologies, consumers’ requirements on picture quality and contrast ratio of traditional LCD TVs will also be higher. In addition, the cost of LEDs will be gradually lowered to become more acceptable for the general public, which is also a favorable element for the future development of direct-type LED-backlit TVs with local dimming function.
LED BLU Penetration Rate - TV Segment CC FL
Perc enta ge
13. 2% 50 0.2 %
◎ Estimated penetration of LED TV in 2010 is 13.2%; LED backlights are mainly adopted by 40W/42W ◎ LED TV sales in 2010 will still be dominated by global top-tier brand vendors ◎ Supply of mid-power LEDs in 1H10 will still be tight, which hampers their promotion and price decline 25 Nov 2009 | Page 13 ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. REPRODUCTION PROHIBITED WITHOUT WRITTEN PERMISSION.
Eric Chiou Optoelectronics BU Manager
THE RISE OF LED AMBIENT LIGHTS AND LED NIGHT SAFETY STREET LIGHTS IN JAPAN Japan is the birthplace of LED outdoor lighting, including LED ambient lights, LED night safety street lights, which help to reduce crime, and other novel lighting fixtures.
BeLight vol.02, 2010
Feature Among the developed countries, Japan has a relatively higher percentage of aging population, and Japanese government as well as private enterprises pay much attention to the household and public lighting for the elderly and the visually impaired by providing them an indicator lighting system which emits far brighter light than the conventional night safety reflectors on the ground. Others lighting fixtures adopted in Japan include linear LED lights on staircases, and spherical LED street lights for the sidewalks. The indicator lights on the road surface improves nighttime visibility for pedestrians and drivers, which is particularly beneficial for the elderly and the visually impaired as adequate lighting helps improve their safety by reducing accidents at night. LED ambient Lights and LED night safety street lights are emerging markets because LED light source has been recognized as one of the most power-saving light sources for long-term use, while prices of LED lights have gradually reduced, making them more cost-effective in the long run.
During the development phase of indicator lights and night safety street lights, LED ambient lights and LED night safety street lights have also been introduced. With its energy-saving attributes, LED is well-suited for long-term use at night, offering improved security for areas which had no lighting fixtures installed in the past. The purpose of installing these LED street lights is to help reduce crime and robbery in the alleys and sidewalks, as some psychological reports suggested that street lights inhibits the motivation to commit crime. In addition to the LED street lights, other LED lighting products such as linear LED lights for the road surface and building exterior, and linear LED lights that can be installed under water, have gradually been introduced by companies including Panasonic and Iwasaki Electric Co.
Insights from LEDinside The development of LED ambient light and LED street lighting is a new challenge for the LED lighting industry, a challange that could not be overcome by conventional lighting. These LED products require the support from government policies. Departments including tourism, district security, and other administrative offices, typically play a key role in the promotion of these products. For LED ambient light and LED street lights, product lifetime is more crucial than its luminous efficacy. As for the color, white LED lights, and bluish LED lights in particular, are said to psychologically inhibit the motivation of committing crime. Nevertheless, white LEDs are not as bright as the general-purpose LED street lights. This dual-color LED lighting design, equipped with a security camera system, will gradually roll out in the market.
vol.02, 2010 BeLight
2010 GLOBAL LED STREETLIGHT MARKET FORECAST
In the beginning of 2009, under China’s “Ten Thousand Lights in Ten Cities” project, LED manufacturers worldwide had great expectations in the prospect of the LED market. However, after nearly a year, global LED streetlight market did not develop as fast as expected. Based on LEDinside’s analysis, approximately 610 thousand LED streetlights were installed worldwide in 2009, and in 2010, the number is estimated to reach 870,000. As the quality of LED streetlights needs to stand the test of time, Taiwan and China government’s subsidy policies toward LED streetlights have shifted in 2010, despite being the most active in promoting the development LED streetlights. Although the development of LED streetlights has not been as rapid as expected, the future is still bright. The trend of LED streetlight replacing the traditional streetlight is the reason that LED companies are putting tremendous efforts in researching and developing streetlights, either collaboratively or competitively. Presently, in China alone, there are already hundreds of enterprises that have launched LED streetlight products. Under the circumstances of a promising future but a tepid demand in the current market, LED companies face the challenge of making accurate capacity adjustments. company, LED streetlight capacity has far exceeded its market demand. Therefore, there will be output surplus in China in the next two years. At present, the relatively mature LED streetlight firms are Kingsun in Dongguan, Zhonghui in Weifang, Edensun Technology in Zhejiang, Bang-Bell in Shenzhen, Guangyu Power in Shanxi, Jingri Lighting in Zhejian, Mingxin Semiconductor in Zhejiang. The LED streetlight sales volumes of these firms have reached a certain scale, but the majority of the customers have only placed orders for their specifications of LED streetlights; large-scale shipment has not begun. For this reason, these firms still rely on sales of other products to sustain their operations.
Aggressive Price war in Taiwan’s LED Streetlight Tenders
Overview of LED Streetlight Market by Region As China’s subsidy policy shifts, LED streetlight enterprises face excess capacity According to LEDinside’s statistics, about 250,000 LED streetlights were installed in China in 2009, and that figure is expected to increase by 60% to 400,000 in 2010. At first, when the Chinese government carried out the “Ten Thousand Lights in Ten Cities” project, the scope of the subsidy not only includes LED streetlights, but also tunnel lighting, parking lotlighting, and other related outdoor lighting applications. Yet, in 2010, the government has started to shift its subsidy policy from outdoor lighting to indoor lighting. However, the business investment of the LED streetlight is ahead of the market demand. According to the figures provided by each
BeLight vol.02, 2010
According to the objective of Taiwan’s Bureau of Energy, MOEA, the budget in 2009 is around NTD 130 million (approximately US$ 4 million), which is only sufficient for the installation of around 6,000 lamps. A tender is available in each project, in locations such as Taoyuan Aerotropolis and northern industrial district. Most of the firms that won the tenders hope to demonstrate their technical skills through undertaking these projects. With that goal in mind, bidding is aggressive as these firms are willing to sacrifice profit in order to expand market overseas. Taiwan government has accomplished the mission of supporting the development of LED streetlight manufacturers through its expanding its domestic market. However, in 2010, the subsidies for the LED industry will be shifted from LED streetlights to other LED applications such as road signs, traffic lights, and other related purposes. Taiwan government hopes to encourage the development of a diversity of LED applications, despite the weakening support from the Department of Energy for LED streetlights. Nevertheless, government agencies have already listed LED streetlight into their procurement. As a result, the quantity of LED streetlight installation in Taiwan is expected to either decline marginally in 2010, or maintain the same as that of 2009.
Tenders are scattered in the United States; no large-scale installation Unlike the situation in China, the United States government has not initiated a large-scale
On the other hand, LEDinside believes that the bottlenecks can be solved; it is only a matter of time. In December 2009, Cree's white LED achieved a lab luminous efficacy of 186lm/W, and the continuous improvement of LED chip efficiency makes the energy-saving advantage of LED products more prominent. In the near future, the overall quality of LED streetlight will improve through the use of new materials and new technology. At the same time, as technological advances and large-scale production will effectively reduce the cost of LED streetlights, and the existing bottleneck of LED streetlight will eventually be solved. LED streetlight subsidy project. Each state or power company promotes its own projects separately. In terms of progress, the tender proposed by Los Angeles (LA) at the beginning of 2008 was the most remarkable – an installation of 140,000 streetlights in five years; energy rebate from electricity fee of the energy-saving electricity companies are used to carry out its commercial operation. LA streetlight has reached up to 209,000 lamps, second from New York City in the United States. By 2008, it has replaced 8000 lamps and estimated to increase 30,000 streetlights each year. In addition, there are two LED streetlight manufacturers that have passed the standards set up by the local government and installed on the roads. As for other areas, such as New Jersey, smaller scale tenders have also released several tenders.
LED streetlight market is still immature, and its bottleneck still needs to be solved Currently, large-scale LED streetlight replacement is not possible for three main reasons: first, the quality of LED streetlight itself – there are issues such as luminous decay, thermal dissipation, light distribution, stability, and the lifetime of other components. Hence, LED makers and its component makers will have to make improvements in their technology. Second, the cost of LED streetlights is still high, which is a big difference compared with the traditional streetlights. Finally, not all countries have established the standards for LED streetlights – LED streetlight is still in its introduction stage, and LED makers and government agencies still have to reach mutual agreement in specifications and standards.
Streetlight standards have not been fully-established, and product standards are set up based on the needs of different regions LED streetlight standards are still being established worldwide, and Taiwan’s progress is so far the fastest, having launched the CNS 15233 LED streetlight standard. For China’s street lighting requirements, the conventional CJJ45 streetlight standards are more suitable; the LED streetlight tenders from different local governments are still being examined. As for the United States and Europe, the LED streetlight standards are still being drafted. From the current specifications of LED lighting fixtures, strict requirements are made in the light angle and quality, and light decay. Because LED streetlights operate under the harsh outdoor conditions, different specifications of the streetlights are set for different environment, time, place, and weather conditions. Therefore, LED streetlight manufacturers must supply LED streetlight products according to different requirements. Ultimately, these enterprises can provide the best solution based on requirements specified by the clients. In the future, the implementation of LED streetlight standards in the industry will allow businesses to have a better benchmark and quality assurance when developing and producing LED streetlights.
Backed by the energy-saving trend, LED streetlights will replace traditional streetlights There are numerous advantages in using LED streetlights. In particular, eco-friendliness and energysaving attributes offer an unparalleled advantage over that of traditional streetlights. Once the quality of LED streetlight is mature, this eco-friendly advantage will be even more prominent. Apart from this advantage, the brightness of the LED streetlight can be intelligently-controlled with specific IC design; moreover, it can perform real-time monitoring according to the lighting usage or the movement on the road. In light of the above, when the quality of the LED streetlight becomes more stable, and its price falls to an affordable level, LED streetlights will ultimately replace traditional ones for their long lifetime and their intelligent control capability.
vol.02, 2010 BeLight
A Brief Introduction of LED streetlight Manufacturers
Benefiting from the enhancement of LED specifications, the current LED streetlight manufacturers upgraded luminous efficacy of LED components to 100Lm/W from the 70~80Lm/W used in 1H09. As for the performance of LED streetlights, the luminous efficacy of lighting fixtures generally rose from the 50-60Lm/W in 1H09’ to 70Lm/W or more. Significant improvements can be seen either in the luminous flux or the luminous efficacy. The LEDinside also found that each individual manufacturer has introduced modular LED streetlight products. Some manufacturers have integrated the optical and electrical machinery cooling fins into a single module, while other manufacturers use a separate configuration. The advantage of the modular configuration is that the LED streetlight modules can be replaced easily, which helps to reduce the maintenance costs.
Delta Electronics Leading power supplier Delta Electronics has launched a SLDT series of lamps that are ready for volume production. This series uses modular design, and the LED light source is from LED produced by leading international manufacturers. After 1,000 hours of burnin lighting test, these lighting fixtures still achieves luminous efficacy of 65Lm/W and the power factor of 0.95. At this performance, it qualifies for Class-2 standard based on Taiwan’s LED streetlight standards, and has now been installed in Taiwan and China.
Delta Streetlight Product Name
80W (power factor=0.95)
-40。C ~ +50。C
T h i s t y p e o f l a m p a d o p t s t h e b a t- w i n g illumination pattern which is configured speci fi cal l y for u se i n Ta i wa n . T h e h e at dissipation method involves using the natural convection of the fins to cool off, and it has now passed all of Taiwan’s certification of CNS15233 standards. In addition, Delta Electronics is recently engaged in obtaining certification in the United States, and expects to complete the CE and UL certification by the end of first quarter of 2010.
CNS15233 (all completed)
XDTEC streetlight S0112 is fully modularized with CREE’s XR-E LED, a unique passive thermal design system, and an external 36V DC power supply. Its driver and LED light modules received certification from ITRI, and conforms to CNS15233 standards. Specifications for the choice of color temperatures and optical patterns are redefined accordingly. The LED lifetime is 50,000 hours (depending on the LED specification). Over 90% of its components are recyclable (cradle-to-cradle).
China, Singapore, Macau, HK
BeLight vol.02, 2010
Aeon Lighting Technology Aeon Lighting Technology (ALT) is a high power LED company that is a sub-investment of the server manufacturer Supermicro Investment Group. Adopting the advantages of Supermicro’s heat dissipation technology and driver design, ALT introduced a series of LED streetlight for outdoor lighting. ALT lamp specifications claim to have passed the U.S. CE and other related certifications. In which, the S01 series has the IP protection rating of up to 68, which is substantially better than that offered by its competitors.
ALT Streetlight Product Name
Lodestar StreetLight Series S01
-20。C ~ +40。C
5000K ~ 6200K
EU, US, Asia
Leotek Established as a pioneer in solid-state LightEmitting Diode (LED) technology since 1992, Leotek Electronics is a globally recognized leader in the LED industry. Leotek maintains corporate operational facilities in both the United States and Taiwan. In 2007, Leotek was acquired by LiteOn Technology, an innovator of the Taiwan LED/IT industry since 1975. Products manufactured include LED lighting for traffic and transit, general illumination and commercial signage. Leotek holds greater than 30% market share of America’s traffic signal LEDs. After extensive research and testing of several different LED luminaires, Leotek’s luminaire was selected as eligible to participate in a public bid issued by the City of Los Angeles to begin the initial process of street light replacement. Leotek was the successful low bidder, and is honored to be able to participate in both the City of Los Angeles and the Clinton Climate Initiative in lighting the way to a greener LA.
Lodestar StreetLight Series S02
-40。C ~ +40。C
4750K ~ 8000K
EU, US, Asia
Leotek Energy Streetlight Product Name
Up to 200W
Up to 14,000lm
CE/CSA/UL, IP etc
vol.02, 2010 BeLight
Thermalking Technology International Co. Known for a number of patented technologies, the LED streetlight manufacturer Thermalking Technology International Co. (TTiC) has substantial growth prospects in China’s LED market, because its unique heat dissipation technology is the core competency. TTiC is also known for using the high-speed thermal conducting technology to uniformly dissipate heat produced by LEDs. Currently, a combination of heat dissipation fins and heat pipes are used for products under 100W to dissipate heat. For products above 100W, heat pipes and cooling fans are used for heat dissipation. The unique anti-dust design is that its structure is faced downward, so it prevents dust from piling up on the lamps, causing bad heat dissipation and prevents LED luminous decay and burn-up. TTIC has applied for national patent on this design. TTiC's LED streetlight is produced mainly through cooperation with OSRAM. It uses OSRAM's Golden DRAGON Plus LED chip. The chip efficiency is above 100 lm/w, and when applied to the lamp, its luminous efficacy reaches 75Lm/ W.
TTiC Streetlight Product Name
-30。C ~ +50。C
6000K ~ 7000K
EU, US, Japan, China, Taiwan
TTiC Streetlight Product Name
-30。C ~ +50。C
6000K ~ 7000K
EU, US, Japan, China, Taiwan
Bright Energy Co. Bright Energy Co. introduced the 95W LED s t r e e t l i g h t w i t h N i c h i a ’s 1 0 0 L m / W L E D components. The company indicated that the measured value reached 77Lm/W, and its optical design conforms with Taiwan's CNS15233 Class II level, as well as the CE-test. The heat dissipation method involves using the natural convection of the fins to cool off. The product is composed of four sets of LED modules with the flip-up outer case, which is convenient for repair and replacement.
Bright Energy Streetlight Product Name
7400 lm (typ.)
77 lm/w (typ.)
Height: 6 m, Tilt angle:15°, Emax: 35 lux
-20。C ~ +50。C
2800~3200K / 5000~6000K
Taiwan, China, USA
BeLight vol.02, 2010
Excellence Optoelectronics Inc. Excellence Optoelectronics Inc. Adam 100W LED Streetlight features 1. Long Life: LED Life lasts up to 50,000 hours 2. Green Product: Energy saving up to 30%~50% 3. Easy to Install: Fits into existing 2 inch mast arms. 4. Modular Design: Easy-to-change LED modules and power supply. 5. Flexible: adjusted the vertical viewing angle + 8 deg. 6. Compatible with traditional HPS up to 150 Watt. 7. Photo sensors available up on request.
EOI Streetlight Product Name
Adam 100W LED Street Light
7300 lm (Typ.)
-20。C ~ +50。C
< 8 Kg
Alliance Optotek Co. Alliance Optotek Co. a joint investment of United Microelectronics Corporation and China Electric Mfg Corporation, introduced a full series of LED streetlight products. These products vary from the 24W (powered by solar and wind energy) to the 200W streetlight products that can be installed on ordinary roads. In secondary optical design, Alliance Optotek Co. used lenses to strengthen the light curves and enhance illumination. They also placed wideangle bat-wing optical configurations, which achieves width of lighting four times the height of the light pole. This light-type meets the Type II specification of the IESNA and uses fins for heat dissipation. The main hit of Alliance Optotek Co. is the modular LED streetlight, a 40W single module specification that is integrated with optomechatronics. This will help meet the design requirements of different customers. The company's product positioning in the future is to replace the overall design of the LED streetlight products with the modular lighting fixtures.
AOP Street Light Product Name
96W STREET LIGHT
7156lm(white) / 5725lm(warm white)
LED: 100lm/W, Luminaire: 72lm/W
50lx @6m height / 29lx@8m height
-30。C ~ +50。C
5200K / 3000K
AOP Streetlight Product Name
LED: 100lm/W, Luminaire: 72lm/W
29lx @12m height. (MS5501)
-30。C ~ +50。C
8.7 KG (MS5501)
Safety Certification Place
vol.02, 2010 BeLight
Phenomenal Growth Momentum of the Chinese Market in 2010 Widespread application of LED backlight in LCDs has led to a shortage of LED chips in 2009. This shartage encouraged chipmakers to expand production capacity and make large-scale equipment purchases. LEDinside visited Justin K. Wang, General Manager of Greater China at VEECO, to talk about the current equipment market and the company’s future plans.
Phenomenal Growth Momentum of the Chinese Market in 2010 As an LED equipment supplier, VEECO witnessed over 35% order growth in 2009, reflecting the boom in the LED industry. Wang indicated that the current growth momentum, with demand for LED TV as the core driver, will likely extend till 2H10, and orders from China may take effect early 2010. Meanwhile, Taiwanese customers are more conservative in their strategy for 2010. Among VEECO’s core products, the K465 can produce 45 2” wafers per run, and the 4”, which will be the mainstream next year, can produce 12 wafers per run. The migration from 2” to 4” configuration is gated by the sapphire cost, 4” sapphire is still priced at 7 times that of the 2” sapphire. Once the gap narrows to less than 5 times, the 4” equipment configuration will likely replace current 2” ones to become mainstream.
Follow the semiconductor business model to improve production value The future development directions of MOCVD will mirror the business model in the semiconductor segment, Wang predicted. The criteria are as follows: 1. Prolong Mean Time Before Failure: the standard MTBF in semiconductor segments is 250 hours (about once in 10 days), while current LED equipment is down every other day, causing trouble to manufacturers. Therefore, the issue of increasing tool uptime is important. 2. Prolong Mean Time Between Clean: prolonging the MTBC will extend the operation uptime and improve the stability of the equipment. Currently, the MTBC of VEECO’s equipment has reached 100 production cycles (one clean per month). 3. Reduce Mean Time To Repair: if a problem cannot be solved within 7 minutes, it would be regarded as an equipment malfunction. In order to minimize its impact on production efficiency, the malfunction of the equipment should be solved in 4 hours. 4. Reduce Cost Of Ownership: besides the cost of MOCVD, maintenance fee of the equipment accounts for 30-40% of the overall COO. Using components certificated locally rather than imported products reduces the maintenance cost.
LED backlight to stand the test─LED lighting grows steadily Since LED-backlit TVs took the world by storm, LED backlight has become the strongest growth driver of the LED industry. According to Wang, notebooks and netbooks will inevitably switch to LED backlight because both segments pursue energy efficiency and ultra slimness. However, opinions still differ on the adoption of LED backlight in TVs. Price is still a primary factor when consumers make their purchase decisions; therefore, whether the strong demand for LED TV is an indication of its widespread acceptance or simply a short term fad, Christmas holiday sales will tell. LED lighting applications, on the other hand, is a steadily growing segment. Many countries have enforced policies that regulate the use of fluorescent bulbs, which creates tremendous domestic demand in the LED industry. Among others, China has been the focus because of the ‘10,000 lights in 10 Cities’ Program. As an important project of LED lighting demonstration constructions in China, the program aims to install a million LED lighting fixtures in 21 cities, and is expected to boost the growth of Chinese LED manufacturers.
BeLight vol.02, 2010
Insights from LEDinside The years of 2009 and 2010 will undoubtedly be years of prosperity for upstream equipment providers. However, the robust market demand has led to delays in equipment delivery, which is a concern among LED manufacturers. Considering that the lead time is stretched to 6 months, LEDinside estimates that the supply shartage of LED chips would not be eased till early 2010. In the upstream MOCVD market, although VEECO’s current market share is behind AIXTRON, the tight equipment supply this year has helped VEECO secure orders in China and Korea, narrowing the gap with AIXTRON. Meanwhile, the promising opportunities in the LED market have attracted leading global equipment providers, such as Applied Materials, to enter the MOCVD equipment segment. Therefore, the bottleneck in LED chip production capability should not be an issue in the long run.
Veeco Introduces the Lowest COO MOCVD System
Veeco introduces the TurboDisc® K465i™ gallium nitride (GaN) Metal Organic Chemical Vapor Deposition (MOCVD) System for the production of high-brightness light-emitting diodes (HB LEDs). Veeco’s industry-leading beta site customers rapidly qualified the K465i for volume production, and the Company has received orders for the system from multiple LED customers throughout the Asia Pacific region.
TurboDisc K465i: Uniformity and Repeatability by Design At the heart of the TurboDisc K465i GaN MOCVD System is Veeco’s patent pending Uniform FlowFlange® technology. Designed to create a uniform alkyl and hydride flow pattern across all wafers, the K465i delivers superior uniformity and repeatability with the industry’s lowest particle generation. The FlowFlange’s Based on Veeco’s production-proven K-Series platform, simplified design provides ease-of-tuning for fast process optimization on wafer the new TurboDisc K465i combines the industry’s highest sizes up to 8 inches and fast tool recovery time after maintenance for the LED industry’s highest productivity. productivity with the capability to drive best-in-class LED yields approaching 90 percent in a 5nm bin. Fully automated with only a short recovery period required after maintenance, the TurboDisc K465i enables higher productivity and reduced cost of ownership compared to competitive tools.
Content provided by Veeco.
China Solid State Lighting Alliance: to Cultivate Enterprises with Brand Competitiveness
Introduction of China Solid State Lighting Alliance Founded in 2004, China Solid State Lighting Alliance has two major goals: one is to facilitate cooperation between solid state lighting production and research, the other goal is to cultivate enterprises with brand competitiveness. During the past five years, 153 members have joined the organization, including companies, universities and graduate institutes; some members were formerly involved in Chinaâ€™s government plans and others have expertise in R&D or in the industry, including all major key LED enterprises in China. The organization is developing rapidly, and more LED companies are expected to join. The core member is the standing committee composed of 11 executive members, where many decisions are made under common voting. There are 34 director members, which have high growth potential and competiveness. However, there are also 108 small-sized companies with regional characteristics. A company cannot become a member of the alliance simply through filing an application; it has to be an enterprise of a certain scale, with strong R&D or other outstanding characteristics. The alliance holds an open attitude and the information is public. International giants like Philips, Osram, Aixtron or Veeco have already joined, while other companies like GE and many Taiwanbased enterprises are also hoping to become members, in order to share information and understand government policies.
Sources and uses of funds In regard to sources of funds, Chinaâ€™s Ministry of Science and Technology arranged funding after solid state lighting industry was listed in the 863 plan, and the investment between 2006 and 2010 is estimated at RMB 350 million, according to Ruan. In order to combine objectives of industries, universities and institutes, alliance members will incorporate the 863 plan in their enterprise, and receive government funding to support front-end technologies.
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Alliance members and other qualified companies may submit R&D project proposals and then a panel of 863-plan expert, with the assistance of China Solid State Lighting Alliance, will decide which one is to obtain project funding. In this case, the Secretary Office of the alliance will collect opinions and organize experts to evaluate the project so as to determine the amount and time of the investment as well as the project implementation period. The scope of financial support ranges from the upstream, midstream to downstream businesses in the industry, as well as establishment of patents, standards and strategies, R&D and testing platform, MOCVD, and significant demonstration applications. For example, the alliance organized a group of experts, companies and testing institutes across the country for the LED landscape lighting of the Olympic Water Tube. After the RMB 350 million is used up, the budget for the next five years is still under assessment. In addition to R&D funds from the Ministry of Science and Technology, other ministries and committees will also inject funds. For instance, there are LED-related investments from the National Development and Reform Commission, the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology and local governments. The Resource Conservation and Environmental Protection Division of the National Development and Reform Commission are considering LED lighting subsidies to promote efficient lighting products in the green lighting project.
Development of Standards Solid state lighting encompasses semiconductor components, lighting and display industries so its standards have widespread applications. Unlike international practices, China designates different departments for each sector. In this case, the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology is in charge of the display, LED wafer, chip and components. China Light Industry Council formerly supervised lighting applications with its Lighting Standards Committee, the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology has taken over related responsibilities. At present, LED industry standards are supervised by the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology, lighting applications standards by the Technical Committee on Lamps and Related Equipments of Standardization Administration, phosphor by the Technical Committee on Rare Earths of Standardization Administration, signal lights by the Technical Committee on Traffic of Standardization Administration of China, street lights design by the Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development. All in all, LED standards are developed mainly by the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology and the Technical Committee on Lamps and Related Equipments of Standardization Administration.
The Next Milestone of LED Package Technology Wafer-Level Silicon-based Package The launch of 8” wafer-level silicon-based LED package technology by VisEra Technologies Company is regarded as the latest breakthrough of high power LED package. Apart from innovative technologies, VisEra also stands at the center of attention due to TSMC’s sub-investment therein.
Wafer-level LED package technology features good thermal dissipation, consistent CCT and compact size VisEra’s 8” wafer-level silicon-based package technology adopts patented miniaturization semiconductor MEMS process, together with proprietary technologies such as TSV (Through-Silicon Via), lens modeling, and conformal phosphor coating, where cutting is only conducted after full wafer has been packaged; this procedure provides high productivity and lowers the cost. The thermal resistance of the single chip LED package product is expected to be reduced to 2℃/W; junction temperature is also expected to be reduced (< 50℃ at Ta=25℃ ). VisEra’s CEO & President J. J. Lin explained, compared to traditional plastic molding or ceramic packaging, VisEra’s silicon-based LED package technology boosts thermal dissipation by 50%, extending component lifetime and enhancing durability and reliability. Moreover, the adoption of specially-developed wafer-level process helps to control CCT consistency for effective improvement in yield rate, while the miniaturization and multi-chip layout design reduces costs.
Exclusive optical lens and phosphor co at i n g te c h n o l o g y to p rov i d e customers a total solution Besides wafer-level silicon-based package technology, VisEra’s process patents also include phosphor coating: its proprietary conformal coating technology is better than the conventional dispensing method for phosphor deposition, and enhances LED light efficiency. Additionally, VisEra offers optical lens specially designed for LED packaging, and complete lighting solutions for customized lens.
Monthly output of 3 million high power LEDs Although wafer-level Si-based LED packaging has established a new milestone of LED package technology, Lin indicated that this technology is reproducible. Currently, VisEra’s greatest advantage is its leadership status. It is hard for makers falling behind to catch up. In terms of economies of scale, with existing semiconductor equipment, VisEra and Xintec are able to substantially reduce costs at the initial stage, and effectively bring out results with additional investment, reaching high cost-efficiency. As for technologies, VisEra has accumulated years of experience in optical design, providing comprehensive solutions and creating more applications and business opportunities.
Insights from LEDinside LEDinside observed that vertical integration has become a trend of the LED industry, and some newcomers have started to provide specialized services with their own unique technologies. Take VisEra for example, the company has tapped into LED market by offering foundry services based on its existing production lines and technical breakthrough. VisEra also allocates its surplus capability for LED packaging. The high Capex required by waferlevel packaging equipment also creates a high entry barrier for its followers.
In addition to its large-scale operation, solid state lighting receives substantial subsidies from governments around the globe. LEDinside VisEra’s monthly output capacity is currently 3,000,000 foresees more M&A in the future, and leading units of 1W LEDs, with acceptable yield rate; The firms from various fields will take part in the output is expected to expand by 5 to 10 times in competition. 2010 depending on the end-market demand. On the outlook, Lin added that VisEra will focus on foundry services, especially the high power LED foundry services with 8” wafer-level Si-based LED package technology. Optimistic about the high replacement rate in lighting market, VisEra will focus on high performance, and cost-competitive solid state lighting, covering applications in streetlights, spotlights, recessed lights, indoor lighting and wide-angle lighting.
vol.02, 2010 BeLight
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FEATURE : LEDFORUM
Ruan Jun Ph.D. B. J. Lee Ph.D. Rex H. J. Wu Ph.D.
LEDforum 2009 - LED Market Trends and Innovative Applications was a two-day conference, with in-depth discussion on important issues in the LED industry. Industry heavyweights around the world had been invited to share their outlook on industry trends in 2010, and more than 450 attendees gained market intelligence through our forum. In addition, LEDforum 2009 provided an environment where event participants could meaningfully interact with leading industry professionals and other industry peers to foster new business opportunities.
Panel Discussion: Global Energy Policies Brighten up the Future of LED Lighting Faced with issues such as energy shortage and global warming, governments across the globe have implemented various incentives and subsidies for energy-saving products. At the LEDforum 2009 Panel Discussion, LED industry heavyweights shared their points of view on the competition and development in the industry. Host - Yi-Jen Chan Ph.D., Vice President & EOL General Director, ITRI Panelist - Ruan Jun Ph.D., Vice Secretary-General, China Solid State Lighting Alliance - B. J. Lee Ph.D., Chairman, Epistar Corporation - Rex H. J. Wu Ph.D., General Manager, LITE-ON Technology Corp. - Lee Soo Ghee, Vice President / General Manager Asia Pacific - Alvin Tse, Vice President for Asia, Philips Lumileds Lighting Company
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About LEDforum 2009 Organizer: LEDinside Co-organizer: ITRI EOL & WitsView Date: November 24-25, 2009 Venue: Taipei Platinum Sponsors: AIXTRON, EPISTAR, VEECO & VisEra Silver Sponsors: CREE, Lighting Japan, Macroblock & MEAN WELL
Soo-Ghee Lee Yi-Jen Chan Ph.D.
vol.02, 2010 BeLight
Faced with issues such as energy shortage and global warming, governments across the globe have implemented various incentives and subsidies for energy-saving products. At the LEDforum 2009 Panel Discussion, LED industry heavyweights shared their points of view on the competition and development in the industry. The panel discussion “New energy policies world-wide promote the development of LED lighting industry” was hosted Dr. Yi-Jen Chan, Vice President & EOL General Director, ITRI. Panelists include: Dr. Rex H.J. Wu, General Manager, LITE-ON Technology; Dr. Bing-Jie Lee, Chairman, Epistar Corporation; Dr. Jun Ruan, Vice Secretary-General, China Solid State Lighting Alliance; Mr. Alvin Tse, Vice President for Asia, Philips Lumileds; and Mr. Soo-Ghee Lee, Vice President/General Manager Asia Pacific, Cree Inc. Cree’s Soo-Ghee Lee compared the three types of light bulbs: 1. CFL bulbs - from an environmental point of view, the issue with energy-saving CFL lamps is that they contain mercury. 2. Incandescent bulbs - the general public has grown accustomed to incandescent bulbs 3. LED bulbs - LED bulb replacements are not readily available in retail channels. Hence, in addition to changing consumers’ usage behavior, LED makers need to make prices more competitive to facilitate its widespread adoption, which also requires the support of government policies. The U.S. government has initiated a $5 billion LED lighting project, including the procurement of over 4,000 LED lighting fixtures for The Pentagon alone. The adoption of LED lights in the public sector is one of the major driving forces of the LED market. Europe's plan to phase-out incandescent bulbs is also being implemented in stages, and mercury contained in CFL bulbs is also under review, said Alvin Tse, Philips Lumileds. Similarly, Australia is also drafting regulations to ban the use of incandescent bulbs – with phasing out low-power traditional lighting as first priority; at the same time, the Australian government is promoting the use of LED lights among consumers. In the long run, there are great advantages in replacing traditional lighting with LED lights.
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China’s “10 thousand lights in 10 cities” project includes not only LED streetlights, but indoor and outdoor LED lights as well, remarked Dr Jun Ruan, Vice SecretaryGeneral, China Solid State Lighting Alliance. After market momentum for LED lighting picks up, the government will need to draft LED lighting standards to regulate the market. Ruan elaborated that China is a major production base of energy-saving CFL lamps; with the promotion of LED lighting, there is also an increase in the production of energy-saving lamps, which is also used as a replacement of incandescent bulbs. He put forward the idea of cross-strait industrial cooperation, and estimated that in 2012, China's LED industry is expected to reach RMB 200 billion, and RMB 500 billion in 2015, while creating over one million job opportunities. It may take some time for LED lighting to be priced at $0.01 per lumen, said Dr Bing-Jie Lee, Chairman, Epistar Corporation. The price gap will have to be narrowed step by step, from 10 times, to 5 times, and then 3 times. Based on his extensive experience in energy-saving CFL lamps over the years, Lee predicted that when the cost of LED light bulbs falls to $5, the LED lighting market will boom. The progress of LED lighting development is directly linked to key factors such packaging, chip and optical design, LED application and standards, said Dr. Rex H.J. Wu, General Manager, LITE-ON Technology. With world-wide establishment of LED lighting-related standards, not only will the LED backlight segment prosper, LED lighting will also be able to witness tremendous success. He believes that incorporating LEDs in the design of an application will effectively reduce its energy consumption, and that it is feasible to achieve ‘lumen per cent’ in LED lighting. As of 2009, governments around the globe have been enforcing the ban on incandescent light bulbs, noted Dr. Yi-Jen Chan, Vice President & EOL General Director, ITRI. The LED industry recovered rapidly after the financial downturn – in addition to the booming LED backlighting, future development in the LED lighting field looks promising. Compared to the energy consumed in the manufacturing process of LEDs, the energy conserved during its usage makes its replacement worthwhile. He also suggested that Dr. Ruan propose to the Chinese government that, in addition to China’s “electronic product subsidy program,” an “LED product subsidy program” should also be implemented to generate more business opportunities in LED lighting.
SPEAKER C. N. Huang, Vice President
SPEAKER Soo-Ghee Lee , Vice President / General Manager Asia Pacific
COMPANY : Epistar Corporation
COMPANY : Cree, Inc.
Technology Trends in LED Lighting
Lighting Class LED & Energy Star for Solid State Lghting Applications
Spurred by advantages such as high efficiency and long lifespan, LEDs are playing an increasingly important role in today’s lighting industry. In the future, with continued evolution of packaging and chip technologies, the production cost of LEDs will be lowered and the luminous efficacy enhanced, which will help broaden the application of the new light source, said CN Huang, the Vice President of Epistar Corporation. Based on Epistar’s experience and technology, Huang pointed out that there are three innovative methods in the production of LEDs for lighting applications: One, the AC LED, which is produced by combining several LED chips, can be driven directly by the AC power, eliminating the need for an external current conversion device. For the AC LED, its size and the number of constituent LED chips could be customized to meet the specific requirements. The current luminous efficacy of such LEDs has reached 56-65 lm/w. The AC LEDs can be used in 4W AC LED bulb (for replacement of 40w incandescent bulb), 5W AC LED bulb (for replacement of 60W incandescent bulb) and 15W AC LED bulb (for replacement of 50W PAR 38 bulb). The second method is called ‘HV LED’, a new process by positioning the LED matrix on a single wafer. The HV LED features adjustable voltage and current, which enables its flexible design. The advantage of this type of technology is that the LED is based on a single chip, bringing the single light output effect; the wire bonding and the driving current on single chip are also reduced, which improves the optical design and simplifies the LED packaging procedure. In addition, better current diffusion technology also provides higher luminous efficacy than that of AC LED. The cost and the loss in current conversion are also lowered, making the technology another innovative solution in LED lighting. The third innovative technology for lighting class LED is hybrid white light LED. This type of LED provides remarkably improved performance in CRI and luminous efficacy. The process involves combining blue GV LED with special phosphor and red light LED to form a new type of hybrid white light LED. When comparing the CCT, CRI, and luminous efficacy of the three types of LED, Huang highlighted the following results:
The publication of relevant criteria for LED lighting will be of vital importance for the development of LED industry, according to Soo-Ghee Lee, Cree’s Vice President / General Manager Asia Pacific. With the establishment of the criteria, the quality of LED lighting will be regulated and standardized, which is expected to accelerate the promotion of LED lighting. Lee pointed out that U.S. Department of Energy is leading the effort of developing and implementing standards for solid state lighting products, and is working closely with standard-setting organizations including ANSI, NEMA, CIE, UL, IEC, NIST and CSA. Since 2008, several files have been published by DOE in succession, including IES RP-16, ANSI C78.377, LM-79 and LM-80. - IES RP-16 Addendum (nomenclature & definition for illumination engineering) - ANSI C78.377 (chromaticity of SSL products) - LM-79 (electrical & photometric measurement of SSL products) - LM-80 (Lumen maintenance of LED light sources) In September 2008, the ENERGY STAR program released the requirements for residential and non-residential solid state lighting products, setting the criteria on the efficacy, color temperature, color rendering, and lifespan of existing and future luminaires. Only the LED lighting products that meet the published criteria will offer satisfactory quality, Lee added. As one of the leading brands in the market, he said, Cree has developed a series of products for LED lighting applications, including single-chip and multi-chip LED packages, and the company is expected to create more valuable contribution to promote the penetration of LED lighting in the market.
- cold white LEDs (blue LED with yellow phosphor) CRI = 70 - warm white LEDs (blue LED with yellow phosphor) CRI = 48, - white LED (blue LED with yellow and red phosphor) CRI = 89 - hybrid white LED (blue + red LED with yellow phosphor) CRI = 85 White light AC LED has already achieved a luminous efficacy of 65lm/W, and the new hybrid white light LED has achieved a high efficacy warm white light with a CRI of 90 and luminous efficacy of 106.8 lm/W. In light of the above, Huang predicts that the luminous efficacy of LEDs will continue to increase in the next few years. vol.02, 2010 BeLight
SPEAKER Stephan Greiner, Vice President, Global Sales COMPANY : Everlight Electronics Co., Ltd
COMPANY : Amtran Technology Co Ltd.
LED Outdoor Lighting
Advanced Technology & Market Development of LED TV
Impacted by the global economic downturn, the total value of global LED lighting industry declined by 14% to US$ 2.14 billion in 2009; however, with the energy saving policies released by governments around the world and “green” energy garnering more attention, the LED market is expected to boom in 2010, and total market value is estimated to reach US$5.27 billion by 2012, said Stephan Greiner, Vice President of Everlight Electronics’ global sales.
LED-backlit LCD TVs, which boast many advantages such as low energy consumption, high image quality and slim profile, is gradually becoming the mainstream trend in the LCD TV market, said Alpha Wu, AmTRAN’s chairman & CEO. Optimistic about the LED-backlit TV market in 2010, AmTRAN projected that the market penetration of such TVs will substantially increase to 20%. With Taiwan’s manufacturers joining the supply chain, the cost of LED-backlit TVs could be effectively controlled and the penetration rate subsequently boosted, Wu explained.
Among the diverse LED lighting applications, the outdoor lighting and residential lighting are two segments that have been growing the fastest, with a compound annual growth rate of 99.1% and 102% respectively. The estimated value of global LED streetlight market is US$193 million for 2009, with a 5-6% annual growth rate. This growth is especially rapid in China, he noted, where the rate would reach 15-20% after 2009. According to Greiner, the six possible trends in the future development of LED outdoor lighting are as follows: - ECO LED Lighting Fixtures for Environmental Protection - Higher Efficiency for Replacing Traditional Outdoor Lighting Fixtures - The Price of LED Lighting Fixtures will drop based on scale & synergy effects & technological development - The uniformity of light will be better and light pattern will offer more varieties to fit various outdoor applications - Multiple Design Possibilities due to the various LED packages - No limit of color change (Full Color Available)
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SPEAKER Alpha Wu, Chairperson
After the hot sales of Vizio’s 55” LCD TV, which was the first to incorporate the ‘direct-type’ LED backlight, AmTRAN will soon release its new 47” direct-type LEDbacklit TV to take advantage of the hot season during the Christmas holidays. The company will continue to introduce new products in 2010, covering sizes ranging from 24” to 60”, with shipment target of LED-backlit TVs between 1 million to 2 million sets. According to market survey, Wu further noted that consumers are buying LEDbacklit TVs for their accurate image delivery, slim look, attractive design, and improved energy efficiency. In particular, a 55” LED-backlit TV consumes only 170W of power. The acceptable price gap between LED-backlit TV and its alternatives is around US$100. Lastly, Wu suggested that vertical integration in LED supply chain could help reduce the production cost of LED-backlit TVs. In the complex supply chain which covers upstream LED chip, LED packaging, LED backlight module, TV panel and TV system integrators, manufacturers in each process strive for the highest profit at the lowest possible volume. In the future, if TV brand vendors could initiate integration of the entire LED supply chain, creating synergy among upstream and downstream manufacturers, it would accelerate the widespread adoption of LEDbacklit TVs.
SPEAKER Marcus Wong, Senior Marketing Manager Visible LED, Asia Pacific COMPANY : OSRAM Opto Semiconductors
SPEAKER Ruan Jun, Vice Secretary-General
Automotive LED Lighting Application: Opportunities & Challenges
Development of China's solid state lighting industry.
To increase road safety, the European Commission has recently proposed the regulation on Daytime Running Light (DRL) for all new motor vehicles. The regulation, which is planned to go into effect from 2011, could bring immense growth opportunity for the market of LEDs for automotive lighting applications, said Marcus Wong, senior marketing manager of Osram’s Asia-Pacific Area. The LED lighting application in automobile field has expanded from brake lights, turn signals, courtesy lamps to DRLs. Wong predicted that LED headlights will be the next application in the development of LED automotive lighting. The automotive LED lighting application is now growing steadily, noted Wong, an LED industry veteran with 10 years of experience. Although the LED headlight has not been widely adopted by many car models, it will likely be the market trend in the future, he said. He is also optimistic about the future development of LED DRL and LED Center High Mounted Stop Lamps. In relevant energy-saving regulations on vehicles, the European Commission requires that carbon emission from automobiles be reduced by 278kg per hundred kilometers. The Osram JOULE LED system could reduce the carbon emission of a medium-size vehicle by as much as 400kg during its 9.7 year life span, assuming a 200-hour braking operation, a 220-hour taillight operation, and a 75-hour turn signal operation. The European Commission has approved the mandatory implementation of Daytime Running Light, where all new cars and light trucks will be required to use DRL from February, 2011. Furthermore, if ECE R87 is implemented, all heavy trucks and buses will also have to begin using DRL from August, 2012. If the EU’s ECE R87 regulation is implemented, it will significantly boost the growth of the automotive LED lighting market. This is because if it is mandatory to keep DRL switched on at all times during the day, the vehicle will consume much more power than before if it adopts the traditional lighting source, naturally increasing fuel consumption, and carbon emission. Under the regulation, the LED DRL will be a practical option; as a result, LED manufacturers will benefit from automakers’ use of LED DRLs. Furthermore, the electrical vehicle (EV) has been garnering more attention as environmental protection policies take effect. This new type of vehicle is also expected to adopt LED as its main source of lighting. Wong noted that after issues such as LED standards and the cost are solved in the future, LED manufacturers will work closely with automakers to provide automotive LED lighting solutions to meet market demand.
China Solid State Lighting Alliance
For cross-strait industrial cooperation between China and Taiwan, Dr. Ruan Jun, Deputy Secretary General of China Solid State Lighting Alliance, mentioned that based on the principle of establishing mutual trust, seeking common ground and creating a win-win situation, the two sides will work together to establish a mechanism in both technological and industrial cooperation of Solid State Lighting (SSL). Through this cooperation, the two sides will be able to complement each other and jointly achieve the target of establishing world leading SSL companies. Dr. Ruan said that the fast developing SSL industry in China has created immense opportunities for cross-strait cooperation, which will enhance the advantages of the SSL industry, creating global business opportunities. According to Dr. Ruan, the foundations of the cross-strait cooperation include the joint-formation of a cross-strait SSL working team and cooperation platform, discussion of the solid state lighting strategy, promotion of the research on product standards, compilation of two issues of The Yearbook of China’s SSL Industry Development, and agreement of five cooperation intentions highlighted as follows: First, the two sides will form a common working team to set up working plans and communication mechanism - National Development and Reform Commission will form a coordination working team for the Cross-strait LED lighting cooperation project Second, the two sides will set up a routine information exchange mechanism - Co-establish a solid state lighting data base (covering policy, industry and market information) - Co-publish the Yearbook of China’s Solid State Lighting Industry Development - Co-host the Cross-strait Solid State Lighting Forum - Co-conduct talent exchange and training Third, the two sides will cooperate in setting common standards and criteria for SSL products - Releasing the test results of SSL products - Studying and establishing the test methods and specifications of SSL products - Carrying out sampling and testing work of Taiwan’s SSL products Fourth, both sides will enhance exchange and cooperation in technology Fifth, the two sides will cooperate in the SSL demonstration projects and the demonstration district constructions.
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Technology The LED lighting mechanism goes as follows: when the forward voltage is applied to both ends, the minority carrier and majority carrier in the semiconductor recombine to release surplus energy, giving off photons. The main functions of the LED drive circuit are to transfer the AC voltage into a constant power supply and match the voltage and current according to the requirements of LED devices. Apart from safety requirements, the LED driver circuit must also include two other basic features: First, a constant current should be kept as long as possible, thus the output current variation is able to be maintained between the range of Âą10% especially when the power supply change goes beyond Âą15%range. Here are the reasons for having a constant current driver when using LED as main lighting or backlighting devices: 1. To prevent the drive current from exceeding the maximum rate and further affecting its reliability. 2. To meet expected brightness requirements and to ensure the color and brightness uniformity of each LED.
Second, the driver circuit should keep low power consumption so that the LED system efficiency remains at a high level. Photo Source: MAXIM
How to Choose LED Driver IC? LED has established its unshakable position in the backlighting of portable devices. Even in the backlighting for large-sized LCD panels, it has started to challenge the mainstream CCFL. LED is especially popular in the lighting market due to its advantageous features like energy-efficiency, environmental friendliness, long lifetime, and low maintenance. The driver circuit is a crucial and integral part of the LED. Whether in lighting, backlighting or the display panel, the choice of the technical structure of the driver circuit must correspond to specific applications.
PWM (Pulse Width Modification) is a traditional light-adjusting technology, which uses simple digital pulses to switch the LED driver on and off. The system only needs to generate wide and narrow digital pulses in order to change the output for adjusting LED brightness. The advantage is that the technology is able to provide high quality white light with high efficiency through easy application. But there is a fatal disadvantage: it is susceptible to EMI (electromagnetic interference), and even produces audible noises sometimes. Voltage boost is an important task of the LED driver circuit, divided into two different topological modes, namely, voltage boost via the inductor and charge bump. As the LED is current-driven, and the inductor is most efficient at the moment of current transfer, the greatest strength of voltage boost via inductor lies in the high efficiency, which can reach 90% if properly designed. However, its weakness is just as remarkable, i.e., strong EMI, which imposes high requirements on systems of telecommunication p ro d u c t s s u c h a s m o b i l e p h o n e s . W i t h t h e appearance of charge pumps, most mobiles do not boost voltage via the inductor. Of course, the efficiency of voltage boost via the charge pump is lower than that of the alternative.
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Photo Source: Analogic Tech. Whether in lighting or backlighting applications, the product designer has to face the problem of raising the driver transfer efficiency. To improve the transfer efficiency is not only beneficial for portable products to extend standby time but is also an important means to solve the LED thermal dissipation problem. In lighting, the use of the high power LED also underlines the problem of enhancing the transfer efficiency. LED needs current and voltage stabilizing components to work, which should be featured with high divided voltage and low power consumption; otherwise, the highly efficient LED will lower the overall system efficiency because of high operating consumption, contradicting the principle of energy-saving and high efficiency. Therefore, the main current limiting circuit should use highly efficient circuits like the capacitance, inductor or switching circuit with power supply as it is possible to ensure the high efficiency of the LED system instead of the resistor or the series voltage stabilizing circuit.
The series constant power output circuit keeps the LED light output constant in a wide range of power supply, but normal IC circuits will lose some efficiency. The adoption of switching circuit with power supply is able to guarantee constant power output with high transfer efficiency under dramatic voltage variation of the power supply. At present, the luminous efficacy of LEDs is far from replacing the three band fluorescent lamps, yet LED lights can efficiently work under safety extra low voltage (SELV). For instance, as underwater lights in swimming pools, paddling pools, or mining lamps. Particularly in light adjusting, LED cannot only realize zero to one hundred percent adjusting, but also maintain high efficacy during the whole adjusting process without hurting the durability, which is a difficult task for gas discharge lights.
vol.02, 2010 BeLight
Key Elements of
LED Streetlight Design In recent years, cross-strait development of various types of LED streetlights have been booming. Particularly in 2008, Taiwan and China both initiated several LED streetlight demonstration projects, spurring the growth momentum of LED industry.
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Photo Source: OSRAM
Photo Source: Everlight From LED lamps with 45Lm/W luminous efficiency in 2008, to the 80Lm/W luminous efficiency announced by some manufacturers by the end of 2009, the progress has been phenomenal. Regardless of whether the quality of the 80lm/ W LED will pass the CNS15233 criteria announced at the end of 2008, the expansion of each country’s domestic demand in LED lamps, supported by the government, coupled by substantial investments from different industry players, will effectively increase the R&D resources, thereby improving the luminous efficacy of LEDs. In the near future, with its high luminous efficacy, LED streetlight will completely replace existing high-pressure sodium lamps.
Thermal dissipation of LED streetlights All existing designs of thermal dissipation can be broadly categorized into 3 types, namely aluminum alloy heat sink, pin fin heat sink, and heat-pipe. With most of the aluminum alloy type, the heat sink is exposed outside; the advantage of this design is its low cost, especially in module development. However, in the R&D of high-wattage products, weight is an important factor, because according to public regulations, there are certain limitations to the weight capacity of the light poles. Thus, most of the high wattage products adopt either fin-type heat sink or heat-pipes for heat dissipation.
Te c h n i c a l b a r r i e r s o f L E D streetlights In addition to the R&D of heat sink, the other important element in an LED streetlight structure is its power supply. Currently, the most popular LED products are DC-driven.Thus in the power supply unit, manufacturers have to customize power supply for each type of LED streetlight, and make adjustments in the circuit to comply with each country’s product safety standards. Based on our experience in the LED streetlight projects, the majority of LED streetlight malfunctions are caused by unstable power supply. Hence, the stability of power supply directly affects the extent of LED streetlight’s luminous decay during the first three years.
Photo Source: OSRAM
Optical design – the Achilles’ heel of LED streetlight The other technical barrier in the development of LED streetlight is the optical design capability. Good optical property in the lighting fixture allows LED streetlights to be uniformly illuminated on the road surface. Taiwan’s CNS15233 criteria specifies that, the glare for streetlights should be <30 at a vertical 80-degree angle, and <10 at a 90-degree angle. In addition, at a 65 ~ 95 degree angle, there are specific brightness specifications. As for all other lighting fixtures, it depends on the optical design capability of individual developers, as some projects specify their own luminous requirements on the road surface. A good optical design can effectively improve the lighting quality of LED streetlights with lower luminous efficacy . So, when both quality and reliability of the products are equal, the comparison of LED streetlights depends on its lighting performance. The majority of current LED streetlights adopt OSRAM’s bidirectional optical design, but each manufacturer still endeavors to enhance the luminous efficacy with its own technological know-how.
Establishment of criteria for LED streetlights Taiwan's national LED streetlight criteria has been officially announced in December 2008, and China's streetlight standards will be announced separately by each province, and product performance tests also vary accordingly. A nation-wide LED streetlight standard will likely be announced soon, and the criteria should be in line with both China’s and Taiwan’s CNS standards, to establish a uniform standard for LED streetlight quality across the strait. As for the U.S. and Europe, LED streetlight standards also specify criteria for the lighting angle, quality, and light decay, etc. With the development of LED streetlight technology, we believe better LED streetlights will be introduced, These better lights will attract more LED procurement projects from public sectors, which will in turn improve the overall market visibility of LED streetlights.
vol.02, 2010 BeLight
Reach LED buyers at 30+ global LED events a year
Media Kit 2010
BeLight is a biannual magazine designed for up, mid, and downstream manufacturers of the LED industry. Distributed at all global major LED-related trade shows, BeLight enables LED buyers to become familiar with your products and services. This year, BeLight will be available at more than 30 global LED events throughout the world. See below list for some of the major events that we have partnered with.
Vol.2 tentative distribution locations: (25,000 copies) Event
March 02-05, 2010
LED Next Stage 2010
March 09-12, 2010
Taiwain Internatinal Lighting Show
March 12-15, 2010
Lighting China 2010
April 10-12, 2010
April 13-16, 2010
April 20-22, 2010
April 14-16, 2010
Green Lighting China Expo and Forum 2010
April 20-22, 2010
Las Vegas, USA
May 12-14, 2010
NOTE: Ad material due on January 4, 2010.
* Vol.2 and Vol.3will both be available at Lightfair and EuroLED
Vol.3 tentative distribution locations: (30,000 copies) Event
June 9-10, 2010
Guangzhou International Lighting Exhibition
Jun 9-11, 2010
China International Optoelectronic Expo 2010
Sept 6-9, 2010
CEATEC Japan 2010
Oct 5-9, 2010
China SSL 2010
Oct 14-16, 2010
Light Middle East
Oct 31-Nov 02, 2010
Nov 01-02, 2010
Nov 09-12, 2010
NOTE: Ad material due on April 5, 2010.
Advertisement Rates (per issue): Back Cover
Inside Front Cover
Inside Back Cover
Inside Full Page
21.9 x 28.2 cm
21.9 x 28.2 cm
21.9 x 28.2 cm
21.9 x 28.2 cm
NOTE: A 15% discount applies to all 1 year ad contracts.
Subscription : Two volumes a year; Taiwan subscription NTD $500; International subscription USD $30;
shipping and handling included. Visit: http://seminar.ledinside.com/belight_edm/Payment.zip
Contact : firstname.lastname@example.org or TEL: +886-2-7702-6888 ext.620
1/2 page 21.9 x14.1 cm
January 2010 Belight
Download subscription from at: http://seminar.ledinside.com/belight_edm/Payment.zip
The ARC Show 2010
LED Next Stage 2010
Mar29 - Apr1
Hong Kong, China
San Jose, USA
Las Vegas, USA
May 21 .
LEDforum China 2010
CEATEC Japan 2010
48 / 850
China SSL 2010
San Diego, USA
Hong Kong, China
Light Middle East
Oct 31 - Nov 02
Expo Light 2010
Light + Building 2010
ESC Silicon Valley 2010
LED Korea 2010
LED Expo 2010
BeLight vol.02, 2010
Compiled by LEDinside
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