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A plan and program to increase tree canopy cover and engagement in the Lawrenceville neighborhood


Steering Committee Danielle Crumrine Executive Director, Tree Pittsburgh

Matthew Erb Director of Urban Forestry, Tree Pittsburgh Pittsburgh Shade Tree Commission

Jen Kullgren

Acknowledgments A big thank you to our steering committee members that provided leadership and feedback throughout the planning process. A special thank you goes to Molly Dimond-Stephany, our neighborhood ambassador, persistent tree tender, and amazing volunteer leader. With her hard work and friendly neighborhood spirit, she made this process fun and interactive for Lawrenceville residents. This project was made possible through support by the R.K. Mellon Foundation.

Community Forester, Tree Pittsburgh

Molly Dimond-Stephany Neighborhood Ambassador, Tree Pittsburgh Tree Pittsburgh Lawrenceville Tree Tender, Chair Pittsburgh Shade Tree Commission

Andrew Dash Assistant Director, Department of City Planning

Christine Brill Friends of Arsenal Park Tree Pittsburgh Lawrenceville Tree Tender Lawrenceville Tree Park, Designer

Lauren Byrne Executive Director, Lawrenceville United

Lisa Ceoffe City Forester, City of Pittsburgh Pittsburgh Shade Tree Commission

Matthew Galluzzo Executive Director, Lawrenceville Corporation

This picture, as seen on the cover, is of Upper Lawrenceville with Allegheny Cemetery in the background. Lawrenceville is a lower tree canopy neighborhood in Pittsburgh with an average tree canopy cover of 23%, less than Pittsburgh’s average of 42%. With an active volunteer base, Lawrenceville has the potential to greatly increase the overall tree canopy cover. These trees will continue to provide additional benefits to the local community and positively impact future generations. 2


Table of Contents

4

Executive Summary

6

What Do We Have? State of Lawrenceville’s Urban Forest

14

What Do We Want? Planning Process and Public Engagement

17

How Do We Get There? Recommendations and Implementation

18

ReLeaf Lawrenceville: Residential Homeowners

24

ReLeaf Lawrenceville: Industrial Property Owners

28

ReLeaf Lawrenceville: Commercial Owners

30

ReLeaf Lawrenceville: Cemeteries

33

ReLeaf Lawrenceville: Community Spaces

36

Summary of Recommendations

40

How Are We Doing? Evaluation and Monitoring

41

References

42

Appendix

Tree planting at Duncan Playground, April 1951 (Senator John Heinz History Center)

Elm trees in Arsenal Park, September 1937 (Pittsburgh City Photographer Collection, 1901-2002) 3


Executive Summary: Introduction Why create neighborhood-level urban forestry master plans? Many of the recommendations in the 2012 City of Pittsburgh Urban Forest Master Plan (read full plan at www.treepittsburgh.org) include increasing tree canopy in lower canopy neighborhoods through connecting and engaging the community. To better work with the unique challenges that exist in Pittsburgh's diverse neighborhoods, Tree Pittsburgh targeted one neighborhood in 2014 to increase programming in that area and create an urban forest plan specific to the community’s needs and vision. Why Lawrenceville? Lawrenceville, comprised of Upper, Central, and Lower Lawrenceville, is considered to be a low tree canopy neighborhood, with a combined existing tree canopy cover of 23%. Pittsburgh’s city-wide tree canopy average is 42%. There are diverse land uses throughout Lawrenceville. Along the riverfront’s edge, more dense tree canopy lines the Allegheny River. Directly adjacent to the riverfront is industrial land and this sits on the topographically flat section of Lawrenceville. Lawrenceville has one of the largest commercial districts along Butler Street, and most of the residential property is loctated on the hillside. Since the neighborhood is situated along the river with steep hills meeting the flats, it is a prime location to capture stormwater run-off to impact the Allegheny River water quality. There is also an opportunity to use trees to improve air quality in the neighborhood which is negatively affected by traffic congestion, commuter traffic, and surrounding industries. Development pressures are converting previously unused space into residential and commercial uses. With new development and redevelopment, it will be important to encourage developers to push the envelope with regard to green space. Working with developers to try new and innovative techniques that combine stormwater management and green vegetation will be important when preserving and enhancing Lawrenceville’s urban forest. In addition, the cooling impact of trees during hot summer months would improve the quality of life for Lawrenceville residents given the above average temperatures endured by the neighborhood. Pittsburgh’s average surface temperature, determined from Landsat satellite thermal image acquired on September 2, 2010, was 96.6°F and Lawrenceville’s average was 99.5°F. [1] Lawrenceville serves as a strong pilot location to test methods and apply successful ones to other neighborhoods throughout the city. The Lawrenceville community has a strong volunteer base of 83 certified Tree Tenders, many who meet monthly and engage in regular tree care and planting activities.

Pittsburgh’s urban forest includes any tree located within Pittsburgh’s city limits. This includes park trees, street trees, trees along hillsides, trees in your backyard, and beyond. 4


Executive Summary: Process Executive Summary: Process Framework This plan recognizes that the relationship between trees, people, and places is beneficial. Trees positively affect human health and are valuable assets to our community, as they provide us with many environmental, economic, and social benefits. The goals and recommendations established in this plan will guide us to achieving our vision for Lawrenceville’s urban forest, and are stretched beyond the basic tenants of the ‘Right Tree in the Right Place’ concept. We must work together as partners in the urban forest to consider tree choices and locations in light of the overall benefits trees provide and how these benefits can positively influence our city as a whole, while making positive changes at the neighborhood level. Planning Process The plan was guided by Tree Pittsburgh, a non-profit environmental organization dedicated to enhancing the City’s vitality by restoring and protecting city trees, and by ReLeaf Lawrenceville’s Steering Committee. The framework for the process was based on understanding what we have, what we want, how we get there, and how we are doing. This process is referred to as adaptive management and is commonly used for resource planning and management. [2] What do we have? Since 2005, the City of Pittsburgh, along with many partners began collecting valuable data on Pittsburgh’s urban forest. This section summarizes Lawrenceville’s urban forest data obtained from the Urban Tree Canopy Assessment (2011), park tree inventory in low canopy neighborhoods (2013), and street tree inventory and management plan (2014). How are we doing? Monitoring and evaluation are keys to success for the implementation of this plan. Each year, from 2015-2020, Tree Pittsburgh will conduct an assessment on the success of Lawrenceville’s ReLeaf program. Adaptations will occur based on the outcomes.

What do we want? The public outreach campaign played a critical role in understanding the needs and interests in Lawrenceville. Throughout this process, the public provided integral feedback and helped to refine the plan. Public engagement included community meetings, creating a localized steering committee to guide in the process, and conducting a public survey to understand the neighborhood interests.

How do we get there? This section is focused on goals and recommendations. A major outcome of the Lawrenceville Urban Forest Initiative is the overarching program, ReLeaf Lawrenceville. ReLeaf Lawrenceville is comprised of 5 major categories, each with integrated outreach and maintenance efforts. ReLeaf Lawrenceville is comprised of programs focused on the user group; residential homeowners, industrial property owners, commercial property owners, cemeteries, and community spaces. 5


What Do We Have? State of Lawrenceville’s Urban Forest Since 2005, the City of Pittsburgh, along with many partners began collecting valuable data on Pittsburgh’s urban forest. The following state of Lawrenceville’s urban forest summarizes data obtained from the Urban Tree Canopy Assessment (2011), park tree inventory in low canopy neighborhoods (2013), and street tree inventory and management plan (2014). Urban Tree Canopy Assessment (2011) Using the USDA Forest Service’s Tree Canopy Assessment Protocols for the City of Pittsburgh, an urban tree canopy analysis was performed based on 2010 data. A tree canopy assessment is the first step in this goal-setting process, providing estimates for the amount of tree canopy currently present in a city, as well as the amount of tree canopy that could theoretically be established. All three Lawrenceville neighborhoods are below Pittsburgh’s average (42%) for existing tree canopy cover (see table below). The Allegheny Cemetery inflates the tree canopy cover of Central Lawrenceville and it is important to note the percentage without including trees in the Cemetery. Five percent of Lawrenceville’s possible tree canopy cover falls on public property and 95% is captured on private lands.

Existing Canopy Possible Canopy

Lower Lawrenceville

Central Lawrenceville (with Cemetery)

Central Lawrenceville (without Cemetery)

Upper Lawrenceville

Pittsburgh Average

15.3%

33.6%

12.3%

19%

42%

39.9%

42.6%

41.7%

44%

33%

Existing canopy includes areas that are covered by leaves during the growing season.

Existing canopy in Lawrenceville based on census blocks

Possible canopy includes grass or shrub areas that are theoretically available for the establishment of tree canopy, as well as asphalt or concrete surfaces, excluding roads and buildings. Possible canopy in Lawrenceville based on census blocks

6


What Do We Have? State of Lawrenceville’s Urban Forest Park Tree Resource Structure (2013) In 2013, the City commissioned a park tree resource inventory to understand the structure and condition of the trees in smaller parks throughout Pittsburgh. The priority of this project was to inventory parks in lower canopy neighborhoods. Five parks were surveyed in Lawrenceville – Arsenal Park and School, Duncan Parklet, 57th St Playground, Leslie Park, and Sullivan Playground. Within these five parks, surveyors collected data on 336 trees. Using i-Tree, total annual benefits from park trees in Lawrenceville is $78,195 (number includes aesthetic value, stormwater benefits, energy savings, air quality, and CO2 sequestered). [3] According to the OPENSPACEPGH Plan, five parks were evaluated to determine future uses. Below are the outcomes connected to the OPENSPACEPGH planning efforts. [4] Park

OPENSPACEPGH Recommendation

Arsenal Park

Redevelop at $$

Duncan Parklet

Invest/Naturalize at $

57th St Playground

Invest/Relocate at $

Leslie Park

Redevelop at $$

Sullivan Playground

Redevelop at $$

Note: $ = $2 million or less, $$ = $2 million to $8 million, $$$ = 8 million+ Current planning efforts are underway to create a master plan for Arsenal and Leslie Parks. Tree Pittsburgh and ReLeaf Lawrenceville intend to support further efforts to preserve canopy and design with the urban forest in mind. Trees inventoried in Arsenal Park (2013) 7


What Do We Have? State of Lawrenceville’s Urban Forest TreeVitalize Trees (2008-2014) TreeVitalize is a public-private partnership to help restore tree cover, educate citizens about planting trees as an act of caring for our environment, and build capacity among local governments to understand, protect, and restore their urban trees. TreeVitalize is a partnership between The City of Pittsburgh, Allegheny County Parks, Tree Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania Department of Conservation and Natural Resources, and the Western Pennsylvania Conservancy. [5] Between 2008 and Spring 2014, 902 trees have been planted in the three Lawrenceville neighborhoods. Seventynine different species were planted with the most common being hedge maple (Acer campestre) (11%), Japanese tree lilac (Syringa reticulata) (9%), elm spp. (Ulmus spp.) (6%), and silver linden (Tilia tomentosa) (5%). Using i-Tree Streets, the annual benefits of TreeVitalize trees when planted were $24,418. [6] It is important to note that unlike gray infrastructure which declines in value after installation, green infrastructure increases in value. Annual benefits will increase with an aging urban forest if proper maintenance continues.

Map of trees planted through the TreeVitalize program in all three Lawrenceville neighborhoods

8


What Do We Have? State of Lawrenceville’s Urban Forest Street Tree Resource Structure (2014) In 2005, the Pittsburgh Shade Tree Commission released the first City of Pittsburgh Street Tree Inventory and Management Plan for the trees in the public right-of-way. In 2014, the City of Pittsburgh completed another complete street tree inventory to update this data. Data collected in 2005 captured 871 street trees in all of the Lawrenceville neighborhoods. In 2014, there were 1,408 street trees inventoried throughout Lawrenceville. Pittsburgh’s city average is one street tree for every 11 residents (average across US is one tree for every three residents). Based on the 2010 population (9,492), Lawrenceville had one tree for every seven residents (2014). In 2005, this ratio was one tree for every 11 residents. It is important to note that tree canopy cover is much lower than Pittsburgh’s average, even though many more trees are being planted. Lower Central Upper Lawrenceville Lawrenceville Lawrenceville

Total

Street Trees (2005)

292

353

226

871

Street Trees (2014)

454

643

311

1,408

TreeVitalize Trees Planted

307

472

100

879

Using i-Tree Streets, the following benefits for all street trees in Lawrenceville neighborhoods were calculated. i-Tree Streets is a program developed through the US Forest Service that uses urban forest inventory data to quantify the dollar value for different benefits that street trees provide. The calculated benefits from street trees in Lawrenceville is $120,941 annually (see appendix for more details). Health and Size The majority (78%) of street trees are relatively small (10” DBH or less). Most street trees are in either fair (23%) or good (67%) condition. The most common species include callery pear (Pyrus calleryana) (16%), honey locust (Gleditsia triacanthos) (10%), red maple (Acer rubrum) (9%), Norway maple (Acer platanoides) (7%), hedge maple (Acer campestre) (7%), and Japanese tree lilac (Syringa reticulata) (6%). 9


What Do We Have? State of Lawrenceville’s Urban Forest

Honey Locust Gleditsia triacanthos 141 trees (10%) Callery Pear Pyrus calleryana 223 trees (16%) Norway Maple Acer platanoides 99 trees (7%) Red Maple Acer rubrum 130 trees (9%) Hedge Maple Acer campestre 104 trees (7%)

Japanese Tree Lilac Syringa reticulata 92 trees (6%)

Graphic of the top six most common street trees in Lawrenceville based on a street tree inventory collected in 2014. Each dot represents a tree and the total for each species is found in the call out box to the right. It is important to note that both Norway maple and callery pear are non-native, invasive species.

10


What Do We Have? State of Lawrenceville’s Urban Forest Allegheny Cemetery In 2006, an inventory of Allegheny Cemetery trees provided insight into the current state of the urban forest. The survey focused on maintained areas of the cemetery and yielded 1,966 trees. A total of 90 tree species were counted. The five most common species include Norway maple (Acer platanoides) (13%), pin oak (Quercus palustris) (11%), London planetree (Platanus x acerifolia) (7%), eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) (7%), and silver maple (Acer saccharinum) (5%). It is important to note that the hemlock population is currently under threat due to the hemlock woolly adelgid. Additionally, almost 200 trees have been planted through the TreeVitalize program in Allegheny Cemetery. Total annual benefits from trees in maintained areas in Allegheny Cemetery is $477,916 and these trees intercept approximately 7,750,899 gallons of rainfall annually. On May 31, 2002, Allegheny Cemetery experienced a microburst weather event with winds of up to 105 mph. Hundreds of large mature trees were uprooted, large branches fell, and damage occurred to monuments and gravesites. Approximately 500 trees were removed from this weather event, creating a larger need for species and age diversity, as well as planting more windtolerant species. [7]

Nine most common species found in the maintained areas of Allegheny Cemetery (2006)

11


What Do We Have? State of Lawrenceville’s Urban Forest Air Quality Known as “Steel City” or “Smoky City” to many, Pittsburgh has a long history of poor air quality. By the 1940’s, Pittsburgh was dark at all hours of the day due to significant smog and smoke throughout the city. Although Pittsburgh has greatly improved air quality over time, the current pollution problem is among the most serious in the country. Pittsburgh ranks in the dirtiest 10% of monitored urban areas for average annual particle pollution. This not only impacts general air quality, but air pollution can have stronger correlations with health problems. People residing in Allegheny County have a cancer risk more than twice that of those within surrounding rural areas. [8]

Photo taken from Union Station in 1906 Trends in Annual PM2.5 Percentile Ranking for Monitoring Sites in Western Pennsylvania (Heinz Endowments, [9])

Planting and maintaining urban forestry resources can be a powerful strategy for reducing air pollution. According to i-Tree, species that provide the most benefits for air quality include London planetree, black locust, and American elm. Trees can help improve air quality and reduce pollution by:

View from Union Station in 1906

Sequestering CO2 in plant material above and below ground.

Creating oxygen through photosynthesis.

Lowering local air temperatures by shading buildings and parking lots. This reduces the demand for heating and cooling, as well as the formation of harmful ozone.

Capturing and storing particles on bark and leaf surfaces.

Absorbing gaseous pollutants through leaf stomata during the normal exchange of gases. [10] 12


What Do We Have? State of Lawrenceville’s Urban Forest Stormwater Data One goal of Pittsburgh’s Urban Forest Master Plan is to incorporate urban forestry practices into the City’s stormwater management plan. As in many older cities, most of Pittsburgh’s sewers are combined, meaning that stormwater and sewage are conveyed in the same pipes to the wastewater treatment plant. Rain and snowmelt often cause these sewers to overflow, releasing untreated sewage into the rivers. Lawrenceville’s sewers overflow to the Allegheny River at several outfall points (see chart below). The image in the lower right corner shows the underground combined sewer pipes that lead to one outfall, A-29. One intervention to reduce overflows is planting more trees. Trees can control stormwater and reduce the peak of a rain event, decreasing overflow rates. Combined Sewer Outfall

Outfall Location

Annual Overflow Frequency (number of activations)

Annual Overflow Duration (hours per year)

A-25

Annual Overflow Volume (million gallons)

36TH ST

48

95

9.9

TH

A-26 A-27 A-27Z A-28 A-29 A-29Z A-30

38 ST 40TH ST 40TH ST 43RD ST 48TH ST 49th ST 51ST ST

53 39 23 48 59 58 24

122 101 53 624 493 320 58

11.0 6.4 4.3 54.5 173.0 51.5 2.8

A-31 A-32 A-33 A-34

52ND ST McCandless 54TH ST 55TH ST

23 58 58 58

39 356 691 722

2.9 43.3 34.0 52.0

Combined sewer overflow outfall (The Allegheny Front)

Pipes colored in purple are part of the A-29 sewershed

ALCOSAN Wet Weather Plan, Section 4—Hydrologic and Hydraulic Characterization [11] 13


What Do We Want? Planning Process and Public Engagement The public outreach campaign played a critical role in understanding the needs and interests of Lawrenceville residents. Throughout this process, the public was integrated into many aspects to gather feedback and refine interests. Public engagement included community meetings, creating a localized steering committee to guide the process, and conducting a public survey to understand the neighborhood interests. Community Meetings Tree Pittsburgh hosted three community meetings with themes that included the state of Lawrenceville's urban forest, recommendations, and implementation. Over 50 people participated in the three community meetings and public feedback was gathered during each step of the plan. During interactive sessions, public attendees were asked to give input on locations where they would like to see more trees, which recommendations to prioritize, and future implementation projects. Each community meeting was hosted in a different Lawrenceville neighborhood (Central Lawrenceville in April, Upper Lawrenceville in July, and Lower Lawrenceville in September). This allowed for a broad perspective throughout the neighborhood to meet different needs. Steering Committee

First community meeting, held at the Stephen Foster Center

To guide the internal review of the plan, a nine-member steering committee was formed. Members include representatives from Lawrenceville United, Lawrenceville Corporation, Friends of Arsenal Park, Tree Pittsburgh Lawrenceville Tree Tenders, Forestry Division of the Department of Public Works, City Planning, and Tree Pittsburgh. The steering committee has been instrumental in guiding the process and giving input as to opportunities and challenges. Future meetings with the steering committee will be necessary to move recommendations and implementation forward.

14


What Do We Want? Planning Process and Public Engagement Lawrenceville Public Survey Overview Through a variety of means, including already existing community meetings, canvassing to local businesses, surveying at elementary and middle schools, using social media, and attending community events, Tree Pittsburgh collected 1,100 surveys. Three different surveys were used in the public outreach campaign and they targeted residents, students, and business owners/managers (see appendix for survey used). Surveys were also placed at local businesses and store owners encouraged their patrons to participate in the survey. As a thank you for taking the survey, participants received a coupon sheet to 22 local businesses throughout Lawrenceville (see appendix). Survey Responses - Residents Over 550 residents throughout Lawrenceville completed the neighborhood survey and an overwhelming majority of respondents indicate that they love trees (82%). The top three major challenges for Lawrenceville’s trees, determined by residents, include maintaining the trees by weeding and mulching, picking up trash in the tree pits, and continued tree pruning by city employees or local tree tenders. Lawrenceville residents feel that the top three tree needs in the neighborhood include more trees, better maintenance and care (pruning, removals, mulching), and protection of the urban forest for future generations. The top three locations where residents would like to see more trees planted include main streets like Butler, Penn, and Liberty; their own street; and along the river’s edge. Respondents were most interested in participating in a tree planting event (65%), attending a tree identification walk (52%), and attending a tree care day (50%).

15


What Do We Want? Planning Process and Public Engagement Survey Responses – Business Owner/Manager As part of the outreach and survey campaign, Tree Pittsburgh conducted door-to-door canvassing to understand what business owners think about trees. Seventy-one percent of business owners surveyed love trees and 58% have a street tree in front of their business. Maintenance and tree care is essential to creating a tree lined shopping experience for customers. There are many challenges to owning a business and maintaining a tree in front of their business may not be a top priority. Fifty percent of business owners reported that their biggest challenge in caring for their tree is they don’t have enough time. Twenty-three percent stated that they have limited knowledge about how to take care of their tree. Many business owners (35%) are willing to help volunteer efforts throughout Lawrenceville by offering a donation of food, water, gift card, or some other business item for the local Tree Tenders at a Tree Care event. Engaging business owners in a community tree planting may increase stewardship efforts and 33% of business owners are interested in participating in such event.

Business owner responses to caring for an already existing tree

Students responses to volunteer activity interests

Survey Responses – Students Outreach was done to gather survey results from students at Woolslayer Elementary, Arsenal Middle School, and Arsenal Elementary School. With over 320 student responses, many students connect with trees in a nearby park (54%) or in their backyard (24%). They are interested in being engaged in planting trees (56%) and going on a field trip to a tree nursery (44%). 16


How Do We Get There? Recommendations and Implementation A major outcome of the Lawrenceville Urban Forest Initiative is the overarching program, ReLeaf Lawrenceville. ReLeaf Lawrenceville is comprised of five major categories, each with integrated outreach and maintenance efforts. ReLeaf Lawrenceville includes programs focused specific land owners: residential homeowners, industrial property owners, commercial property owners, cemeteries, and community spaces. Program Vision Driven by an engaged and informed community and supported by non-profit organizations, city agencies, and private property owners, Lawrenceville’s urban forest will be better maintained and grow over the next five years to increase social, environmental, economic, and public health benefits trees provide. Program Goals 1) Provide a strategic vision to increase and enhance the current tree canopy throughout Lawrenceville. 2) Encourage public and private participation in urban forest management through volunteerism. 3) Empower neighborhood organizations to move forward different projects and programs to increase, maintain, and protect trees. 4) Ensure tree benefits for future generations through a sustainable planting program.

ReLeaf logo, designed by local Lawrenceville resident and Tree Tender, Paul Schifino 17


ReLeaf Lawrenceville: Residential Homeowners Ten percent of the existing canopy cover in Lawrenceville is on residential private property. Although many front and backyard spaces are small and may not have large plantable space opportunities, residents are interested in planting trees near their homes. The majority of tree planting to date has been focused on areas within the right-of way, along the street. To increase overall canopy cover and connect more residents with trees, it is important to plant in both the public right-of-way and on private residential property. The ‘Right tree in the Right Place’ concept will be stressed through this program. People often forget that trees grow and large shade trees need space to spread out. Long term maintenance is essential to improving the overall tree canopy cover. ACTIONS: 1. Create a private property subsidized tree planting program. Working in partnership with a local neighborhood group, for example Lawrenceville United, Tree Pittsburgh will provide subsidized trees to be planted by residents on their private property. Each season (spring and fall), 30-40 trees will be supplied to interested residents. Homeowners will fill out an online form that will determine the best tree to plant on their property, depending on available space and desired benefits. Tree Pittsburgh and a local neighborhood group will determine the pick-up location and the homeowner can come to a centralized site on a predetermined date, pick up a tree and plant it themselves. There will be a tree menu to choose from when ordering online and guideline information about planting the ‘Right Tree in the Right Place’. Residents will order the trees ahead of time online and the stock will be smaller containerized species from Tree Pittsburgh’s seedling nursery. PL C E M Note: The symbols above are representative of the following categories that guide the City of Pittsburgh Urban Forest Master Plan. These symbols will be used throughout this document to represent connections between plans.

Inventorying potential plantable space along Butler Street

Manage

Engage

Connect Plan

Protect 18


ReLeaf Lawrenceville: Residential Homeowners 2. Continue to plant street trees. Work with the Lawrenceville Tree Tenders group to strategize locations of new street tree plantings. Inventory plantable space along the street and create a map of locations where new street trees can be planted. From looking at the locations for TreeVitalize plantings throughout Lawrenceville, there are areas with a higher concentration of newly planted trees. Tree Pittsburgh will work with interested residents to host a ‘Right Tree in the Right Place’ workshop. This workshop will inform residents about the street tree planting location criteria and empower volunteer groups to inventory plantable space throughout Lawrenceville. PL C E M

3. Facilitate a routine inventory to conduct an inspection and risk assessment for public trees. Based on the City of Pittsburgh Urban Forest Master Plan, recommendations include maintaining a systematic tree maintenance program and an updated tree inventory. It is important to promptly remove and prune trees identified with severe and high risk. M 4. Promote interagency cooperation and urban forestry partners through a single vision. Partners involved in urban forestry related to residential homeowners includes the Lawrenceville Tree Tenders, City of Pittsburgh, Lawrenceville Corporation, Lawrenceville United, Duquesne Light, and local realtors. C 5. Support diversity goals in the City of Pittsburgh Urban Forest Master Plan. Recommendations include choosing performance-based planting strategies geared towards improving specific benefits, such as planting conifers to improve air quality through year-round particulate matter removal. Additionally, no single tree species should represent more than 10% of the population, no single genus should represent more than 20% of the population, and no single family should represent 30% of the population. M OUTREACH: 1. Educate new homeowners. Work with the Lawrenceville Hospitality Association, a neighborhood volunteer group that provides outreach and information to recent homebuyers, to include materials about a street tree request form and various ReLeaf Lawrenceville programs. E

Window art in Lawrenceville serves as a reminder to water trees during the dry summer months 19


ReLeaf Lawrenceville: Residential Homeowners 2. Increase number of Tree Tenders. Provide a Tree Tender course in Lawrenceville to increase engagement. By offering a Tree Tender course in Lawrenceville, more residents can become certified Tree Tenders and attend pruning workshops. A continued, sustained volunteer effort is necessary to increase momentum throughout the C E neighborhood. 3. Provide a refresher Tree Tender course. Many survey respondents are interested in being a part of a continuing education series to ensure that the information they learned is retained. This will encourage involvement of current Tree Tenders and continue to educate residents about the importance of taking care of trees. Subject topics could include tree care, the basics of pruning at home, and tree planting at C E home. 4. Encourage tree registration using a web-based program. Create a map where individuals can easily input newly planted trees throughout Lawrenceville. Users can input planting location, species type, and planter information. This program will encourage a continued neighborhood initiative and connect more people to their tree. PL C E M 5. Host nursery education and workshops throughout the year. Many people do not know that Tree Pittsburgh, with the help of volunteers, collects seeds throughout the city and has created a seedling nursery to plant restoration trees throughout Pittsburgh. This space is a great location for tours, but also a wonderful resource to learn about small tree E structural pruning and how to properly up-pot growing species. C 6. Host fruit tree education and pruning workshops. Many residents throughout Lawrenceville have an increased interest in fruit trees. Fruit tree education, including fruit tree biology, proper planting techniques, and pruning workshops are necessary to increase success rates. C

E

Tree Captains Since 2008, the Lawrenceville Tree Tenders steering committee has met once a month to discuss topics including tree requests, tree concerns, pruning and mulching events, outreach efforts, and social events. The steering committee meets early in the year to schedule mulching parties and pruning workshops. The Lawrenceville Tree Tenders steering committee is comprised of two representatives from each ward (6, 9, and 10). Members attend the monthly meeting and act as liaisons to address challenges and opportunities for residents in their ward. Tree captains are also responsible for contributing to a tree of the season report which documents in-depth knowledge on trees to continue urban forest education.

20


ReLeaf Lawrenceville: Residential Homeowners MAINTENANCE: 1. Expand existing street tree pits. Many mature street trees are located in tree wells that are smaller than the current regulations of 30 square feet. Local Tree Tenders should determine locations where mature, healthy trees are thriving and expand the existing wells to ensure continued health. A large healthy tree greater than 30 inches in diameter removes approximately 70 times more air pollution annually than small healthy trees less than four inches in diameter. [12] PR PL M 2. Host 4 mulching parties per year. Mulching parties should focus on tree pit maintenance along residential streets. Encourage Tree Captains to propose mulching parties in their neighborhood in areas that need extra assistance. Tree Pittsburgh will Tree planting at Lawrenceville’s tree park encourage independent mulching parties where Tree Captains 3. Host 6 pruning workshops per year. Small tree pruning is will lead the event and Tree Pittsburgh can supply mulch and essential for improved structure and overall health. Each tools. PL M recently planted tree should be pruned twice in the first five years of its life. Tree Pittsburgh suggests pruning systematically, once in each of the six zones created (see page 22) to conduct structural pruning on recently planted street trees. Trees should be pruned during year 2 or 3 and again during year 4 or 5. Tree Pittsburgh will help to strategize what trees need to be pruned in each zone for a C E M pruning workshop.

London planetree outgrowing tree pit space

4. Host a private property pruning workshop. This class will be focused on homeowners that receive a private property tree planted through the subsidized planting program above. Residents who received a subsidized tree will be invited to a workshop 1-2 years after the tree was planted. Residents will learn how to properly prune their tree to create better structure and reduce storm damage in the C E M future. 21


ReLeaf Lawrenceville: Residential Homeowners

A small tree pruning cycle will improve the structure and longevity of recently planted trees. Each tree will be pruned twice in the first five years after planting and each zone will be visited once per year. 22


ReLeaf Lawrenceville: Residential Homeowners

Tree Pit Sizes After completion of the street tree inventory and management plan in 2005, the City Forester and members of the Pittsburgh Shade Tree Commission began implementing recommendations including removal/maintenance of street trees and improving the approved City species list. Of the 31,524 street trees, 7,018 were listed as having hardscape conflicts. Pittsburgh’s narrow streets and even smaller planting areas had resulted in numerous sidewalk panels being heaved or cracked. To help resolve some of these issues with future plantings, a standard planting area of 30 ft2 was created. This standard, along with following the ‘Right Tree in the Right Place’, results in multiple benefits to the life of the tree and the surrounding sidewalk. The 30 ft2 standard requires that the minimum dimension of the tree pit be at least 3 feet. When possible, tree pits that are 4’ by 8’ or 5’ by 10’ have been created.

Expanded tree pits to allow for larger root growing space. (City of Low Angeles)

Weeding and mulching trees along Butler Street

The increase in permeable area allows for more water and air to enter the soil benefiting the tree’s root system. A tree’s roots are constantly seeking more sources of water. Sidewalk panels act like a cold glass of water on a hot day. As the concrete cools in the evening water condenses on the underside of the sidewalk panel, a tree’s roots take notice and begin growing as close to the underside of the sidewalk as possible. When building new sidewalks, it is possible to avoid this condition by placing a minimum of 6” of gravel as a base or using Styrofoam insulation board under the sidewalk to prevent the condensation. Another benefit of insulation board is that it will compress when tree roots expand, unlike uplifting that can occur with rigid concrete panels. 23


ReLeaf Lawrenceville: Industrial Property Owners Lawrenceville is home to many large industrial properties along the riverfront. With a longstanding history in the neighborhood, only four percent of the existing tree canopy cover occurs on industrial property. Eighteen percent of the possible canopy cover takes place on industrial property. Creating a program that works with current industrial property owners to explain the greater neighborhood benefits of planting trees on their property can help industry’s public image and improve local air quality. As determined in the public survey, air quality is the most important benefit trees provide in Lawrenceville. Existing air quality benefits are limited in urban settings but can be increased with an expanding tree canopy cover. Researchers have shown that trees clean the air by absorbing carbon dioxide, sulphur dioxide, nitrous oxides, and other pollutants, and also shade cars and parking lots, reducing ozone emissions from vehicles. [12] Air quality generally worsens with increasing temperatures. Lawrenceville is considered to be an urban heat island and increasing the tree canopy cover will improve shade and reduce overall temperatures. As temperatures climb, the formation of ozone increases. Health impacts of increased ground level ozone can include respiratory impairments and can cause immediate breathing problems. Healthy urban forests decrease temperatures by providing shade and cooling an area, thus reducing the formation of ozone. Additionally, large shade trees can reduce local ambient temperatures 5 to 10°F. [13]

Allegheny Riverfront Green Boulevard looking east from 40th street. (Allegheny Riverfront Vision Plan)

Tree canopy cover goals along Allegheny River. Much of this land is currently considered to be industrial. (Allegheny Riverfront Vision Plan) 24


ReLeaf Lawrenceville: Industrial Property Owners ACTIONS: 1. Plant trees on industrial property. Target 1-2 large property owners per year to plant restoration trees on site. Many of the largest land parcels in Lawrenceville are industrial properties. By conducting site assessments and determining if plantable space is viable, trees can be planted closer to the source of air pollution. Tree Pittsburgh will work with Lawrenceville United and Lawrenceville Corporation to provide support to industry owners, as well as conduct outreach to educate and inform owners about the importance of tree PL C E M planting and tree maintenance. 2. Provide site assessments and planting assistance. The lack of technical expertise about what to plant and where to plant trees can be barriers. Tree Pittsburgh will provide expertise to determine appropriate species types and advise on the practices for follow-up maintenance. Additionally, cross promotion is important to make the neighborhood aware of positive efforts moving forward. C E

City Code Enforcement In 2007, the Pittsburgh Shade Tree Commission funded a new Urban Forester position in City Planning. While this position was short-lived, it has left a lasting change and improvements throughout the City. One example project that underwent City reviews during this time frame was an industrial warehouse on Smallman Street between 35th and 36th streets in Lower Lawrenceville. City codes were enforced during construction, creating green space and trees that surround the building which sits on the entire block.

3. Encourage developers to go above and beyond greening requirements. Lawrenceville has experienced significant redevelopment and infill development over the past decade. With many more projects being proposed, greening elements and code enforcement are necessary to achieve a higher quality of life throughout the neighborhood. Empowering developers to increase greening standards on their property can greatly add to the ReLeaf Lawrenceville campaign and provide a positive reputation for developers. PL

25


ReLeaf Lawrenceville: Industrial Property Owners

Stormwater Tree Pits Specially designed tree pits have been at the forefront of stormwater management in cities like Portland, Oregon for many years. These modified tree pits allow for stormwater to be directed from sidewalks and streets into a pervious area with specially engineered soils and plants that will help to take up and filter the water. Due to our cold climate, clay soils and heavy use of road salt, many challenges arise in Pittsburgh when using stormwater tree pits. Below is a picture of stormwater tree pits being installed along Butler St. near 55th St. Trees and perennials that are tolerant of pollution, salt, flooding, and drought will be planted in the fall of 2014. A mature tree can intercept up to 4,000 gallons of stormwater over a year.

4. Target sites that have a large potential for stormwater management, reduction in heat island and air quality improvement. Combined sewer overflows are a major issue throughout Pittsburgh and Lawrenceville is no exception. Simply based on the location of most industrial lands, those that sit at the bottom of a steep hill and border the Allegheny River, are important locations to capture stormwater on site. Working with already existing data to target specific locations to manage stormwater is important moving forward. Industrial areas are usually surrounded by impermeable surfaces leading to increased runoff and heat island effect. PL 5. Interagency cooperation. Building partnerships are critical to successfully implement urban forestry projects. There are many stakeholders to engage including: Lawrenceville Corporation, Lawrenceville United, City Planning, Tree Pittsburgh, Environmental Protection Agency, Department of Environmental Protection, ALCOSAN, Pittsburgh Water and Sewer Authority, Allegheny County Health Department and many more. C

OUTREACH: 1. Educate about tree benefits. Work with industrial property owners to inform them about the benefits of planting trees and the enhanced air quality benefits. E 2. Research. Work with researchers and industrial property owners to track tree planning practices and impacts on stormwater, air quality, heat island effect, and others. C

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ReLeaf Lawrenceville: Industrial Property Owners MAINTENANCE: 1. Provide follow-up maintenance reminders. Property owners are responsible for watering, weeding, mulching, and routine maintenance. Provide technical assistance and training for individuals responsible for after care and maintenance. Individuals may include in-house or contract landscape crews, as well as groundskeepers. M 2. Provide follow-up pruning assistance. Tree Pittsburgh can assist with follow-up pruning education to provide structurally robust trees for the future. Ensure that each project includes continued maintenance and structural pruning to improve branch structure and tree strength. M

Winter structural pruning in Pittsburgh

(David Nowak, U.S. Forest Service) [14] 27


ReLeaf Lawrenceville: Commercial Owners Research shows that consumers enjoy green shopping experiences. Providing green space and trees throughout a business district can encourage more frequent business visits, increase time spent shopping, and boost spending by consumers. [15] First impressions about a business start at the curb and sidewalk. Studies have shown that business owners generally rate the value of tree benefits lower than shoppers, suggesting some owners may be unaware of how trees affect consumer behavior. [16] ACTIONS: 1. Launch ‘Trees Mean Business’ program with business owners. Many business owners are not informed of tree planting projects and even fewer know what their responsibilities are regarding maintenance of street trees. Currently, trees in business districts are usually planted by contractors and are supposed to be maintained by the contractor for the first two years. In the past, Tree Tenders have taken on weeding and mulching of trees along Lawrenceville’s commercial core. Business owners will be educated on the benefits of trees, ownership, maintenance and whom to contact regarding these activities. Businesses will be encouraged to participate in the minor maintenance of the trees along their frontage which will help to maximize the benefits trees provide and set a standard for care. C E 2. Create a list of business appropriate trees. Responses from the business survey indicate that owners are concerned with trees blocking their business sign. Signs can be designed with trees in mind and trees can be planted and maintained to reduce any conflict. Education around the misperceptions of trees is necessary to alleviate concerns about trees in business districts. Lawrenceville Corporation has a Sign Grant Program, intended to help small businesses afford attractive signage. The Sign Grant Program offers 50/50 matching grants to businesses in the Butler Street and Penn Avenue business districts. Businesses in buildings that have been rehabilitated or renovated are eligible for up to $500 of matching grant funds. [17] PL

PR

Trees along Bulter Street in Lower Lawrenceville 28


ReLeaf Lawrenceville: Commercial Owners 3. Design and improve parking lots to meet current city standards. Pittsburgh’s current Landscape and Screening Standards require parking lots to have one tree for every five off street parking spaces. Additionally, for new buildings, a street tree must be planted every 30 feet. According to US Forest Service researcher Dr. Gregory McPherson, evaporation from parked cars counts for over 15% of reactive organic gas emissions from vehicles. [18] Not only can the aesthetics of an area change with improved green space, but the localized urban heat island can be reduced and additional stormwater runoff can be mitigated. M PL 4. Improve the aesthetics of the commercial corridor. Utilize Lawrenceville Corporation’s sidewalk matching grant to improve the streetscape along Butler Street and Penn Avenue. Lawrenceville Corporation provides matching funds of up to $10,000 per property to support sidewalk restoration in the neighborhood’s primary commercial corridors of Butler Street (between 33rd and 57th Streets) and Penn Avenue (between 40th and 45th Streets). [19] Restoration of sidewalks and installation of tree wells can drastically improve the streetscape feel in a commercial district. PL

In 2007, Tree Pittsburgh retrofitted this Pittsburgh Parking Authority lot and four others in East Liberty to meet landscaping requirements.

OUTREACH: 1. Create business oriented outreach campaign. Utilize already existing networks in Lawrenceville to educate business owners about the benefits of planting trees in commercial districts. E 2. Conduct outreach to business owners that want a tree. Results from the business owner survey indicated that 39 business owners are interested in a free street tree. Outreach efforts need to focus on site assessments and contact with the business owner to determine if additional trees can be planted along the commercial corridors. C MAINTENANCE: 1. Host 4 mulching parties per year. Work with large volunteer groups to host multiple mulching parties to focus on tree pit maintenance along Butler Street and Penn Avenue. This will alleviate residential volunteer pressures on these streets and allow for more focus on residential streets. M 2. Beautify tree pits. Encourage planting smaller flowers in tree pits to not only enhance the aesthetics of the commercial corridor but to ensure watering of the entire tree pit. The Lawrenceville Tree Tenders should institutionalize a ‘Pretty Pit’ program to reward businesses who go above and beyond to beautiful the streetscape in front of their property. M

29


ReLeaf Lawrenceville: Cemeteries Lawrenceville is home to two very unique historic cemeteries, Allegheny Cemetery and St. Mary’s Cemetery. Allegheny Cemetery, incorporated in 1844 is one of the first rural cemeteries created in America. At 300 acres, it is the largest cemetery within City limits and hosts 0.5% of the City’s canopy of 42%. While both cemeteries are still active, their tree canopy and open space provides refuge for nearby residents and wildlife. The challenges facing the cemeteries tree canopy is no different than those faced by City parks and include lack of species and age diversity, a mature to over-mature tree population, threats from pests and disease, pressure from wildlife, construction, and regular use. To help maintain and grow the canopy for another 170 years, Tree Pittsburgh proposes the following actions, outreach, and maintenance opportunities. ACTIONS: 1. Encourage replacement tree planting program. As the population of both cemeteries is primarily composed of mature and over mature trees, tree removals are a constant part of the maintenance of the urban forest. For each mature tree removed, at least one tree should be replanted. That mature tree may have been there for 70 to 150 years. It would be advisable to pre-plant at least three trees for each one lost in the hope that one of those three would survive for a similar length of time. PR M PL 2. Establish a dedicated maintenance fund. As the cost of labor, fuel, and equipment will undoubtedly continue to rise along with the amount of maintenance needed, it is important to have a dedicated funding source to help support the maintenance program. In addition, having a ‘rainy day’ fund may help to offset the impacts of a major storm or pest outbreak. M PL 3. Create list of trees that can better withstand storms. While the weather is as unpredictable as anything, we can help plan to offset potential impacts of the weather. Urban forestry research on the impacts of hurricanes and other storms have on trees has increased in the last decade. This new data can help inform maintenance and planting decisions to help minimize future problems. PL

Arbor Day of Service in Allegheny Cemetery

Western Pennsylvania annual tree climb event in Allegheny Cemetery 30


ReLeaf Lawrenceville: Cemeteries 4. Increase diversity. Many old sayings are relevant to this, ‘Variety is the spice of life’, ‘Everything in moderation’. Unfortunately many of the tree planters of the past failed to acknowledge these old sayings and instead preferred to plant monocultures. Through much anguish and great expense, urban foresters are keenly aware that monocultures do not work and that the best way to reduce expenses and potential catastrophic losses is to have a great diversity of tree species with a great diversity of tree ages. M PL

Fall colors in Allegheny Cemetery (Frederic S. Durbin)

5. Designate as an official arboretum. Allegheny Cemetery contains some of the most interesting species and some of the oldest examples of trees in the region. There is the potential that some of the trees may be state champions. Designating the Cemetery as an arboretum will pave the way for funding, education, and management opportunities. Creating a champion tree program will draw attention to the historic trees. C E 6. Provide volunteer community tree planting opportunities. Planting trees can be very expensive and labor intensive. When faced with limited funding and staff, using volunteers to help plant trees is a great way to conserve resources. Tree Tenders and other volunteers have planted thousands of trees over the last few years throughout the City. Volunteers can accomplish a large amount of work within a few hours and take pride in their work which shows in the quality and thoroughness of their tree plantings. M C 7. Create wood reuse opportunities. In 2008, Tree Pittsburgh worked with Allegheny Cemetery and several local woodworkers and artists to reuse some of the wood from fallen trees. The items created were then displayed at Tree Pittsburgh’s first fundraiser in the fall of 2008.

Artwork from local wood sold at Arbor Aid, a local fundraiser for Tree Pittsburgh (Tirzah Griffin)

C

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ReLeaf Lawrenceville: Cemeteries 8. Interagency cooperation. Building partnerships to help with implementation of urban forestry projects. Non-profit partners such as Tree Pittsburgh and the Pittsburgh Parks Conservancy can assist with these projects. Neighbors such as UPMC and other large employers can be engaged to participate in Arbor Day celebrations and greening the community. The Pittsburgh Shade Tree Commission can also offer support for projects from acquiring approvals for demonstration projects to implementation C E funding. OUTREACH:

Tree ID walk through Allegheny Cemetery

1. Host pest and disease workshops. The Allegheny Cemetery is a special place to view pests and diseases. The Cemetery contains the largest population of eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) in the City as well as many other unique species that each have pests and diseases. PR C M 2. Offer tree identification walks. Continuing Tree ID Walks in the cemeteries. Often residents that are fearful or have a stigma about visiting a cemetery may be more inclined to visit for a Tree ID Walk. Many participants have expressed their interest in the beauty and unique character of the Cemetery. C E 3. Collect seeds. While all plants and fixtures of Allegheny Cemetery are strictly protected, Tree Pittsburgh has received permission to collect seeds from many of the specimen trees. Many of these trees are the largest and/or oldest of their species in the area. Collecting and reproducing plants from these specimen trees that have survived decades under harsh city conditions will hopefully lead to a more adapted seedling that will preserve local genetics. C

E

MAINTENANCE: 1. Maintain small trees. Tree Care is only one small portion of the maintenance needed daily at a cemetery. Tree Pittsburgh has successfully trained volunteer Tree Tenders who donate time and skills in helping to maintain young trees through weeding, watering, mulching, staking, and training pruning. C E M 32


ReLeaf Lawrenceville: Community Spaces Community spaces include public park space, Allegheny riverfront, schools throughout Lawrenceville, and buildings that provide community gathering opportunities. Many tree plantings have taken place at these locations and it provides a neutral ground to contribute to improving the overall community. Tree planting opportunities continue to exist throughout Lawrenceville and community space plantings should involve a wide variety of volunteers. ACTIONS: 1. Plant trees with school students. Assess school property and determine if there is plantable space to increase canopy on site. If not, work to create partnerships with local Lawrenceville schools to plant and take care of trees with school students throughout the neighborhood. Work with Lawrenceville teachers to leverage interest for environmental initiatives. C E M 2. Create a community orchard. Duncan Playground is in the process of being transformed from a dilapidated and unmaintained playground into a repurposed community space with the potential for a fruit tree orchard, production garden, and natural play space. By reactivating this space with multiple uses, the site could reengage the community and be a focal point for the neighborhood. C E M 3. Plant trees at community spaces. Focus on planting trees and hosting tree care at community focal points. Stephen Foster Center and the Boys and Girls club are great examples of community centers that could be part of a community tree planting event. C

E

M

4. Restore the riverfront and hillsides. Many people utilize the Lawrenceville Trail along the Allegheny River for recreation. Invasive vines and shrubs are prevalent and threaten the health of the existing tree canopy along the riverfront, as well as larger greenspaces on hillsides primarily in Upper Lawrenceville. Partnering with the City of Pittsburgh and local volunteer groups, restoration work can improve the forest health and open areas for new tree plantings. PL PR M 5. Plant for replacement in public parks. Many of the parks throughout Lawrenceville have sufficient tree canopy cover but it is important to continue to plant trees in public spaces to maintain existing tree canopy. By planting 5-10 trees per year in the parks, existing tree canopy cover will be maintained and the character of the space will be preserved. PR M

Weeding and mulching trees throughout Pittsburgh 33


ReLeaf Lawrenceville: Community Spaces OUTREACH: 1. Celebrate Arbor Day. Arbor Day is an international holiday, focused on raising awareness and promoting the celebration of tree planting and tree care. Generally celebrated on the last Friday in April, Tree Pittsburgh encourages the residents of Lawrenceville to embrace Arbor Day. By creating an event that is celebrated annually, residents have a day to rally around and increase general involvement in tree related activities. C E M 2. Provide a Junior Tree Tender course for school students. The Tree Tender course to date has been very successful throughout Pittsburgh and the surrounding municipalities. Over 1,200 Pittsburgh residents are registered Tree Tenders and many volunteer to care for trees in their neighborhood and beyond. Youth involvement is necessary to empower the next generation to notice and care for existing trees. A junior tree tender course could focus on how to care for a tree, benefits of trees, and have many hands-on components. C E

Tree planting and mulching along a residential block

3. Create a seedling nursery in schools. Work with students and teachers to begin a seedling nursery in school classrooms. This process can teach students about tree biology and is a hands-on demonstration of regeneration. Once the seedlings are established, trees will be moved to Tree Pittsburgh’s tree nursery to continue their growth and they will eventually be used in restoration plantings throughout the city. Tours may be offered to students involved in this process at Tree Pittsburgh’s seedling nursery. PR C E M MAINTENANCE: 1. Ensure proper tree care. Adult and student volunteers will be encouraged to attend tree care events to weed and mulch trees on community spaces. M

Trees grown from seed at Tree Pittsburgh’s tree nursery 34


ReLeaf Lawrenceville: Community Spaces

Lawrenceville Tree Park Beginning in 2008, the Lawrenceville Tree Tenders have been working in partnership with Lawrenceville Corporation, Lawrenceville United, and Tree Pittsburgh to create the Lawrenceville Tree Park. Located at the corner of Keystone Street and Stanton Avenue, the Lawrenceville Tree Park has transformed a once blighted and vacant lot into a beautiful space for neighboring residents to enjoy. The two major goals for the Tree Park are to enhance the quality of life of local residents through open space improvements, and educate the public about trees, sustainability, and the environment. The Tree Park converts long-vacant land into a neighborhood amenity. It will also serve as a neighborhood demonstration project, helping to educate visitors about trees, their benefits and care, and encourage tree planting around their own homes. Tree and plant species are native to Southwestern Pennsylvania which creates a unique urban park experience. Sponsors to date include Whole Foods, Duquesne Light, and McConway & Torley.

Vacant lot before tree park was installed

Volunteer maintenance day after tree park was completed

35


ReLeaf Lawrenceville: Implementation Summary Category

Recommendation

Connection to Urban Forest Master Plan

Timeline

Budget

Responsibility

Residential Homeowners

Create a private property subsidized tree planting program

Connect, Engage, Manage, Plan

Spring 2015— ongoing

$$$

Lawrenceville United

Residential Homeowners

Continue to plant street trees

Connect, Engage, Manage, Plan

Ongoing

$$$

TreeVitalize, Lawrenceville Tree Tenders

Residential Homeowners

Facilitate a routine inventory to conduct an inspection and risk assessment for public trees

Manage

Ongoing

$$$

City of Pittsburgh

Residential Homeowners

Promote interagency cooperation and urban forestry partners through a single vision

Connect

Ongoing

$

All stakeholders

Residential Homeowners

Support diversity goals in the City of Pittsburgh Urban Forest Master Plan

Manage

Ongoing

$

Tree Pittsburgh, City of Pittsburgh

Residential Homeowners

Educate new homeowners

Engage

Spring 2015

$

Lawrenceville Hospitality

Residential Homeowners

Increase number of Tree Tenders

Connect, Engage

Ongoing

$

Tree Pittsburgh

Residential Homeowners

Provide a refresher Tree Tender course

Connect, Engage

Fall 2015

$$

Tree Pittsburgh

Residential Homeowners

Encourage tree registration using a web-based program

Connect, Engage, Manage, Plan

Summer 2015

$$

Tree Pittsburgh

Residential Homeowners

Host nursery education and workshops throughout the year

Connect, Engage

Fall 2015

$

Tree Pittsburgh, Lawrenceville Tree Tenders

Residential Homeowners

Host fruit tree education and pruning workshops

Connect, Engage

Winter 2015

$

Tree Pittsburgh, Lawrenceville Tree Tenders

Residential Homeowners

Expand existing street tree pits

Manage, Plan, Protect

Winter 2015ongoing

$$$

Tree Pittsburgh

City of Pittsburgh

$ = Low cost (less than $5,000), $$ = Medium cost ($5,000-$15,000), $$$ = High cost (greater than $15,000) 36


ReLeaf Lawrenceville: Implementation Summary Category

Recommendation

Connection to Urban Forest Master Plan

Timeline

Budget

Responsibility

Residential Homeowners

Host 4 mulching parties per year

Manage, Plan

Ongoing

$

Tree Pittsburgh

Residential Homeowners

Host 6 pruning workshops per year

Connect, Engage, Manage

Ongoing

$

Lawrenceville Tree Tenders, Tree Pittsburgh

Residential Homeowners

Host a private property pruning workshop

Connect, Engage, Manage

Spring 2017

$

Tree Pittsburgh

Industrial Property

Plant trees on industrial property

Connect, Engage, Manage, Plan

Spring 2015

$ to $$$

Industrial Property

Provide site assessments and planting assistance

Connect, Engage

Spring 2015

$

Industrial Property

Encourage developers to go above and beyond greening requirements

Plan

Ongoing

$$

City of Pittsburgh, Tree Pittsburgh

Industrial Property

Target sites that have a large potential for stormwater management

Plan

Fall 2015

$$

Lawrenceville Corporation, City of Pittsburgh

Industrial Property

Interagency cooperation

Connect

Ongoing

$

All stakeholders

Industrial Property

Educate about tree benefits

Engage

Summer 2015

$

Tree Pittsburgh

Industrial Property

Research

Connect, Engage

Ongoing

Industrial Property

Provide follow-up maintenance reminders

Manage

Fall 2015ongoing

Industrial Property

Provide follow-up assistance

Manage

Spring 2017

Commercial Owners

Launch ‘Trees Mean Business’ program with business owners

Connect, Engage

Fall 2015

$$

Lawrenceville Corporation, Lawrenceville United, Tree Pittsburgh Tree Pittsburgh

Research community

$

Tree Pittsburgh

$$

Tree Pittsburgh

$$$

Tree Pittsburgh, Lawrenceville Corporation

$ = Low cost (less than $5,000), $$ = Medium cost ($5,000-$15,000), $$$ = High cost (greater than $15,000) 37


ReLeaf Lawrenceville: Implementation Summary Category

Recommendation

Connection to Urban Forest Master Plan

Timeline

Budget

Commercial Owners

Create a list of business appropriate trees

Plan, Protect

Summer 2015

Commercial Owners

Design and improve parking lots to meet current city standards

Manage, Plan

Ongoing

$$

City of Pittsburgh, Tree Pittsburgh

Commercial Owners

Improve the aesthetics of the commercial corridor

Plan

Spring 2015

$$

Lawrenceville Corporation

Commercial Owners

Create business oriented outreach campaign

Engage

Fall 2015

$$$

Tree Pittsburgh, Lawrenceville Corporation

Commercial Owners

Outreach to business owners who want trees

Connect

Ongoing

$

Lawrenceville Tree Tenders

Commercial Owners

Host 4 mulching parties per year

Manage

Ongoing

$$

Tree Pittsburgh

Commercial Owners

Beautify tree pits

Manage

Ongoing

$$

Lawrenceville Tree Tenders

Cemeteries

Encourage replacement tree planting program

Manage, Plan, Protect

Ongoing

$$$

Cemetery, Tree Pittsburgh

Cemeteries

Establish a dedicated maintenance fund

Manage, Plan

Ongoing

$$$

Cemetery

Cemeteries

Create list of trees that can better withstand storms

Plan

Summer 2015

$

Tree Pittsburgh

Cemeteries

Increase diversity

Manage, Plan

Ongoing

$

Tree Pittsburgh

Cemeteries

Designate as an official arboretum

Connect, Engage

Summer 2015

Cemeteries

Provide volunteer community tree planting opportunities

Connect, Manage

Spring 2015

$

Lawrenceville Tree Tenders

Cemeteries

Create wood reuse opportunities

Connect, Engage

Summer 2015

$

Cemetery

Cemeteries

Interagency cooperation

Connect, Engage

Ongoing

$

Cemetery, Tree Pittsburgh, City of Pittsburgh

Cemeteries

Host pest and disease workshops

$

Tree Pittsburgh

Connect, Manage, Summer 2015 Protect $ = Low cost (less than $5,000), $$ = Medium cost ($5,000-$15,000), $$$ = High cost (greater than $15,000)

$

Responsibility

$$

Tree Pittsburgh, Lawrenceville Corporation

Cemetery

38


ReLeaf Lawrenceville: Implementation Summary Category

Recommendation

Connection to Urban Forest Master Plan

Timeline

Budget

Responsibility

Cemeteries

Offer tree ID walks

Connect, Engage

Ongoing

$

Tree Pittsburgh

Cemeteries

Collect seeds

Connect, Engage

Ongoing

$

Tree Pittsburgh

Cemeteries

Maintain small trees

Connect, Engage, Manage

Ongoing

$

Cemetery

Community Spaces

Plant trees with school students

Connect, Engage, Manage

Fall 2015

$$

Tree Pittsburgh, Lawrenceville United, Arsenal Middle School

Community Spaces

Create a community orchard

Connect, Manage, Engage

Spring 2015

$$

Lawrenceville Tree Tenders, Tree Pittsburgh

Community Spaces

Plant trees at community spaces

Connect, Manage, Engage

ongoing

$$

Lawrenceville Tree Tenders, Tree Pittsburgh

Community Spaces

Restore the riverfront and hillsides

Manage, Plan, Protect

Fall 2014ongoing

$$$

Lawrenceville Tree Tenders, Tree Pittsburgh

Community Spaces

Plant for replacement in public parks

Manage, Protect

Ongoing

$$

Lawrenceville Tree Tenders, Tree Pittsburgh

Community Spaces

Celebrate Arbor Day

Connect, Engage, Manage

Spring 2015

$$

Tree Pittsburgh, Lawrenceville United, Lawrenceville Corporation

Community Spaces

Provide a Junior Tree Tender course for school students

Connect, Engage

Fall 2015

$$

Tree Pittsburgh, Arsenal Middle School

Community Spaces

Create a seedling nursery in schools

Connect, Engage, Manage, Protect

Fall 2015

$$

Tree Pittsburgh, Arsenal Middle School

Community Spaces

Ensure proper tree care

Manage

ongoing

$

Tree Pittsburgh, Lawrenceville Tree Tenders

$ = Low cost (less than $5,000), $$ = Medium cost ($5,000-$15,000), $$$ = High cost (greater than $15,000) 39


How Are We Doing? Evaluation and Monitoring From the Pittsburgh Urban Forest Master Plan, monitoring, analyzing, and revising are keystones towards keeping a dynamic management approach. A recommendation from the City-wide master plan is to prepare and distribute a ‘state of the urban forest’ report to the public every 5 to 10 years. A formal plan revision will take place if any of the following changes occur (see figure to right). Each year, from 2015-2020, Tree Pittsburgh will conduct an assessment on the success of Lawrenceville’s ReLeaf program. This plan has a fairly short time horizon of five years. Reassessment will occur after five years because Lawrenceville is changing rapidly. At that point, a complete evaluation and additional recommendations will be made to continue the ReLeaf Lawrenceville program. Tree Pittsburgh will include various metrics in an annual report, including but not limited to:        

number of trees planted survival rates overall tree canopy cover change tree canopy cover change by land type number of Tree Tenders number of trees pruned number of trees mulched and weeded assessment of annual tree benefits

Additionally, a report card will be created as a progress report to inform the community about program successes. To continue coordination and momentum of the neighborhood level effort, the steering committee will meet twice annually to work through opportunities and challenges. 40


References 1. Pittsburgh Surface Temperature Data. University of Vermont Spatial Analysis Laboratory. September 2, 2010. 2. Miller, R.W. 1988. Urban Forestry: Planning and Managing Urban Greenspaces. New Jersey: Prentice Hall. 3. US Forest Service. 2008. i-Tree STRATUM application. Pacific Southwest Research Station, Center for Urban Forest Research. http:// www.itreetools.org and http://www.fs.fed.us/psw/programs/cufr 4. OPENSPACEPGH. 2013. City of Pittsburgh—Department of City Planning. http://planpgh.com/openspacepgh/ 5. TreeVitalize Pittsburgh. http://waterlandlife.org/216/treevitalize/ 6. US Forest Service. 2008. i-Tree STRATUM application. Pacific Southwest Research Station, Center for Urban Forest Research. http:// www.itreetools.org and http://www.fs.fed.us/psw/programs/cufr 7. Ackerman, J. 2002. Businesses still coping with cleanup from May 31 microburst. Pittsburgh Post Gazette. http://old.post-gazette.com/ localnews/20020901stormfolo2.asp 8. Michanowicz, D., Ferrar, K., Malone, S., Kelso, M., Kriesky, J., Fabisiak, J. 2013. Pittsburgh Regional Environmental Threats Analysis (PRETA) Report. Center for Healthy Environments and Communities. University of Pittsburgh. 9. Heinz Endowments. 2011. Clearing the Haze: Understanding Western Pennsylvania’s Air Pollution Problem. 10. Center for Urban Forest Research. 2006. Trees—The Air Pollution Solution. http://www.fs.fed.us/psw/programs/uesd/uep/products/ cufr_658_Air%20Research%20Summary_3-06.pdf 11. ALCOSAN Wet Weather Plan. 2013. Section 4—Hydrologic and Hydraulic Characterization. http://www.alcosan.org/Portals/0/Wet% 20Weather%20Plan/Section%204.5%20thru%204.10.pdf 12. Nowak, David. Tree Species Selection, Design, and Management to Improve Air Quality. Construction Technology: Annual meeting proceedings of the American Society of Landscape Architects, 2000. http://www.fs.fed.us/ne/syracuse/Pubs Downloads/00_DN_Tree.pdf 13. McPherson, G., Simpson, J., Peper, P., Gardner, S., Vargas, K., Maco, S., Xiao, Q. “Coastal Plain Community Tree Guide: Benefits, Costs, and Strategic Planting”. USDA, Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Research Station. 2006. Web. http://www.fs.fed.us/psw/programs/uesd/uep/ products/2/cufr_679_gtr201_coastal_tree_guide.pdf 14. Nowak, D. 2000. Tree Species Selection, Design, and Management to Improve Air Quality. Construction Technology: Annual meeting proceedings of the American Society of Landscape Architects. 15. Arzamassova, E., Lerner, J., Peterson, C. 2003. The Economic Benefits of Urban/Suburban Forestry. Brown University Center for Environmental Studies. http://envstudies.brown.edu/classes/es201/2003/Forestry/econbene.htm 16. Wolf, Kathleen. 2005. Trees in the Small City Retail Business District: Comparing Resident and Visitor Perceptions,” Journal of Forestry 103, no. 8: 390-395; Wolf, Kathleen. 2005. “Business District Streetscapes, Trees, and Consumer Response,” Journal of Forestry 103, no. 8: 396400. 17. Lawrenceville Corporation. Sign Grant Program. http://lvpgh.com/sign-grant-program-0 18. Scott, K., Simpson, J. and McPherson, E.G. 1999. Effects of Tree Cover on Parking Lot Microclimate and Vehicle Emissions. Journal of Arboriculture. 25, 129-142. 19. Lawrenceville Corporation. Lawrenceville Corporation Awarded $200,000 to Implement Sidewalk Restoration Program with Support from State Senator James Ferlo. http://lvpgh.com/community-news/lawrenceville-corporation-awarded-200000-implement-sidewalkrestoration-program 41


Appendix: Pittsburgh Surface Temperature Map

Average surface temperature recorded on September 2, 2010. Surface temperature was derived from a Landsat satellite thermal image. (University of Vermont Spatial Analysis Laboratory) 42


Appendix: i-Tree Streets Analysis i-Tree Streets Analysis: All Lawrenceville Street Trees (2014)

Park trees in Lawrenceville (condition and benefits) 57th St Playground 2.08 14 8

Leslie Park

8.81 251 50

Duncan Parklet 0.81 9 4

6.03 45 14

Sullivan Playground 4.43 17 3

63 110

3 5

1 11

12 25

15 2

Arsenal Park Acreage Total Trees Total Species Health High Risk Moderate Risk Low Risk None Average DBH

71 7 13.3

1 12.5

2 11.8

8 16.1

2.9

109 78 42 18 4

5 1 3 -

5 8 1 -

16 15 10 4 -

16 1 -

2 8

1 -

-

1

1

Poor

48

3

2

9

3

Fair Good Very Good

124 68 1

5 -

10 2 -

21 14 -

3 8

1”-10” 10.1”-20” 20.1”-30” 30.1”-40” 40”+ Condition Critical Dead

Energy

Savings in dollars $41,902

Stormwater

$8,127

Air Quality

$7,068

CO2

$978

Aesthetics

$62,866

Total

$120,941

Units mitigated reduces electricity by 61.0 MWh 1,015,882 gallons of rainfall intercepted 1,437.6 lbs deposited and avoided 296,335lbs sequestered

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Appendix: Business owner/manager survey

44


Appendix: Resident Survey

45


Appendix: Student Survey

46


Appendix: Survey Coupon Sheet

Coupon sheet to 22 local businesses in Lawrenceville and used as an incentive for taking the survey 47


Appendix: Tree Planting Diversity Goals Diversity Goals Recommendation

Tree Pittsburgh has adopted standard diversity recommendations for urban tree populations and established the following goals for the distribution of species in our urban forest: 

No single tree species should represent more than 10% of the population.

No single genus should represent more than 20% of the population.

No single family should represent 30% of the population.

Currently, Pittsburgh’s street tree population has four species exceeding these thresholds. Therefore, the use of any species and/ or cultivar of maple (Acer) should be avoided whenever possible or represent no more than 5% of the trees used on any given planting project. Hedge maple (Acer campestre) is excluded from this limit.

Moratorium and Restriction

Trees Restricted From Use on Public Planting Projects Restricted Species

The urban forest is currently compromised by the presence of several existing pests, diseases, and other invasive threats or nuisances. To promote improved diversity, the following species should be restricted against use on planting projects. This list is subject to change based on future information about invasive, structural, and insect and disease resistance characteristics of species/cultivars and is intended to be reviewed annually. The species listed below may be planted for urban forestry research purposes only

Variety

Acer platanoides

Any cultivar

Castanea spp.

Any species or cultivar or hybrid

Fraxinus spp.

Any species or cultivar

Juglans spp.

Any species or cultivar

Pyrus calleryana

Any species or cultivar or hybrid

Quercus Sect. Lobatae (red oak family)

Any species or cultivar or hybrid

Tilia cordata

Any species or cultivar or hybrid

Tsuga canadensis

Any species or cultivar or hybrid

Ulmus americana

straight species and variety ‘Liberty’

Ulmus x ‘Frontier’

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Appendix: Tree Planting/Canopy Goals In order to convert tree canopy goals into the number of trees to plant annually, Tree Pittsburgh multiplied the number of potential canopy acres for each land use type by 100, the average density of trees per acre. Annual tree planting goals take in to account the realities of volunteer planting efforts.

Land Use Category

Current Canopy Cover (%)

Potential Canopy Cover (%)

Potential Tree Canopy (Acres)

Number of possible trees to plant

Canopy cover goal (%)

Annual Tree planting goal (#)

Commercial

11.27%

53.81%

110.8

11,080

20%

20-200

Government

50.45%

37.11%

22.65

2,265

60%

10-20

7.08%

51.81%

82.25

8,225

20%

20-200

15.66%

41.22%

73.64

7,364

30%

100-300

11.24%

33.29%

18.63

1,863

15%

10-50

52.90%

45.15%

156.34

15,634

60%

50-200

28.08%

46.13%

Industrial Residential Utilities Other Average Total

210-970

49

Profile for Tree Pittsburgh

ReLeaf Lawrenceville Plan  

Pittsburgh's first neighborhood-level Urban Forest Master Plan

ReLeaf Lawrenceville Plan  

Pittsburgh's first neighborhood-level Urban Forest Master Plan

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