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CONTRASTIVE GRAMMAR IN CONTEXT ENGLISH-SPANISH: FLUFFBALLS-PELUSAS

Elena de Prada Creo


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CONTRASTIVE GRAMMAR IN CONTEXT

© 2014 Travel and Training Solutions travelandtraining@gmail.com ISBN: 978-84-938550-3-1 DL: OU 288-2013

Autora: Elena de Prada Creo Fotografía: Federico Pérez Mato Diseño de Portada: Salvador Fernández Fernández

Reservados todos los derechos. Ni la totalidad ni parte de este libro pueden reproducirse o transmitirse por ningún procedimiento electrónico o mecánico. incluyendo fotocopia, grabación magnética o cualquier almacenamiento de información y sistema de recuperación sin el permiso escrito de Travel and Training Solutions S.L.


CONTRASTIVE GRAMMAR IN CONTEXT

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Presentación Fluffballs Grammar El criterio fundamental para seleccionar los temas gramaticales que se incluyen en este volumen se ha basado en tres aspectos fundamentales: 1. La frecuencia de aparición de determinados tipos de errores en la producción comunicativa oral y escrita de los hispanohablantes. 2. La dificultad para su erradicación, incluso en niveles avanzados. 3. La frecuencia de aparición de las formas seleccionadas, es decir, según los índices de frecuencias, estas palabras se repiten constantemente en la comunicación, por lo que su uso incorrecto hace que se multipliquen los errores. Respecto a este último punto y como ejemplo, podemos observar en los siguiente cuadros de las 50 palabras de mayor frecuencia en inglés que la mayor parte de las palabras incluidas son de contenido fundamentalmente gramatical, cuyo uso difiere bastante de su equivalente en español, por lo que es muy importante conocer su significado y utilización a la perfección. Muchas de ellas no plantean problemas para los hispano hablantes (but, and, with...) pero la mayor parte si (the, in, at, his...). Cometer errores en el uso de estas palabras significa salpicar de incorrecciones muchas de nuestras expresiones comunicativas al multiplicarse exponencialmente en el transcurso de la conversación o en los textos escritos que redactemos. 1-25 the

el, los, la/s

in

en

for

para

on

en

this

este/a/o

of

de

that

eso/a; que

it

ello

be

ser, estar

had

pas./part. “have”: tener, haber

and

y

is

es, está

with

con

at

en, a

not

no

to

a, hacia, para

was

pas. “be: era

as

by

por; junto a

are

son, eres, están, somos

a

un/a

he

él

his

I

yo

but

pero

como, cuando, tan su, sus (de él)


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CONTRASTIVE GRAMMAR IN CONTEXT

26-50

from

desde; de

which

cuál/es que

all

todo/a, todos/as

we

nosotros

who

quien

or

o

one

uno

she

ella

him

lo, le

will

aux. futuro

have

tener/haber

you

there

ahí; allí

been

part. “be”

more

más

an

un, una

were

pas. “be”: eran

would

aux. cond.

has

3ª p. sg. “have”

no

no

they

ellos/as

her

su/s (de ella)

their

su/s (de ellos/ as)

when

cuando

if

si

Los ejemplos que aparecen en cada una de las unidades y los ejercicios que las complementan se basan en una historia bilingüe presentada en doble columna que permite comparar los diferentes usos en inglés y castellano: Fluffballs-Pelusas (Travel and Training 2010). Igualmente el vocabulario en el que se basan las actividades ha sido extraído de la historia, con el doble fin de practicar tanto gramática como vocabulario, extrapolando ambos a un contexto más amplio y reforzando su aprendizaje. La primera actividad está basada en fragmentos en inglés en los que se requiere completar o seleccionar la construcción gramatical adecuada. La segunda actividad consiste en una traducción del español al inglés en la que hemos de enfrentarnos a intentar transmitir en inglés un concepto gramatical de diferente aplicación. El hecho de utilizar el contraste entre inglés y español para la actividad final está basada en los resultados de investigaciones realizadas sobre el análisis de los errores cometidos por hispano hablantes en diferentes contextos y en los que se observa de forma contundente que muchas de las formas erróneas se deben a transferencias directas de la lengua materna, el español en este caso. La observación consciente de cada una de las lenguas puede ser de gran ayuda para conseguir erradicar estos tipos de errores tan frecuentes y arraigados. El otro objetivo de recurrir a ejercicios de traducción se dirige al intento de evitar la fosilización de la lengua en hablantes de nivel intermedio que, al gozar de ciertos recursos comunicativos, recurren siempre a las mismas fórmulas, a veces erróneas, ya que perciben son "suficientes" para ser comprendidos, produciéndose un estancamiento en su aprendizaje que necesita ser reactivado.


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Al enfrentarse al reto de traducir un texto, sus habituales estrategias comunicativas (evasión, reformulación, simplificación, etc.) no son de utilidad, por lo que se hace necesario un replanteamiento en el estado de evolución de su interlenguaje sentando las bases para un aprendizaje efectivo. La gramática se distribuye en 20 unidades que se corresponden con los capítulos del libro del que se han extraído los ejemplos principales.


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CONTRASTIVE GRAMMAR IN CONTEXT

Contents 1. The article "the"………………………………………………………………… 6 2. Prepositions 1: in, at, on (place)……………………………………….. 10 3. Prepositions 2: in, at on (time)…………………………………………. 13 4. A/an/one, some/any…………………………..…………………………….. 16 5. Negation…………………………………………………………………………… 20 6. False friends…………………………………………………………………….. 23 7. Possessive adjectives/pronouns……………………………………….. 27 8. Tenses……………………………………………………………………………… 31 9. The passive………………………………………………………………………. 39 10. Possession: 's/of……………………………………………………………… 43 11. Demonstratives……………………………………………………………… 47 12. All/whole/every/everything/everybody/everyone…………. 50 13. Word order…………………………………………………………………….. 55 14. Inversion……………………………………………………………………….. 59 15. Like/as…………………………………………………………………………… 63 16. Prepositions 3: general overview……………………………………. 67 17. A little, a few, little, few………………………………………………….. 71 18. Modals…………………………………………………………………………… 74 19. Another/other/others…………………………………………………….. 81 20. Comparison……………………………………………………………………. 84


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Chapter 1: The article the "People were not even aware of their presence" In English, the article “the” is the most commonly used word, so a good knowledge of its use is essential to prevent errors. Its form doesn’t constitute a problem: it’s used both in singular and plural, masculine and feminine. The = el, la, los las. Although it’s very different from Spanish because no distinctions are made, Spanish speakers accept this ”simplification” and it’s applied without any problem. The conflicts with the article derive from its use, because the differences between English and Spanish are considerable, as we can already observe in chapter 1. 1. In many situations, its use is the same: 1.1. When we know which noun is being referred to or the person or thing is unique, so there is no room for confusion: The town library. La biblioteca municipal (4) Among the selves. Entre los estantes (4) 1.2. With superlatives: In the most secluded basements of the town library. En los más apartados sótanos de la biblioteca municipal (4). 1.3. In constructions the.............of.......... They were the epitome of decision and self-confidence. Eran el vivo retrato de la decisión y la auto-estima (5-6) 2. In some other cases, there are words and expressions that require the use of the article the in English but they don’t need it in Spanish: They only eat paper, the more, the better. Sólo comían papel. *Cuanto más * mejor (5) The word internet requires the use of the article: We could offer them online (on the internet). Podemos venderlas por * internet (88) 3. The main difference can be found in those cases in which Spanish requires the article and English doesn't.


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In the following cases, the article the is omitted in English: 1. Plurals when we speak in general: • People were not even aware of their presence. Los seres humanos no eran conscientes de su presencia. 2. Parts of the body, clothes, personal objects. In this case, possessive adjectives are used (my, your, his, her, its, our, your, their). Their head was huge. La cabeza era grandísima (5) 3. Uncountable nouns (substances, food, materials…): * cellulose gave them flatulence. La celulosa les causaba flatulencia (5) 4. Abstract nouns: They were the epitome of * decision and * self-confidence. Eran el vivo retrato de la decisión y la auto-estima (6). 5. Before most when it means “la mayoría de”: * Most animals on earth. La mayor parte de los animales de la tierra. (6) When it’s a superlative, it’s used: In the most secluded basements. En los más apartados sótanos (4). 6. Meals: (breakfast, lunch, dinner) Over * breakfast. Durante el desayuno (55) 7. Forms of address + noun. The team collaborating with * Dr. Wilmut. El equipo del Dr. Wilmut (44) 8. Main activity in bed, school, work, university, college, hospital, prison, church, chapel, court, market, sea, home Lía tried massaging its chest like they’d been shown at * school (39) 9. Time: Hours, days of the week, seasons, holidays. Last and next At* seven in the morning. A las siete de la mañana (55) 10. Languages, sports, games, dishes, television. His favourite sport is * water polo. Su deporte favorito es el waterpolo. 11. Possessive case (see also chapter 11). * Lía’s notes. Las notas de Lía (58)


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4. The use of the article with place names (countries, islands, oceans...) is a bit different in English and Spanish (see the differences in bold) No article: the

Article: the

Names of countries in general: China, PerĂş, JapĂĄn We cannot say the China as we can say in Spanish: Esa libreta la fabrican en la China. That notebook is made in China

-Names of countries with the words "states, kingdom, republic" : The Irish Republic, The United Kingdom, The United States of America, and plural nouns: The Netherlands -Islands and mountains in plural: The Balearic Islands, The Apennines

-Islands, mountains and lakes in general: Santorini, Teide, Lake Como.

-Oceans, seas, rivers, canals: The Atlantic, The Mediterranean, The Mississipi, The Panama canal. -Names of streets, squares, airports, railway stations, universities, castles, zoos: Oxford University, Paddington Station, Gatwick Airport.

-Names of hotels, museums, cinemas, theatres: The Prado Museum, The Ritz -The north/south/east/west. Galicia is in the north-west of Spain


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CONTRASTIVE GRAMMAR IN CONTEXT

Summary the

the


CONTRASTIVE GRAMMAR IN CONTEXT

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Chapter 1

Exercises

1. Complete (if necessary) the following sentences: 1. ........wood was the original material used when the library was built in 1870. 2. I have been playing .............frescoball for hours so I have to get a shower and wash ............ hair. 3. ..........people were worried about the horrid smell. They phoned Mr. Herriot, the plumber, but he wasn't in. ........... Mr. Herriot's wife told them he would be back at..........dinner time. 4. ..............next Monday, we'll meet at.............7.30 in...........morning at...........work. 5. I'd like to visit a lot of museums. ...........more.............better. 6. ............Dr. Mahler is a well-known biologist. 7. Those cubs are the epitome of .................joyfulness. 8. There was a major eruption so................most inhabitants decided to leave ............ area. 9. ...............last week I bought ...............apple-scented soap bars you like so much. 10. I love visiting........United Kingdom. ..............next time I'll visit London, which is in...........south east. I'll land at ................Heathrow Airport and I'll go to................Leicester Square and ..............British Museum.

!" Mistakes to correct


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2. Translate into English the following sentences: 1. El director del hotel pensó que a la mayoría de las personas no les gustan los lugares apartados por lo que decidió cambiar su ubicación. 2. Ahora el nuevo hotel está frente al parque, donde viven las ardillas de mi amigo Pedro, que las compró en la tienda de animales y las liberó allí. 3. Las ardillas son muy vivarachas. Tienen el pelo rojizo y los ojos muy brillantes. Son el vivo retrato de la alegría. 4. A las 8 de la mañana el Dr. Kitz, un huésped del hotel, saltó de la cama, se vistió y fue a jugar al tenis con un amigo. 5. Durante el desayuno un niño le robó la chaqueta. Cuando lo cogieron dijo era demasiado grande pero que quiere ser motorista y le encanta el cuero. Viajará al norte de Italia para comprarse una cazadora de Armani. 6. Me encanta la tortilla de patata, ver la tele, jugar al scrabble e irme a la cama muy tarde por la noche. 7. Las crías nacerán el año que viene en el zoo de Barcelona. 8. En la primavera daremos la vuelta al mundo y visitaremos el lago Michigan en Estados Unidos, El Nilo en El Cairo y el Monte Song en la China.


CONTRASTIVE GRAMMAR IN CONTEXT

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Notes


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CONTRASTIVE GRAMMAR IN CONTEXT

Chapter 2: Prepositions 1: In, at, on (Place) "He was smiling to himself, rapt in his own thoughts, when the movement sensor went off, followed by sudden shouting and knocks at the door" Another difficulty that Spanish speakers have to face is the correct use of these three prepositions of place, as all of them could be translated as “en”. Accordingly, it is very important to know their use. 1. In some situations there is an equivalence between in and en: In: Countries, cities, enclosed spaces; some vehicles (car, taxi, helicopter) “Concrete had always been a favourite in the town. El hormigón siempre había tirado mucho en el pueblo” (9). 2. But in the following situations we can find significant differences: 2.1. At: Certain positions and specific points ( at the top, at the bottom, at the door, at the front, at the back, at reception, at the corner, at the crossroads); common places (at school, at university, at the movies, at the airport, at the library, at the bank, at the meeting, at the party, at home…); addresses (at 28 Totley Street) Knocks at the door. Golpes en la puerta (10) Several of his kids were at the school. Tenía varios hijos en el colegio (34) At the bottom of the garden by the wall. En el extremo del jardín adosado al muro (39) At the mouth of the river. En la desembocadura del río (56) 2.2 On: Surfaces, means of transportation (except car, taxi, helicopter), parts of the body, technology. All the information stored on our computers is rapidly disappearing. Está desapareciendo a gran velocidad toda la información almacenada en los ordenadores (17) On the news. En las noticias (26) Lía could put the things down on the table. Lía pudo posar las cosas en la mesa (46)


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Honorato patted him on the back. Honorato le dio unas palmadas en la espalda (51) And what if they don’t let Tago on the boat? ¿Y si no dejan que Tago embarque (en el barco) (56)? 3. Other uses and expressions: 3.1. Arrive: With the verb arrive, we use in or at as specified above but arrive home with no preposition (never add “to”, that's a very common mistake): She arrived home out of breath (p. 22). She arrived in Portugal at 7.00. She arrived at the hotel at 8.00

3.2. been to/in: Her sister Enriqueta, who'd been to Scotland many years ago (p.44) Have you ever been to Scotland? (not in) ¿Has estado en Escocia?¿Has ido a Escocia? (it implies motion) But: I've been in Scotland all my life. 3.3. Expressions: Most animals on earth. La mayor parte de los animales de la tierra(6) On top of that. Además (22) On land. En tierra (63) but at sea On their trip. En el viaje (67)


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CONTRASTIVE GRAMMAR IN CONTEXT

Summary in

at

on


CONTRASTIVE GRAMMAR IN CONTEXT

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Chapter 2

Exercises

1. Complete the following sentences with a suitable preposition (if necessary): 1. We'll travel to the Cies Islands ............a sailing boat. I'll meet you ...........the crossroads to show you the way to the port. I hope we'll have a great time ..........our trip, both ..........land and ...........sea. 2. As soon as I arrive ...........A Coru単a, I'll go to the hotel and wait for you ...................reception. 3. A: I heard.............the news that a very famous actor is living...........our city, ...............42 Wallingford Avenue. B: That's great! I'll check it...............the web. 4. As soon as I arrived..............home, I heard some knocks..............the door. I looked though the window and I saw a broken laptop...........the bottom of the garden. .............top of that, my boyfriend tapped me...............the back to show me a cat flying..............a helicopter ............TV.

!" Mistakes to correct


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CONTRASTIVE GRAMMAR IN CONTEXT

2. Translate the following texts into English: 1. Oí en las noticias que acaban de inaugurar un camping de última generación en Galicia. Está en la desembocadura del río. 2. Si quieres no vemos en la biblioteca. Es un lugar muy agradable con luz de sol y unas estanterías cargadas de comics. 3. Sin duda es el lugar perfecto. Pero ¿Dónde está? ¿Es el edificio de cemento en el extremo del parque? 4. Exacto. Nos vemos en la puerta a las 10. 5. A: ¿Has ido alguna vez al extranjero? B: Si, he estado en Canadá y varios países europeos. Viajo mucho. De hecho, acabo de llegar a casa. 6. Reunieron muchos souvenirs en el viaje pero su verdadero motivo de orgullo era un lápiz de plata muy antiguo.


CONTRASTIVE GRAMMAR IN CONTEXT

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Notes


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CONTRASTIVE GRAMMAR IN CONTEXT

Chapter 3: Prepositions 2: In- at- on (time) "She walked up the street absentmindedly, yet resolutely at the same time". These three prepositions can also express time in English. Their use differs from Spanish which, as we'll see, uses different prepositions or no preposition at all in many situations. 1. At is used for times of day, meal times and the following time expressions: (at noon, at night, at the weekend, at weekends, at Christmas, at Easter, at the moment, at present, at the same time): She walked up the street absentmindedly, yet resolutely at the same time. Caminaba calle arriba con aire ausente y despistado aunque resuelto (al mismo tiempo) (13) At seven in the morning. A las siete de la mañana (55) 2. On is used for days of the week and dates, i.e. on one specific day (birthday, anniversary, Christmas day…): On Monday, on 16 June 2006, on his birthday. He had torn apart two books and a cushion on his first day. Ya * el primer día había destrozado dos libros y un cojín (14). Expressions: On this occasion (57), esta vez (en esta ocasión). 3. In is used for parts of the day: In the morning (s), in the afternoon(s), in the evening, (except at noon, at middday and at night). She was hardly ever seen except for early in the morning. Desde entonces poco se la veía, excepto por las mañanas temprano (45). - Longer periods of time (months, years, seasons): In June, in 2011, in winter.


CONTRASTIVE GRAMMAR IN CONTEXT

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The story was published in 2011. -Reference to a time in the future: I’ll be back in a couple of hours. Vendré dentro de un par de horas (83) I’ll call you in a bit. Te llamo en un rato (dentro de un rato) (90)


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CONTRASTIVE GRAMMAR IN CONTEXT

Summary in

at

on


CONTRASTIVE GRAMMAR IN CONTEXT

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Chapter 3

Exercises

1. Complete the following sentences: 1. The manager was born .........June..............1972. I think ............the 26th. ..............his first day he arrived at the hotel............8.00..........the morning and told us to meet............lunch time. 2. ..........Summer and ......Easter, I work till very late..........night. During the week, I'm free..............Tuesdays,

and two days a week I arrive

home..............the evening. 3. I've managed to get a contract as an intern at a very important company. I'll start working...........three days. At the moment, I work everyday of the week but I'm free................weekends.

!" Mistakes to correct


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CONTRASTIVE GRAMMAR IN CONTEXT

2. Translate the following text: 1. Hay una peluquería nueva en el hotel. Está muy bien decorada con un tapiz Indio y un jarrón griego. Abre a las 8 de la mañana, incluso los fines de semana. Los lunes hacen peinados espaciales y en Marzo inauguran una impactante sala de espera con modelos para amenizar a los clientes. 2. Fui por la tarde pero había un letrero en la puerta: “ Volveré dentro de una hora”. Parece que el primer día estaban un poco despistados. 3. La gerente del hotel es muy aficionada a los cojines. En el 2012 fue a Estambul y el primer fin de semana compró más de 10. Tenía las maletas repletas de tejidos orientales. El 14 de Febrero volverá para comprar más.


CONTRASTIVE GRAMMAR IN CONTEXT

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Notes


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CONTRASTIVE GRAMMAR IN CONTEXT

Chapter 4: a/an/one. Some/any "Don Ricardo ignored his advice to adopt a reassuring tone". The use of the indefinite article is very similar in English and Spanish. The difficulties for Spanish speakers are in its form as it is quite different from its equivalent in Spanish. In singular, a (un, una) is used both for feminine and masculine: Don Ricardo ignored his advice to adopt a reassuring tone. Pues si que seguía Don Ricardo su consejo de utilizar un tono tranquilizador (17) However, and here we can find a trouble spot for Spanish speakers, when the word that follows starts with a vowel, it is necessary to use an , as we can see in several examples from the previous chapter: An old oriental tapestry. Un viejo tapiz oriental (14) An impressive webpage. Una impactante página web (15) There is an important use that is different in English and Spanish: when we talk about jobs, English requires the use of the indefinite article whilst Spanish doesn’t require any: Don Enrique is a teacher. Don Enrique es * profesor. Don Ricardo is a headmaster. Don Ricardo is * director. a/an/one In some other cases, we use one to emphasize that we’re talking about one thing (or person) rather than two or more: Its eyes were purplish and its tongue was lolling to one side. Los ojos tenían un tono morado y la lengua le colgaba hacia un lado. (38) We also use one, not a or an, in the following cases: - In phrases such as one day, one morning, one winter…to refer to a particular but unspecified time: One morning they discovered that their files had been erased. - In the pattern one…the other/another One secret for another. Secreto por secreto. (Un secreto por otro) (82)


CONTRASTIVE GRAMMAR IN CONTEXT

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But we face the biggest problem when we want to express in plural unos/unas, as a and an are singular. For these cases in English we use some. She packed up her things and flicked away some fluffballs that were on the table. Recogió sus cosas y apartó unas bolas de pelusa de la mesa. (20) Some is also used with uncountable nouns meaning algún/a. In these cases the difficulty for Spanish speakers is that in most cases Spanish doesn't use any determiner, so a common mistake is not to add some with uncountable nouns: It's time to get some help: es hora de pedir ayuda (34) to give it some air: para darle aire (39) With interrogative and negative sentences any is used instead: She dedided not to take any risks (20): Decidió no arriegarse (no correr ningún riesgo). So don't forget: Some: countable: unos/as, algunos/as (afirmative); uncountable: algún/a Any: Countable: ningunos/as (negative), unos/as, algunos/as (interrogative); uncountable: ningún/a (negative), algún/a (interrogative) Any in an affirmative sentence means cualquier/a Sprinkle those drops of salty water on any paper you plan to feed it (41) Esparcid esas gotitas de agua con sal sobre el papel (cualquier papel) que vaya a tomar. The last time there had been any activity in the library was months ago (72) Hacía meses que no se realizaba ninguna actividad.


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CONTRASTIVE GRAMMAR IN CONTEXT

Summary a

an

one

some

any


CONTRASTIVE GRAMMAR IN CONTEXT

29

Chapter 4

Exercises

1. Complete the following sentences:

1. There were.............bugs on the windscreen 2. He was kicking...................awful cushion when we arrived 3. The lady was ...............witness to the bank robbery 4. Did they have..............trouble with their car? 5. He speaks all the time but never listens. He is such ................bore. 6. ....................evening we went for dinner to a

three-star Michelin

restaurant. 7. She bought................bookcase at the flea market. 8. Please, give me just ................cup cake. I'm full. 9. We didn't have ....................towels so we couldn't go to the beach. 10. I´ve tried to save .................money for my holidays but it's quite difficult!

!" Mistakes to correct


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CONTRASTIVE GRAMMAR IN CONTEXT

2. Translate the following sentences: 1. Cuanto más tiempo esperemos, más difícil será conseguir unos bonitos jarrones con flores para la suite nupcial. 2. Hay una nueva agencia de viajes en frente de la facultad. Tiene un escaparate impresionante con raros adornos y montones de plumas de colores. Estoy deseando ir. 3. Una mañana me levanté muy temprano para ver un amanecer maravilloso. Después preparé una taza de café solo, porque no tenía leche, añadí azúcar y tomé unas magdalenas deliciosas. 4. ¿Has oído unos gritos? Parece que han estrenado una fantasmagórica película de terror y unos niños se desmayaron.


CONTRASTIVE GRAMMAR IN CONTEXT

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Notes


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CONTRASTIVE GRAMMAR IN CONTEXT

Chapter 5: Negation "Her thermal overalls mustn’t have been working as they weren’t cooling her at all" There are three aspects about negation in English that Spanish speakers should take into account: 1. Except the verb to be, to have and the modals (examples A and C), the rest of the verbs need an auxiliary for negation (present: do/does; past: did) followed by the verb in its infinitive form without to (example B) A. Her thermal overalls mustn’t have been working as they weren’t cooling her at all. Además el buzo térmico debía estar estropeado y no refrigeraba nada (22). B. I went to have a look before but there didn’t seem to be anything wrong with him. Ya fui antes pero no parece pasarle nada. (23) C. There isn’t anything over there. Ahí no hay nada. (23) 2. In English a negative adverb is used only once, so when the sentence in Spanish includes a negative adverb such as nada, in English we use anything (examples B y C) o at all (example A). The same happens with the rest of the negative adverbs. Note: We use at all when nada can be substituted by en absoluto. (ex.A p.22) D. Tagomago was having none of it. Tagomago no quería saber nada (74)

Not is an adverb and it is used, as we have seen, to negate verbs but also before, much, many, any, enough (ejemplo E) and nouns with any article or numeral (example F) E. Not much for now. De momento no mucho (65) F. Not a single book. Ni un solo libro (27)

No is used the rest of the times, by itself and before names without article. (examples G , H, I).


CONTRASTIVE GRAMMAR IN CONTEXT

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G. There was no stopping now. No había forma de pararlo (17) H. It paid absolutely no attention. Ni se inmutó (29) I. There was no sign of the notebook. No había señal de la libreta (30)


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CONTRASTIVE GRAMMAR IN CONTEXT

Summary negation in verbs

anything

at all

no

not


CONTRASTIVE GRAMMAR IN CONTEXT

35

Chapter 5

Exercises

1. Complete the following sentences with no, not, anything, at all

1. There was…………………….trace of her suitcase. I think she lost it in Barcelona. 2. There isn’t ……………………..you can do to help her. 3. I don’t like him …………………… 4. ……………………many people came to the party.

!" Mistakes to correct


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2. Translate the following text: A Mónica le encantan los caballos y montar. Como el complejo hotelero no tenía cuadras (además, no había nada abierto) nos fuimos a un pueblo cercano. Elegimos unos caballos preciosos, negros con cascos blancos y hocico rosado. No teníamos ropa especial así que alquilamos unas chaquetas y unas botas. Mónica alquiló también una. Yo quería un gorro de vaquero pero no lo encontré. No debían de tener . Los caballos esperaban relinchando y se alegraron cuando nos vieron. “Volveremos dentro de dos horas” le dijimos al encargado. No paramos nada! Acabamos sin respiración pero muy contentos.


CONTRASTIVE GRAMMAR IN CONTEXT

37

Notes


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Chapter 6: False friends "In the kitchen, she took an empty glass jar". There are a lot of words in English and Spanish that are written in a similar way or even the same whilst their meaning is completely different, causing problems for Spanish speakers. They are highly frequent. In just this one chapter we can observe the following examples: Jar (En, 29)

Bote (Sp)

Jarra (Sp)

Jug (En)

Soap (En, 28)

Jabón (Sp)

Sopa (Sp)

Soup (En)

Try (En, 29)

Probar, intentar (Sp)

Prove/Probe

Demostrar/investigar (Sp)

Some other examples in the book can be summarized as follows: Bookshop (En) (6)

Librería

Healthy (En, 10)

Sano (Ep)

Library (En, 20) bookcase (En, 14)

Biblioteca (Sp) Estantería

Sane (En)

Cuerdo (sp)

Large (En, 13)

Grande (sp)

Data (En, 17)

Datos (Sp)

Largo (Sp)

Long (en)

Dates (En)

Fechas (sp)

Notice (En, 18)

Aviso (sp)

Sensitive (En, 18)

Sensible (Sp)

Noticias (Sp)

News (en) (27)

Sensible (En)

Sensato (sp)

Oil (En, 24)

Aceite, petróleo (Sp)

Macaroon (En)

Galleta de almendra y coco

Petrol

Gasolina

Macarrón (Sp, 29)

Piece of macaroni

Realize/realise (En, 30)

Darse cuenta

Simpatía

Friendliness, affection


CONTRASTIVE GRAMMAR IN CONTEXT

39

Realizar

Make

Sympathy (En, 40)

Compasión

Scientist (En, 44)

Científico (Sp) n.

Older (En)(48)

Mayor

Scientific (En, 43)

Cientifico (Sp) adj

Mayor (En)

Alcalde (Sp)

Jam (En, 55)

Mermelada

Mermelada (Sp, 55)

Jam, jelly (en)

Jamón (Sp)

Ham

Marmalade (En)

Mermelada de cítricos

Factory (en)(65)

Fábrica (Sp)

Shape (En) (67) Way (En, 43)

Forma (Sp figura)) Forma (Sp manera)

Fabric (En)

Tejido

Form (En).

Formulario

Place (En, 73)

Lugar

Collar (En, 74)

Collar de perro, cuello de camisa

Plaza (Sp)

Square

Collar (Sp joya)

Necklace

Success (En, 81)

Éxito

Wrap (en) (94)

Envolver

Suceso (Sp)

Event

Involve (En)

Implicar (sp)

Actually (En, 95)

De hecho, en realidad (sp)

Direction (En, 12)

Dirección (sentido)

Actualmente (sp)

Nowadays, at present

Dirección (sp)

Address (95)

Particular (En, 98)

En concreto

Parents (En, 99)

Padres

Particular (sp)

Private

Parientes (Sp)

Relatives


40

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Summary Include the false friends that you find more confusing:


CONTRASTIVE GRAMMAR IN CONTEXT

41

Chapter 6

Execises

Translate the following sentences: 1. Este tejido especial se hace en esa fábrica. Lo han dicho en las noticias. 2. Cuando viajo me encanta desayunar el buffet del hotel. Mis favoritos son los panecillos de jamón y las tostadas con mantequilla y mermelada. 3. Prueba a meter el jabón en aquel bote. Está junto a la jarra de agua. 4. Oí en las noticias que un científico realizó un importante descubrimiento sobre el uso de los collares en mujeres. 5. Había varías filas de libros en la biblioteca del salón. Tienes que incluirlos todos en los archivos. 6. Mis padres viajan mucho porque tiene parientes por todo el mundo. 7. Envuelve esos regalos antes de que lleguen los clientes. 8. Actualmente los cruceros son una forma popular de viajar. Si quieres conseguir uno gratis, puedes rellenar ese formulario con forma de barco. 9. Había sido un día muy largo así que decidió ser sensato y acostarse temprano. 10. Lidia está en las Maldivas dirfrutando de su éxito. Se hizo rica con el petróleo y ahora colecciona collares de piedras preciosas.


42

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Notes


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43

Chapter 7: Possessive adjectives/pronouns. Such was his scientific zeal… (34) It was her case. (34) Due to the differences with Spanish, it’s very common to make mistakes when we have to choose the right adjective. -In English, contrary to the case in Spanish, possessive adjectives refer to the possessor, not to the thing possessed. That’s why, in Spanish, the adjective is different if the thing possessed is singular or plural. In English such differences not exist and the same form is used. My: mi, mis. Your: tu, tus/ su, sus (de usted) His: su, sus (de él) Her: su sus (de ella) Its: su, sus (de algo) Our: nuestro/a/os/as Your: su, sus (de ustedes, vosotros) Their: su sus (de ellos/as) Your classmates. Vuestros compañeros (17) (your-vuestros) Your classmate. Vuestro compañero (your-vuestro) -An important problem for Spanish speakers arises when we want to express “su/sus” in English because in Spanish the gender of the possessor is not taken into account, whilst in English three forms are distinguished: (su de él=his, su de ella=her, su de ello(neutro)=its. In the same way, “su/sus” is used in Spanish for your (de ustedes, vosotros) and their (de ellos/as) what leads to confusion and therefore to frequent mistakes. One of its paws. Una de sus manezuelas (33) Such was his scientific zeal… Su fervor científico era tal…(34) Several of his kids were at the school. Tenía varios hijos en el colegio.(34) It was her case. Era su caso (34) With their collective knowledge. Con los conocimientos de ambos (34) My dad’s also at home. Mi padre también está en casa. (35) He’d appreciate your findings. Le agradará saber tus averiguaciones (36)


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-In addition to the difference in form, another important aspect to take into account is the use of the possessive in English, since it’s more frequent than in Spanish. It’s commonly used with parts of the body, personal items and clothes, whilst in Spanish the definite article is used (see, chapter 1, example 2) All the information copied from her notebook had also disappeared from her files. Toda la información que estaba en la libreta había desaparecido también de sus archivos (33) When the possessive is a pronoun (it refers to something/someone we mentioned before so there is no noun following), the form changes as follows :

I You (sg) he she it we You (pl) they

my: it's my name your: it's your name his: it's his name her: it's her name Its: it’s its name our: it's our name your: it's your name their: it's their name

mine: it's mine yours: it's yours his: it's his hers: it's hers Its: it’s its ours: it's ours yours: it's yours theirs: it's theirs

"It's shocking that such an exemplary town as ours should be attacked in this way! ¡Es una vergüenza que ataquen de esta forma un pueblo ejemplar como el nuestro" (p.43) "One secret for another. I'll keep yours if you leave it up to me to get them under control". Secreto por secreto. Yo guardo el vuestro y vosotras dejáis que me encargue yo de controlarlas" (82) The most important consideration for Spanish speakers is to take into account that the different forms are invariable, irrespective of the fact that the noun they refer to is singular or plural, someting it's necessary to consider in Spanish. El mío= mine Los míos=mine It's also very important to mention that in English no article is used.


CONTRASTIVE GRAMMAR IN CONTEXT

45

Summary Personal pronoun

Possessive adjective

Possessive pronoun


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Chapter 7

Exercises

1. Complete the following sentences: 1.1.

Come

back

later,

please.

Martha,

the

receptionist,

and

...................workmates are snoozing away. 1.2. Please, switch on ...................computers. If .....................screens are blank, call me. 1.3. I love Ibiza and ..................beaches and coves. 1.4. After thinking long and hard, Mark, the private eye, fetched .................notebook and dialled the numbers of several camp sites. Neither the tourists nor ....................tents were there. 1.5. Those travel books are……………….but she won’t lend them to you. You can borrow……………My husband and I bought them in India. !" Mistakes to correct


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47

2. Translate the following text: La guía cogió el micrófono, se aseguró de que aquellas notas eran las suyas y empezó a hablar: -"Bienvenidos a Londres y sus maravillosos parques. Hoy vamos a visitar nuestros rincones favoritos..." De repente oyó un ruido, miró a su derecha y gritó. Ni él ni los pasajeros podían creer lo que veían. Un niño pequeño, haciendo muecas, conducía el autobús mientas el conductor echaba una cabezada justo detrás de él. Sus padres no hacían nada. Simplemente decían que él y su hermana eran muy espabilados. -"Por favor, díganle a su hijo que pare el autobús o tendré que hacerlo yo". -“Y controlen también a su hermana: está abriendo todas las maletas. Las rojas son las nuestras y las azúles son las de ellos”.


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Notes


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49

Chapter 8: English tenses I don’t know what’s up with my fluffball English tense forms are much simpler than Spanish ones but very different. That’s why you have to pay special attention to them. The use of tenses is the same in most cases, but there are important differences we have to take into account. The most significant are the following: 1. -Present Progressive: We use it for an action arranged for the future. In Spanish, we would use a simple present or a future: I’m getting you something to drink (50). Te traeré algo de beber. 2. -Past progressive: It refers to an action going on at a certain time in the past. In Spanish we frequently use the imperfect indicative: It was puffing (38). Resoplaba 3. -Present Perfect: Here we can find significant differences between English and Spanish. In English it’s used to refer to actions that have been very recently completed. It also refers to actions that began before and continue to the present or to actions that have current relevance. She has just set up a detective agency in the attic of her house (pr. 13) Acaba de montar una agencia de detectives en el desván de su casa (pr. 13) in order to gain more knowledge than the human brain has ever achieved (80) para adquirir conocimientos hasta límites nunca alcanzados por la mente humana (80) We do not use the present perfect when there is a specific time reference. It’s used with already, just, never, ever, not yet, so far, till now, up to now


50

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4. -Present/Past perfect progressive: We use them when we want to put emphasis on the duration of an action. In Spanish we frequently use “llevo, llevaba” to show this nuance. He has been reading that book all day. Lleva leyendo ese libro todo el día He had been living in Moscow for a month when the new hotel burnt down. Llevaba un mes viviendo en Moscú cuando ardió el nuevo hotel. In questions, it’s common to find them in combination with: How long…? ¿Cuánto tiempo…? They are frequenly used with for and since. Important: ALL Perfect tenses express a relationship between two actions, two states or two times.


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51

English Tenses Overview Tenses Simple Present To Be: I am, you are, he/she/it is, we/you/they are Rest: present tense form of the verb. -s 3ªp.sg

Example English A: It looks queasy (38)/ N: I don’t know what’s up with my fluffball (38) There isn’t anything over there (23) I: Are you stupid or what? (23)

Example Spanish A: tiene mala cara (38) N: No se que le pasa a mi pelusa (38) Ahí no hay nada (23) I: ¿Tú estás tonto o qué? (23)

Present Progressive “to be” conjugado + ing.

A: It’s having a rough time (40)

A: Lo está pasando mal (40)/

Simple Past To be: I/he/she/ it/was,you/we/they were Rest: past tense form of the verb

A: When she arrived/the lab was at the bottom of the garden/(39) N: The fluffball didn’t look well (38)

A: Cuando llegó/El laboratorio estaba en el extremo del jardín/ N: La pelusa no tenía buen aspecto

DON’T FORGET Except with “to be”, do and does are required for neg. and int. Similar use as in Spanish. It expresses present or future (timetables, schedules) Commonly found with: always, never, usually, sometimes, often. If sentences. Type 1 Similar use as in Spanish, except for its use in English for actions arranged for the future. I’m getting you something to drink (50). Te traeré algo de beber. Commonly found with: Now, right now, at the moment, just now. Invariable for all persons. In int. and neg. the auxiliary did is necessary (main verb=present). Similar use as in Spanish. Finished actions. Commonly found with: Yesterday, last year, in 2011… If sentences. Type 2

Past Progressive Past “to be” conjugado+ing

A: Hellium was already waiting for her/Its cheeks were turning red/ It was puffing (38)

A: Helio ya la estaba esperando/sus mofletes se estaban volviendo rojos/Resoplaba (38)

Similar use as in Spanish. Interrupted, repeated or parallel actions that took place in the past. While, when, as long as


52

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A: I have noticed/It has swallowed a lot of paper (40)

A: He observado/ha tragado un montón de papel

N: her thermal overalls mustn’t have been working as they weren’t cooling her at all. (22)

N: Además el buzo térmico debía estar estropeado y no refrigeraba nada (22)

Past Perfect Simple Had + pp

A: The office had turned out great (13)

A: El despacho le había quedado muy chulo (13)

Same as in Spanish: an action that took place before a certain time in the past with emphasis on the fact. before, after, never, if sentence type 3

Past Perfect Progressive Had been+-ing

A: He had been working at the resort for 2 years when I met him

A: Llevaba trabajando 2 años en el resort cuando lo conocí.

Same as in Spanish: an action that took place before a certain time in the past with emphasis on the duration. for, since, the whole day, all day

Future Simple Will+infinitive form of the verb without to.

A: I’ll give it some flatulence medicine (40)

A: Le daré un reductor del meteorismo

Same as in Spanish: action in the future that cannot be influenced or a spontaneous decision. Assumptions

Present Perfect Simple Have/has (3p.sg)+pp

Present Perfect Progressive Have/has (3p.sg) + been + -ing

To refer to actions: -very recently completed -began before and continue to the present or -have current relevance already, just, never, ever, not yet, so far, till now, up to now Same as in Spanish: an action that began in the past and continues up to the present. In Spanish: he estado leyendo, llevo leyendo… all day, for, since, how long?, the whole month

in a month…, next …, tomorrow If sentence type 1 assumption: I think, probably, perhaps


CONTRASTIVE GRAMMAR IN CONTEXT

53

Future Simple Progressive Will be+ -ing

Future Perfect Will have+pp

A: I’ll be working at the new hotel in two years.

A: I’ll have finished the book in a month

A: Dentro de dos años estaré trabajando en el nuevo hotel.

A: habré terminado el libro dentro de un mes

Same use as in Spanish An action that will be in progress at a certain time in the future in two years, next month, tomorrow Same use as in Spanish. A future action that will be completed at a certain time in the future. by Thursday, in a month

Future Perfect Progressive Will have been +ing

A: I will have been studying for 5 hours by the time you get home

A: Habré estado estudiando 5 horas cuando llegues a casa.

action taking place before a certain time in the future with emphasis on the course of an action. Commonly used with: for …, the last couple of hours, all day long…by the time

To be going to (present) Present of to be + going to

To be going to (past) Past of To be + going to

A: I’m going to keep looking in my room for a bit longer” (52) N: you’re not going to understand what’s going on (81) I: but how are you going to manage it?” (82)

A: Voy a buscarla todavía un poco más en mi cuarto. (52) N: tú no entenderás muy bien lo que pasa.(81) I: pero, ¿cómo lo vas a hacer?” (82)

A: without the slightest consideration for his sensitive young public which was going to pieces (18) N: she wasn’t going to let this opportunity to consolidate her agency escape (34)

A: Sin la menor consideración a la sensible audiencia infantil que se venía abajo por momentos (18) N: no iba a dejar que se le escapase la oportunidad de consolidar su agencia (34)

Same as in Spanish: -Things that are sure to happen in the future -Planned actions in the future Any future reference

Same as in Spanish: something that was going to happen but in the end it did not happen. But


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Conditional Simple Would+ infinitive form of the verb without to

A: The Spanish teacher would be a valuable witness (19)

A: El profesor de lengua sería un testigo muy valioso

Same as in Spanish: an action that might take place If clause. Type 2

Conditional progressive Would be +-ing

A: they would be taking scuba diving lessons all the morning if the teacher was here

A: Estarían tomando lecciones de buceo toda la mañana si el profesor estuviese allí.

Action that might have taken place in the past with emphasis on the duration or course If

Conditional Perfect Would have +pp

A: Any biologist would have had a hard time (4)

A: Cualquier biólogo habría tenido muchas dificultades

Action that might have taken place in the past If sentence type 3

Conditional Perfect Progressive Would have been + -ing

A: They would have been training the horse for hours if he had been in his stables

A: Habrían estado entrenando el caballo durante horas si hubiese estado en la cuadra

Action that might have taken place in the past with emphasis on its duration. If

Imperative Infinitive form of the verb without to

A: Open its mouth (40) N: “Mum, please don’t break our rhythm” (96)

A: Ábrele la boca N: Mamá, por favor, no pares el Ritmo (96)

The verb is formed without a subject. Negation is formed with don’t before the verb. Please, now, then, first…


CONTRASTIVE GRAMMAR IN CONTEXT

55

English verbs at a glance: “Nemo Reading Fluffballs” ENGLISH TENSES AT A GLANCE Present

Past

Future

Simple

Progressive

Perfect

Perfect Progressive

He reads 2 chapters every day

He’s reading chapter 12 now

He has just finished chapter 11

He has been reading that book for two weeks

Lee dos capítulos todos los días

Ahora está leyendo el capítulo 12

Acaba de terminar el capítulo 11

He read chapter 9 yesterday

He was reading chapter 10 when I took the picture

He had read many other books before I met him

Ha estado leyendo ese libro durante dos semanas He had been reading that book for two hours when I arrived

Ayer leyó el capítulo 9

Estaba leyendo el capítulo 10 cuando le hice la foto

Había leído muchos otros libros antes de conocerlo

He will start a new chapter tomorrow. He’s going to start a new chapter tomorrow Empezará un Nuevo capítulo mañana. Mañana va a empezar un capítulo nuevo

He will be reading chapter 13 tomorrow

He will have read chapters 13 and 14 by the day after tomorrow

Mañana estará leyendo el capítulo 13

Pasado mañana habrá leído los capítulos 13 y 14

Había estado leyendo ese libro durante dos horas cuando llegué He will have been reading that book for three hours by the time I get there. Habrá estado leyendo ese libro durante 3 horas para cuando llegue


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Summarize the main differences between English and Spanish in the use of tenses


CONTRASTIVE GRAMMAR IN CONTEXT

57

Chapter 8

Exercises

1. Complete the following sentences with a suitable verb tense

1. When she arrived, the captain …………………………………(wait) for her at the door. 2. They…………………………………………(be) to the Highlands several times. 3. By this time next month, they…………………………………………………..(complete) their journey around the world. 4. The train from Barcelona always ………………………………….(arrive) on time. 5. Listen! A plane…………………………………(land) right now. 6. He ……………………………………….(work) at the travel agency for four years 7. The receptionist reported that the girl ………………………………….(swallow) another candy the day before. 8. They……………………………………..(take) their final exams next week. 9. I……………………………….(get) your e-mail just as I ………………………………(switch off) my computer. 10.

Please, …………………………(sprinkle) some drops of brandy on

the jam. 11.

He………………………………(write) the report for 6 hours by the

time the manager arrives. 12.

Next year, they………………………….(open) a new branch in

Salamanca.


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CONTRASTIVE GRAMMAR IN CONTEXT

13.

We………………………………..(shop) for two hours when it started

to rain 14.

They………………………………(never, ride) a horse.

15.

If I can afford it, I………………………………….(go) to Ibiza next

summer.

!"

Mistakes to correct


CONTRASTIVE GRAMMAR IN CONTEXT

59

2. Translate the following text: Llevábamos buscando en internet un hotel interesante desde el lunes cuando encontramos el “Miracle Design Hotel”. “Quiero éste”, dijo Ann.” ¿Te gusta?”.” No estoy muy seguro”, contesté. “¿Pertenece a alguna cadena hotelera?”. “No lo sé, pero no me importa. Llevamos varios días buscando un hotel y me estoy cansando”. Las clases empiezan la semana que viene y no tenemos mucho tiempo. El tren sale a las 22.00 Llegamos al hotel a las 23.30 y nos registramos. Cuando nos estábamos aproximando a la habitación detectamos un olor apestoso. Nos cambiaron de habitación pero Ann estaba un poco mareada. Dijeron que habían esparcido unas gotas de un nuevo ambientador y que lamentaban que no nos gustase. “La próxima vez no usen a sus clientes como conejillos de Indias” les dije. Me contestaron que lo han estado usando desde Enero y nadie se ha quejado. No lo entiendo. Ann va a dar un paseo y probablemente visitará unos museos. Yo voy a escribir un informe sobre lo sucedido. Para cuando llegue Ann habré estado escribiendo durante más de tres horas. Soy un perfeccionista. Acaba de entrar la recepcionista y me está preguntado si estamos bien. Muy amable por su parte.


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Notes


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61

Chapter 9: The Passive It was the first place in which the outbreaks had been identified. (43) 1. Introduction: The passive construction is much more frequent in English than in Spanish and it’s mainly used when we want to emphasize the importance of the action itself instead of who performed the action , so the direct object becomes the subject of the sentence: the outbreaks had been identified (p.43) Another frequent use is with impersonal constructions (se redujeron los fondos: funds were withdrawn (p.45) which causes special problems for Spanish speakers. 2. Form: It is formed with the verb be (in relevant tense) and the past participle of the verb (-ed, for regular verbs and the specific past participle form for irregular verbs). The direct object becomes the subject and the subject becomes the agent, preceded by “by”(if it’s relevant) or it is omitted. It’s important to note that most passive constructions in English do not include the agent. 3. Use: We can find passive constructions with all tenses and modals though you should avoid perfect progressive forms, as they are hardly ever used. Examples:

The book

is is being was was being has been had been will be will have been modal + be

Read (pp)

However, what with the sheep dying and the ethicality of such practices being challenged by the international community, the project reached crisis point, the funds were withdrawn and she was fired (44-45)


62

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Pero entre que la oveja murió y la comunidad internacional comenzó a cuestionar la ética de tales prácticas, el proyecto entró en crisis, se redujeron los fondos y la despidieron. As we can see in this example, in the first part of the sentence, the subject in Spanish becomes the agent in English (and the object becomes the subject) whilst in the second , impersonal in Spanish, it becomes a passive constructions without an agent. It was the first place in which the outbreaks had been identified. (43) Fue el primer lugar donde empezaron a detertarse los brotes.

4. Impersonal "it" with passive As it is the case in Spanish, when we want to mention the words or thoughts of people in general, we often use an impersonal "it" structure with passive. It was mentioned by all the specialists, who often described it as a “showcase of domotics”. Era citado por todos los especialistas, que a menudo lo calificaban como “alarde de la domótica” (8) IMPORTANT: However, there is another use that causes a lot of problems for Spanish speakers: The structure: It + passive reporting verb + that + clause can be transformed in English into: subject + passive reporting verb + to infinitive . In Spanish, a construction with se + verb is used: se decía, se cuenta…. She was said to have worked on the team collaborating with Dr. Wilmut. Decían que había trabajado en el equipo del Dr. Wilmut (44) It was said that she worked… She was also rumoured to have set up a laboratory in her basement Contaban también que había instalado un laboratorio en el sótano (45) It was also rumoured that she had set up….


CONTRASTIVE GRAMMAR IN CONTEXT

63

Summarize the main differences between English and Spanish in the use of the passive


64

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Chapter 9

exercises

1. Transform the following sentences into the passive: 1. A group of intellectuals published some articles about international tourism. 2. The newsagent’s had sold all the newspapers. 3. She buys bread and croissants at the bakery every day. 4. They will read the front pages soon. 5. Somebody has taken my notebook. 6. The pilot drinks 4 glasses of orange juice every day. 7. They cannot sell the newspapers. 8. They are sending the assistant manager to Mali.


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65

2.Translate the following text: Se dice que van a abrir un laboratorio de turismo en España . No sé si es cierto. Ayer también se rumoreaba que el promotor había ya contratado a más de mil personas. Le llaman el “Turlab”. Se analizarán todos los viajes, se considerarán todos los tipos de alojamiento y transporte y se publicarán todos los datos. Se adquirió una antigua fábrica de mermeladas. Se está restaurando para alojar el nuevo laboratorio .


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Notes


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67

Chapter 10: Possession: ’s / of Helium’s fingers were almost numb (49) The construction “el/la/los /las” + noun + “de” + (determiner, la, mi, su, esta, etc./0) + noun in Spanish (los dedos de Helio, el estrés de la persecución, p.49) can have two different forms in English: the ’s and the of constructions, so it causes quite a lot of problems for Spanish speakers to decide which one is the correct one in each case. To make it even a bit more complicated the ’s construction is sometimes used only with the apostrophe. S’ FORM ’S Singular and plural nouns not ending in “s”, including initials Helium’s fingers (49)

’ Plural nouns ending in “s”: The two sisters’ front door (75)

’S OR ’ Proper names ending in “s”: Mrs. Chus’ house or Mrs. Chus’s house

With compounds or names consisting of several words, the last word takes the ’s: his older brother’s (terrarium)(49).

IMPORTANT 1. The article before the person or thing possessed disappears: the water of the dog= The dog’s water 2. Proper names can never be preceded by the article: the attempts of Helium= Helium’s attempts (the Helium’s attempts) USE: -The possessive ’s is mostly used in the following cases. In some circumstances, the of construction is also possible.: People Helium’s attempts (48) Marta’s plan (54) Lía’s head (72)

Seasons a winter's day Also, a winter/summer day.

Countries, cities, shops, house The newsagent’s (42) The second noun (shop) is not necessary. At Marta’s (house)

Animals and nature The dog’s water (100) The of construction is also possible

Time expressions Today’s trip/menu A two hours’ delay. Also, a two-hour delay (the first noun in singular)

Other expressions where ‘s is used: Money+worth: €1’s worth of tea; For+noun+sake: For heaven’s sake Also: a stone’s throw, journey’s end


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-’s or of

Ships and vehicles The plane’s wings It’s more common to use the of construction : The windscreen of her mum’s car (20)

Organizations The government’s programme or the programme of the government

Of: It’s used mainly in two cases: Inanimate possessors, except (see the ’s section)* (1) The name of the file=the file name (17)

The possessor noun is followed by a phrase or clause: the wallet of the man we met at the newsagent’s

It’s often possible to use the construction noun + noun changing the order of the nouns: the file name. The first noun becomes a sort of adjective and is not made plural. An old hoof oil tin (24) Un viejo bote de aceite para los cascos. IMPORTANT: this combination is not always possible so, when in doubt, use the “of” construction. It’s important to note that there is a tendency to overuse the ’s construction in situations against the general norm and you’ll see frequently see examples of this in everyday use.


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69

Summary Uses of ’s 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 ’s or of 1 2 Uses of of 1 2


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Chapter 10

Exercises

1. Transform the following sentences using ’s/’/of:

1. The terrarium belonged to his older brother. It was……………………………………………………… 2. The weather in Galicia is quite changeable. Galicia…………………………………………………… 3. My friend has some tweezers that are very useful to pick up sequins. My friend…………………………………………………… 4. His garage has a door that needs to be fixed. The……………………………………………………………… 5. The car belongs to my neighbours. It’s very fast My…………………………………………………………. !" Mistakes to correct


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71

2. Translate the following sentences paying special attention to the use of ’s or of 1. Los intentos del director para ayudarlos fueron inútiles. La rueda del coche estaba totalmente pinchada. 2. Ya he terminado de estudiar el examen de mañana. Habrá otro dentro de dos semanas. 3. Estuvo fregando la jarra durante horas. Era de su jefe y no quería que la despidiesen. 4. Voy a comprar unas pinzas a la droguería. 5. Los hoteles de Nueva York son muy vanguardistas, con aparatos de última generación. 6. La dueña del perro es peor que él. Si el perro enseña los dientes, no le riñe. Yo no los admitiría en el hotel. 7. Es un viaje de 9 horas. Llévate unas nueces y unas manzanas. 8. La pantalla del ordenador está rota. Intentaré arreglarla. 9. Era una habitación muy particular. Tenía una colcha de lentejuelas y las patas de la estantería imitaban cabezas de gato. 10. Las vacaciones de mis padres fueron inolvidables y consiguieron traer la maleta perdida de Janet.


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Notes


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73

Chapter 11: Demonstratives: this, that, these those “Hey, try these delicious pieces of toast. Look at those jams... Mmm” (55) As in Spanish, the demonstratives in English can be of two types: pronouns or adjectives. Their form is the same in both cases. Although in Spanish we have more forms than English for demonstratives (so we should not have a problem to use them) it’s very common to overuse this and that when these and those are required. This: este, esta, esto

That: ese, esa, eso, aquel, aquella, aquello Those: esos, esas, aquellos, aquellas

These: estos, estas

Their use is basically the same as in Spanish both as adjective and pronoun. This was largely because it was the first time she had seen her mum so happy since her dad had gone. And that had been almost three years ago. (54) “Hey, try these delicious pieces of toast. Look at those jams... Mmm”. (55) On this occasion,…(57) However, there are situations in which English uses a demonstrative and we don’t: That: 1. To talk about something that both interlocutors share: You know that (56): Lo sabes de sobra; I’ve also tried that: también he probado (87) It had to be far more complicated than that (57): Era mucho más complejo. 2. Expressions: Like that: así (de esa manera) 3. On the phone: Is that Lía? No this is Marta This: 1. On the phone: Is that Lía? No this is Marta 2. Introductions: This is Helium 3. Expressions: like this: así (de esta manera)


74

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Summary Singular This

Plural

That Uses of this

Uses of that


CONTRASTIVE GRAMMAR IN CONTEXT

75

Chapter 11

Exercises

1. Complete the following sentences: 1.1. ...............mill over there was built in 1930 1.2. Here it’s! …………………is my favoutite book. I’ve read it more than five times. 1.3.

A: Look! .....................day-trippers at the mouth of the river are

completely drenched. B: .............'s right! They'll have to go back to the hotel and change their clothes. 1.4. A: Hello! Is...........Sylvia? B: No, ..............is Anne. Sylvia is not here. Do you want to leave a message? 1.5. ....................breadrolls are delicious. I've already eaten three! 1.6. They told us we can't camp beside the sea. It's forbidden. You know............... 1.7. Look at my finger. .................is my favourite ring. 1.8. Good afternoon. .............is Louis, my boyfriend. !" Mistakes to correct


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2. Translate the following texts: 2.1. Por favor, pon esas gominolas en este tarro 2.2. A: Hola. Soy Patricia. ¿Eres Marcos? B: No, soy Andrés. Marcos está de viaje y no estará aquí esta semana. 2.3. Cálmese por favor, Mr. Murdok. Ya he convencido a esos excursionistas. Estos itinerarios son muy interesantes. Lo sabe de sobra. 2.4. Durante el desayuno los propietarios del hotel dijeron que estaban deseando ir a ver las aves en la desembocadura del río. 2.5. Por favor, trae esas bandejas repletas de panecillos. 2.6. Te presento a Lisa. Estas mermeladas las hizo ella.


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Notes


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Chapter 12: all/whole/each/every/everything/everybody/everyone He toiled for hours until finally everything became clear on his screen (59) These words are frequently confused by Spanish speakers, as we use todo/a/os/as in most situations. The common feature between all and every is that they always need some sort of complement (nouns, prepositions, etc.) so the construction all/every + verb is not possible. Although their meaning is similar, there is a difference between them: -All refers to the group as a whole= todos como grupo -Every refers to each and every member of the group= cada uno de ellos In English we use every and all in the following situations: Every is always used with a singular noun form and therefore with a singular verb form. No article is used. The same is true for everything (for things) and everybody/everyone (for people). Every time: cada vez (59) Everything but flesh. De todo menos chicha (59) Everything became clear on his screen (59) (past). Everything becomes clear (present) Helium created a web page advertising your pots and, as you can see, everyone wants one (96). Todo el mundo o la gente is translated as everybody or everyone (not all) Emphasis: Every is sometimes used with single: They could process in every single language=Procesaban en todos los idiomas (80) When the meaning is “cada” both every and each can be used: Each fluffball had a viral clone circulating on the web (59). Cada pelusa tenía su clon en forma de virus pululando por la web. Every fluffball would also be possible. But, every refers to more than 3 things or people. Each refers to 2 or more things.


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She was wearing a bracelet on each arm (not every) All can be used with singular and plural nouns, articles, demonstratives, pronouns, etc. All the while: todo el tiempo (58) All their little arms (24) As we can see in the previous example, all can be used with singular and plural nouns. The verb form is plural. All the public buildings, parks and streets were controlled by state-ofthe-art programmed computers (8) *In Spanish in "todo tipo de cosas", tipo is singular but in English it's plural: all types/kinds/sorts of things. Most of the times, both forms are possible although some changes are required: He closed all the windows: Cerró todas las ventanas (51)= He closed every window Emphasis: all is used with some expressions. All around, all alone, all right… All and whole Sometimes we can use whole instead of all, but it’s important to note that its construction is different: All the group: the whole group With uncountable nouns, we generally use all. He drank all the coffee With the indeterminate article (a) we use whole She lived there for a whole year Time All day/ every day Every day: Todos los días (when it’s an adjective, meaning “normal, ordinary”, everyday is written together: He intently pored over his notes. It was his everyday routine). Every morning/Winter, Monday… All day: todo el día All evening/Spring/ Monday… Place Everywhere: Por todas partes.


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Summary Form and meaning Every Everything Everybody Everyone Every and each All Whole Every day/everyday/all day Everywhere


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81

Chapter 12

exercises

1. Choose the right answer: 1. ………………………….was admiring the masterpieces A. Every body B. All C. All the people D. Everybody 2. They get up at 8.00…………………….. A. Every day B. Every days C. Everydays D. All day 3. A plane takes off……………………half an hour A. Each B. Every C. All D. Whole 4. We have been reading…………………………..evening . Let’s have something to eat! A. Every B. All C. Each D. Whole 5. ……………………………….looked delicious. I’ll try the chocolate cupcakes. A. Everything B. All C. Every thing D. whole 6. It’s a beautiful city. You can find magnificent monuments…………………. A. In all parts B. Everywhere C. For all parts D. Every where


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7. We’ve read…………………….her books A. All B. Every C. Each D. Whole 8. She was carrying a suitcase in………………………hand A. Every B. Each C. All D. Whole 9. She stayed at the hotel for a……………………….week A. All B. Each C. Whole D. Every 10. …………………….the students passed the exam. A. All B. Every C. Whole D. Each 11. A. B. C. D. 12. A. B. C. D.

!"

……………………..computer includes a keyboard All Each Every Everything ………………………..is here. We can leave in 5 minutes All Everyone The whole Every body

Mistakes to correct


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83

2. Translation Todos levantaron las manos cuando el guía preguntó si querían visitar todos los monumentos. -“Cada museo tiene un sistema electrónico para entrar. Les daré dos tarjetas con microchip para los que visitaremos hoy. Lleven una en cada mano. Por favor, síganme.”- dijo el guía. Todas las salas estaban llenas de obras de arte. Había cuadros y estatuas por todas partes. Estuvieron allí toda la mañana. Cuando iban a salir, el guía se dio cuenta de que faltaba un turista. Lo buscaron por todas partes pero cada vez estaban más preocupados. Estudió con gran concentración los planos del edificio y después de un minucioso análisis, todo se aclaró en su mente y corrió hacia la salida. -“Creo que ha salido por la puerta de la tienda de regalos”- exclamó. Todo el grupo lo siguió y fuera, en el jardín, vieron al desaparecido miembro del grupo realizando sus ejercicios de Tai-Chi de cada día mirando extasiado al estuario.


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Notes


CONTRASTIVE GRAMMAR IN CONTEXT

85

Chapter 13: Word order 1 The guide was still talking but Lía had momentarily stopped listening to him (p. 63) English word order is far less flexible than Spanish so it’s important to take into account the following rules: The normal Word order in English is as follows: Subject + verb + object + adverbial (manner + place + time) Frequently time expressions are placed at the beginning of the sentence, when we want to show a contrast with a previous reference to time. (Time) + subject + verb + object + place + (time)

Adverbs can be put in three different positions: 1.Initial position Time, as we have just mentioned, can be in initial position. Linking adverbs, which join a clause to what was said before, always come here. Comment and viewpoint adverbs (luckily…) can also come here when we want to emphasize what we are about to say: Luckily, Lía had read that Newfoundlands could dive down to 7 metres (63-64) 2. Mid position (directly before or after the main verb). -Before most verbs: Tagomago instantly froze, (63). -After the verb to be: -In the middle: two word verbs: have…; can….; will…..; would… The colony would soon be decimated by more immediate means (63) This happens with adverbs of indefinite frequency (always, never, often…) and adverbs of certainty and degree (probably, obviously, clearly, completely, quite, almost) and other words such as also, just, already, still, all, both: The rest were all following the guide’s speech so intently…(63) Concrete had always been a favourite in the town (9)


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She began to copy her notes into a little notebook she always carried around to sketch the odd things she found or saw (20) 3. End position Adverbs of manner (to emphasize how something is done: quickly, slowly), adverbs of place and time and definite frequency (last week, every year) The colony would soon be decimated by more immediate means unless she acted quickly (63) Remember that when more than one of this type of adverb is used, the order is normally: manner, place, time Direct/Indirect object: When we have two objects, direct and indirect, there are several possibilities: 1. Subject + verb+ indirect object+ direct object + rest of the sentence 2. Subject + verb+ direct object+ to+ indirect object + rest of the sentence: this happens when the direct object is formed with the preposition “to”. Marta put her arms around Lía (64) The fluffball smiled, pulled out some strawberry-flavoured gum from one of its folds and gave it to him (60) Negative Sentences: The negative particle goes after the verb “to be”, modals and the first part of the verb in two or more word verbs or auxiliary (do/does/did) when required. There doesn’t seem to be any easy solution. They won’t be able to move the factory from its current location. (65) Interrogative sentences: (Interrogative adverbial) + Verb to be, modal, first part of the verb in two or more word verbs or auxiliary (do/does/did) when required + subject + rest of the verb “Did you like it?” (64) (adverb) + adjective + noun: Adjectives are always placed before nouns.


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87

When adverbs modify adjectives, they are placed immediately before them: I don’t think attracting their attention should be too difficult. (70) An exception to this rule is enough which is placed after the adjective or adverb that it modifies: Whole files are being erased, and curiously enough, when several computers have the same data, it’s disappearing simultaneously (17) Adjective order: In English, it is common to use more than one adjective before a noun. In Spanish when this happens it's necessary to use a comma, conjunction or place the adjectives before and after the verb: Vío a un hermoso, joven y pequeño defín/ vío a un pequeño y hermoso delfín joven: She saw a beautiful little young dolphin. When we use more than one adjective, it's necessary to put them in the right order, according to type. The required order is as follows: 1. Opinion: (what you think about something): beautiful, easy, intelligent 2. Size: (how big or small something is): little, large, huge 3. Age: (how young or old something is): young, old, new 4. Shape: (the shape of something): round, flat, square 5. Colour: (the colour of something): blue, greenish, white 6. Origin: (where something comes from): northern, Spanish, Japanese 7. Material: (what something is made of): leather, cotton, wooden 8. Purpose: (what something is used for: -ing forms or nouns used as adjectives): sleeping, travel, frying


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Summary Normal word order Position of adverbs

1.Initial position

2.Mid position

3.End position

Direct/indirect object

1. 2.

Negative sentences Interrogative sentences Adverb+adjective Adjective order


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89

Chapter 13

Exercises

1. Rewrite the following sentences and put them into the right order: 1. Pollution in recent years has been a threat serious. 2. He spotted yesterday at the mouth of the river a dolphin very big. 3. Whenever he has a weekend free, he goes to the seaside. 4. He said that he read already that book. 5. Always I go to the cinema on Saturdays. 6. He gave me this morning your message. 7. The guide was talking still but the tourists stopped listening to him. 8. The tourists all were following so intently the guide's speech that only my sister noticed the new member of the group.

!" Mistakes to correct


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2. Translate the following text: Me encontré esta mañana a Nuria y me dijo que desde que trabaja en el puerto, siempre está cansada. Se levanta por las mañanas a las 6.00 y tiene que estar en el club náutico para recibir a los viajeros a las 7.00. Menos mal que no está lejos de su casa. Es el gran edificio rojo de madera al lado del Hotel Marlot. Tiene que llevarlos luego a una visita guiada por la ciudad y parar para comer en el nuevo restaurante italiano. Si llueve, por la tarde van generalmente de compras o a la ruta de los museos. Si hace buen tiempo, visitan algún parque natural y por la noche siempre van a cenar al restaurante de lujo de Mr. Parker.


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91

Notes


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Chapter 14: Word order 2: Inversion Not only did they have to stop the fluffballs, they’d also have to do it without anyone finding out (p. 70-71) In the previous chapter, we went through the normal English Word order in afirmative, negative and interrogative sentences but there are situations in which there is a change in the normal word order of the sentence by putting part (first auxiliary or do/does, did) or all of the verb group in front of the subject. This happens when we want to change the normal word order, mainly for emphasis, and start the sentence by an element that is not normally placed in that position. Although it happens under several circumstances, it’s very common with negative adverbials when we want to underline their importance: We can see some examples in Chapter 14: “Not only do they devour information”, added Lía. “They also eat all sorts of rubbish. -No sólo devoran información, añadió Lía. Comen todo tipo de porquerías. (68-69) Not only did they have to stop the fluffballs, they’d also have to do it without anyone finding out. No sólo había que detener a las pelusas sino que había que hacerlo sin que nadie se enterase. (70-71) It’s very important that we are familiar with this sort of changes, especially from a receptive point of view, because otherwise, it can cause serious problems of misunderstandings. Another common change takes place when we want to say "también" and "tampoco", linking our response to the previous sentence. So+ aux + subject= También “When we get back, he’s going straight into the shower”... “And so are we”, she laughed (64).


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93

Neither +aux + subject: Tampoco -“I haven’t finished the book yet”. –“Neither have I”. -“Helium didn’t go sailing last week-end”. –“Neither did the bun sisters.” The same happens with question tags, which ask a question or request confirmation about the provided information. -Affirmative sentence: auxiliary of the same tense as the main verb in the negative + pronoun of the subject of the sentence: Marta has just moved to Sicily, hasn't she? You gave Miky and Bony their treats, didn’t you? -Negative sentence: auxiliary of the same tense as the main verb (affirmative) + pronoun of the subject of the sentence: That dog isn't travelling with us, is he? You'll give him your old boots, won't you? Remember that the whole sentence is spoken with falling intonation when the speaker is requesting confirmation. Rising entonation at the end means the speaker is asking a question. 1. That dog was travelling with them, wasn’t he? (rising): You’re not sure if he was or not 2. That dog was travelling with them, wasn’t he? (falling): You know he was, but you’re asking for confirmation.


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Summary Negative adverbials

TambiĂŠn

Tampoco

Question Tags


CONTRASTIVE GRAMMAR IN CONTEXT

95

Chapter 14

Exercises

1. Complete the following sentences: 1. That seafood tavern seems like a tourist trap,.......................? 2. A: I've just bought a Persian velvet carpet. B: ...................... (really) 3. A: Marcos went to Venice and was so overwhelmed by its beauty that he decided to stay there for a year. B: ........................(really) 4. Never in my life (I had seen)...............such an amazing landscape. 5. Not only (they grab) the mop backet, but they threw it through the window. 6.

Anthony

will

come

back

to

Spain

when

he

finishes

his

studies,......................? 7. She was the most elegant guest at the party,......................? 8. A: I'm afraid I broke my mother's Greek vase. B: ......................(really) !" Mistakes to correct


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2. Translate the following dialogue: A: -Hola Marta. Estás agobiada por ese proyecto ¿verdad? B: -Hola Bruno. La verdad es que sí. Tengo que redactar 30 páginas para mañana. A: -¿En serio? (you) B: -Si. Y necesito un diccionario de ruso. Tu no tienes ¿verdad? A:-Me temo que no pero puedes mirarlo en internet ¿no? B: Ahora mismo no hay conexión pero tu te acabas de comprar un ipad con 3G ¿no? ¿Podrías comprobar cómo se dice golosina y bandeja en ruso? A: -Si! Incluyen también un traductor. B:-¿En serio? (they) Muchas gracias.


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97

Notes


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CONTRASTIVE GRAMMAR IN CONTEXT

Chapter 15: Like/as How/what's.....like? As the press had stated, the outbreak had begun in Faramont (72). They fell on it like a pack of hyenas (70) Like and as can be a problem for Spanish speakers as both of them are translated into Spanish as “como”. As can be a preposition and a conjunction whilst like is always a preposition. The easiest way to know when to use like and as is the following: 1. -Use as when the clause that comes next includes a verb: As the press had stated, the outbreak had begun in Faramont (72) Como destacaba la prensa, el brote había comenzado en Faramont. Tagomago was delighted to follow him, tired as he was of so much concrete (75) Tagomago lo siguió encantado, cansado como estaba de tanto cemento. However it’s important to take into account that, in informal English, like is often used instead of as. This is not acceptable in formal written English: “Like my dad said, it’s much better for their digestion” (87) “Como dijo mi padre…”(informal conversation) 2.-Use like when no verb follows, but a noun or a pronoun and the meaning implies a comparison (similar to, the same as): They fell on it like a pack of hyenas (70) Se lanzaron como fieras It’s like a magnet for them (70) Es como un imán para ellas 3.-Use the preposition as when we want to say "como" (no comparison implied), or "en calidad de ". Also, when we refer to something or someone's appearance or function. -What had started out as a strange technical hiccough at local level (26). Lo que inicialmente había comenzado como un extraño problema técnico local. -They set sail with the dog acting as figurehead (57). Zarparon con el perro como mascarón de proa. -We also use it for jobs: Don Enrique worked as a teacher.


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4. Other uses of as: 4. 1. Certain expressions: -Wind -just as Lía had hoped- (75) Wind –tal y como Lía esperaba-. -Wind, as if spellbound,… (75). Wind, como abducido… -As soon as (73) Tan pronto como 4.2. Comparisons (see chapter 20) -In the same street as her grandparents (44). En misma calle que sus abuelos -as fresh and fit as at the start (48) tan en forma como al principio -As good as new (49) como nuevo. 5. How/What's ......like? When "cómo" is an interrogative adverbial, direct or indirect, we use how (in the sense of in which way): I have news about problem number two: how to catch them. Tengo nuevos datos sobre el segundo: cómo capturarlas (85) How are we going to get the ones in houses and public places into the water without being seen? ¿Cómo hacemos para conseguir que las que están en las casas y lugares púbicos se metan en el agua sin ser detectadas? (87) But if we want to ask about the appearance of something or someone , we use what's .....like?


100 CONTRASTIVE GRAMMAR IN CONTEXT

Summary

like

as


CONTRASTIVE GRAMMAR IN CONTEXT

101

Chapter 15

Exercises

1. As or like? 1) My sister Sylvie runs ______ the wind. 2) She has won a lot of prizes ______ you can see on the web. 3) She is just ______ our aunt Mauren, our father’s sister, who participated in the Olympic Games in Barcelona in 1992. 4) Our father was also in Barcelona that year but_________a journalist. 5) He was in the same hotel ________his sister. 6) He said that each room was as big ___________ our whole house 7) She used one of the bedrooms ______ a private gym. 8) She said she hopes to work ______ a physical education teacher when she retires. 9) Everybody looked at her _________if she had gone crazy. She’s just 18! 10)

-On top of that, she’s very attractive. As soon ________she

arrives at the track, everybody looks at her. 11)

-What’s she____________?

12)

She looks _________ Scarlett Johansson.

13)

My sister is not at all ______ me. I’m very lazy! She always

tells me I should do more exercise. 14)

I'm your friend and, ______ a friend, I advise you to follow her

recommendations. 15)

But I've done everything she told me,______ we agreed!


102 CONTRASTIVE GRAMMAR IN CONTEXT 2. Translate the following sentences into English: El mes pasado fueron a visitar a su tío Ernesto que trabaja de portero en la estación Victoria. Tal y como esperaban, los saludó con entusiasmo: -"Mónica, eres exactamente como tu madre y tan alta como ella". Tan pronto llegaron a la enorme casa de hormigón, Moss, un Husky siberiano que era como un lobo, se acercó a toda velocidad y se coló en la casa. -"Como sabéis, este perro es tan escurridizo como una anguila. Miradlo, sentado en el sofá como si fuera el dueño". -“Y ¿cómo vamos a hacer que se baje? rieron los chicos. “Parece un rey”.


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103

Notes


104 CONTRASTIVE GRAMMAR IN CONTEXT

Chapter 16: Prepositions She heard a dim barking coming from below the stairs and made her way down (78) English prepositions present quite a lot of problems, as their form and use is very different from Spanish. Prepositions are used to express time, position, movement etc. but also to express new meanings by combining prepositions and verbs (phrasal verbs). We saw the most common prepositions (in, at, on) in chapters 2 and 3. Here you get a summary of the rest:

Place and movement English •

by, next to, beside

under

below

over

Usage •

The fluffball is standing by / next to / beside the car.

on the ground, lower than (or covered by) something else

the backpack is under the table

lower than something else but above ground

the fish are below the surface

covered by something else meaning more than getting to the other side (also across) overcoming an obstacle

• • • •

put a cardigan over your T-shirt over 21 years of age walk over the bridge climb over the wall

higher than something else, but not directly over it

a path above the lake

getting to the other side (also over) getting to the other side

• •

walk across the bridge swim across the lake

something with limits on top, bottom and the sides

drive through the tunnel

movement to person or building movement to a place or country for bed

• • •

go to the theatre go to Viena / Germany go to bed

enter a room / a building

go into the bathroom / the house

movement in the direction of something (but not directly to it)

go 10 steps towards the house

jump onto the table

a flower from the garden a letter from Helium

left or right of somebody or something

• • •

above

across

• • •

through

to

• •

Example

into

towards

onto

movement to the top of something

from

in the sense of where from or who sent it.


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105

Time English

Usage

Example

since

from a certain point of time (past till now)

since 1992

for

over a certain period of time (past till now)

for 3 years

ago

a certain time in the past

3 years ago

before

earlier than a certain point of time

before 2014

to

telling the time

ten to six (5:50)

past

telling the time

ten past six (6:10)

to / till / until

marking the beginning and end of a period of time

from Monday to/till Friday

till / until

in the sense of how long something is going to last

He is on holiday until Friday.

• •

by

in the sense of at the latest up to a certain time

• •

I will be back by 3 o’clock. By 10 o'clock, I had read five pages.

• Other prepositions English •

Usage

Example

of

• •

part of something what does it show

• •

a page of the book the picture of a dolphin

by

• • •

who made it rise or fall of something travelling (other than walking or horseriding

• • •

a book by Murakami prices have risen by 15 percent by car, by bus

off

leaving a public transport vehicle

get off the train

out of

leaving a car / Taxi

get out of the taxi

about

for topics, meaning what about

we were talking about you

Important: Take into account that although in Spanish we say detrás de (behind), debajo de (under, below) cerca de (near), etc. in English the equivalent prepositions NEVER INCLUDE THE PREPOSITION “OF”. This is a common mistake you must avoid: it’s near the campus. Not near of the campus.


106 CONTRASTIVE GRAMMAR IN CONTEXT

Summary Write here the prepositions that you find more confusing indicating their meaning. Preposition

Meaning


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Chapter 16

Exercises

Take a look at these examples from chapter 16: a. Underline/highlight the prepositions b. Translate the phrases where the preposition is included: 1. She heard a dim barking coming from below the stairs and made her way down. Ex. Come from: proceder de; below the stairs: bajo las escaleras; made her way down: bajó 2. She found the two dogs barking furiously at a door on the landing. 3. Lía typed in Enriqueta’s name but nothing happened. 4. She tried again with her sister’s, but no luck. 5. She had no idea which letters could make up the combination. 6. She was about to reply and go back up when she remembered something she’d heard about her work in cloning. 7. She pushed open the door and searched for the light switch. 8. Thousands of stiff, motionless fluffballs with blank stares were laid out on several marble tables. 9. “They must be sedated”, she thought, bearing in mind their usual effervescent state. 10. She was just about to quickly slip out when she came face-to-face with the sisters. 11. She was desperately thinking of what to say when Mrs. Chus beat her to it. 12. “Enriqueta, what is the meaning of all this? 13. Don’t tell me you’re behind this whole mystery. 14. “I never meant for them to destroy the data”. 15. All I wanted was to create beings with access to both realities, absorbing information from the net at a rate of more than 10 megas. 16. And without the slightest effort. 17. They could process in every single language. 18. The two sisters were suddenly aware of Lía’s presence. 19. you’re not going to understand what’s going on 20. What’s going to happen to those over there which seem to be in a trance? 21. And the ones that are roaming around?


108 CONTRASTIVE GRAMMAR IN CONTEXT

22. We’ll get rid of those straight away, won’t we, Enriqueta? 23. As for the rest... we’ll have to think of something”, she said staring 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30.

at her sister. “One secret for another. I’ll keep yours if you leave it up to me to get them under control”. She briefly outlined what she’d found out to date. The sisters were astonished by what they heard, and agreed. They’re sprayed with lime blossom tea every eight hours. “It sure does”, agreed Lía, taking in the fluffballs’ zombielike stares. One or two had started to gently rock back and forth. “Well,” she concluded “keep them in that state until I find a solution. I’ll be back in a couple of hours”.

!" Mistakes to correct


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Notes


110 CONTRASTIVE GRAMMAR IN CONTEXT

Chapter 17: A little, a few. Little, few A few that fell out of the bucket (86) The expressions a little and a few mean some. In Spanish algún/a, algunos/as, un poco de, unos/as pocos/as, unos cuantos/as We use one or the other depending on the number : 1. -If a noun is in the plural (countable nouns), we use a few. It’s also used as a pronoun (unos/as pocos/as) Example: A few that fell out of the bucket. Unas pocas que se me cayeron del cubo (86) 2. -If a noun is in the singular (uncountable nouns), we use a little . It’s also used as a pronoun (un poco). Example: Once you get to know and tame them a little, they’re really quite friendly. Cuando las conoces y las domas un poco, resultan ser muy majas (70). It's possible to combine them with quite to mean bastante/s: There were quite a few ...

A Little / A few or Little / Few There is a difference if you use a little / a few or little / few. Without the article, the words have a limiting or negative meaning. •

A little = some Little = hardly any

Example: It was sleeping peacefully, stretching a little from time to time while making a kind of purring noise (68) (un poco) There is a little bread and a few sausages. Great! I’m starving. There is little bread. I’ll go the bakery to get some more. •

A few = some Few= hardly any


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Example: In the space of a few days, the newspapers were triumphantly reporting that the outbreak had been reined in (98) (unos cuantos dĂ­as) It was still early and few people were out in the streets (42) (poca gente) Very few of their young have survived these last days (62-63) (muy pocos) Without the article, little / few sound rather formal. In informal conversations, a negative sentence with much/many is more common. Example: They needed very little food. = They did not need much food. Few dolphins survived. = Not many dolphins survived


112 CONTRASTIVE GRAMMAR IN CONTEXT

Summary

a little

a few

little

few


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Chapter 17

Exercises

1. Complete the following sentences with few/a few/little/a little: 1.1. There is very...............orange juice. Get a new bottle, please. 1.2. There is still..................orange juice left. Help yourself. 1.3. A: I can't go jogging with you. I have to make more earthenware pots. There are very....................in the workshop. 1.4. B: Don't worry. You can join us. I've seen ..................in the garage. You can make the rest tomorrow. 1.5. There is very.................. water in the fish tank. I need more to put the fish in. 1.6. I can manage! There is....................water in the fish tank. It's enough to put the new fish in. !" Mistakes to correct


114 CONTRASTIVE GRAMMAR IN CONTEXT 2. Translate the following text.

Queremos quejarnos por lo sucedido en la tienda de cerámica y productos ecológicos que está en la zona comercial del hotel. Les pedimos unas pocas vasijas de barro y aceite mediterráneo ecológico, solo una pequeña cantidad sería suficiente, para llevarnos a casa como souvenir. Nos dijo que le quedaban pocas vasijas y muy poco aceite. Sólo lo que podíamos ver en el escaparate y no quería sacarlos de allí porque quedaban muy bonitos. Nos quedamos atónitos y furiosos.


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Notes


116 CONTRASTIVE GRAMMAR IN CONTEXT

Chapter 18: modals We can sell sets of vessels with dyed water so they can camouflage themselves (88) Modals can cause a lot of confusion to Spanish speakers. Here you can see a summary of their main uses. IMPORTANT: Don’t forget that modals (except ought to and have to) are followed by the verb without to: We can sell vessels. Not we can to sell vessels (88) and –s is not added in the 3rdp sg, except with have to/has to

can We can sell sets of vessels with dyed water so they can camouflage themselves (88) My mum can keep on making pottery (89) Uses: (1) ability/possibility (2) informal permission (3) informal polite request (4) impossibility (negative only) Present/Future: (1) I can sell anything you wish. (2) You can use my van tomorrow. (3) Can I borrow your leather jacket? (4) That can't be true! Past: (1)--(I could sell anything before the crisis but nowadays I can’t) (2)--(3)-- (4) That can’t have been true! could We could offer them online (88) Could you please take care of the vessel web page? (90) Uses: (1) past ability (2) polite request (3) suggestion (4) less than 50% certainty (5) impossibility (negative only) Present/Future: (1) -- (2) Could I borrow your leather jacket? Could you help me?. (3) --I need help in History. You could talk to your teacher. (4) --Where's Helium? He could be at the library. (5) That couldn't be true! Past: (1) I could run fast when I was a child. (2) -- (3) You could have talked to your teacher. (4) He could have been at home. (5) That couldn't have been true!


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May While not every one may like dogs, even the toughest heart was won over by the desperate, imploring faces of both dog and owner (56-57) Uses: (1) polite request (2) formal permission (3) less than 50% certainty Present/Future: (1) May I borrow your leather jacket? (2) You may leave the room. (3) --Where's Helium? He may be at the library. Past: (1) -- (2) -- (3) He may have been at the library.

Might It might be a good idea to repeat the strategy we used before: a trap (69-70) Uses: (1) less than 50% certainty (2) polite request (rare) Present/Future: --Where's Helium? He might be at the library. (2) Might I borrow your leather jacket? Past: (1) He might have been at the library. (2) -Should How much should I charge? (90) Uses: (1) advisability (2) 90% certainty Present/Future: (1) I should study tonight. (2) She should do well on the test. (future only, not present) Past: (1) I should have studied last night. (2) She should have done well on the test. Ought to Uses: (1) advisability (2) 90% certainty Present/Future: (1) I ought to study tonight. (2) She ought to do well on the test. (future only, not present) Past: (1) I ought to have studied last night. (2) She ought to have done well on the test. Must They must have wandered into the house (76) Uses: (1) strong necessity (2) prohibition (negative) (3) 95% certainty Present/Future: (1) I must go to class today. (2) You must not open that drawer. (3) LĂ­a isn't in class. She must be working. (present only) Past: (1)-- (I had to go to class yesterday). (2) -- (3) LĂ­a must have been working yesterday.


118 CONTRASTIVE GRAMMAR IN CONTEXT Have to/has to they’d have to move into a smaller flat (93) Uses: (1) necessity (2) lack of necessity (negative) Present/Future: (1) I have to go to class today. (2) I don't have to go to class today. Past: (1) I had to go to class yesterday. (2) I didn't have to go to class yesterday. Will They’ll be excellent recyclers for streams, rivers and seas (89-90) It won’t be necessary (89) Uses: (1) 100% certainty (2) willingness (3) polite request Present/Future: (1) He will be here at 6:00. (2) --The phone's ringing. I'll get it. (3) Will you please pass the water? Past: (1) -- (2) -- (3) -Would He would continue living placidly in the ocean (89) Uses: (1) polite request (2) preference (3) repeated action in the past Present/Future: (1) Would you please pass the water? Would you mind if I left early? (2) I would rather go to the zoo than stay home. (3) -Past: (1) -- (2) I would rather have gone to the zoo. (3) When I was a child, I would go to ther cinema every weekend. Shall Uses: (1) polite question to make a suggestion (2) future with "I" or "we" as subject Present/Future: (1) Shall I open the window? (2) I shall arrive at five. (will = more common). Past: (1) -- (2) --


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Summary Tenses Present/Future

Past

+pp

Uses Ability/possibility

Past ability

Impossibility (negative)

Prohibition (negative)

Informal permission

Formal permission

Informal polite request

Polite request

Suggestion

Polite question to make a suggestion

Willingness

Advisability


120 CONTRASTIVE GRAMMAR IN CONTEXT Less than 50% certainty

90% certainty

Necessity

Strong necessity

100% certainty

Lack of necessity

Repeated action in the past

95%certainty

Preference


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Chapter 18

Exercises

1. Choose the right answer: 1. How ______ you have left the sink in such a mess ? A. couldn't B. might C. could D. will 2. Helium ______ be a bit weird but he is certainly not stupid. A. needn't B. mustn't C. should D. may 3. He ______ speak Swedish, Dutch and Japanese. A. Can B. May C. Should D. Shouldn't 4. I think we are lost. Your friend ______ have given us the wrong directions A. Must B. Should C. Would D. Will 5. You ______ be serious about swimming outdoors in winter. A. Would B. Can't C. Could D. Might


122 CONTRASTIVE GRAMMAR IN CONTEXT

6. Most plants ______ have sunlight to survive. A. Can B. May C. Must D. Will 7. Since our backpacks are identical you ______ have taken mine by mistake. A. May B. Will C. Shall D. Could 8. We ______ protect streams, rivers and seas. A. B. C. D.

May Ought to Mustn’t Shouldn’t

9. ______ you excuse me for a moment ? A. Should B. Would C. Must D. Needn’t 10. Lía ______ stay up late if she takes a nap now. A. B. C. D.

Musn’t Shouldn’t Can Used to

11. When he was 18, he__________play basketball everyday A. B. C. D.

must can would shall


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12.Your mobile phone is ringing. Don’t worry. I__________get it A. B. C. D.

should will could must

13. A. B. C. D.

You look cold. ____________I turn on the heating?

must shall needn’t ought to

14. -Where is your dog? -I have no idea. He ____________be sleeping on the sofa A. will B. might C. has to D. would

!" Mistakes to correct


124 CONTRASTIVE GRAMMAR IN CONTEXT 2. Translate the following dialogue: Ernest:- No consigo encontrar la cartera. Deben de habérmela robado en la pizzería. No tenemos dinero para el taxi pero podríamos parar un coche y pedir que nos llevasen. Ann:- ¿No crees que deberíamos llamar a la policía? No podemos hacer auto-stop. Está prohibido. Ernest:- Tenía que estar en casa a las 8 y son ya las 9. Mi padre tiene que cerrar hoy la librería del hotel y sale de trabajar más tarde. Ann:- Podríamos vender la segunda pizza del 2x1 en lugar de congelarla. Así tendremos dinero para el taxi. Ernest:- Buena idea. ¿Cuánto debería cobrar? Ann:- Con 6€ nos llega


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Notes


126 CONTRASTIVE GRAMMAR IN CONTEXT

Chapter 19: Other, another, others: otro, otra, otros, otras Lía had organised another of her inter-species games (94) Lía había organizado otro de sus juegos inter-especie.

The correct use of other, another and others is a frequent source of errors for Spanish speakers, as there is a tendency to simplify and use other for singular and others for plural which, as we’ll see, is incorrect. The first thing we must take into account is that although the gender doesn’t change as it happens in Spanish, the number does and in a very different way from its Spanish equivalent: Singular: another (both adjective and pronoun) Adjective: As she approached the workshop she could hear dogs barking and another unidentified commotion (93-94): a medida que se acercaba oyó ladridos de perro y más (otra) algarabía no identificada. She decided to give it another chance (29): decidió darle otra oportunidad Pronombre: Lía had organised another of her inter-species games (94). Lía había organizado otro de sus juegos inter-especie. One secret for another (82). Secreto por secreto=Un secreto por otro

Plural: other (adjective); others (pronoun) Adjective: We're looking for someone with expertise in other areas (69): buscamos a alguien con conocimientos adicionales en otros campos. They're completely inoffensive, even when there are other objects underwater (86) Pronoun: Depending on the good will of others when it came to getting around with the dog had never been a problem in the past (56): depender de otra


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gente (de otros) para la admisión del perro ya había sucedido en otras ocasiones y siempre se había saldado con éxito. Each other Another cause of confusion is the use of the reciprocal se in Spanish, that in English is equivalent to each other. Lía and Río looked at each other perplexedly (24): Lía y Río se miraron preplejos They never spoke to each other (35): No se saludaban They greeted each other enthusiastically (74): Se saludaron muy contentos Helium and Lía glanced at each other and smiled (101): Helio y Lía se miraron y sonrieron. The same happens with the pronouns os and nos when they have a reciprocal meaning. No nos hablamos desde 2005: We haven't spoken to each other since 2005 No os habláis desde 2005: You haven't spoken to each other since 2005


128 CONTRASTIVE GRAMMAR IN CONTEXT

Summary

another

other

others

each other


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Chapter 19

Exercises

1. Complete the following text: 1.1. You should wear some..................shoes. High heels are not the best to go for a walk to the countryside. 1.2. When they finally met after such a long time, they greeted.......................enthusiastically. 1.3. Give me ................cardboard box. This one is not enough. 1.4. These overalls are too dirty, give me some.........................please.

!" Mistakes to correct


130 CONTRASTIVE GRAMMAR IN CONTEXT 1.2 Translate the following text: En la Ribeira Sacra hay otro taller de cerámica que explica a los visitantes cómo se hacen las vasijas y otros recipientes de barro. Puedes ver cómo el ceramista coge un trozo de barro y lo transforma en otro objeto. Nosotros fuimos la semana pasada y nos encontramos con unos amigos. Nos saludamos y empezamos a charlar sobre el taller: -Si la visita la organizasen otros, no tendría tanto éxito, dijo mi amigo. -Estoy de acuerdo, en los otros talleres que estuve había poca gente. Este ceramista explica todo muy bien pero los otros se sientan junto al torno y no dicen nada.


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Notes


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Chapter 20: Comparative and superlative Neither a single expert nor any of the media saw even the weakest link between the pots and the pandemia control (98) Ningun experto ni medio daba la más mínima credibilidad a la posible relación entre las vasijas y el control de la pandemia. The problem with comparison in English for a Spanish speaker lies in the fact that in Spanish más is used both for the comparative and the superlative whilst in English this concept is expressed with different constructions. In English there are two forms to make the comparative and the superlative: Comparative 1. Short adjectives (one syllable): we add -er to the adjective and use than before the second part of the comparison when required: They'd have to move to a smaller flat: tendrían que trasladarse a un piso más pequeño (93). The new flat was smaller than the other: el nuevo piso era más pequeño que el otro Most adjectives are regular, i.e. we just have to add -er, but we have to be careful with the following three irregular forms: 1. Good-better-the best 2. Bad-worse-the worst 3. Far-farther/further-the farthest/the furthest. When the adjective ends in -y, y is transformed into i+er: It was the same stench she had smelt only earlier in the school library (25)

2. Longer adjectives (2/3/4 syllables): more is included before the first part of the comparison and than before the second part. It had to be far more complicated than that: Era mucho más complejo (que eso) (59)


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To indicate that something is "mucho más", we use far more (much more is also correct). It's very important to pay special attention to use than instead of *that (que in Spanish) as this is a very common mistake. Other constructions with more than: That was more than she could handle: Aquello era más de lo que podía controlar (Aquello la superaba) (33) To gain more knowledge than the human brain has ever achieved (80): para obtener más conocimiento de lo que la mente humana ha alcanzado (adquirir conocimientos hasta límites nunca alcanzados por la mente humana)

Superlative 1. Short adjectives (one syllable): the + adjective-est : Neither a single expert nor any of the media saw even the weakest link between the pots and the pandemia control (98) Even the toughest heart was won over: ablandaba hasta al más recalcitrante (57) As we saw above, some superlatives are irregular: The library had been the worst hit: el sitio más afectado había sido la biblioteca (72) Wind is the best dog for the job: Wind es el más adecuado para esta misión. 2. Long adjectives (2/3/4 syllables): the + most+ adjective Important: When we want to express "el más..... de" we use the most ...... in (*no of) The library is the oldest building in the town

the -er/ more the -er/more (see also chapter 1): This expresion is quite difficult for Spanish speakers so we have have to pay a special attention to it:


134 CONTRASTIVE GRAMMAR IN CONTEXT When it comes to water, the dirtier the better: vimos que el agua cuanto más sucia mejor (70) as....as: tan.....como This construction is also a source of trouble for Spanish speakers: The fluffball seemed as fresh and fit as at the start: pelusa parecía estar tan en forma como al principio (la pelusa parecía en plena forma) (48) When there is a negative sentence so.....as can also be found. Expressions: no longer: ya no (101) there was no longer any sign of the fluffballs: ya no quedaba ni rastro de las pelusas (101) a bit longer: un poco más I'm going to keep looking in my room for a bit longer: Voy a buscarla todavía un poco más en mi cuarto (52)


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Summary

Comparative

Superlative

Form 1

Form 1

Form 2

Form 2

Important to remember

Important to remember

Expressions


136 CONTRASTIVE GRAMMAR IN CONTEXT

Chapter 20

Exercises

1. Complete the following sentences: 1. The fees of the campsite were surprisingly cheap. I expected them to be..................... 2. This green tea is very weak. I like it a bit................. 3. They were surprised I arrived there so quickly. They expected the journey to take....................... 4. I was relieved when I saw that the exam was quite easy. I thought it would be........................... 5. There were a lot of people on the train. It was ..............................usual. 6. I got lost in London. Next time, I'll buy a ........................map from the bookshop. 7. The weather in Galicia is quite cold sometimes. I'd like to go on holiday to a .......................place because the warmer the weather.............................(good, feel) 8. You know, the ...........................(expensive, hotel), the better the service. 9. Paris wasn't.......................romantic....................I thought 10. The city is growing fast. It is getting................................... !" Mistakes to correct


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2. Translate the following text: El nuevo hotel es el más lujoso de Galicia y por supuesto, el más grande. Dicen que es casi tan grande como "El Sea Palace" de Madrid, aunque no tan impresionante como el "Sibario" de Barcelona. Está recibiendo cada vez más huéspedes porque todo el mundo piensa lo mismo: cuanto más exclusivo mejor. Un problema es que está más lejos del centro de la ciudad que los otros hoteles de cinco estrellas pero lo han solucionado poniendo a disposición de los huéspedes los autobuses más sofisticados del mercado.


138 CONTRASTIVE GRAMMAR IN CONTEXT

Notes


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Notes


140 CONTRASTIVE GRAMMAR IN CONTEXT

Notes


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Notes


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Notes


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Notes


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Notes


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Notes



Contrastive Grammar in Context