Trellis magazine - Fall 2021

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Pumpkins are indigenous to the western hemisphere and have been grown in North America for five thousand years.

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FA L L 2 0 2 1 • V O L 5 0

See Pumpkin Recipes Page 39


WINNERS Best of Summer in the Garden [6] FROM THE TBG Gordon Ashworth looks to the future [7] EXPANSION What will a future visitor experience be like? [8] LEARN TBG Fall Presentations Online & In Person [11] WEDDINGS ARE BACK [12] VOLUNTEERS They love gardening


LIBRARY Home to more than 10,000 books, periodicals and more [18] STEP BY STEP Saving and Harvesting Seeds [24] SEEDING THE FUTURE GCT plants Red Oak saplings for ravine restoration [26] INDIGENOUS PLANTS, NATIVARS, INVASIVES Definitions vary—so do your research before you buy


HUMMINGBIRDS? Popular little birds bring joy to TBG visitors [34] SEASONAL TIPS Take action now to eradicate garden problems [35] PLANT NOW Supporting cast of early blooming bulbs sets the stage for spring show [36] BOOK SHELF A harvest of useful books for fall reading



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Use versatile pumpkin for more than just making pie [42] STYLE IN THE GARDEN TBG becomes an open-air runway for virtual fashion show [44] PEOPLE, PLACES & PLANTS [47] HOUSEPLANT PROFILE Croton—Ideal for indoors and out [48] CREATIVE IDEAS Bento Box inspiration for back-to-school lunches






“I was inspired by the floral paintings from the Baroque masters which emphasized the importance of dramatic light and shadow.” TORONTOBOTANICALGARDEN.CA


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WINNER Ti-An DeMartines won the category for Summer Images at Toronto Botanical Garden or Edwards Gardens with her early morning photo of a peony. Irene Tome won the category for Summer Images of You/Family or Friends in the

Act of Gardening or Connecting with Nature with her joyful photo of a little girl in a lovely pink dress and a white hat in a garden. They will each receive a one-year TBG household membership plus a $100 gift

certificate to CF Shops at Don Mills. More than 85 images were judged on their originality, technical excellence, composition, overall impact and artistic merit. A gallery of the judges’ favourites will be showcased on the TBG website.




“My three-year-year old daughter twirling in a field of lavender.” TORONTOBOTANICALGARDEN.CA


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FRO M t h e TB G

THE TORONTO BOTANICAL Garden’s annual general meeting held via Zoom in June was a great success with over 300 members in attendance. It included the presentation of the financial reports, answering of questions and the election of a new slate of directors. With retirements from the board there were 11 vacancies to be filled. The Nominations Committee undertook an extensive canvass for new members that might serve on the board. More than 100 applications were received and after an extensive interview process the slate was presented to the membership. The new board includes directors that cover many disciplines needed for the good operation of the board. The number one trait of the new board members is an avid interest in gardening. Please read the bios of the new board on the TBG website for background information. With the election of the new board a new set of board officers will be selected at our first board meeting in the fall. I would like to pay tribute to our outgoing Acting Chair Cynthia Webb, who took over the role of Chair after Gino Scapillati left the board in mid-term. Cynthia has been a tireless member since she joined the board in 2016. In recent years she has been a Vice Chair of the board and Chair of the Development Committee. She also served on the Governance Committee. Cynthia brought her past development experience, coupled with her love of plants,

to the management and direction of the board. A big thank you to Cynthia for the hours she has given to the TBG The new board has two big items on its agenda. First, with the departure of CEO David McIsaac, the board is leading the process for the hiring of a new Executive Director. This will be a detailed search with criteria that includes management skills, communications abilities and a knowledge of what and how a botanical garden operates. Our second item is guiding the process for the expansion of the garden. As was indicated at the annual meeting and in Trellis, PMA has been selected to guide the planning process. PMA is consulting with groups that use the garden and other experts. It is anticipated that a detailed plan based on the consultations and the TBG Master Plan will be presented to the board later this year. The next year at the TBG will be very busy as we come out of the pandemic and resume regular activities whether they be rentals or new education opportunities. The board would like to thank the staff for its dedicated work throughout the pandemic period and encourage our members to come to the garden and participate in our many programs. Happy gardening.


Gordon Ashworth Interim Chair, TBG


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EXPANSION What will a visitor experience look like in the future? By Lorraine Hunter


HE TORONTO BOTANICAL Garden is a hidden gem, deeply beloved—but only to the people who know about it! All that’s about to change as the first phase of the expansion into Edwards Gardens gets underway. Enter Frontier, a communications and purpose design firm and partner to lead design firm PMA. “We do interpretive planning, talking to people and connecting the threads to help determine what a visitor’s experience will look like,” explains designer Jessica Leong. “And then we produce the right signage and way finding to enhance the experience. This might include plaques, special programs, landscapes, lighting and more.” To do this, Frontier has interviewed at least 30 people including staff, donors, city employees and more,” says designer Lisa Qin. “We have reviewed TBG documents and the Master Plan, looked at other gardens and city attractions.” What they have found is “a general sense of the importance of parks and green space, a passion for the TBG as a special place, a real sense of the importance of botanical gardens, conservation, education and public gardens as part of the community,” she said. “There is also a curiosity about the land and what happened there before.” Inclusivity is an important part of the TBG story. With no entry fee, the gardens are open to everyone. “The purpose of our design office is helping organizations express their purpose. That’s why we speak to as many people, or stakeholders, as possible,” says Paddy Harrington, who founded the business in 2014. “The more diversity involved the richer the experience you are going to get. Visibility is very important.”

been forgotten, wiped off and replaced by layers of other things. Our job there as at the TBG is revealing the layers.” One of the TBG’s big stories is the importance of water and the ravines which connect it to the rest of the city. And then there are many smaller stories, like the existence of the Milne family cemetery on the grounds or the importance of a Metasequoia (dawn redwood), a rare garden treasure, planted on a site chosen so that it would be bathed in sunlight on the morning of the birthday of the wife of the man who planted it. Members of the Frontier team tour The TBG is both a botanithe gardens and the ravine. cal garden and a Toronto destination. To see how There will also be Indigenous input other institutions have achieved the including tangible stories, signage balance between the two, the and educational programs based on Frontier team has looked at such Indigenous beliefs. places as Montreal and Atlanta The TBG has many stories to tell. Botanical Gardens and Toronto’s “There is the big story and also the Evergreen Brickworks, “a good example special richness of smaller stories,” of an attraction that balances the says Paddy. Updated, clear, cohesive importance of accessibility, programsignage will tell those. ming and community,” said Lisa. Frontier began as a more traditionAnd, of course, there will be special al communications firm “but then events providing educational opporbecause people kept asking about tunities, appealing to all ages and storytelling that aspect grew,” he opening the door to invite new partners says. Clients range from NBA basand new audiences. ketball teams to the National Arts In 10 years from now “we want Centre in Ottawa. They are current- people to say ‘The TBG is a must ly doing signage for the new City of see’,” concludes Jessica. Toronto Court House, “incorporating To learn more about Frontier go to artifacts and telling stories that have



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ADULT EDUCATION TBG Fall Presentations Both Online and Outdoors

ONLINE EDUCATION Sunflowers: Geometry, Form and Colour, Nellie Sue Potter Wednesdays, September 8 through 22, 6 to 9 p.m. Public - $200, TBG Member or Volunteer - $160 (plus fees + HST)

Lesson 1: Colour, Light and Colour Intensity Lesson 2: Drawing Sunflowers: The Finer Points Lesson 3: Geometry, Form and Colour All Together

Have you ever noticed the spirals in a sunflower head? Have you ever followed the sculpture of its rolling leaves, admired the composite design of its inflorescence, or marveled at its rich colour? Now’s your chance! You will be guided, step by step, through composition, proportions, curves, angles, light, shadow, and colour. All levels welcome.

Bulbs, Corms, Rhizomes & Tubers, Helen Battersby, Toronto Master Gardeners Thursday, September 9, 7 to 8 p.m. Public - $25, TBG Member or Volunteer - $20 (plus fees + HST)

Discover dazzling plants for multiseason colour. In this workshop, Toronto Master Gardener Helen



Battersby will teach you how bulbs, corms, rhizomes and tubers differ, exploring the growth habits and care of these versatile plants. Learn when and where to plant your bulbs and enjoy new ideas for spring, summer and fall blooms. TBG Presents: Fall Bulb Planting: Extend your blooming this season, Dugald Cameron Monday, September 13, 7 to 8:30 p.m. Public - $15, TBG Member or Volunteer - $12 (plus fees + HST)

Choosing the right fall planted bulbs

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can add over three months to your flowering season. In this presentation, Dugald Cameron will show you what to plant, where to plant it, what conditions they require and how to multiply them. He’ll also touch on companions to make your garden look fabulous. Extend your blooming season by embracing bulbs! TBG Lecture Series: The Autumn Garden: Selecting Trees and Shrubs with Late Season Appeal, Vincent Simeone Monday, September 27, 7 to 8:30 p.m. Public - $15 (plus fees + HST), TBG Member or Volunteer - FREE

Jason Ramsay-Brown as he discusses the Cottonwood Flats Monitoring Project, a long-term ecological monitoring program. Learn how TFN is providing exciting opportunities for volunteers to make positive contributions to nature in the city, using data collection to determine plant and animal biodiversity and assess trends in species richness and abundance. Gain a broader understanding of how this area has changed and how it will change in the future with or without human intervention. Putting the Garden to Bed, Gail Bebee, Toronto Master Gardeners Thursday, October 14, 7 to 8 p.m. Public - $25, TBG Member or Volunteer - $20 (plus fees + HST)

Your garden needs attention now! Learn how to put your garden to bed in this informative online presentation by Toronto Master Gardener

Gail Bebee. Learn what gardening tasks are essential in October and November to prepare for winter and contribute to your gardening success next year. There will be time for questions after the talk. Fall Freewriters, Stacey Curtis Wednesdays, October 13 through November 3, 7 to 8:30 p.m. Public - $100, TBG Member or Volunteer - $80 (plus fees + HST) Individual Sessions: Public - $30, TBG Member or Volunteer $24 (plus fees + HST)

Feel your way through fall with these drop-in writing classes for nature lovers. Did you have a special summer tending your garden and you’re bursting to share? Would you like to talk about kicking leaves while releasing the past? How about slipping into the silence of winter, as you witness the surrounding changes in nature? Pick your favourite theme(s) and come harvest your stories with

The autumn season is a great time to garden. While autumn usually represents a time of harvest and putting the garden to rest, many landscapes are beaming with colour. This virtual walk will offer practical information on how to garden using woody plants that possess interesting fall foliage, fruit, and bark interest. Plants ideal for the home landscape will be highlighted. Ravine Days: Cottonwood Flats Monitoring Project, Jason Ramsay-Brown, Toronto Field Naturalists Wednesday, October 6, 7 to 8:30 p.m. Public - $15, TBG Member or Volunteer - $12 (plus fees + HST)

Our relationship to nature has changed with greater interest and engagement in stewardship and citizen science. Join Toronto Field Naturalists’ (TFN) Past President



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Fall into Fitness, Tena van Andel Tuesdays, September 14 through October 19, 10 to 11 a.m. Public - $90, TBG Member or Volunteer - $72 (plus fees + HST) INDIVIDUAL SESSIONS: Public - $20, TBG Member or Volunteer $16 (plus fees + HST)

fellow nature lovers in these lowpressure writing classes. Register for the whole session or pick a stand-alone class. Content includes an instructor presentation on the central theme; a writing prompt; an open-class chat to contribute knowledge, ask questions and expand the inspiration; a timed freewriting exercise (15-20 mins.); and a period to share writing. Sharing will be done all together or in small groups, depending on class size. October 13: Garden Tenders October 20: Harvest October 27: Free Falling November 3: Winter Preparation

Introduction to Hot Composting, Sean Smith Tuesday, October 19, 7 to 8:30 p.m. Public - $25, TBG Member or Volunteer - $20 (plus fees + HST)

Learn more about improving microbial soil health to better support thriving vegetable gardens, perennial beds, or backyard urban farms during this workshop hosted by Sean Smith of Crooked Farmz. This program will cover the basics of creating ‘hot compost’ yourself to improve soil health organically, using techniques relevant for the urban context. We will discuss types of composters; the all-important carbon: nitrogen ratio; aeration and moisture; feedstocks and amendments; fungi, worms, and other non-human partners. You will also spend time developing a personal plan for generating compost in your own gardening context.

Introduction to Compost Tea, Sean Smith Tuesday, October 26, 7 to 8:30 p.m. Public - $25, TBG Member or Volunteer - $20 (plus fees + HST)

Learn more about improving microbial soil health to better support thriving vegetable gardens, perennial beds, or backyard urban farms during this workshop hosted by Sean Smith of Crooked Farmz. This program will cover the basics of how to brew ‘actively aerobic compost tea’ yourself to improve microbial soil health. We will discuss the principles of brewing in a compost tea bubbler; simple compost tea recipes; amendments for bacterial and fungal brews; application rate, frequency and shelf life. We will also demonstrate how to build a simple bubbler for use in your own gardening context.

OUTDOOR EDUCATION Garden Sketchbook, Alan Li Saturday, September 11, 1 to 4 p.m. Public - $60, TBG Member or Volunteer - $48 (plus fees + HST)

Enjoy the beauty of the Toronto Botanical Garden while sketching outdoors in the lush garden surroundings. You will learn observational skills along with techniques in pen and ink, and watercolour. Our instructor will provide constructive feedback to help you overcome common artistic challenges. You will leave the workshop with increased creative confidence. Ideal for students with previous drawing experience who are ready for new challenges.



Spend the glorious days of fall outside in a beautiful garden making a stronger, healthier you. You will practice standing movements designed to increase balance, agility, alignment, and strength. These exercises are gentle and thoughtful, focusing on whole body movement to prevent pain, falls and all-around creakiness. You will feel great after an hour of a little moving, a little stretching, a little weight work and a whole lot of fun! * Rain dates extend to Tuesday November 2

Indigenous Learning in Wilket Creek Ravine, Alan Colley Saturday, September 18, OR Saturday October 16, 10 a.m. to 1 p.m. Public - $60, TBG Member or Volunteer - $48 (plus fees + HST)

Join Alan Colley of Toronto Aboriginal Eco Tours on a guided exploration of Wilket Creek Ravine, beginning with an introduction and cultural teaching circle surrounding naturebased knowledge and smudge. Participate in an eco-land walk with plant and animal identification, learning Indigenous perspectives and relationships to other species. This tour occurs rain or shine; please dress appropriately for the weather. To register for any of these courses log on to https://torontobotanical Stay tuned for more exciting online programming later this fall, including succulent workshops, floral design, watercolour painting, Ravine Week presentations and our fourth TBG Lecture Series.

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This bridal gown by Victoria Zander, created from upcycled fabric from past wedding gowns, was modelled in the TBG garden for Virtual Fashion Week presented by Fashion Art Toronto (FAT) earlier this summer. To read more about the fashion shows see page 42. Weddings are currently being booked both TORONTOBOTANICALGARDEN.CA 11 FALL 2021 indoors and outside at the TBG. For more information contact


THEY LOVE GARDENING SUSAN LIPCHAK has been volunteering in the garden at the TBG for 14 years. “I guess one might surmise that I continue to enjoy the experience— getting to know and work with other like-minded gardeners and having the opportunity to learn and pick up tips about gardening,” she says. The social aspect is important to her as well as helping to keep the gardens as attractive as possible. “I love being at the TBG,” says Susan, who became more serious about gardening after retiring as a violist with the Toronto Symphony Orchestra for 40 years. She started taking gardening courses at the former Civic Garden Centre, began volunteering in 2007 and became a Toronto Master Gardener not long after that. Susan is also a TBG tour guide and she has a large garden of her own to look after. There are currently 28 volunteer gardeners divided into three teams working one of three shifts a week from 8 a.m. until noon on either Tuesday, Wednesday or Thursday. Susan’s team works on Thursdays. Team members meet with the seasonal gardeners at 8 a.m. on their designated day and determine who is working on what. It could be weeding, planting bulbs or whatever else needs doing. “We usually have a choice of what we want to work on,” says Susan. “It works out very positively.” Susan is constantly surprised by the number of people “who stop to ask us where the hummingbirds are.” Usually seen around the spiral mound and the containers of brightly coloured flowers nearby, there are fewer this year because we didn’t have access to as many annuals this spring.” Despite this, she feels the gardens “are looking the best they’ve been for quite a number of years—even through all the COVID-19 turmoil—

Garden volunteer Susan Lipchak on the job.

especially the knot garden and the perennial borders. On our final volunteer day last November, we couldn’t believe that there was nothing else for us to do. That had never happened before.” Susan credits seasonal gardeners Dean Ruhnke and Sasan Beni, and now Megan Blacquiere for managing the TBG gardens in such an effective, productive manner. “Already this year we have weeded areas twice that have been problematic for years!” Susan has great respect for Dean’s knowledge and ability to keep everyone organized. “Actually, the main reason that I have continued as a garden volunteer is the fact that Dean was hired again this season,” she says. “He knows what needs to be done, when it needs to be done, delegates well and is a hard worker. He’s passionate about the TBG and maintaining the gardens to a high standard.” For their part, the seasonal gardeners have nothing but praise for the volunteers. “The Department of



Horticulture believes the garden volunteers are simply amazing. We adore them,” says Dean. “They help us make the gardens look amazing by working beside us, especially on those unromantic days of single digits and rain or over 40 degrees. Not only would the gardens not look the same without the garden volunteers but we enjoy their company greatly.” The volunteers were not able to work in the gardens until July last year because of the pandemic. This year, from April until July 1 they put in 1,256 hours in the garden according to TBG Volunteer Coordinator Sue Hills. “The past two years have been challenging,” says Sue. “The garden volunteers have been there for us in spades, pardon the pun. Why? Because they love gardening. They care about these gardens. Some miss their own gardens having moved into condos or apartments.” There is a wait list for becoming a garden volunteer. Approximately two thirds return each year, says Sue. “We start recruiting for new members in February. Most are active Baby Boomers. Several are Toronto Master Gardeners and two are on the TBG Board of Directors. We have some mother/son and mother/daughter teams. We have some school age children with parental permission, most often with a parent.” Many garden volunteers have formed lasting friendships while working together in the garden. The biggest challenge for most — the one that separates the weeds from the chaff — is the 8 a.m. start but that is so that the four-hour shifts can end at noon before it gets too hot. It’s hard work,” says Sue. “They have to show up rain or shine.” But, obviously it’s worth it for dedicated volunteers like Susan and the others who keep coming back year after year after year.

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By Lorraine Hunter

There are more than 45 different varieties of pumpkins. They range from shades of red to orange, yellow, white and green and have names like Peanut, Knucklehead and Porcelain Doll.


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« BOTANICAL HISTORY « The Weston Family

Library’s historical collection (in-library use only) has books dating back as far as 1838 (for comparison, the Smithsonian has publications from 1828).


WESTON FAMILY LIBRARY Home to over 10,000 books, periodicals, references and more By Leanne Burkholder



STABLISHED IN 1961, the Weston Family Library came from a collection provided by the Garden Club of Toronto. With a donation from the Weston Family Foundation, the library was renamed in 2005 when it was also relocated in the new George and Kathy Dembroski Centre for Horticulture. Diverse Collection THE WESTON FAMILY LIBRARY CATALOGUE

The collection has over 10,000 books, periodicals, reference books and other items. The library is home to beautiful floral and botanical picture books, books on historical gardening, garden history, landscape and garden design, plant physiology, soil science, seed harvesting, ravine restoration and reference books. Quick Facts

• Almost 6,500 items in the main collection and growing!

• Over 1,500 periodicals: from1973 to present. • Over 1,000 children’s books. • Close to 700 books held for the Southern Ontario Orchid Society, the Toronto Herb Society and the Toronto African Violet Society. • Nearly 550 items in the historical collection with some rare and unique titles; borrowers can make an appointment to view in the library (pending the lifting of COVID restrictions). • Nearly 400 reference books are now available to borrow. • There are an additional 165 reference materials for in-library use such as unique encyclopedias and botanical dictionaries. • Over 50 DVDs. ‘The Vital Connector’

As the TBG prepares for its future expansion, the library is also transforming, under the leadership of its new librarian, Julie Kent.



Julie’s goal is to raise the library’s profile by increasing engagement—shifting from a book repository to an active partner in exploration, inquiry and discovery. By helping users find the resources they need to connect to the natural world, the library is repositioning to be “the vital connector” for the garden. Increasing accessibility to the collection is critical. For instance, in June, the Weston Family Library webpage was redesigned to make access to the catalogue user friendly and more visible. At the same time, the library introduced a feature so users could hold books online using the new curbside pickup and return service. Users are notified by email when books can be picked up and returned. Some new options were created to increase visibility of the collection, such as feature boxes. For example, the feature box about Curbside Pick Up opens another webpage with the details. Other key feature boxes are Search the Catalogue, Online Resources and

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Special Collections where users can access the library’s collections. The catalogue’s landing page was also redesigned to highlight topics in the collection. A new ‘lists’ link was added to the catalogue’s navigation bar. When clicking on the lists link you will find a list of topics currently of interest to users, including growing tomatoes or how to create a pollinator garden. This feature is useful for TBG educational program participants looking for information. The lists will evolve as more fields are added. Another new item on the library’s catalogue home page is a cover flow, a stream of pictures of book covers and titles from the collection to highlight key topics. Users can click on the title located below the image to get more details on a book of interest. There are also search features that allow users to see the

THANK YOU DALGLISH FAMILY FOUNDATION VITAL TO THE expansion and growth of the Weston Family Library is a three-year gift from the Dalglish Family Foundation. • This gift will support the library’s operational needs, electronic subscriptions and help acquire new books, thereby enhancing the collection and allowing TBG to transform the library. • Camilla Dalglish, former TBG board member, is an active and keen supporter of the library and TBG. The TBG thanks the Foundation for its support.

top topics and search for the most requested books. Through the catalogue users can continue to access plant databases in Canada and around the world, including Canadensys, CanPlant, the Royal Horticultural Society, the Missouri Botanical Garden and the Botanical Gardens Conservation International Garden Search site. Julie is also looking at other ways to promote the collection – by highlighting picture books and looking at ways for users to access the historical collections. In addition, online magazines will soon be available. A Resource for Everyone

The library is widely used by new gardeners, master gardeners, students of horticulture, budding artists, children and seniors. New TBG board member and head of Landscape Ontario Tony DiGiovanni frequently used the then Civic Garden Centre library when he was a landscape technology student at Humber College. There are resources to help better understand plant physiology. Drawing and painting floral design books provide guidance on how to capture the hues and shading just so. Many of these books are large format with stunning images. Floral arrangement books are available for the person just starting out who needs to know the materials to have on hand for their first arrangement and there are books for people interested in a specific style of floral arrangement. The library is available free of charge; TBG or Book Lover’s members have borrowing privileges through their library accounts. PS: The author of this article used the library to research historical gardens in Ontario as part of her landscape design course at Ryerson University.


Long-time volunteer Jean McCluskey is part of a dedicated group of volunteers that keep the library running. She has seen many users – students looking for horticultural resources, new gardeners looking for information on growing vegetables, and expert horticulturalists looking for specific plant information. Jean is looking forward to postCOVID when visitors can return to the library, and she can help them find the information they need. She loves seeing parents read to their children in the Childrens’ Corner and toddlers story time. “Our volunteers are passionate, knowledgeable, experienced and strong supporters of the Weston Family Library. The work they do amazes me every day,” says new TBG librarian Julie Kent.

The volunteers are passionate, knowledgeable, experienced, and strong supporters of the Weston Family Library. The work they do amazes me every day.

Julie Kent

« SUPPORT FOR TBG MISSION « The Weston Family Library acquires and maintains

a carefully selected collection of information materials in support of TBG’s mission to connect people to plants, inspiring us to live in harmony with nature. The library performs a vital role in offering and delivering resources to its diverse membership and community. TORONTOBOTANICALGARDEN.CA


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orcelain Doll|

Plant pumpkin seeds between the last week of May and mid-June. They take between 90 and 120 days to grow.

Rose of Sharon in bloom



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Rose of Sharon seed heads ready to harvest.

Step By Step

Veronica Sliva explains the how, what, where, when and why of Seed Saving and Harvesting WHY SAVE SEEDS?


Why save seeds when you can just buy them? Besides being exciting to watch your personally collected seed germinate and grow, there are some very practical reasons. • You can choose plants with characteristics you like, such as colour, shape and size. • Because parent plants pass on their genetics, your locally collected seed will be better adapted to your area’s growing conditions. That means stronger, more vigorous plants that can better withstand drought and insect and disease damage. • You save money. It’s free!



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Rose of Sharon seeds.

Chive flowerhead

« Which Seeds Should I Save? • Whether you want to save ornamental or edibles seeds, choose ‘parent’ plants that are robust, disease-resistant and have desirable characteristics like colour, size and vigour. • With vegetables, collect seeds from plants that produce veggies with superior flavour and a high yield.


« Will the seed you collect

‘come true’ from seed?

Coming true means that the seed of a plant produces a seedling with the same characteristics as the parent plant. Be prepared that not all plants ‘come true’. Hybrid seeds, for example, are the product of two varieties that have been crosspollinated (bred with one another) to produce plants with a specific combination of traits from each ‘parent’. If you plant seed from a hybrid’s offspring the results are

unpredictable and it is unlikely that each resulting plant would look exactly like the parent. Even though professional growers want predictable results, as a home gardener, you may be very happy with what you get. For example, I save petunia and begonia seeds every year, and the offspring are not always exactly like the parents. However, they are close enough and the results are very satisfactory for me.

During the growing season, identify specimens from which you want to save seed. Tie a ribbon or attach a bread bag clip to their stems, so when the plants have set seeds and it is time to collect them, the good ones are easy to find.

• BOOKS TO TAKE THE MYSTIQUE OUT OF SEED SAVING • The Complete Guide to Saving Seeds by Robert Gough and Cheryl

Moore-Gough The Complete Guide to Saving Seeds is filled with easy-to-understand information about the basics as well as more technical details of seed saving. Chapter 5, All About Germination and Chapter 6, Sowing Seeds and Raising Transplants, takes seed saving to the next step with everything you need to know about getting your seeds growing. If you want to try your hand at breeding your own varieties, there is a chapter for that, too. The comprehensive ‘how-to’ chapters are followed by a guide to 322 vegetables, flowers, herbs, fruits, trees and shrubs with specific details for each one. This book is for seed-savers of every competence level, from enthusiastic novices to the more experienced.

Seed Sowing and Saving by Carole B. Turner In Carole Turner’s book, Seed Sowing and Saving, the first four chapters are dedicated to the “need to know” about harvesting, drying and storing seeds. The details are explained in simple language with over 300 step-bystep pen and ink drawings, to support the instructions. Chapters 5 through 8 detail specific information for over 100 vegetables, annuals, perennials, herbs and wildflowers. Throughout the book, the author includes Master Gardener sidebars to alert the reader to helpful information. This is a very user-friendly how-to book that takes the mystique out of seed saving…an excellent reference. -VS



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Chive flowerhead with ripe seeds


Once a plant is finished blooming, the process of ‘going to seed’ begins. The flowers wilt and drop petals and seeds begin to develop. With some plants such as annual and perennial flowers, the seeds are ready for harvesting when they turn brown and dry completely on the plant. With some vegetables, the seeds are contained within the flesh or fruit and are often not ready for seed collecting at the stage we like to eat them. For example, we eat tomatoes when they are ‘ripe’, a stage where the flesh is at its most delicious. Inside the tomato, the seeds are developing but are usually not ready for seed harvesting at this stage. Some vegetables, including tomatoes, cucumbers, squash and eggplant, are best picked for seed when they are overripe (even rotting). That can be some time after we like to eat them!


« Harvesting Seeds - Timing

is Everything

• Collect seed on a dry day – midafternoon is best. • Make sure the seeds are ripe… typically brown and dry. • Snip off stems or seed capsules and place them upside down in a paper bag and be sure to label the bag (many seeds look alike). • Leave the bag open in a dry place for a few days, then close the bag and shake it vigorously. Usually, the

Some plants (such as balsam, lupins and foxglove) disperse their seeds by catapulting them out of their capsules. Smart seed savers tie a small gauze bag (found at dollar stores) around the seed head as it develops. The bag will catch the seeds in case you don’t!

• SEED SAVING TERMINOLOGY • 1. OPEN-POLLINATED SEEDS are pollinated naturally by insects, birds, animals, wind and moisture. They will give you pretty much the same mixture of colours, sizes or heights as the original plants. 2. SELF-POLLINATED SEEDS come from flowers that have both male and female plant parts. Pollen is not transferred from one flower to another, either on the same plant or between plants. Pollination occurs within

the single flower. Seeds of these plants almost always retain characteristics of the parent.

traits found in the gene pool of the original parents, but the results are unpredictable.

characteristics including flavour, size, colour, resilience to pest or disease and high yields.

3. HYBRID SEEDS are the result of two parent varieties that are genetically different, but are of the same plant species. Commercially these plants are cultivated to create specific characteristics such as size, colour, vigour etc. When home gardeners save seed from hybrids, the offspring produced may have some

4. HEIRLOOMS are nonhybrid varieties (usually vegetables) that have been passed down through generations of both people and plants. Typically, they are open-pollinated varieties. They tend to be more localized, grown by home gardeners or small market gardeners. Heirlooms are preserved for their desirable

5. CROSS POLLINATION is when the pollen from one flower fertilizes another flower, either on the same or another plant. Either wind or insects (or gardeners) can be responsible for cross pollination. Be aware that other varieties of the same species have the potential to exchange pollen and cross-pollinate.



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seeds fall to the bottom and are easy to get. For those that are a little stubborn, release the seeds by gently crushing the capsules.

1. Baptisia seed pods not yet ready to harvest 2. Canna seeds 3. Mixed seed pods 4. Mixed seeds 5. Begonia seeds


Special Treatment for Fleshy Fruits

• With fleshy fruit (such as tomatoes) crush or mash them in a fine sieve. • Rinse away the pulp leaving the seed behind. • Spread the seeds on paper towels and leave them for a few days to dry out.



« Cleaning Seed

Inevitably, you will find bits of chaff and debris in with the collected seed. Do your best to remove this as it can harbour mould, pests or disease. That may involve gentle blowing (outside if possible) or simply picking out the chaff…tedious but necessary.



« Storing Seed

Once you are sure your seeds are dry it is time to prepare them for storage. • Store seeds in small paper envelopes. Either recycle used ones or try making your own with one of the free templates found online. Check out envelope.html. I like to use semitransparent ‘glassine’ mini envelopes (available on Amazon). • Close the envelope with cello tape. Be sure to label each envelope and date it. • Store your seed packets in a dark, cool place (the fridge if you have room) in airtight containers such as metal cookie tins, clean glass jars with lids, or larger opaque envelopes. • If you have silica gel sachets (the ones you get in medication bottles or with the box when you buy a pair of shoes), tuck them into the container to absorb any moisture. Moisture is the enemy of seeds!

• TRADING SEEDS • Exchange with like-minded gardeners

There are several Canadian seed exchange groups online. For the cost of a postage stamp, you can trade seeds with other gardeners. This is a great way to acquire rare or hard-to-find seeds or to try something new. As well, you’ll connect with like-minded gardeners to exchange information. Check out: • Canadian Seeds – Share and Swap • Canadian Seed Fairy Weekend Events • The Poppy Seed Exchange • Ontario Native Plant & Seed Exchange OntarioNativePlantsSeeds/ • Seed Savers Exchange

Seeds saved in glassine envelopes and labelled.

• Canada Seed Exchange



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i n d e r e l l a|

The original jack-o’-lanterns were made with turnips and potatoes by the Irish. Irish immigrants brought their customs to North America, but found that pumpkins were much easier to carve.

seeding the future

Garden Club of Toronto plants Red Oak saplings for ravine restoration

ED OAKS, like many other native trees, are declining in Toronto’s ravines, being forced out by massive numbers of invasive species, especially Norway Maples. The Garden Club of Toronto (GCT) has decided to do something about it! The club is celebrating its 75th anniversary next year by planting 12 red oak saplings and 50 native plants in seed beds installed behind the carpet beds at the TBG to help ensure a positive future for Wilket Creek Ravine. Members attending the Urban Ravine Symposium at the TBG in 2019 were inspired to help seed the future by Henry Hughes, retired education director for Birmingham Botanical Garden, who emphasized the importance of planting native species that are at-risk and underrepresented in the horticultural trade and in the landscape. They


By Lorraine Flanigan & Lorraine Hunter

were also impressed by Toronto ecologist Eric Davies who collects native oak acorns in Toronto’s ravines and germinates them in his own garden. “We saw a link between the message of the symposium and an increasing wish to direct the efforts of the club to promote and support sustainability and ecological gardening practices as well as to contribute to the restoration of Toronto’s ravine system,” explains Jo-An Davies (no relation to Eric), chair of the club’s Projects Committee. Jo-An and Marg Wilkinson (GCT’s representative on the TBG Board) are co-chairs of this project. Team members who join them weekly to weed and water the beds include Sayeh Beheshti, Linne Dobbin, Veronica Van Rooyen, Pat Concessi, Liz Camilleri and Adele Salvagno. “Our biggest challenge is keeping out invasive species from invading the beds, especially Canadian Thistle (Cirsium arvense)—not a native at all—and bindweed, both brought to Canada from Europe.”


Jo-An Davies, The Garden Club of Toronto, takes a break from weeding and watering red oak saplings and native plants.

The group worked with former TBG ecologist Katherine Baird who guided them with lists and advice. The red oak seedlings and native plants were purchased from Steven Smith of Urban Forest Associates which specializes in ravine stewardship. This past spring, they added a further 50 native plants from Shaun Booth from In Our Nature Plant Nursery. The members chose red oaks because of their role in Ontario’s ecology and their occurrence in Wilket Creek Ravine. “red oaks are native to and found across southern Ontario,” said Jo-An. “They are tolerant of several soils and air pollution and have a wonderful show of dark red leaves in fall. They are large trees but need sunlight: another reason to remove the invasive Norway Maples that grow rapidly and with their thick leaf canopy prevent light from reaching the woodland floor.” The acorns of red oaks are a preferred food source for several native animals and birds and have a long history of being foraged by Aboriginal communities for food and medicinal uses. They host native birds as nesting and perching sites. “In fact, studies indicate that native birds and insects avoid non native trees in favour of native species,” she said. Once the plants have matured, seeds will be collected, stratified and stored at the TBG. Seed collection from perennials will occur once the plants have matured, after several seasons’ growth. “When the plants are ready, we plan to train our team to collect seeds and complete by the process of stratification—placing them in refrigerators to simulate winter dormancy and then sprouting once removed. “The project is our small contribution to ravine restoration which we hope will inspire others to become involved in this important work.” The Garden Club of Toronto will be hosting a symposium on Inspiring Change for a Sustainable Future on October 22, 2022, which will focus on “the interconnectedness of the web of life and the intrinsic value of nature, our role as guardians and stewards of the earth, garden practices to support the biodiversity of life and health benefits derived from connecting with nature,” said Jo-An. Keynote speaker will be author, medical biochemist and botanist Diana Beresford-Kroger. The symposium will be held at the TBG and open to members and the public. Tickets and further details will be available later this fall.

The project is our small contribution to ravine restoration which we hope will inspire others. TORONTOBOTANICALGARDEN.CA


FALL 2021



GIANT HOGWEED (Heracleum mantegazzianum), Common (Rhamnus cathartica) and Glossy Buckthorn (Frangula alnus), Japanese Knotweed (Fallopia japonica), Garlic Mustard (Alliaria petiolata), Purple Loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria) and the odious DogStrangling Vine (Vincetoxicum rossicum) are some of the invasive plants that are anathema to Ontario botanists, horticulturists and gardeners. Because they’ve been transported from other countries, without their natural predators, they run rampant over our native plants and offer nothing to our indigenous wildlife. They are the terrorists of the plant world. How did this happen? Innocently, for the most part. Giant hogweed was imported to Canada from Asia around 1900, brought in as an ornamental plant. Buckthorn was brought to Canada about 100 years ago as a landscape plant. But the major exchange of plants began more than 300 years before that. In the 1600s, plant exploration was at its height in England. The explorations were usually funded by wealthy patrons, who wanted to own the newest and most exotic. Joseph Banks (1743-1820) was an English botanist, plant collector and explorer. His first trips abroad to study plants were to Labrador and Newfoundland with later trips to the South Pacific with Captain Cook. He helped found the Royal Botanic Gardens at

Native Coneflower (Echinacea ‘Ruby Giant Bloom’). Bottom: Nativar red coneflower



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Definitions vary— so do your research before you buy By Carol Gardner

Kew, London, bringing seeds and plants there from all over the world. And so it began; potential problems didn’t become immediately evident. To exacerbate the problem, when these plants were shipped hither, thither and yon, other, less desirable species (plant and animal) often tagged along for the ride inside the packing material. Others came in at the instigation of individuals who had no idea of the havoc they would ultimately create. The Gypsy Moth (Lymantria dispar) that has given us so much trouble this year, was brought to Massachusetts in 1869 by French artist Étienne Léopold Trouvelot, who had relocated to the U.S. with his family in 1851. He was trying to cross the European gypsy moth with North American silkworms in the hope of creating a silk industry in his adopted country. Some of them got loose, and the rest, as they say, is history. Similarly, Japanese beetles (Popillia Japonica), native to Japan, not surprisingly, seem to have entered the U.S. in 1916, as stowaways aboard a shipment of irises. They apparently travelled to Canada in a tourist’s car at Yarmouth, arriving in Nova Scotia by ferry from Maine in 1939. Some say the sole solution to curbing invasive plants is to use only native plants that have, over centuries, formed a symbiotic relationship with indigenous animals, plants, algae, fungi and bacteria, thus supporting a healthy ecosystem. The problem is that definitions of native plants vary. The most stringent definition is that a native plant cannot be something imported from another country and cannot be a plant altered by human hands. But many plants, such as the ubiquitous hosta, have been in Ontario for well over 100 years, and have not caused any problems. Hostas originated in China, then spread through Asia, and eventually came to North America via Europe in about the 1850s. There are many, many other successfully imported plants that behave in a perfectly civilized fashion. And what about native plants that have been changed by breeders, such as Echinacea purpurea (purple coneflower), which now comes

Native Brown-eyed Susan (Rudbeckia)



FALL 2021

in just about any colour you can imagine? Are they still considered native plants? The more you think about it, the less you know! I posed these questions to Lorraine Johnson, author of many gardening books and an expert on native plants. “There isn’t one universal agreed-upon definition,” she agrees. “Rather than point to a moment in time when a plant is considered ‘native’, we need to consider how it is functioning and interacting in a specific ecosystem. Moreover, when breeders make changes to native plants, we don’t know what they’ve changed to arrive at the new cultivar, so we can’t be sure that it will function as well as, or support the relationships and interactions with pollinators, for example, as the original or ‘straight’ species does. The only way that we would know is by doing comparative studies of each ‘new’ plant, which is unlikely to happen. Some people refer to these cultivars of native plants as nativars. Because most nativars are reproduced clonally, there is little generic diversity.” Thus, Johnson recommends using the straight species of native plants as much as possible, and learning to appreciate their beauty. “There are now a number of native plant nurseries in Ontario. See the Halton Area Master Gardeners website at 2020/03/28/native-plant-nurseriesin-ontario/ Governments are doing their best to strictly limit plant importation, but some invasive plants, such as goutweed (Aegopodium podagraria) are still being sold in the odd nursery. What’s a gardener to do? The best bet is to do some research before you buy. There are many books and websites on the topic, so educating ourselves isn’t difficult. One of my favourites is a terrific brochure called Grow Me Instead, put out by the Invasive Plant Council. It’s packed with information on native plants, safe nonnative plants and invasive plants. Have a look at it at Southern-Grow-Me-Instead-1. pdf ( —and don’t throw out your hostas—they’re among the good guys!

Hosta ‘Hudson Bay’



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lat White Boer|

Pumpkins are rich in beta carotene. One cup provides a day’s requirement for Vitamin A, plus Vitamin C and potassium. One cup of canned pumpkin only has 83 calories and half a gram of fat.




HILE WORKING in the garden, my colleagues and I get asked a wide variety of questions. In fact, it is our job to assist visitors, to provide answers as best we can. And, more often than not, especially in our current pandemic climate, most people just want to know where the nearest washrooms are located. Some visitors, though, take a deep interest in the work they see us doing. They approach us with questions about their own gardens, about plant identification and care, design tips, their wish lists and, of course, wildlife. There are several photographers who frequent the TBG, many of whom are armed with tripods and lenses longer



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Popular little birds bring joy to TBG visitors By Sasan Beni

than our garden forks (a mild exaggeration) and almost all are in pursuit of the same subject: hummingbirds. I have lost count of how many photographers have asked me about hummingbirds since early in the spring. “Where are the hummingbirds? Have you seen any this year? When do they return? Where do they hang out?” My colleagues and I often reply, jokingly, that we don’t have a direct line to them. The hummingbirds haven’t sent us any postcards! But all jokes aside, these little birds are popular and the frenzy that took place at TBG last summer is a testament to that. That initial lockdown in the spring of 2020 was great for birds. And great for our eyes and ears, too... I saw more hummingbirds last summer than ever before. The same goes for photographers. As gardeners, we are constantly connected to wildlife; a simple fact that we take for granted from time to time, that may have lost its excitement, or charm. We joke with visitors that we aren’t in touch with the hummingbirds, that they haven’t told us when they’ll arrive, or where they will settle down, but our daily work connects us to these birds—and to many TBG visitors. We are their migratory escorts. We lay the ground work for their return, provide habitat and food sources. Some visitors have voiced their concern about this past summer being void of hummingbirds. I remind them that our little friends are still around, that they need to be patient. Last summer, our three window box planters next to the spiral willow mound became a huge attraction. Towers of ‘Roman Red’ and ‘Purple & Bloom’ salvia (hummingbird favourites) created quite the frenzy of little buzzing wings, and on average we had a minimum

Ruby-throated Hummingbirds can be found feeding throughout the TBG grounds.

of 15 photographers camped out on the main path—a fire-burst of camera shutters could be heard every ten minutes or so. This year, we have planted more varieties of salvia, but have spread them out throughout the garden. I encourage visitors to walk the grounds. I remind photographers all the time that the hummingbirds will frequent many different nectar sources, and not just a few planters. Hummingbird Facts

THE RUBY-THROATED Hummingbird is eastern North America’s only breeding hummingbird. Like most bird species, the males sport the flashy colours that glitter in the right light, but may often look dark. Weighing about 6 grams, with wings that beat an astonishing 53 times a second, Ruby-throated Hummingbirds often appear like large insects to the untrained eye, as they hover and zip between blooms. Although they are attracted to tubular flowers and bright shades of orange and red, I have seen them in the garden frequenting patches of bee balm, Joe Pye weed and purple coneflowers. They are quite feisty in their demeanor—I have seen them chase away other birds, and even pester our resident red-tailed hawk off its perch. Many of my friends and neighbours and our garden volunteers attract these colourful birds to their yards by providing them with a food



source, but no need to worry if you don’t have a garden. Many people use hummingbird feeders, which act as a great first resource for the birds when they return to their breeding grounds in June. It is important to only use granulated white sugar and water (quarter cup of sugar per cup of water) in your hummingbird feeders. Don’t use honey or brown sugar, which hummingbirds cannot digest and could prove to be fatal. It is also vital to keep the feeders clean, particularly in the heat of summer, because the sugar water can ferment into a toxic alcohol solution. Please remember, friends, even though hummingbirds are small, they can consume up to double their body weight in nectar. So providing them with fresh and clean feeders regularly is crucial. I have learned a lot from our Ruby-throated Hummingbirds. As fast as they are, they have taught me to slow down, to take in every fleeting garden moment, to sharpen my gaze and always be on the lookout. Before you know it, the trees will ignite into autumn colours and our vibrant visitors will begin their remarkable journey back to Central America. I am already looking forward to next year’s plantings. I am even looking forward to the questions from hummingbird fanatics. The hummingbirds are here, and they know what the gardeners are up to.

FALL 2021


Although often thought of as a vegetable, pumpkins are fruits because they contain seeds. Pumpkins are members of the gourd family Cucurbitaceae, which also includes squash, cucumbers, gherkins and melons.

|K a k a i |


Take action now to eradicate garden frustrations By Dean Ruhnke FALL IS HERE. Cooler temperatures and seasonal rain are on the way. Now is the time to deal with elementum. In sit amet risus at velit dinwith turpis. mollis elitover in risus any dolor frustrations youconmay have had yourFusce outdoor space the gardening season. The challenges Lorem ipsum sit amet, molestie finibus. Quisque pretium, ut blandit mauriswith aliquam. can be large small, from a complete redesign to dealing aggressive perennials. It’s time to take luctus, nisl sectetur adipiscing elit.orUt vel prefermentum, lorem Pellentesque blandit quis dolor dobibendum action. Remember—it’s your garden, your money and turpis your frustrations; what makesdictum you happy. tium neque. In ullamcorper erat eget molestie, sit amet sagittis nunc vene- est semper nibh, a blandit libero volutpat posuere. Cras quis cursus faucibus elit. will Nulla veltwo ante dui. Aliquam tristique diam, sed dignissim neque. 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Quisque bibendum, remove that perennial thatmauris hasn’t dapibus. the ephemeral bulbsbibendum, you’re justo roots to establish before theeuismod arrival vitae in euismod vitae llus rutrum, ipsum ac facilisis bibendum, sapien cursus vestibulum tincidunt, neque been performing. looking for in September, the more of damaging summerindroughts. llus or rutruorta ipsum, eget varius tortor, convallis purus fermentum dolor, et vehicula • Divide any of your perennials that dui you ensure youMauris get your first •acAdd replaceeleifend trees. Summer rutrum orci. Aliquam malesuada augue sit amet nisl sagittis, sed lacinnunc quam non sapien. Suspendisse have outgrown their space or are choice. (See article on spring drought is harder on them than mi lobortis suscipit. enim placerat. ut posue. the classic doughnut. showing ia bulbs, page 35.)Nam consectetur molestie winter dormancy. As with turf Vivamus maximus lectus nulla ut tellus rutrum, ac imperdiet Cras nec diam quam. 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Vestibulum ornare eros eget Saving Seeds, Page 18.) by them. porta. Aenean quis nulis ac imperdiet risus elementum. In sit lacinia consequat. Nulla sodales, • Transplanting or adding any new • Fall is the best time to alleviate any No matter how bigfeugiat or small thehendresagittis elementum porta. Aenean amet risus at velit molestie finibus. risus quis tempor ultrices, sem nibh problem, it’s not too late to deal zone-hardy perennial plants can be issues with turf grass areas. Turf quis feugiat risus iaculis luctus, practices nisl bibendum dic- pulvinar purus, velThanksgiving. mollis lectus nibh with it now, nulla. beforeProin you forget about done safely until In Quisque grass cultural are very lacus, ut molestie tortor neque et leo. tum fermentum, lorem est semper sit amet tortor. Nullam quis est non it over the winter. Conversely, the fall, the soil temperature remains aggressive. Make sure you do the Etiam vel mi vel mi sed justo lacinia nibh, a blandit libero orci faucibus mi maximus auctor vitae aliquam planning in the fall and over the warmer than the ambient air following steps when the grass is sed justo lacinia luctus Nulla growing: vel ante dui. Donectop lacinia neque. Suspendisse Mauris winter will allowcommodo you to getsed moving temperature. Thus, potenti. adding any elit. actively aeration, lectus quis hendresus. Proin et tincconvallis placerat. Integer in lectus condimentum facilisis fermentum. as soon as possible in the spring to perennials to fill holes or replace dressing and dethatching. idunt risus. Proin luctus fringilla pelenim. Suspendisse nec justo vitae Nam vulputate orci lorem, at curdeal with any other problems and plant material can safely be done as • Over seeding with grass seed in lentesque. Quisqmi, at laoreet sollicitudin euismod vitae sus arcu ultricies Sedinvitae justo augue allow you to enjoy your own arcu the roots will stillut. grow the warm autumn is the best time for your ante at magna. in llus rutrum, ac imperdiet risus pharetra, volutpat ipsum in, sollicitupersonal piece of paradise. soil and become established. grass to succeed. This is because TORONTOBOTANICALGARDEN.CA


FALL 2021

2 1


ulips, daffodils and other tall members of our spring show are indeed stars. Their garden impact certainly makes for their star status in our spring garden show. They do seem to steal the limelight sometimes. Not to be critical. Goodness knows I love them, too. I’ve got hundreds. But, lately I’ve become ever more enamoured of their undeservedly less popular but diminutive supporting cast. They’re the first to flower, multiply readily, beloved by bees, easy to grow, come in many forms and colours and best of all they are cheap. Being smaller, they take up little room. They bloom before leaves appear on trees and are quite happy where there will be shade later. Plant them shallowly over areas where you’ve got your tulips and daffodils. You could add a few in your lawn, too. And, as all good supporting cast members, they have the good grace to ripen their foliage quickly and leave the stage.

1 Puschkinia This is one of first performers on stage. Clusters of the lightest blue flowers have narrow deep blue darts in their centres. Short stemmed and about 15 cm tall, they herald the upcoming spring and last for weeks. They are an important early food source for our local, mostly tiny, bees. I love watching the clouds of them. Popular as they are with my local bees, however, they are not so with squirrels.




friends across the street have it in glorious abundance. Clusters of brilliant scarlet tubular flowers dance above beautifully directed glaucous foliage. They’re known as spring ephemerals who make a stunning entrance, delight for a week or so then quickly ripen away. Other members of the C. solida family are the pink ‘Beth Evans’ and purple ‘Purple Prince’. One of their more curious attributes is their outrageous indiscretion. So don’t be shocked if you find some progeny of different colours. They’ll form a happy colourful family in a few years. I’ve yet to fail three times so I’m having another go this fall.

Supporting cast of early blooming bulbs sets the stage for dazzling spring show By Dugald Cameron 2 Crocus tommasinianus Yes, I know crocus are squirrels’ favourite food. I should know, after all we live in squirrel heaven, an oak savannah. Fortunately, word hasn’t got out to the squirrel network because they don’t seem nearly as keen on this one. There are a few forms of C. tommasinianus. We have the deep purple ‘Ruby Giant’. It’s striking colour looks fabulous against my leaf mulch. One of its delights is the occasional visit of our Northern Comma butterfly plus the usual groups of bees. 3 Corydalis solida ‘George Baker’ (Fumewart) I’m embarrassed to admit I’ve yet to succeed with this but my good



4 Muscari armeniacum I was in the bulb business for many years. Muscari armeniacum was one of our best sellers with its brilliant blue flowers that look so great with daffodils. But every year we’d get a call from a customer worried by the unexpected mascari foliage a week or so after they’d planted them. I’d assure them it was OK, just one of those things this mascari does but a very useful one, too. Have you ever accidentally dug up half a bulb when planting more. Plant this shallowly above your tulips and daffodils. Its fall foliage will let you know to dig carefully in future seasons. Beauty and function together. This performer deserves better billing. Besides, you can never have too much blue.

FALL 2021


Saving Container Plants

Overwintering Techniques for Keeping Tender Plants Alive Year after Year Reviewed by Lorraine Hunter


ES, YOU CAN overwinter tender and not-so-tender plants inside. Bring them in, enjoy them and save some money on purchases for next year. Saving Container Plants, Overwintering Techniques for Keeping Tender Plants Alive Year after Year by Alice and Brian McGowan is a handy little digest-sized book that tells you exactly what you need to know. From common sense statements like “As tempting as it may be Rex begonia to save everything from the summer patio, be realistic about the storage space you have. A small number of plants with more space around them will be easier to keep healthy than a jungle

of plants crammed into an area that’s too small to accommodate them all” to what to do in a frost emergency, this covers pretty much every concern you might have—to prune or not to prune, avoiding indoor pests, storing tubers, watering, feeding and more. A detailed plant by plant guide covering everything from Abutilon (flowering maple) to Xanthosoma, Begonia to Ruellia (Christmas pride, monkey plant), provides easy reference to more than 100 popular container perennials. Saving Container Plants, Storey BASICS. Lorraine Hunter is a freelance writer, editor of Trellis and a Toronto Master Gardener.

The Harvest Baker

150 Sweet & Savory Recipes Reviewed by Carol Gardner


IRED OF READING cookbooks that dish out the same old recipes? You won’t find that in The Harvest Baker – by Ken Haedrich. The author has produced more than a dozen cookbooks and is a winner of the Julia Child Cookbook Award. I must admit that, when I first went through the book, I found the recipes a little strange, because they combine fruit, herbs and vegetables with some pretty unusual ingredients. However, when I baked the ricotta pound cake with



FALL 2021


A harvest of useful books for fall reading

Ricotta Pound Cake with Pears baked by Carol Gardner.

pears, walnuts and sage, I finally understood. The resulting loaf was delicious and different to anything I’ve tasted before. The combination of ricotta, sage and pears resulted in something that tastes – like spring! There are plenty of the pumpkin recipes you expect in a harvest book, but not the traditional pumpkin pie. There’s pumpkin soda bread, pecan-coated cheesecake bars, and chocolate-glazed pumpkin cheesecake with gingersnap crust. It’s not just dessert recipes; there’s a plethora of recipes for just about anything, including the savory asparagus, ham and brie pudding that is next on my “to do” list. This book would be a terrific gift for anyone who enjoys cooking but is bored with traditional recipes; it may even give a kick-start to their creativity in the kitchen. The Harvest Baker, Storey Press.

In field guide style Leopold provides the following categories of information about the plants in their natural habitat: • Zones: For a current interactive map of our Plant Hardiness Zones consult Natural Resources Canada • Soil, Light, Attributes: Describes the habitat where the plants are found and information particular to each species, such as details about the plant’s height, leaf form, colour etc. • Propagation: Covers how the plant reproduces either by seed or cuttings and any special information to ensure success • Notes: This section is generally a journal of the author‘s first sighting or study of the species. It may also include related species. • Natural Range: Provides the geographical coordinates of the plant’s natural habitats within Eastern Canada and USA. Be sure to explore the fascinating Map of Regional Plant Communities (page 18). Phlox paniculata

Carol Gardner is a long time TBG member and volunteer, a garden writer and Chair of the Trellis and Through The Garden Gate committees.

Native Plants of the Northeast

A Guide for Gardening and Conservation


Reviewed by Georgie Kennedy

HE GARDENING WORLD these days is buzzing about invasive and native plants. For those who are interested in replacing non-native ornamentals in their gardens with natives, Donald J. Leopold’s book, Native Plants of the Northeast, (in its 10th printing in 2020) is a useful tool. The author hopes readers will “discover our natural plant heritage and how one can use these native plants in the landscape.” The book is not about gardening techniques but is a reference for identifying plants found in the forests and plains of Eastern North America. Somewhat similar to the way field guides are set up, the main part of the book is organized into five groups: Ferns, Grasses, Wildflowers, Shrubs, and Trees with each plant species identified by its botanical name. To make identification easy, each entry is accompanied by a full colour photo of either the flower, leaves, berries or bark.

The Appendix For those who want to identify natives for specific conditions or purposes, the Appendix includes lists of species to help you make appropriate choices: • Plants that tolerate wet soil • Plants that tolerate dry soil • Plants that tolerate shade • Plants with flowers that attract butterflies and hummingbirds • Plants with fruits that attract birds • Plants with fruits that attract mammals Note: A reminder that botanical names change. For instance, Cimicifuga racemosa (black cohosh) has been reclassified as Actaea racemosa.

Native Plants of the Northeast Timber Press. Georgie Kennedy is a Toronto Master Gardener, a garden writer and an avid caretaker of her gardens in Toronto and Jamaica.



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u s q u e e d e P r o v e n c e|

Colonists sliced off pumpkin tops, removed seeds and filled the insides with milk, spices and honey. This was baked in hot ashes and is the origin of pumpkin pie.




Use versatile pumpkin for more than just making pie By Lorraine Hunter


HO DOESN’T LOVE pumpkin pie? But, did you know that pumpkin can be the basis of many other dishes—both sweet and savoury? While visiting Australia several years ago, I was surprised to find pumpkin used as an ingredient in lasagna, risotto, quiche, as a baked or roasted vegetable and more—much the way we use tomatoes in so many different recipes in North America. Commonly thought of as a vegetable, pumpkin is scientifically a fruit, as it has seeds (which are also edible). Rich in

vitamins, especially Vitamin A, and minerals, it is antioxidant, high in fibre and low in calories. Some might call it a super food. Whether you grow it yourself, buy it at the grocery store or farmers’ market, or simply pour it out of a can, pumpkin is a healthy, tasty ingredient for all kinds of dishes. Why not try something new? Incorporate this popular fall produce into your diet. The following cookbooks offer recipes for pumpkin soup, pumpkin cake and pumpkin pie spice which can be used to flavour many dishes.



FALL 2021

PUMPKIN THREE WAYS EASY P UMP KI N C AKE From Serving Up the Harvest by Andrea Chesman, Storey Publishing). Serves 12-15 CAKE

2 cups unbleached all-purpose flour 2 teaspoons baking powder 2 teaspoons ground cinnamon 1 teaspoon baking soda 1 teaspoon salt 1½ cups granulated sugar 1 cup canola oil Lorem 4 largeipsum eggs dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing vel pre1 ¾ cups cooked elit. and Ut mashed tium neque. In ullamcorper erator eget pumpkin or winter squash volutpat posuere. Craspuree quis cursus canned pumpkin diam, sed dignissim neque. Integer pulvinar nisl at dapibus posuere. CREAM CHEESE FROSTING Donec elementum ut odio 8 ounces cream cheese, vitae softened finibus. Quisque bibendum, mauris ½ cup butter, softened cursus vestibulum tincidunt, neque 1 teaspoon pure vanilla extract purus fermentum dolor, et vehicula 2-2½ cups confectioners’ sugar, nunc quam non sapien. Suspendisse sifted ut posue. Cras necthe diam quam. Phasellus 1 Preheat oven to 350° F. Grease nec ex.pan Curabitur faucibus a 9- eleifend by 13-inch with butter and fermentum consectetur. Vestibulum dust with flour. volutpat arcu commodo 2 To make theante, cake,eucombine the mauris feugiatpowder, a. Etiam et dictum flour, baking cinnamon, ante. Vestibulum ornare eros eget baking soda and salt. Mix well. lacinia consequat. Nulla 3 Combine the sugar andsodales, oil and risus quis tempor ultrices, sem nibh beat until light. Add the eggs, one pulvinar vel well mollis lectus nibh at a time,purus, beating after each sit amet tortor. Nullam quis est Add non addition. Beat in the pumpkin. mi auctor vitae aliquam themaximus flour mixture and beat just until neque. Suspendisse Mauris thoroughly blended.potenti. Pour the batter condimentum facilisis into the prepared pan.fermentum. Nam for vulputate orci lorem,until at cur4 Bake 30 to 35 minutes, the sus ultricies ut. Sed vitaetouched. justo top arcu springs back when lightly pharetra, volutpat ipsum in, sollicitu5 Cool completely on a rack.

6 To make the frosting, beat together the cream cheese, butter and vanilla. Add 2 cups of the sugar and beat until smooth. If the frosting is too thin, add the additional cup sugar and beat until smooth. 7 Spread evenly over the cooled cake.

DRY C RE E K H ER B FA R M P U MP KIN P I E SP I C E (From Herb Mixtures & Spicy Blends, Introduction by Maggie Oster, Storey Publishing)

din turpis. Yield: 1½ Fusce cups mollis elit in risus pretium, ut blandit chips* mauris aliquam. ½ cup cinnamon Pellentesque turpis quis dolor ¼ cup wholeblandit star anise molestie, sit amet sagittis nunc vene cup fennel seeds natis. Aliquam tristique tincidunt dig cup dried orange peel nissim. Suspendisse pellentesque elit cup whole cloves in diam vehicula, vitae congue neque cup dried ginger dapibus. Pellentesque bibendum, ipsum ac facilisis bibendum, sapien *To make cinnamon chips, crush dui varius tortor, Mauris convallis whole cinnamon sticks with a augue sit or amet nislheavy sagittis, sed lacinhammer other object. ia Grind enim placerat. Nam consectetur all the ingredients until nulla ut tellus ac imperdiet powdered in arutrum, spice grinder. Be sure risus elementum. In sit amet risus to stop grinding intermittently to at velit molestie finibus. Quisque luckeep the herbs from overheating. tus, nisl bibendum fermenMost of the flavourdictum in herbs and tum, lorem estfrom semper nibh, a blandit spices comes their volatile oils, libero orci elillusby rutrum, which can faucibus be destroyed ac imperdiet risus elementum. In sit excessive heat. Store in an airtight amet risus at velitaway molestie glass container fromfinibus. heat Quisque and light.luctus, nisl bibendum dictum fermentum, lorem est semper nibh, a blanditUSES libero orci faucibus SUGGESTED elit. Nulla vel ante dui. to Donec lacinia •Adds delicious flavour cakes, convalliscookies placerat.and Integer muffins, pies. in lectus enim.spice Suspendisse necalso justo •This blend can bevitae added augue sollicitudin euismod vitae to to ground coffee before brewing in llus rutrum, ac imperdiet risus add a zesty taste.



•For pumpkin pie, add 1 teaspoons spice blend for a mild flavour, or up to 1 tablespoon for a stronger flavour

P U M P K I N SO U P (From The Big Book of Preserving the Harvest by Carol W. Costenbader revised by Joanne Lamb Hayes, Storey Publishing)

2 pounds pumpkin, cut into chunks 3 large baking potatoes 1 large onion, coarsely chopped elementum. In sit amet risus at velit 3 cups chicken stock luctus, nisl molestie finibus. Quisque 2 cups water bibendum dictum fermentum, lorem ½ dried rosemary estteaspoon semper nibh, a blandit libero ½ gratedelit. Parmesan orcicup faucibus Nulla velcheese ante dui. ½ teaspoon Donec laciniasalt convallis placerat. Inte¼ ground nutmeg nec gerteaspoon in lectus enim. Suspendisse ¼ teaspoon ground white pepper justo vitae augue sollicitudin euismod vitae in euismod vitae in llus rutrum, ac rutruorta eleifend ipsum, eget 1 Inllus a heavy, 2-quart saucepan, rutrum orci. malesuada combine theAliquam pumpkin, potatoes, molestie mi lobortis onion, stock, water, suscipit. and rosemary. Vivamus Cover and commodo simmer formaximus about lectus quisminutes, blandit. or Cras nec diam erat. 30 until the pumpkin Pellentesque non lectus et velit feris tender. mentum gravida peel sed nec Cras 2 When cooled, the purus. skin from vel orci sit amet enim luctus porttithe pumpkin pieces and return to the tor. Pellentesque sagittis elementum broth. Puree the mixture in batches in porta. Aenean quisprocessor. feugiat nulis a blender or food Addhenthe dresagittis elementum porta. Aenean cheese, salt, nutmeg and pepper. quis feugiat nulla. Proin risus iaculis Adjust the seasonings. lacus, molestie tortor neque et leo. 3 Ladleutinto a 10-cup freezer Etiam vel label mi veland mi freeze sed justo lacinia container, for up to sed justo lacinia commodo sed luctus two months. lectus quis thaw hendresus. Proin et tinc4 To serve, in the refrigerator. iduntand risus. Proin luctus fringilla pelHeat serve with additional lentesque.cheese, Quisqmi, at laoreet arcu Parmesan if desired. ante at10magna. Yield: cups

FALL 2021


|J a r r a h d a l e |

Every single part of a pumpkin is edible. You can eat the skin, leaves, flowers, pulp, seeds and even the stem!


TBG becomes an open-air runway for virtual fashion show



Clockwise from left to right: 1. Style for all ages from Qweenfecy. Photo by Hana Stockinger 2. Red beauty from Kyle Gervacy. Photo by Chris Cheung 3. Something different for him from Kyle Gervacy. Photo by Jenn Jevons 4. Father & son in African print from Qweenfecy. Photo by Chris Cheung 5. Stepping out in style by Kyle Gervacy. Photo by Jim Orgill 6. Afro-Asian aesthetic garments from Kyle Gervacy. Photo by Abbie Siu 7. Joy & confidence from Qweenfecy. Photo by Chris Cheung

FALL 2021



HERE BETTER to stage an eclectic, artistic virtual fashion show than in a botanical garden against a background of trees, flowers, grasses, shimmering ponds, chirping birds and more? The TBG was one of several iconic landmarks—including such places as Ripley’s Aquarium, Union Station, Sugar Beach, The Music Garden, Scarborough Bluffs, Ontario Science Centre and The Bentway—for Virtual Fashion Week 2021, presented by Fashion Art Toronto (FAT) earlier this summer. Virtual Fashion Week is a cultural production that highlights Toronto’s important cityscapes, landmarks and natural landscapes through the presentation of fashion shows. Taking place across 15 days from May 31 – June 15 Virtual Fashion Week featured some 30 fashion collections by local Toronto designers. Founded in 2005 by Vanja Vasic, the project is an effort to promote Toronto, to innovate, showcase local talent, give a platform to underrepresented voices in fashion, as well as to boost the creative community in this uncertain time of COVID-19. Bold, bright designs on a diverse group of models graced the lawns and flowerbeds as several shows were filmed in the garden, depicting it as a picturesque Toronto destination.



people, places & plants Goings On at the TBG

TBG at Fleurs de Villes

This August 4 to 8, Fleurs de Villes—Flowers of the Cities—took over the Bloor-Yorkville neighbourhood combining a love of flowers and Toronto’s favourite florists to create a stunning ROSE floral trail of over 35 installations in support of breast cancer research. Gorgeous floral displays cascaded over staircases, doorways and bicycles as well as adorning fashion mannequins with creative floriferous garments. Toronto Botanical Garden was pleased to partner with this annual event which visits cities throughout Canada and abroad.

Yorkville Lane Floral Bicycle created by Urban Jungle @urbanjunglecambridge was located at 162 Cumberland St., north entrance.

Kay Takaoka

TBG Mannequin created by Hana Floral Designs and Co. was located in the Manulife Centre.


It is with great sadness that we learnt that Kay Takaoka passed away on June 21st. Kay volunteered in the library for many years, accomplishing so much in her quiet, friendly way, and always willing to go the extra mile. She was very artistic and decorated the library with origami flowers, often bringing in flowers from her own garden as well. As former TBG librarian Mark Stewart said, “Kay made the world a better place.” We would like to express our condolences to the family. —Jean McCluskey


FALL 2021




Book a Guided Fall Colours Tour of the Gardens

Enjoy a guided stroll through one of Toronto’s most beautiful gardens and wild spaces. This 90-minute, interactive tour is led by a knowledgeable garden guide who will be happy to answer your questions. You’ll learn about the plants, pollinators, history and ecological aspects of the Toronto Botanical Garden, Edwards Gardens and Wilket Creek Ravine. Be sure to bring your camera/smartphone as the gardens are full of beautiful blooms and colourful fall foliage. These tours are for individuals or small groups, with a maximum of 10 participants per tour. DURING ATTRACTIONS WEEK (OCT 1 to 10, 2021) FOR AN ADDITIONAL $10 pp: You can end your tour on the TBG Bloom Cafe patio where you’ll enjoy locally sourced hot apple cider and a sweet treat.

Virtual Garden Tours Around the World

The TBG has been hosting live-streamed tours of the garden as part of Heygo Garden Festival. HeyGo is a free live streaming service offering guided tours of places and things all over the world. Whether it is a volcano in Iceland or a small town in Italy, you can “travel” and enjoy just about anything. August was Garden Festival Month with tours of gardens all over the world including the TBG. The first tours were guided by TBG board members and Toronto Master Gardeners Dianne Azzarello and Abdullah Hamidi and Tanya Carvalho from Ball FloraPlant. Visitors from the U.K. and the U.S. joined the tours along with locals and TBG members. TBG plans to continue to offer these tours with other TMG Tour Guides into the fall. Tours are free to join and tip-enabled. Sign-up for free and reserve your spot. garden-festival

Garden Obelisks Make use of vertical space in your garden with a 4 or 6-foot obelisk. Made in Toronto exclusively for the Toronto Botanical Garden, these obelisks are superb structures for showcasing and supporting vines and vegetables. Black, powdercoated steel ensures that these towers remain rust-resistant and durable for many years to come. Available throughout the year at the Garden Shop. Available in two sizes: 4 ft $99.99; 6 ft $124.99.


Direct 416.564.9450 @JoseeCoutureTorontoRealEstate



Derek W Welsh President

I.S.A. Certified Arborist #ON-0129A



utumn Buckskin|


Each pumpkin has about 500 seeds.

Houseplant Profile

CROTON Ideal indoors and out By Georgie Kennedy



’M ABOUT TO MAKE two true confessions. The first is that I have a terrible weakness for foliage. Any plant with curly, variegate, shiny, palmate…oh, I give up… all leaves are fascinating. Knowing this, you’ll understand my attraction to Croton (Codiaeum variegatum). There are innumerable exotic and breathtaking cultivars with twirling, twisting, broad and narrow leaves. C. ‘Gold Dust’ has green and yellow sprinkles; ‘Mother and Daughter’ looks like fireworks; the long thin leaves of ‘Zanzibar’ range in colour from purple to red, yellow and orange. What we

grow indoors in Canada is just a small branch of a large shrub lining driveways and roads throughout the tropics. Native to Indonesia, beautiful Croton has been adopted by equatorial gardeners because it’s simple to maintain and to propagate. As a houseplant, Croton appreciates a sunny location, roughly six to eight hours of light a day in a south, east, or west window (more about this later). When deprived of sun, Croton will lose some of its glamorous, brilliant colour. Water regularly, roughly once a week. You can allow the soil to dry out between waterings but Croton will not



°withstand an extended drought. The only problem I’ve ever encountered is fungus gnats, which can be controlled with little yellow sticky papers. My Jamaican father-in-law called his method of propagating Croton plants circumposing, a fancy word for air layering. There’s an easier way if you would like to make Croton babies; take a stem cutting, dip it in rooting powder and then into damp potting soil or a jar of water. Remember to refresh the water weekly. You’ll soon see new roots. Next time you order a planter basket arrangement, you could ask the florist to include tropicals such as Croton, Areca palm (Dypsis lutescens), or ZZ/Zanzibar Gem (Zamioculcas zamiifolia), which are simple to propagate. Those tiny plants will grow quickly to the delight of any gardening friend. A few years ago, I received a gift basket containing the stunning Croton ‘Petra’; it’s now in a larger container and has doubled in size. Since I was planning to write this Trellis article about how perfectly suited it is for indoors and outdoors, I set it out on our mostly shady east-facing deck mid-June. Here’s the second true confession. Please don’t tell my Master Gardener friends that I failed to place it in full shade for a couple of days so it could become adjusted to the huge change in sky/sun exposure. That’s right, I didn’t harden it off and subsequently burned three gorgeous top leaves, which I had to chop off. Hold on! There’s a silver lining to my error; I learned that pinching and pruning on a regular basis forces the plant to branch out and add more leaves, making it fuller and bushier. I’m already seeing some fresh buds. One last word about taking houseplants back indoors. Do it before the night temperatures dip consistently below 15° C or so, and always shower them off to prevent insect hitch-hikers.

FALL 2021

CREATIVE IDEAS Bento Box inspiration for back-to-school lunches By Jenny Rhodenizer Director of Marketing & Communications

Here are my top six tips for fun and litterless lunchtimes: • Insert an inspirational note card (available online) or a hand- written message so they know you’re thinking of them. • Add a home-grown edible flower, veggie, lettuce, or micro-green sprouts from your garden. • Use a bento box or compartment dividers to pack a variety of treats, add colour and keep your design in place. I use different sizes of colourful, reusable muffin cups. • Pack a reusable napkin and cutlery in a separate bag to contain the mess after it has been used. The TBG Garden Shop has a beautiful set of wooden cutlery with a floral pattern ($11.99). • Look for opportunities to take the fun-factor to the next level with themes like Halloween or other holidays. I use cake decorating accessories that were passed down from my mother for unusual sandwich picks. You can find lots of creative ideas on Pinterest. • Keep it under wraps. Pack the lunch before your child has a chance to see what’s inside so they get a big surprise when they open their lunch box. Bon appetit! TORONTOBOTANICALGARDEN.CA


FALL 2021


NOW THAT IN-PERSON school has started again, parents may groan at the prospect of packing a daily lunch for their children. With a little inspiration, and the right sustainable lunch container you can use this as an opportunity to send an edible hug while nourishing your child for the second half of their day.

BOARD OF DIRECTORS Interim Board Chair: Gordon Ashworth. Members: Barb Anie, Dianne Azzarello, Michele Chandler, Adeline Cheng, Ben Cullen, Tony DiGiovanni, Lisa Ellis, Margareth Lobo Gault, Sue Grundy, Abdullah Hamidi, Harry Jongerden, Nicole Leaper, Michael Schreiner, Melanie Sifton, Janice Winton. Ex Officiate: Christina Iacovino (City of Toronto), Marg Wilkinson (Garden Club of Toronto), Ingrid Smith (Milne House Garden Club).

ABOUT THE TORONTO BOTANICAL GARDEN The Toronto Botanical Garden (TBG) is a volunteer-based, charitable organization that raises more than 95 per cent of its operating funds through membership, facility rentals, retail operations, program fees and donations. The organization relies on its partnership with the City of Toronto and on the generosity and financial commitment of individuals, foundations and corporations to support the many beneficial services we provide to the community. OUR MISSION: Toronto Botanical Garden connects people to plants, inspiring us to live in harmony with nature. OUR VISION: Toronto Botanical Garden will be renowned for its display of nature’s beauty and as a dynamic hub for plant-centred learning, conservation and research.


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GENERAL HOURS of ADMISSION GARDENS: Free admission, dawn to dusk PARKING: $2.50 PER HOUR, Members & TBG Volunteers, FREE GARDEN SHOP: MASTER GARDENERS: Visit for information and to Ask A Master Gardener ADMINISTRATIVE OFFICES & WESTON FAMILY LIBRARY: Reduced hours due to Covid-19. Check for times.

TRELLIS COMMITTEE CAROL GARDNER (CHAIR) LEANNE BURKHOLDER SUE HILLS GEORGIE KENNEDY JENNY RHODENIZER VERONICA SLIVA VOLUNTEER PROOFREADERS JACKIE CAMPBELL LYN HICKEY JEAN MCCLUSKEY MARG ANNE MORRISON ADVERTISING 416-397-4145 Trellis is published as a members’ newsletter by the Toronto Botanical Garden at Edwards Gardens 777 Lawrence Avenue East, Toronto, Ontario, M3C 1P2, 416-397-1341 Trellis welcomes queries for story ideas, which should be submitted to the editor for consideration by the Trellis Committee at least four months in advance of publication dates. Opinions expressed in Trellis do not necessarily reflect those of the TBG. Submissions may be edited for style and clarity.

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777 Lawrence Avenue East, Toronto Ontario M3C 1P2, Canada • 416-397-1341 fax: 416-397-1354 • • @TBG_Canada By TTC: From Eglinton subway station take the 51, 54 or 54A bus to Lawrence Avenue East and Leslie Street. The TBG is on the southwest corner.

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