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winter/Early Spring 2016 • Volume 43 • Number 1

The Magazine of the Toronto Botanical Garden

Winter/spring Program Guide inside!

Beautiful winter bark Page 19

Wake up to Spring with charming Ephemerals Page 8

One container two seasons Page 18


winter/early spring 2016 Volume 43 Nu m b er 1


4 Hort Happenings Wild Bar at Canada Blooms, Swapping Seeds, TBG Seed Library Blogwatch Botanical Buzz Welcome Mark Stewart 5 From the TBG Be part of our future TBGKids Citizen science project Yours, Mine & Ours: Volunteers Receptionist Sandra Althoff Tribute Sonia Leslie 6 Expansion: Bridging the gap 7 Hort Society Get the Jump on Spring


8 Sleeping Beauties Spring ephemerals 12 A Community of Plant- and Garden-Lovers

The history of horticultural societies

14 New Directions TBG Lectures

In Season

16 Garden Gear Birch forest shower curtains

Good Bugs, Bad Bugs Insects that scurry indoors

17 Good Reads The Seed Garden, Seeing Seeds

In Our Gardens Finding your way Anna’s Plant Pick Eranthis hyemalis 18 Container Crazy Winter to spring 19 Paul’s Plant Picks Beautiful winter bark In Your Garden Tips for growing from seed indoors

Happenings Photos (From Top): Toronto Botanical Garden, Tony Spencer, Paul Zammit

20 Who’s Talking Dirk Steinke 21 TBG Lectures Mark Your Calendar

Membership Matters 22 Good News Are we Friends?


Lorraine Flanigan


June Anderson

Trellis Committee

Lorraine Hunter (chair) Lorraine Flanigan (editor) Carol Gardner Sue Hills Harry Jongerden Christine Lawrance Rebecca Lamb Marion Magee Jenny Rhodenizer Paul Zammit Claudia Zuccato Ria

Volunteer Editorial Assistant M. Magee

Horticultural Factcheckers Catherine Peer, Toni Vella

Volunteer Proofreaders

m. Bruce, J. Campbell, L. Hickey, M. Magee, j. Mccluskey and L. Uyeno

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Your Benefits Calling all shop-a-holics! Did you know? TBG Works Bring your TBG membership card to Canada Blooms Friends of the TBG

Trellis is published as a members’ newsletter by the Toronto Botanical Garden at Edwards Gardens 777 Lawrence Avenue East, Toronto, Ontario, M3C 1P2, 416-397-1341 Trellis welcomes queries for story ideas, which should be submitted to the editor for consideration by the Trellis Committee at least four months in advance of publication dates.

All rights reserved. Reproduction in whole or in part is prohibited without written permission. Charitable registration number 119227486RR0001

Opinions expressed in Trellis do not necessarily reflect those of the TBG. Submissions may be edited for style and clarity.

Cover photo: Paul Zammit

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Winter/early spring 2016

news TBGNews Developments

hort happenings

Special Events

—Compiled by Mark Stewart, Weston Family Library

Savour The Flavours of the TBG’s Wild Bar at Canada Blooms Our urban, edible backyard garden is intoxicatingly full of natural beauty, country charm and wild elixirs that will raise your spirits and feed your soul. Belly up to the “Wild Bar” and share your gardening dilemmas with our knowledgeable “bud-tenders”. Drop by the tasting bar to sample pollinator potions, local maple syrup and wild preserves. Browse the gift shop for an exciting selection of pollinator-friendly seeds, seasonal bulbs, live plants, fragrant lavender, local honey, nature-inspired home décor and other nifty essentials for gardeners of all ages. Canada Blooms, March 11 to 20, 2016, Enercare Centre. Tweet about us at #TBGWildBar.

Swapping Seeds Seedy Saturdays and Sundays are community heirloom seed-swapping events. They are held to bring together a community of gardeners and seed savers in an area. Participants have the opportunity to share their own heirloom seeds as well as to

obtain heirlooms from other gardeners. One of the most important parts of seed swapping is sharing the stories that grow along with


Botanical Buzz

heirloom seeds. Most Seedy events happen in late winter and early spring, just in time to start the growing season. Keep an eye on the Seeds of Diversity events page at seeds. ca/events towards the end of winter for Seedy Saturday and Sunday event listings.


The Weston Family Library is developing a seed library. What’s a seed library? It’s a collection of seeds you can check out from the library to grow in your garden. Plant the seeds and enjoy the bounty. Once the plants have gone to seed, save some seeds to return to the library—just like a library book. Seed libraries are popping up all over the world as a way to keep our heirloom varieties alive and well. Watch for developments at the TBG!

Mark Stewart

Knowledge Resources Manager

Mark’s love of plants began during his many years working as a tree planter. He graduated from McGill University with a Master of Information Studies. In 2012, he ran the TBG’s first summer reading club for kids. Before returning to the TBG, he worked at Longwood Gardens Library and Archives as well as Essa Public Library in Ontario where he established a seed library and community garden. In addition to overseeing the TBG’s Weston Family Library, Mark will be working on interpretation strategies for the gardens. Stop by the library and say hello!

Get the behind-thescenes buzz on happenings at the Toronto Botanical Garden from seasoned garden writer and editor Lorraine Hunter. She’ll also be covering horticultural activities in and around the GTA, or wherever her travels take her.


TBG Seed Library


Winter/early spring 2016

PHOTOS (THIS PAGE, FROM TOP): TBG, Seeds of Diversity, Andre Tardif/SVPMedia (Opposite from Top): Andre Tardif/SVPMedia, Kathleen Heithorn-Althoff, TBG


From the TBG

Citizen Science Project

HARRY JONGERDEN Executive Director

Be part of our future


he usual rhythm of life in an established botanic garden can be somewhat serene for garden directors. But it’s been a whirlwind summer and fall season here at the garden and in the director’s office. Winter will provide even more giddy enjoyment as exciting events unfold and progress is made on our plans to create a new TBG. People often assume that we experience some kind of winter lull as though we were school teachers with the summer off or bees in hibernation. But a look at our coming events and programs reveals a hive of humming activity. This past year, it was well into summer before we had to cancel a course for lack of interest. Having worked in a couple of botanic gardens before arriving here, I can tell you what an extraordinary achievement that is. Both adult and children’s programs have been well-attended. This past fall’s lecturers have been superb, with one of them, Claudia West, likely changing the lives of many people who heard her speak in September. We are reminded on such evenings of why our garden is here. And you can be sure we’re letting the City know that. We are making excellent progress in master planning with our City of Toronto counterparts. There will be opportunities for public consultation in that planning process, so stay tuned for announcements of meetings that will allow you to offer your ideas, opinions and support. We’re proud of our programs and influence, but we look around North America to find inspiration and best practices. Reaching more than 7,000 children with our programs each year gives us great satisfaction; however, there are five botanic gardens in North America whose programs reach more than 80,000 children per year. Can the third largest city on the continent do any better? Undoubtedly! Please support us in our vision to make it so. Financial support is always welcome—and much needed! Hearts and Flowers is our annual campaign to fund the botanic garden vision that sustains us. Before the end of 2015, please consider contributing to the TBG’s future. But aside from money, we’ll need your voices. Thank you for all that you’ve done for this garden, and I thank you in advance for what’s coming.

The Teaching Garden is a place for vegetables, children, groundhogs and hummingbirds, but the largest population of living things are arthropods. Wolf spiders, fringetufted moths, blow flies, the humble pine flower scent beetle and the rare click beetle all call the Teaching Garden home. TBGKids is participating in a citizen science program on insect biodiversity with the Biodiversity Institute of Ontario (BIO). A Malaise trap, a type of intercept trap, has been set up in the Teaching Garden to collect specimens for two weeks in spring and fall, and it’s to be used as an educational tool for visiting students. The specimens are sent to BIO for identification using DNA barcoding, and the data are added to the International Barcode of Life project, which has already identified the DNA of half a million species worldwide.

Yours, Mine & Ours Volunteers Receptionist Sandra Althoff The TBG and Edwards Gardens have been Sandra’s go-to places for more than 40 years, and she has been a TBG volunteer for the last six of those years. “Growing up on a farm made post-retirement volunteering at the TBG a natural return to my pastoral beginnings. The TBG has always been a place of solace and beauty for me, from feeding chipmunks with my little ones to staffing the reception desk.” In her working life, Sandra was an executive assistant/office manager/HR in the private and public sectors. Her interests are gardening, golf, reading, the arts, dogs, crosswords and anything that sparks her curiosity. Thank you, Sandra, for bringing your skills and great personality to the TBG!

Tribute: Sonia Leslie

After a prolonged illness, Sonia Leslie passed away in August. We remember her fondly for her remarkable contributions to the Toronto Botanical Garden, as a member of the Board of Directors, tireless volunteer, generous donor and, most importantly, as our friend. She will be missed.


Winter/early spring 2016

news:expansion TBGNews Bridging the gap HARRY JONGERDEN • Executive Director


he Georgia Viaduct is a bridge in downtown Vancouver that begins at street level and heads unnecessarily east between two stadiums. It doesn’t go nearly as far as the freeway builders of the ’70s intended, and people have wanted to tear it down from the beginning. More and more these days, such superfluous bridges are touted as potential parks or gardens in the air. We can thank, or blame, New York’s wildly successful elevated High Line park for inspiring such copycat thinking. But the reason for the success of the High Line is not likely to be found in its plants and gardens. The High Line is successful because it runs through old neighbourhoods with the architecture literally a tiddlywinks

shot away—it’s a rare park where you can peek into someone’s window while strolling the pathways. Bridges with dramatic vistas and views of nature are also successful as attractions or tourist destinations. Think of the Capilano Suspension Bridge or the Rio Grande Gorge Bridge. Unlike the High Line, where we walk amongst the plants growing on the raised structure, these bridges inspire us with vertiginous views of nature. We at the TBG are proposing to build a bridge to span the Wilket Creek ravine from one side of the tablelands of Edwards Gardens to the other. In our version of the Rio Grande bridge, it’s not 565 feet down, or even 230 feet down, as it is from the bridge to the Capilano River. But at a 50- to 60-foot elevation, the bridge will make both sides of an expanded botanic garden available to all. Currently, too many visitors are unable to walk down into


the Wilket Creek ravine and easily get out, a situation that denies them access to the west side of the park and to the ravine landscape itself. In addition to the views from the bridge, pathways will still offer ways to get down to the floodplain and to the restored ravine slopes where some of the most beautiful areas of the new garden will be found. And certainly our most important work, from a conservation standpoint, will be conducted there. The “Wild” component of our proposed “City, Country, Wild” theme will find full expression here. Toronto has numerous bridges that cross our ravines, but as a pedestrian you either have traffic speeding along beside you or below. This will be a people bridge intended to bring our visitors closer to nature. No windows to peep into like the High Line, but a window into the glory of Toronto—our ravine system.

Winter/early spring 2016

photo: Andre Tardif/SVPMedia

This will be a “people bridge intended to bring our visitors closer to nature. ”

news:hort society the event social Calendar Get the Jump on Spring

Free open house with lectures, demonstrations and a floral design competition. Master Gardeners will be on hand to answer your gardening questions. Sign up for Winter Walking Tour. Farmers’ Market and book sale. Saturday, February 20, 10 a.m. to 4 p.m.


Get the Jump on Spring

re you counting the weeks until spring arrives? Join us at one of the earliest harbingers of the season, Get the Jump on Spring. Organized in partnership with District 5 of the Ontario Horticultural Association and the Toronto Master Gardeners, the event offers a chance to find out more about horticultural societies, garden clubs and environmental organizations. This free open house features many exhibitors, and Master Gardeners will be on hand to answer questions. There are fascinating hourly lectures and demonstrations, a popular floral design competition and a marketplace with spring flowers and many garden-themed products for sale. Take a winter walking tour of the garden, browse the gems in the gently-used gardening book sale in the Weston Family Library, visit the TBG Farmers’ Market and don’t forget to indulge in a delectable treat at the Jump Café. Admission is FREE, but a $2 donation to the TBG offers chances to win hourly garden-themed prizes!

Highlights from Get the Jump on Spring The Floral Hall buzzes with activity.

Executive Director Harry Jongerden talks about TBG membership.

Photos: TBG

Don’t miss the wide range of honey and honey products on sale.

Floral arrangements are popular exhibits.

take a shot!

Paul Zammit leads a winter walking tour of the TBG gardens.

Master Gardener Tena van Andel offers tips on growing orchids.

Tweet a pic at Get the Jump on Spring using #JumponSpring and you may find it on the Hort Society page of Trellis!


Winter/early spring 2016

Blue cohosh

Ephemerals blanket the woods in Mono.

beauties sleeping

Seeking spring ephemerals, Tony Spencer takes a walk in the woods and talks with über plant connoisseurs Larry Davidson and Barry Parker.


P h oto s by To n y S p e n c e r

t’s become a first rite of spring: after the eternity of a northern winter, I head to the woods to find the first sleeping beauties that awake from the forest floor. To chance upon the powdersoft buds of purple liverworts (Hepatica nobilis) fluttering their long white lashes into flower; or to marvel at the tightly wrapped cones of bloodroot (Sanguinaria canadensis) that unscroll their virgin-white blooms; or to wander through vast carpets of mottle-leafed trout lily (Erythronium americanum) with downward-cast yellow trumpets as poised as any orchid. And then, there’s the familiar sight of trilliums (Trillium grandiflorum) raising their white tricorn hats in unison to follow the arc of the sun across the sky. It’s love at first sight—all over again. Last spring, in the woodland vales of Mono which I call home, I found exquisite colonies of Dutchman’s breeches (Dicentra cucullaria) growing alongside bursts of yellow

trout lilies (Erythronium americanum), emerging stands of blue cohosh (Caulophyllum thalictroides) and circular mounds of wild leek (Allium tricoccum). Two weeks later, the scene had changed: rare specimens of ruby-coloured Trillium erectum dotted vast sweeps of white trilliums. This early springtime show is enough to make you believe in magic. But like any good fairy tale, there’s a catch. These spring beauties have only two months to grow, become pollinated and set seed before the canopy of trees overhead bursts into leaf to steal their light. Spring ephemerals have evolved using a precisely timed strategy to ensure their survival. Interestingly, they are not technically shade lovers. Ephemerals have developed a very efficient method of photosynthesis that enables them to accelerate growth in early spring sunlight—well ahead of any other plants on the forest floor. Once the sun is gone, so are they, because unlike full-season woodland perennials, true ephemerals do not thrive in shadier conditions.


Winter/early spring 2016

Dutchman’s Breeches


Design stratagems

It’s one thing to experience spring ephemerals in nature, but how can we bring their enchantment down to earth in our own gardens? Whether native or exotic, ephemerals thrive in the dappled shade of deciduous trees and under the following conditions. Ideally, growing environments should mirror the plants’ woodland habitat, with slightly acidic, rich, well-drained soil, mulched with shredded leaf litter. While ephemerals require moisture during their growth cycle, they are relatively drought-tolerant in their quasi-dormant state. (They are fully dormant for 30 to 90 days, after which time their corms and rhizomes slowly continue to grow into the fall.) In a garden situation, you can extend the season of certain ephemerals simply by providing more moisture. This approach is useful for attractive large-leaved ephemerals such as bloodroot and mayapple (Podophyllum), which normally tend to lose their leaves and vanish mid-season. From a planting design perspective, it’s fairly intuitive to work with ephemerals, especially in a naturalistic way where plants are combined into informal patterns and groups to evoke the feel of a natural environment. Many ephemerals spread by rhizomes, corms, bulbs or seed to form large colonies, making them ideal temporary fillers between shade plants that last all season long. They can be planted in and around emerging perennials and shrubs where they will fill the gaps in the vegetative layer on the surface of the ground. To create a spontaneous effect, work with randomized patterns, much like you would with flower bulbs. Another strategy is to plan for season-long succession by pairing spring ephemerals with fall-flowering perennials. For example, plant Virginia bluebells (Mertensia virginica) that bloom in the spring with fall-flowering toad lilies (Tricyrtis) or Japanese anemones (Anemone japonica). Whichever planting plan you employ, handle ephemerals with extreme care when planting to avoid damage to the corms and roots, which might slow their ability to become established. Best planted in spring or fall, you can divide ephemerals in the autumn by gently digging out the corms, cutting them into pieces and then replanting. Or in the case of Erythronium, you can break apart bulb offsets and replant them. Be sure to use a plant marker to identify them when their leaves disappear. Beauty with a purpose


Because they’re the first perennials to bloom in the spring, ephemerals provide an early source of nectar that’s valuable to bumblebees, bee flies, green metallic bees and various other flies, explains Larry Davidson of Lost Horizons nursery in Acton. The flowers of ephemerals such as trout lily, mayapple and merrybells (Uvularia) are downward-facing to better serve insects that cruise the forest floor, says Davidson. After flowering, many ephemerals, such as trilliums, bear seeds with fatty appendages, known as elaiosomes. These attract ants that carry the seeds back to their nests where their young can feed on the elaiosomes, and afterwards the seeds are discarded onto the colony’s garbage heap where conditions are ripe for germination. One ant colony can amass as many as a thousand seeds in a season. All of this happens within a few feet of space, which explains how colonies of ephemerals can expand over time.


Native Spring Ephemerals

This list includes some borderline spring ephemerals (indicated with *), whose leaves do not necessarily die back and therefore they can be useful as season-long groundcovers or as accent plants in shady woodland gardens. • Bloodroot (Sanguinaria canadensis)* • Blue cohosh (Caulophyllum thalictroides)* • Bunchberry (Cornus canadensis)* • Canada mayflower (Maianthemum canadense)* • Canada violet (Viola canadensis) • Carolina spring beauty (Claytonia caroliniana) • Cut-leaved toothwort (Cardamine concatenata) • Dutchman’s breeches (Dicentra cucullaria) • Jack-in-the-pulpit (Arisaema triphyllum) • Jeweled shooting star (Dodecatheon amethystinum) • Liverwort (Hepatica nobilis var. obtusa)* • Mayapple (Podophylum) • Merrybells (Uvularia grandiflora)* • Nodding trillium (Trillium cernuum) • Northern violet (Viola) • Prairie shooting star (Dodecatheon meadia) • Red trillium (Trillium erectum) • Rue anemone (Anemonella or Thalictrum thalictroides) • Squirrel corn (Dicentra canadensis) • Trillium (Trillium grandiflorum) • Trout lily (Erythronium americanum) • Twinleaf (Jeffersonia diphylla)* • Virginia bluebells (Mertensia virginica) • Virginia spring beauty (Claytonia virginica) • Wild leek (Allium tricoccum) • Wood anemone (Anemone quinquefolia var. quinquefolia) • Wood poppy (Stylophorum diphyllum)

Winter/early spring 2016

Best Exotic Ephemerals

Natives are not the only option. Former Toronto gardener Barry Parker, who now lives in Montreal, astutely points out that many Asian woodland genera share a common genetic link and habitat preferences with North American species because the continents were connected by a land bridge during the last Ice Age. This opens up a wealth of choices for desirable specimens of genera such as Podophyllum, Trillium and Arisaema. Based on recommendations from Barry Parker and Larry Davidson, the following list identifies exotic ephemerals that are suitable for Toronto gardens. All selections prefer part sun to shade. Asian twinleaf (Jeffersonia dubia)


This Korean version of our native Jeffersonia produces numerous stalks of upward-facing mauve flowers in early spring, followed by attractive two-lobed leaves. Forms large colonies. 30 cm high. Bittercress (Cardamine nuttallii syn. C. pulcherrima)

A charming western Canadian native ephemeral that’s fully hardy here. Pale pink to light purple with darker veins held on short strong stems. Spreads by rhizomes to form a small mat. 30 cm high. Bloodroot (Sanguinaria canadensis f. multiplex)

This double bloodroot forms handsome clumps in the woodland. Its sterile flowers last much longer than the fertile single species. 30 cm high. Japanese primrose (Primula sieboldii) This specimen features soft pubescent leaves and wonderful fringed flowers. Various cultivars offer dazzling colour options. Stoloniferous. 20 cm high. Japanese wood poppy (Hylomecon japonica)

Studded with single, bright yellow four-petalled flowers, this wood poppy has attractive foliage all season long. 30 cm high.

Read more about

ephemerals • The Explorer’s Garden: Rare and Unusual Perennials

by Daniel J. Hinkley, Timber Press, 2009, 380 pages.

Native Plants of the Northeast: A Guide for Gardening & Conservation by Donald J. Leopold, Timber Press, 2005, 308 pages.

Where to buy

ephemeral plants • Fraser’s Thimble Farm: Rare and Native Plant Nursery, Salt Spring Island, British Columbia (

• Lost Horizons Nursery, Acton, Ontario ( • St. Williams Nursery & Ecology Centre, St. Williams, Ontario (

True lover’s knot (Paris quadrifolia) This rhizomatous European woodlander features subtle green cross-shaped foliage and wispy yellow-green flower petals. 25 to 40 cm high. Wood anemone (Anemone nemorosa ‘Vestal’) A double white form of wood anemone with masses of star-shaped flowers and lacy foliage, it’s both tough and delicate and comprised of bulbs that clump up over time. 15 cm high. Yellow toadshade (Trillium luteum)

This native of the eastern United States is easier to grow than our native T. grandiflorum and features silver and green mottled foliage with lemon-scented yellow flowers. 30 to 45 cm high.

Tony Spencer is an instructor at the TBG and co-regional director of the Garden Writers Association (GWA). His blog, The New Perennialist, was awarded Gold by the GWA for Best Overall Electronic Media, 2015.


Winter/early spring 2016

classifieds GARDEN TOURS with Margaret Dailey-Plouffe. Tours that exceed your expectations. 2016 tours: MARCH: Philadelphia Flower Show; APRIL: Victoria/Vancouver Island.; JUNE: Ireland; JULY: Hudson River Valley; AUGUST: Chicago/Wisconsin & Frank Lloyd Wright. HNA Travels is also offering DAY TOURS. Call: 416-746-7199/877-672-3030.

Make use of vertical space in your garden with a 6-foot obelisk. Made in Toronto exclusively for the Toronto Botanical Garden, these obelisks are superb structures for showcasing and supporting vines and vegetables. Black, powder-coated steel ensures that these towers remain rust-resistant and durable for many years to come. Available throughout the year at the Garden Shop, $89

Host your next special event in our garden


Derek W Welsh President

I.S.A. Certified Arborist #ON-0129A


TREE CARE INC. 416-397-1324

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Garden Tours


Marjorie Mason and

2016 DeparTures To:

• England • IrEland • nEw York CItY For more information or to make a reservation, contact your travel professional or call 1-800-668-6859 For full itinerary details visit the garden tours section at:

A Community of Plant- and garden-lovers Carol Gardner traces the history of horticultural societies, many of which hold events at the Toronto Botanical Garden

When we think of present-day horticultural societies, we often associate them with plant shows and sales, garden tours and lectures. On weekends at the TBG, scores of people attend one or another horticultural society’s plant sales, and they sometimes take umbrage when there isn’t one going on, leaving our receptionists to explain that these associations organize their own schedules and do their own advertising—and Horticultural and Plant Societies at the TBG



Canadian Chrysanthemum & Dahlia Society

Garden Club of Toronto

Geranium, Pelargonium & Fuchsia Society of Ontario


Master Gardeners of Toronto

Milne House Garden Club

Mycological Society of Toronto

North Toronto Horticultural Society

Ohara School of Ikebana, Toronto Chapter

Ontario Horticultural Association - District 5

Ontario Iris Society

Ontario Rock Garden and Hardy Plant Society

Southern Ontario Orchid Society

Toronto African Violet Society

Toronto Bonsai Society

Toronto Cactus & Succulent Club

Toronto Gesneriad Society

Toronto Judging Centre of the American Orchid Society

Toronto Region Rhododendron & Horticultural Society


Winter/early spring 2016

PHOTO: Lorraine Flanigan

For information about meetings, sales, shows and events, visit the websites of the following societies and organizations that meet at the TBG.

as a child was the thing that started her lifelong passion for gardening. In more recent times, horticultural societies and their associations have been responsible for a number of important initiatives, including the development of a program of community gardens, led by Marjorie Durnford, a lifetime member of the Guelph Township Horticultural Society. In the 1990s when the Master Gardener program was adopted in Ontario, horticultural society members were approached to join the program, and they did so with gusto. The first horticultural society in Ontario was established in 1834 in the Town of York. Today, the province has 282 horticultural societies. The next time you attend one of their events, remember that, although they expose us to a great deal of beauty and knowledge, what you’re seeing is just the tip of the iceberg. These plant lovers are also fierce lobbyists for the conservation of the environment and the beautification of the province. Like the TBG, they’re always looking for new members. With thanks to the Ontario Horticultural Association for its historical information. Carol Gardner is an award-winning garden writer, member of the Trellis Committee and volunteer receptionist and coordinator at the TBG.

Photo: Janet Davis

choose to hold their events at the TBG. This explanation doesn’t always go down well because, let’s face it, when you want to buy a plant, you want to buy a plant. Horticultural societies are descendants of the agricultural societies that existed in much earlier civilizations. There are other modern offshoots of agricultural societies, notably the Canadian National Exhibition, the successor of the Provincial Agricultural Fair, which began in 1846. It was only in 1906 that an act of the Ontario Legislatures defined two different umbrella organizations: the Ontario Horticultural Association (OHA) and the Ontario Agricultural Fairs Association. Whatever they’re called, horticultural societies have always responded to the needs of their communities, whether agricultural or horticultural. During World War I, in association with the Ploughman’s Association Teamsters, horticultural society members ploughed hundreds of vacant lots to grow food for the needy. These gardens continued throughout the Great Depression. When World War II came around, those vegetable gardens were renamed Victory Gardens and, with the help of public school children, they provided food for many families both in Canada and abroad. One of the participants in the TBG’s last garden tour told us that winning the prize for the biggest Victory Garden cantaloupe

Get the jump on spring Saturday, February 20, 2016 10 a.m. to 4 p.m. 30+ exhibitors (horticultural societies, garden clubs and environmental organizations) along with garden-related vendors Demonstrations and presentations “Let’s Play Outside” floral design competition – includes two design classes for youth Toronto Master Gardeners on hand to answer your gardening questions Winter garden tour Organic farmers’ market Jump Café for lunch and snacks Jump discount in the Garden Shop Sale of gently-used gardening books NEW for 2016 Sale of gently-used vases

FREE ADMISSION & FREE PARKING $2 donation appreciated. Those who donate will be entered in free prize draws, 1 every hour!

Toronto Botanical Garden 777 Lawrence Avenue East TBG’s Annual Horticultural Open House presented by a committee of volunteers and


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New Directions TBG Lectures

Market runs all winter (except December 24 & 31)

Choose the freshest, healthiest foods, meet our organic vendors and enjoy farm tales, cooking tips and snacks or supper in a beautiful setting. The winter market is held inside TBG’s main entry hall, overlooking winter foliage and snow-globe scenes. Shop in comfort no matter what the weather.

Toronto Botanical Garden 777 Lawrence Avenue East


or more than ten years, the TBG Lectures have delighted hundreds with speakers from the world of horticulture, botany, landscape design and more. Conceived to present leading-edge thinkers from around the world, it’s no surprise that the lectures have been identified as the single most valued membership benefit. The thematic choices for the lectures have always reflected the interests of TBG members. In the past, the lectures’ focus has been mainly on plants and design, with occasional forays into biodiversity, plant conservation, environmental innovation and sustainability. But, as the TBG changes to keep pace with the times, so does our membership. Today, our vibrant and diverse membership includes more families, young adults, students and professionals. They bring with them a surge of interest for leading-edge, environmentally focused information on a variety of topics which, in turn, inform the thematic choices of TBG programs, primarily the TBG Lectures.

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And so in future lectures, we will explore broader themes that encompass biodiversity, conservation and ecosystem health; the sociological, health and mental health influences of nature as well as the impact of a lack of exposure to nature; sustainability issues that underpin the ability of nature and humanity to thrive. And, of course, spectacular garden and landscape design that highlights the beauty and fragility of our green spaces. The TBG Lectures will feature more leading thinkers from around the world, more ideas to embrace in our daily lives; and more that is sure to influence the way we look at nature and how it impacts the way we live. And also, these lectures will offer more opportunities to engage communities who are passionate about nature and prepared to embrace a conservation and sustainability ethos. The TBG Lectures, in their new thematic format, will remain one of the TBG’s most effective programs to educate and inspire our members while helping to attract like-minded nature lovers to our garden. See you there!


Winter/early spring 2016

Photo: MarK Stewart

The TBG’s Education Department has been working hard to bring you naturefocused lectures and leading-edge speakers from around the world for 2016.

in season Garden Gear Bring nature indoors

Good Bugs, Bad Bugs Outside-In When it’s cold outside, says Bug Lady Jean Godawa, some insects scurry into our homes—and that’s a good thing! sow bug centipede

For the tree hugger or nature lover, come to the Garden Shop and choose from two styles of shower curtains printed with eye-catching birch forest designs. Outside the bathroom, these curtains could be used as attractive— and economical—wall coverings. $29.99 while supplies last. 10 per cent discount with TBG membership ID.

During winter plant enthusiasts have to be satisfied with tending to houseplants or to seasonal favourites like poinsettia or narcissus. We expect the rest of the garden to sleep until spring. But it’s cold outside, and some garden creatures prefer the warmth of our homes to a leaf litter blanket. Entering through tiny cracks in concrete, poorly sealed windows and even on pets and firewood, they hide in the warm damp areas of your home, such as basements or drains. They may startle you if you see them scurrying across the floor, but don’t worry. These creatures are typically harmless and often helpful. Centipedes, those long, flat-bodied, multi-legged sprinters, may look frightening but they are helpful predators. Outside they feed on plant pests. Inside they eat household bugs like carpet beetles or clothes moths. Spiders also feed on unwelcome household insects. Although there’s a slight possibility they might bite


humans, both centipedes and spiders prefer to run away. A bite from a house centipede or house spider, while rare, might go undetected or could feel like a mild bee sting. Sow bugs and pill bugs can survive the winter inside if they have plant debris to feed on—and if they avoid any spiders and centipedes that may be lurking. Leaf-footed bugs are large, plant-eating insects, usually with leaf-like shapes on their hind legs. Indoors they usually find refuge in attics where they slow their metabolism and hide out until spring. Ladybugs often do this as well. We accept the vital role of insects and other creatures in the garden, but sometimes they encroach on our territory. If they become problematic, try using a dehumidifier in damp areas of your home. Outside, keep wood piles and plant debris away from the house foundation, and seal any cracks or service lines that run through concrete and brick.

Winter/early spring 2016

Photos (This page Left to Right): Paul Zammit, Ken SProule Opposite: PauK/WikiMedia

pill bug

Good Reads —Weston Family Library

The Seed Garden

The Art and Practice of Seed Saving, edited by Lee Buttala and Shanyn Siegel, 350 pages, 2015, paperback.

In our


Finding your way through the gardens has become easier with the installation of three new signs in the Perennial Garden, the Woodland Walk and Bird Habitat and the Entryway Garden. The signs were made possible thanks to the generous support of The Friends of the Don East, the Ontario Ministry of the Environment and the Garden Club of Toronto.

This book brings together the combined expert knowledge of the Seed Savers Exchange, an organization committed to the preservation of heirloom seed varieties. Richly illustrated and comprehensive, The Seed Garden is as beautiful as it is informative. In a straightforward manner, the book explains the botany behind how plants breed and how you can use that knowledge to save your own heirloom seeds. Extensive profiles explain how to save seeds, plant by plant. This book is the go-to resource for all your seed-saving needs.

Seeing Seeds

A Journey into the World of Seedheads, Pods, and Fruit, by Teri Dunn Chace with photography by Robert Llewellyn, Timber Press, 284 pages. 2015, hardcover.

Seeds, though often overlooked, exist in a stunning multitude of sizes, shapes and colours. This book places the humble seed in a bright new light. Using special photography techniques, seeds, pods and fruits are photographed from various angles and then stitched together using software to produce images in sharp focus with crystal detail. While this book is definitely beautiful, it’s not just a pretty face. It contains fascinating information on what seeds are, what they do and how they do it. The way a tiny acorn opens up into a majestic tree, this book opens the world of the modest seed with fascinating information and images. It will change the way you see seeds and might even make you think twice before deadheading! Come see it for yourself in the Weston Family Library. —Mark Stewart, Weston Family Library

Anna’s Plant Pick Eranthis hyemalis Winter aconite Winter aconites (Eranthis hyemalis) are one of the first flowers to give a promise of spring. Tiny bunches of green leaves unfurl and open upwards to reveal a bright yellow buttercup-like flower sitting on what looks like a frilly green platter. Pretty enough, winter aconites often poke up through the snow, usually flowering by the third week of March, but sometimes appearing in February if the winter is warm. They need full sun when flowering, but grow happily under deciduous trees that leaf out after the plant dies down. When sited in the right place, they’re long-lived—my grandmother planted some that have lasted 80 years! They also self-seed. E. hyemalis is native to Europe, and although tubers of the species are commonly available in the fall, the double, bronze and pale yellow cultivars are difficult to find. Seed of these is sometimes available from alpine garden societies. If you find them, plant seeds straightaway into sterile soil, place the pot in a sheltered spot outdoors—and wait. Tubers of E. hyemalis are available in nurseries in the fall. Soak the small lumpy dark brown tubers overnight in lukewarm water, and then plant them 5 to 8 centimetres deep in well-drained soils amended with compost. Unlike many bulbs, the soil should not dry out, although the flower stalks and the other umbrella-like leaves die down in late spring. Note that all parts of the plants are poisonous. Hardy to Zone 3. Look for some in gardens this spring, beg a clump or some seeds and scatter them around. —Anna Leggatt is a retired Master Gardener.


Winter/early spring 2016

in season plant it! container


Designing From Winter to spring

One beautiful container, says Paul Zammit, does double duty in two seasons. Onthe cover

One stunning container forms an important element in two seasonal arrangements, one for winter and another in the spring. A frost-resistant urn makes the perfect container for this holiday design of evergreen boughs and magnolia leaves.

What you’ll need 1 16-inch container 1 1-gallon pot of HGC Ice Breaker Max hellebore (Helleborus × nigercors ‘Coseh 750’) 3 4-inch pots of English ivy (Hedera helix) with long trailing stems 1 4-pack of Victorian ruffled pansies (e.g. Viola x wittrockiana ‘Frizzle Sizzle Mix’) 1 4-inch pot of’ ‘Tête-à- tête’ daffodils (Narcissus ‘Tête-à-tête’) 2

4-inch pots of ‘Springwood White’ heather (Erica carnea ‘Springwood White’)

1 bunch of pussy willow branches

I fell in love with the shape of the urn in this arrangement when I saw it in a window display of a Montreal florist shop—I knew I had to plant it! For spring planters, I tend to pack in the plants to provide a full effect instantly. I’m also a fan of using spring-blooming perennials and bulbs that can be transferred to the garden when it’s time to rework the combination for summer.


Winter/early spring 2016

English ivy to trail over the edge of the container, wind the stems inside the rim of the urn to skirt the plantings at their base. This shows off the shape of the rustic iron planter, which forms an important element in the overall design.

PHOTOS: Paul Zammit

Tip: Rather than allowing the

In Your



Jobs To Do

Beautiful winter bark

Tips for Growing from Seed Indoors

Seven son flower (Heptacodium miconioides)

Use clean, sterilized propagating kits with clear covers.

Many plants with attractive bark, says Paul Zammit, put on an eye-catching show from December to March.

Although it can be trained as a small, single-stemmed tree, this multi-stemmed, vase-shaped shrub can reach an impressive nine metres. At the nursery, Heptacodium tends to be a bit of an ugly duckling. Select a plant with more than one stem, and for the first few growing seasons, prune it hard in the spring to encourage branching and new shoots to sprout from the base. Although the fall foliage colour is insignificant, it’s the multi-hued tan, brown and grey peeling bark that is its greatest feature. A single specimen grows in the Pollinator Garden outside the Weston Family Library. Hardy to Zone 5, and sometimes colder.

Label each pot or flat with name and date. Use a mister to avoid over- or under-watering.

Japanese stewartia (Stewartia pseudocamellia)

This small, nine-to 14-metre tall pyramidal tree should be planted where it can be admired in every season. The rich green spring foliage provides the perfect backdrop to the showy white camellia-like summer blossoms. In fall, the tree puts on a spectacular show of orange to burgundy foliage. But my favourite season for this plant is winter when the multicoloured exfoliating bark makes it look like living sculpture. See it in the Floral Hall Courtyard. Hardy to Zone 6, and sometimes colder.

3 Paperbark maple (Acer griseum)

A beautiful, nine-to 14-metre ornamental garden specimen for every day of the year, paperbark maple produces eyecatching clusters of soft, yellow blooms that appear before the trifoliate leaves emerge in spring. These unfurl in a cinnamon colour and then mature to medium to dark green with a blue-green underside. In fall, the foliage ranges through shades of orange, red and bronze. Once the leaves drop, the show-stopping cinnamon to copper exfoliating bark takes centre stage. The bark peels and curls, persisting through multiple seasons. Four specimens are planted in the Entryway Garden. Hardy to Zone 4.


Winter/early spring 2016

Check flats daily and remove covers for an hour to reduce excess humidity. Once seeds have germinated, remove covers completely. Transplant seedlings into larger pots when the first pair of true leaves appears. Feed seedlings with an organic fertilizer, and gradually introduce seedlings to the outdoors after last frost date. Follow instructions on the seed packet, in books or catalogues for planting times and requirements for light, air, water and warmth. –Toronto Master Gardeners



Use a sterile soilless mix to prevent “damping off” (diseased seedlings).

Ch eck L ist

Paul’s Plant Picks

torontomaster for detailed Garden Guides.

happenings TBG Lectures are generously supported by The W. Garfield Weston Foundation, The J.P. Bickell Foundation and Tim & Frances Price


How has your background affected your current research?

It has helped me to never lose sight of the big picture. Although my career led me to research fish genetics and DNA-based identification, I remain curious about the connections among all forms of life.

There have already been a multitude of applications, such as testing the authenticity of food and natural remedies, providing environmental assessments and fighting the spread of pest species. Above all, it would help us better understand the world we profoundly reshape.

Dirk Steinke catches an Epaulette shark at low tide on Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef, Australia.

Who’s Talking

Love it



Since joining the Biodiversity Institute of Ontario (BIO) in 2006, Dirk Steinke has been involved in DNA barcoding research, and he now leads BIO’s Education and Outreach team.

Cataloguing Life on Earth Thursday, January 21, 2016 7:30 p.m.

What’s the greatest impact that modern biodiversity has on environmental issues?

Only a much more detailed knowledge of biodiversity and its interactions can help us understand our real impact on the environment. How soon will your research start impacting our lives?

As we speak. After 12 years of research it can now be picked up by anyone.


Leave it

What single thought would you like to communicate through your lecture?

Life on Earth is astonishing and needs our help.

Pre-lecture light dinner from 4:30 p.m. Floral Hall doors open at 6:30 p.m. Public $25, students (with valid ID) $15, TBG members FREE. Bring a friend for $10.



Winter/early spring 2016

PHOTOS (FROM TOP): Oliver Lucanus (, courtesy Dirk Steinke, Nick Le/Flickr

How would bar coding nature affect our daily lives?

Mark your Calendar tbg lectures

NEW NATURALISM: HOW AN ECOLOGICAL UNDERSTANDING OF PLANTING WILL SPUR THE NEXT RENAISSANCE OF HORTICULTURE Thursday, March 3, 2016 THOMAS RAINER Landscape architect and writer Thomas Rainer takes a critical look at the changing face of horticulture. He will explore the work of leading contemporary designers working in a naturalistic style, and extract strategies for more beautiful and resilient lush plantings. The Art and artistry of Chanticleer Thursday, April 7, 7:30 p.m. DAN BENARCIK As a horticulturist at Pennsylvania’s Chanticleer Garden for 23 years, Dan Benarcik will share his in-depth knowledge of the renowned garden and its history, give insights into what is happening there today and show what sets Chanticleer apart from other public gardens.


Winter/early spring 2016

April 23, 2016 Earth Day events include sowing seeds in the Teaching Garden.

Special Events

Get the Jump on Spring Saturday, February 20, 2016, 10 a.m. to 4 p.m. Beat the winter blues at our annual open house for the horticultural community with its live displays, free gardening advice, talks, demonstrations and a floral design competition. Enjoy lunch in the Jump Café and browse specialty vendors, farmers’ market, artisan booths and the Garden Shop. FREE admission, free parking. With a $2 donation, you’ll be entered into hourly free draws! Earth Day Saturday, April 23, 2016, noon to 4 p.m. Kick off the growing season with the TBG’s Family Earth Day celebration. Enjoy guided hikes, scavenger hunts, nature theatre and woodland crafts with DiscoverAbility and planting in the Teaching Garden. Grab a Discovery Map and follow the balloons to the Teaching Garden. Stroller accessible. FREE! No registration required.

Goings on in the Weston Family Library

Author Talk Saturday, April 23, 2016, 1 p.m. Jason Ramsay-Brown, author of Toronto’s Ravines and Urban Forests. FREE

CATALOGUING LIFE ON EARTH Thursday, January 21, 7:30 p.m. Dirk Steinke It has taken more than 200 years to assemble our knowledge of as little as 20 per cent of the life on Earth. Now, when our planet is facing an extreme loss of biodiversity, it’s time to speed up the process. Dirk Steinke will talk about how the Canadian idea of DNA barcoding has become our greatest hope for such an endeavour.

Documentary Screening Series Saturday, February 27, 2016, 3 p.m. Dirt! The Movie Saturday, March 19, 2016, 3 p.m. Open Sesame: The Story of Seeds Saturday, April 30, 2016, 3 p.m. More than Honey Public $12; Members $10

Organic Farmers’ Market

Thursdays, 2 to 7 p.m. Fresh, local veggies and greens all winter, plus meats, cheese, eggs, dried fruits and nuts, spices, syrup, jams, personal care products, snacks and more.

TBG Clubs & Groups

Book Club Last Wednesday of every month, 7 to 8:30 p.m., in the Weston Family Library. Open to TBG and Book-Lovers Members only. To register, and for more information, contact Jan Neuman: or 416-656-8246. FREE. Library Story Time Mondays, 11:20 to 11:40 am. Weekly nature stories and songs for children, ages 1 to 3. FREE. Poetry Group Monthly meetings in the Weston Family Library. For more information and to register, contact Joanne Sedlacek at j.sedlacek@ or Kirk Davis at kirk. FREE.

membership matters good news

your benefits

Claudia Zuccato Ria Director of Development

Calling all shop-a-holics!

Are We Friends? At the TBG, “Friends” refers to a specific the level of member engagement, a membership category that includes an annual contribution of $100 to $499 in addition to the membership fee. Other Toronto cultural institutions offer similar ways to indicate donation levels that are associated with membership fees: the AGO, Gardiner Museum and McMichael Collection call this category of giving Contributing Member; the ROM calls it Curators’ Circle. At the TBG, the “Friendly” moniker has created more than a little confusion among our loyal members and donors when it is taken literally, as a statement on the depth of the bond between a member and the TBG. To further complicate matters, the Annual Giving program, affiliated with membership renewal, is also called TBG Friends. Needless to say, it is time to clear things up. If you make a donation anytime during the calendar year, you might ask, “Why am I not part of the Friends program?” It’s a good question, and one that we explored in the Super Summer 2015 issue of Trellis. The answer is simple: the most coveted donation is the one we can predict, because the strength of a fundraising program lies in the ability to count on regular donations—within a reasonable degree of certainty. This is the reason why donor loyalty, as indicated by returning members who make gifts along with their annual membership renewals, is recognized with special benefits. Starting in January 2016, TBG members making annual donations of $100 to $499 along with their membership fee will be Friends no more (hold the collective gasp!). Rather, this level of giving when made at the time of membership renewal, will be called Contributing Member. Are we all in agreement, dear TBG friends?

TBG membership does have its privileges. In fact, it has several. As we approach the holiday season, one of the most popular benefits is the 10 per cent discount at the Garden Shop. Have you been at the shop lately? The new and always attractive products for sale now will tempt the most cautious shoppers among us—and the member discount will chase away any shop-a-holic guilt!


Did you know

Before Rupert E. Edwards sold the Edwards Gardens property to the City of Toronto for $153,000, he was offered $400,000 from building developers. He refused the offer, and the gardens are now here for all to enjoy.

tbg works

Bring your TBG membership card to Canada Blooms! The TBG will be at Canada Blooms from March 11 to 20, 2016. Located at the Enercare Centre, the TBG will host a booth combining education, information and carefully curated retail goods, many of which are Canadian-made. TBG members will enjoy a 10 per cent savings on purchases, and non-members can sign up on the spot to receive the member discount.


The Toronto Botanical Garden (TBG) is deeply grateful to its Friends for providing continued and generous support towards programs and services. Our Friends enable the TBG to educate and provide the community with information on horticulture, gardening and environmental issues through lectures, courses and events. The following individuals made a contribution to the Friends program between June 3 and September 28, 2015. BENEFACTORS Linda Martin Gino Scapillati

Friends Carol Bairstow Gail Bebee Michele Bussieres

Deborah Cloakey Susan Gustavison Catherine Paterson Katie Pfisterer


Receive the latest horticultural news and information on events, workshops, lectures and other horticultural happenings. Free registration at

About The Toronto Botanical Garden

Let’s Talk The friendly staff in the Development and Membership Department are happy to answer your questions and hear your suggestions. To talk about membership, donations, including Friends donations and receipts, contact Sharon Rashid, Development Officer. For special events, see Christine Lawrance, Special Events Coordinator. For any other inquiry, contact Claudia Zuccato Ria, Director of Development. See Staff Directory for contact details.

The Toronto Botanical Garden (TBG) is a volunteer-based, charitable organization whose purpose is to inspire passion, respect and understanding of gardening, horticulture, the natural landscape and a healthy environment. The TBG raises more than 95 per cent of its operating funds through membership, facility rentals, retail enterprises, program fees and donations. The organization relies on the generosity and financial commitment of individuals foundations and corporations to help maintain the gardens and support the many horticultural and environmental services we provide to our community. Charitable registration number 119227486RR001.


Gardens: Free admission, dawn to dusk Administrative Offices: Monday through Friday, 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. Weston Family Library: Monday to Friday, 10 a.m. to 4 p.m., Saturday, Sunday, noon to 4 p.m. Open on TBG Lecture nights Garden Shop: 10 a.m. to 4 p.m. daily Master Gardeners: Visit for information and to Ask A Master Gardener Advice Clinics at the TBG Farmers’’ Market, Thursdays 2 to 4:30 p.m. (Winter) 2 to 7 p.m. (Spring through Fall) Info Line 416-397-1357 Membership: $45 single, $65 family. Call 416-397-1483 or sign up online at


Honorary Patron: Adrienne Clarkson

Brian Bixley, Mark Cullen, Camilla Dalglish, Sondra Gotlieb, Marjorie Harris, Lorraine Johnson, Michele Landsberg, Susan Macaulay, Helen Skinner


President: Allan Kling. Co-Chairs: Allan Kling and Rebecca Golding. Tim Bermingham, Mark Bonham, Heather Cullen, Kaitlyn Furse, Denis Flanagan, Colomba B. Fuller, Patrisha Galiana, Ryan Glenn, Joyce Johnson, Cathy Kozma, Vaughn Miller, Penny Richards, Alexandra Risen, Gino Scapillati, Judy Shirriff, Barbara Yager

STAFF DIRECTORY Executive Director Harry Jongerden 416-397-1346 BUSINESS AND FINANCE Director of Business and Finance Margaret Chasins 416-397-1484 Accounting, Nadesu Manikkavasagam 416-397-1352 Database & Technology Administrator Paul Galvez 416-397-1371 Marketing & Communications Department Marketing & Communications Director Jenny Rhodenizer 416-397-1351 Trellis Editor Development Department Director of Development Claudia Zuccato Ria 416-397-1372 Development Officer, Sharon Rashid 416-397-1483 Special Events Coordinator Christine Lawrance 416-397-1321 Rentals & Events Department Rentals Supervisor, Patricia Chevers 416-397-1324 Rental Sales Coordinator, Katie Pfisterer 416-397-1349 Rentals Accounting, Jane Huang 416-397-1359

goTo to learn about the TBG!

777 Lawrence Avenue East, Toronto, Ontario M3C 1P2, Canada 416-397-1341; fax: 416-397-1354 • • @TBG_Canada By TTC: From Eglinton subway station take the 51, 54 or 54A bus to Lawrence Avenue East and Leslie Street. The TBG is on the southwest corner.

Find us on...


Education Department Director of Education, Colleen Cirillo 416-397-1355 Children’s Education Supervisor, Community Programs, Diana Wilson 416-397-1288 Children’s Education Supervisor, School Programs, Josh Padolsky 416-397-5209 Adult Education Coordinator, Rebecca Lamb 416-397-1362 Tour Guide Coordinator, Sue Hills 416-397-4145 Weston Family Library Knowledge Resources Manager, Mark Stewart 416-397-1375 Horticulture Department Nancy Eaton Director of Horticulture Paul Zammit 416-397-1358 Head Gardener, Sandra Pella 416-397-1316 Taxonomic Assistant, Toni Vella Garden Shop Supervisor, Heidi Hobday 416-397-1357 Head, Volunteer Services Sue Hills 416-397-4145 Maintenance Maintenance Manager, Walter Morassutti Maintenance Officers: Alvin Allen, Renata Farkas, Jonas Kweko-Teye 416-397-1344

Winter/early spring 2016

Trellis magazine - Winter/Spring 2016  
Trellis magazine - Winter/Spring 2016  

Toronto Botanical Garden's members magazine includes: Walk up to Spring with Charming Ephemerals, Beautiful Winter Bark, One Container - Two...