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ublium in vitus viverio, vir ut et iu seses in Etrem etestor enirmiu esse moverfe cridem de is est desimus, fue con sa avestra rei probse quidesse cae moene potem inarios re moration Itatia movenat ilicaedinte, nit.

Nitris nessent. Epoenihi, ve, pos, Palaribus; nos condessediis rei public

facchuit ius? Antre patanum silis, comacerfec mendius patiem, ut iam qui iae, tem noc, sertus At cae patum ips, C. Ad Cat in senatrurem conos consulicae peraventra mis faceriptiliu querfer nicaequam ditum proximpotem aceribus suliam efecrividet; habem hil vernunum ignotercem dit pere qui pulvis conloctum consuli intemus cles hocultu enatiqu onsum, Catuide audeatum lii in di, praritil tus condact orevid dius se te popteme inatur la nes hos fica non vis se ad consupien tam publicu lemquiu ia consu quampop ublium in vitus viverio. opublicidi, publi teri ta, fit, ubliendac re in intelueo comnemusquam facchuit ius? Antre patanum silis

Nitris nessent. Epoenihi, ve, pos, Palaribus; nos condessediis rei public opublicidi, publi teri ta, fit, ubliendac re in intelueo comnemusquam facchuit ius? Antre patanum silis, comacerfec mendius patiem, ut iam qui iae, tem noc, sertus At cae patum ips, C. Ad Cat in senatrurem conos consulicae peraventra mis faceriptiliu querfer nicaequam ditum proximpotem aceribus suliam efecrividet; habem hil vernunum ignotercem dit pere qui pulvis conloctum consuli intemus cles hocultu enatiqu onsum, Catuide audeatum lii in di, praritil tus condact orevid dius se te popteme inatur la nes hos fica non vis se ad consupien tam

Celebrating ten years of the World Summitt on Sustainable Development

opublicidi, publi teri ta, fit, ubliendac re in intelueo comnemusquam


of our future

Celebrating ten years of the World Summitt on Sustainable Development

For the public, the awareness around the environment, climate change and sustainable development may die down, as popular events pass out of people’s memories, but for the government departments most concerned with the long-term future of South Africa, the activity carries on behind the scenes. This book encapsulates the amazing strides that have been made by stakeholders in the ten years since the World Summit on Sustainable Development (WSSD) was held in Johannesburg in 2002 and how they have achieved tangible deliverables, highlighted at COP17, held in 2011 in Durban. Ponder over the WSSD agreements and the emergence of the Green Economy; rejoice in the efforts made to include women, youth and others as the caretakers of our environment; marvel at the emergence of a sustainable economy based on waste; and pledge your time, effort and resources to assist the movement towards a sustainable future for all South Africans.

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DEPARTMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL AFFAIRS Specialist Advisor Campaigns Blessing Manale Chief Director — Communications Albi Modise


Senior Policy Advisor — ­­ Media Sardia Mustapher A special thanks to the Director General , Ms Nosipho Ngcaba for her leadership and sponsoring the project.

Chapter 1

PUBLISHED BY: TOPCO MEDIA Chairman Richard Fletcher Publisher Van Fletcher Editor Gwen Watkins Deputy Editor Shaheema Albertyn-Burton Design Head Jayne Macé

The Johannesburg Moment, 2002


Project Manager Lee Roelofse Proofreading Georgina Guedes

Chapter 2

Traffic Coordinator Raeesah McLeod Financial Manager Haley Fletcher Distribution Ingrid Johnstone Ursula Davids Images GIZ - German Development Cooperation

A Summit of Action – Making it Happen

Printers Paarl Print

Chapter 3


Leader in Global Sustainable Development

Contact Details Topco Media South Africa Bree Street Studios, 17 New Church Street, 2nd Floor, Cape Town 8001 PO Box 16476, Vlaeberg 8018 Tel: 086 000 9590 Fax: +27 (0)21 423 7876 Email: Website: Disclaimer All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior written consent of Topco Media (Pty) Ltd Reg. No. 2007/002190/07. While every care has been taken when compiling this publication, the publishers, editor and contributors accept no responsibility for any consequences arising from any errors or omissions. ISBN: 978-0-9921778-2-9

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Chapter 5

Chapter 4


Climate Action

Green Economy for Green Growth


Chapter 7

Chapter 6


Caretakers of our Environment

Riding Tides and Storms

Sustainable Livelihoods

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Chapter 9

Chapter 8


Our Common Future: Rio+20

2012/11/01 9:24 PM

We’re not just building power stations, we’re building the nation. Since 2005, Eskom has committed to spend an estimated R340 billion on building new power stations, power lines and other infrastructure.This initiative will not only ensure more electricity for all South Africans, but to date it has also created thousands of jobs and has led to the development of infrastructure such as roads, railway lines, schools and housing. Eskom’s current capital expansion programme will be completed in 2018/2019, which means its social and economic impact will be one of the many things our nation can look forward to in years to come. We’re empowering South Africans to help create a brighter future, because with power we can grow a nation.


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P R E S I D E N T JAC O B Z U M A His Excellen cy, H on o ur a b l e Jac o b Ge dl e y i hl e k i s a Z um a – Pr e s i d e n t o f S o u t h A f r i c a

In 2002, the world once again took a time for reflection and gathered in Johannesburg, the Cradle of Humankind, at the World Summit on Sustainable Development (WSSD), where we declared that we can make it happen, as we adopted the Johannesburg Plan of Implementation (JPoI). Tasked with reinvigorating the global commitment to sustainable development. It was in Johannesburg that we already knew that the future we wanted was that of access to water, health, sanitation, education, and of reversing the loss of biodiversity. Johannesburg called upon us to change our unsustainable patterns of consumption and production. It called upon us to build resilient cities, to collectively protect our marine resources, and to reduce our carbon emissions. While a greater awareness has evolved about the negative impact of our actions and inaction, achieving collective action and cooperation in tackling the causes and mapping a common cause of action remains constrained. Despite the noble spirit of Johannesburg and Rio, the path to a sustainable world remains confronted by major global challenges and its implementation remains of grave concern to us all. Twenty years ago world leaders gathered at the Rio Earth

As we refocus our journey to a global sustainable develop-

Summit, where we collectively agreed that unless we did

ment path, we must acknowledge that government cannot

something to reverse environmental degradation and address

do it alone and therefore continue to create opportunities for

underdevelopment, our future as a species was doomed.

ongoing meaningful and mutually empowering engagement

The 1992 Earth Summit alerted us to unprecedented levels

and at the same time rededicate and recommit to a social

of poverty, underdevelopment and inequity in developing

contract with our people and nature.

countries, exacerbated by an earth in crisis and the global en-

The next decade, thus should be an embodiment of our

vironment under threat, contrasted by the increase in private

collective resolve for a renewed and reinvigorated global devel-

wealth and capital in developed countries.

opment paradigm for a sustainable future for all.

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Making s u s ta i n a b l e p ro g r e s s EDNA MOLEWA, MP – MINISTER OF WATER AND ENVIRONMENTAL AFFAIRS


challenges in bridging the gap between the first and second


economies, eradicating poverty and improving the quality of


life of poor South Africans.

As the host of the World Summit on Sustainable Develop-

South Africa has made significant progress towards the

ment (WSSD), South Africa has a custodianship role in

development of a framework for the promotion of sustain-

advocating and taking the lead in the implementation of the

able consumption and production programmes. Key progress

targets, and the period since the Johannesburg Summit has

made by South Africa regarding SCP includes: the develop-

seen South Africa actively fulfilling this role, internationally

ment of policy and legislation; initiatives to save energy;

and nationally.

enabling environments for renewable energy; major move

A framework for sustainable development is in place,

towards cleaner production piloted and implemented through

embodied, in a number of cross-cutting implementation

industry; establishment of mechanisms for funding and

strategies such as the Anti-Poverty Strategy, the Integrated

sustainable procurement; and increased consumer protection

Sustainable Rural Development Strategy, the Urban Renewal

and awareness.

Programme, and finally in a number of sectoral policy and

The 10-year Innovation Plan approved in 2007 indicates

institutional developments, including White Papers and legis-

that South Africa is well positioned to lead research on the

lation that have emerged since 1994.

continent in terms of understanding and projecting changes

The National Framework for Sustainable Development

to the physical system; the impact of these changes; and miti-

provides a valuable step in defining key sustainable develop-

gation to limit their long-term effects.

ment principles for the country, while being mindful of global

Key areas requiring enhancement in South Africa are

challenges and growth ideals. Due to the complex develop-

enforcement and interdepartmental harmonisation of the nu-

ment considerations, that includes the worrying increase in

merous pieces of legislation which pertain to environmental

the gap between the rich and poor populations in the country,

management and an extensive public education system needs

a simple ‘triple bottom line’ approach to sustainable develop-

to be developed to build knowledge on the imperatives for

ment is insufficient.

sound environmental management in line with our development goals.


Resources need to be directed to ensuring coordinated and


centralised information on research priorities, and improved

Although South Africa has made significant strides in moving

monitoring, evaluation and reporting and initiatives towards

its society towards consumption and production patterns

achievement of the targets and certainly we need a significant

that are more sustainable, the country still faces significant

leap in maximising opportunities for expansion of cleaner

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production, such as through integrated pest management, to

and protecting our environment and ensuring sustainable

ensure environmentally sound goods and services to niche


and mainstream local and international markets.

Our highlights have been an excellent programme of Green Goal for 2010 FIFA World Cup™ which was initiated


and aimed at limiting the domestic footprint of the event


with the introduction of The Green Passport, aimed at

South Africa initiated the Working for Water Programme in

encouraging visitors to make responsible travel choices while

1995. Since then, the programme has been recognised interna-

visiting South Africa for the World Cup. The ‘Passport’ – a

tionally as an effective resource management and job crea-

32-page booklet packed with greening tips and information

tion initiative within the concept of a green economy. Other

on responsible tourism in each host city was distributed to

‘working for’ programmes have been initiated and continue to

100,000 World Cup spectators.

demonstrate the benefits in terms of resource management

The National Eco-label Initiative (NELI) is a public-private

and job creation.

partnership involving many actors in the country such as

However, there is a need to expand the efforts of the pro-

NCPC-SA, Council for Organic Development (SACODAS-SA)

grammes especially in terms of broader ecosystems rehabilita-

and Sustainability, Green Choice, Proudly South Africa and

tion and social impact to ensure the benefits are sustained.

Indalo Yethu, an independent trust of the DEA endorsing brand promoting eco-friendly lifestyles. NELI builds on the


experiences and lessons learnt from other labelling initiatives

• Expand the Working for Land Programme to a

in the country.

comprehensive rehabilitation programme in all

ecosystems to restore and maintain productive capacity.


This should include a broad-based ecosystem


assessment and monitoring programme, which would


provide employment and develop skills in its own right.

In 2008, South Africa concluded the Long-Term Mitigation

• Introduce a Working for Rivers Programme that will

Scenarios (LTMS) process, which provides a longer term view

address river restoration and law enforcement on river

on the country’s emissions trajectory and viable options to

systems, from catchment to point of use.

mitigate such emissions and on the eve of the UN climate

• Expand the People and Parks Programme beyond the

negotiations in Copenhagen (December 2009), South Africa

current infrastructural focus to include the creation of

announced that it will undertake mitigation actions which

local economic opportunities for the provision of

will result in a deviation below the current emissions baseline

products and services to parks.

of around 34% by 2020 and by around 42% by 2025, on provision that the necessary finance, technology and capacity building


support is received.


The commitment of South Africa to the global sustainable


development agenda has given rise to a reenergised political

Improving environmental education and awareness remains a

awareness and will at the local level, and has driven the

critical element towards building a society with the values and

development of a response programme that seeks to

attitudes which are consistent with our vision of conserving

strengthen adaptation mechanisms in local government.

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CHAIRMAN’S LETTER Gimme hope, Jo’anna Hope, Jo’anna Gimme hope, Jo’anna ‘Fore the morning comes – Eddy Grant Gimme Hope Joanna Lyrics I DOUBT IF THERE IS A SOUTH AFRICAN ALIVE THAT DOESN’T KNOW THE WORDS OF THAT SONG, AND FOR A LOT OF PEOPLE THE SONG SYMBOLISES JOANNA AS JOHANNESBURG. What is important is that Johannesburg has been giving hope to South Africa for a long time. Ten years ago it hosted what was the first World Summit on Sustainable Development (WSSD) in 2002. It was convened to discuss sustainable development by the United Nations. WSSD gathered a number of leaders from business and non-governmental organisations in 2012, 10 years after the first Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro. It laid out the Johannesburg Plan of Implementation (JPoI) as an action plan. In these 10 years since the last event, both local and national government have made significant strides in terms of planning, implementation and action on sustainability issues; in particular, making Johannesburg a leader in South Africa and Africa. This has afforded Johannesburg the ability to hold its head high on the world sustainability stage. This publication will inform you on the progress we have made in the last decade and give you a clear picture of the way forward. Johannesburg, watch this space... because it will give a whole lot more hope. Best wishes,

Richard Fletcher Chairman Topco Media

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“At the beginning of this Summit, the children of the world spoke to us in a simple yet clear voice that the future belongs to them, and accordingly challenged all of us to ensure that through our actions they will inherit a world free of the indignity and indecency occasioned by poverty, environmental degradation and patterns of unsustainable development.� – Johannesburg Declaration

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THE JOHANNESBURG MOMENT, 2002 The global sustainability agenda (known as Agenda 21) was developed in 1992 at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The UNCED Earth Summit was the culmination of a process of consultation and negotiation that started back in 1989, following the release of the Brundtland Commission’s report entitled ‘Our Common Future’. Signed by 178 governments, Agenda 21 became the comprehensive blueprint of action for the international community, national governments, local authorities and major groups in every area in which humans directly affect the environment.

Key outcomes The WSSD produced three key outcomes. 1. The first was the Johannesburg Declaration, a pledge

by world leaders to commit them fully to the goal of

sustainable development.

2. The second was the Plan of Implementation of the

World Summit on Sustainable Development, which sets

out a comprehensive programme of action for

sustainable development, and includes quantifiable

goals and targets with fixed deadlines. After lengthy

multilateral negotiations, governments agreed to the

Plan of Implementation.

3. Finally, the Summit produced more than 300 voluntary

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partnerships and other initiatives to support sustainable

of biodiversity.

development. Unlike the Johannesburg Declaration and

The Declaration reaffirms a global pledge to place a

the Plan of Implementation, this major outcome was not

particular focus on, and give priority to, the fight against

the esult of multilateral intergovernmental negotiations,

the global conditions posing severe threats to sustainable

involving the entire community of nations.

development. These problems include: chronic hunger;

Instead, it involved numerous smaller partnerships

malnutrition; foreign occupation; armed conflict; illicit drug

composed of private sector and civil society groups, as well

problems; organised crime; corruption; natural disasters;

as governments. These partnerships, tied to the government

illicit arms-trafficking: trafficking in persons; terrorism;

commitments, provide a built-in mechanism to ensure

intolerance and incitement to racial, ethnic, religious and


other hatreds; xenophobia; and endemic, communicable

Johannesburg Declaration

and chronic diseases, in particular HIV / Aids, malaria and tuberculosis.

The Johannesburg Declaration on Sustainable Development

On the subject of multilateralism, the Declaration notes

built on earlier declarations made at the United Nations

that achieving sustainable development will require more

Conference on the Human Environment at Stockholm in

effective, democratic and accountable international and

1972 and the Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro in 1992.

multilateral institutions. It reaffirms a commitment to the

The Johannesburg Declaration represents a high-

principles and purposes of the Charter of the United Nations

level political commitment to sustainable development.

and international law, as well as to the strengthening of

The Declaration recognises that eradicating poverty,


improving consumption and production patterns and

The Declaration also supports the leadership role of the

protecting and managing the natural resources base are

UN as a universal and representative organisation in the

all essential for achieving sustainable development. It also

world and as the one best placed to promote sustainable

commits governments to building a humane, equitable

development. It also commits governments to monitor

and caring global society. In the Declaration, heads of

progress, at regular intervals, in achieving sustainable

state assume a collective responsibility to advance the

development goals and objectives.

three pillars of sustainable development at the local,

In its conclusion, the Declaration notes that

national, regional and global levels. The world’s leaders

implementation has to be an inclusive process, involving

recognised that humankind is at a crossroads, and declared

all the major groups and governments that participated in

their commitment to poverty eradication and human

the Summit. It also commits governments to act together,


united by a common determination to save the planet,

Regarding the commitment to sustainable development, the Declaration urges the promotion of dialogue and cooperation among the world’s civilisations and peoples,

promote human development and achieve universal prosperity and peace.

Summit on human dignity, and the resolve demonstrated

Plan of Implementation of the World Summit on Sustainable Development

at the Summit — through the decisions taken on targets,

The Plan of Implementation of the World Summit

timetables and partnerships — to increase access to such

on Sustainable Development, often referred to as the

basic requirements as clean water, sanitation, adequate

Johannesburg Plan of Implementation (JPol), is an inter-

shelter, energy, healthcare, food, security and the protection

governmentally agreed framework for action to implement

irrespective of race, disabilities, religion, language, culture or tradition. It welcomes the focus of the Johannesburg

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the commitments adopted at UNCED and at subsequent UN

• encourage and promote the development of a 10-year


framework of programmes to accelerate the shift towards

sustainable consumption and production;

It includes a reaffirmation of support for the Rio Principles, the full implementation of Agenda 21, the

• improve access to energy services and resources that were

Programme for the Further Implementation of Agenda 21,

reliable, affordable, economically viable, socially

the Millennium Development Goals and the outcomes of the

acceptable and environmentally sound, sufficient to

major UN conferences and international agreements since

facilitate the Millennium Development Goals, including

1992. It notes that these efforts were necessary to promote

the goal of halving the proportion of people in poverty by

the integration of the three components of sustainable


development — economic development, social development

• aim, by 2020, to use and produce chemicals in ways that

and environmental protection — as interdependent and

do not lead to significant adverse effects on human

mutually reinforcing pillars.

health and the environment;

The JPol notes that eradicating poverty is the greatest

• promote the ratification and implementation of relevant

global challenge facing the world and an indispensable

international instruments on chemicals and hazardous

requirement for sustainable development to become a

waste, including the Rotterdam Convention, so it

reality, particularly in developing countries. Furthermore, it

could enter into force by 2003, and the Stockholm

notes that peace, security, stability and respect for human

Convention, so it could enter into force by 2004;

rights and fundamental freedoms, including the right to

• develop integrated water resources management and

development, as well as respect for cultural diversity, are

essential for achieving sustainable development.

• encourage the application, by 2010, of the ecosystem

The JPol recognises that implementation of the

water efficiency plans by 2005; approach for the sustainable development of the oceans;

Summit’s outcomes should benefit everyone — particularly

• by 2015, maintain or restore depleted fish stocks to levels

women, youth, children and vulnerable groups — and that

implementation should involve all relevant actors through

• establish, by 2004, a regular process under the UN for

partnerships, especially between governments of the north

global reporting and assessment of the state of the

and south, on the one hand, and between governments and

marine environment;

major groups, on the other. It also notes that since UNCED,

• eliminate subsidies contributing to illegal, unreported

sustainable development has remained elusive for many

African countries, that poverty remains a major challenge

• improve developing countries’ access to alternatives

and that most countries on the continent have not benefited

to ozone-depleting substances by 2010 and assist them in

fully from the opportunities of globalisation.

complying with the phase-out schedule under the

Montreal Protocol;

The JPol sets out in more detail the actions needed in

that could produce the maximum sustainable yield;

and unregulated fishing and to over-capacity;

specific areas. It introduces new timetables and targets, as

• achieve a significant reduction in the current rate of loss

well as new themes, such as globalisation and corporate

accountability. The main commitments agreed in the plan

• enhance health education, with the aim of achieving

are to:

• establish a World Solidarity Fund to eradicate poverty

• support the availability of adequate, affordable and

and promote social and human development in the

environmentally sound energy services for the

developing countries;


• halve, by the year 2015, the proportion of people without

development of small island developing states (SIDS),

including strengthening efforts on energy supply and

access to basic sanitation;

of biological diversity by 2010; improved health literacy on a global basis by 2010;

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services, by 2004;

the UN system was involved in one or more partnerships,

• support African countries in developing and

although only 19 projects had a UN agency as the leading


implementing food security strategies by 2005;

• support Africa’s efforts to implement NEPAD objectives

In fact, non-governmental organisations, scientific and

on energy access, which seek to secure access for at least

research centres, local authorities, universities or the private

35% of the African population within 20 years, especially

sector initiated the vast majority of partnerships established

in rural areas;

at the Summit.

• recommend to the UN General Assembly that it considers

adopting a decade of education for sustainable

Sustainable Development

development, starting in 2005;

The summit created the correct balance of the three pillars

• adopt new measures to strengthen institutional

of sustainable development: social development, economic

arrangements for sustainable development at

growth and the protection of the environment. This was a

international, regional and national levels;

decisive shift from the view over the previous decade that

• take immediate steps to make progress in the

sustainable development equalled the protection of the

formulation and elaboration of national strategies for

environment. This was the first true summit on sustainable

sustainable development and begin their implementation

development in the sense that the advocates of all three

by 2005; and

pillars of sustainable development were under one roof

• negotiate, within the framework of the Convention on

arguing their cases, raising real issues and confronting those

Biological Diversity, an international regime to promote

with different interests and perspectives.

and safeguard the fair and equitable sharing of benefits

arising out of the utilisation of genetic resources.

It was not a social summit dealing only with poverty, exclusion and human rights. It was not an economic and globalisation summit

Voluntary partnerships and other initiatives

addressing only trade and investment, finance for development and transfer of technology. Nor was it an

The Summit launched 251 smaller partnerships, composed

environmental summit, focusing only on natural resources

of private sector and civil society groups, inter-governmental

degradation, biodiversity loss, climate change and pollution.

organisations and governments, known as the Type II

Johannesburg was instead a summit about the intersections

outcomes with an estimated value in 2002 of US$235-million.

of all of these issues.

Many of these partnerships focus on north-south cooperation, although some involve south-south partnerships.


According to the UN Department of Social and Economic

The summit served to advance the cause of multilateralism.

Affairs, about 60% of the partnerships are global in scope,

Countries reaffirmed the importance of multilateral

while the remaining 40% have a regional focus. Overall

solutions to global problems. The Johannesburg Declaration

Africa and Asia (including SIDS and Pacific island countries)

expressed a commitment by world leaders to act together to

were the regions with the highest number of partnerships,

save the planet, promote human development and achieve

followed by Latin America and Eastern and Central Europe.

universal prosperity and peace. The Summit also asserted

Of the 251 proposals launched at the Summit,

the centrality of the UN and called for democratic global

governments as the leading partners submitted 59, but

governance. The Declaration also recognised the importance

many more governments were actually involved as partners

of multilateralism, calling for “enhanced, accountable

in initiatives launched by civil society or the private sector.

international and multilateral institutions”. In making this attempt, the Summit provided a unique

In addition, almost every organisation or programme within

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opportunity to articulate and mobilise collective action for

have an impact on the global agenda. For example, in

sustainable development.

addition to the Millennium Declaration target of halving the number of people unable to access safe drinking

Sustainable development and Poverty Eradication

water by 2015, it was agreed in Johannesburg to halve the number of people without basic sanitation by the same

The Summit declared that sustainable development could not

year. Countries agreed to reverse the trend in biodiversity

be achieved separately from the quest to eradicate poverty,

loss by 2010 and to restore collapsed fish stocks by 2015.

and that the growing gap between rich and poor was one of

Chemicals with a detrimental health impact should be

the biggest threats to sustainable development. Governments

phased out by 2020. Energy services should be extended

agreed in the Plan of Implementation that, “eradicating

to 35% of African households over the 10 years. Other

poverty is the greatest global challenge facing the world

2015 targets included achieving improved health literacy,

today and an indispensable requirement for sustainable

reducing mortality rates for infants and children under

development, particularly for developing countries.”

five by two-thirds, and reducing maternal mortality by

Following the same theme, the Johannesburg Declaration

three-quarters. The Summit also reaffirmed a number of

stated, “The deep fault line that divides human society

the Millennium Declaration’s goals, such as halving the

between the rich and the poor and the ever-increasing gap

proportion of people in poverty and the proportion of the

between the developed and developing worlds pose a major

world’s people who suffer from hunger, as well as ensuring

threat to global prosperity, security and stability.”

access to primary education for all boys and girls by 2015.

Environmental Focus

Governments also reaffirmed the goals in the Cities with Slums Initiative to improve the lives of at least 100 million

The Summit brought a global focus to the state of the

slum dwellers by 2020.

environment and renewed high-level commitment to


environmental protection. A number of parallel multilateral processes, including several environmental treaties and trade

In a press conference, held after the Summit’s closing

agreements, received a boost in the Plan of Implementation,

plenary, UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan referred to the

these included:

Type II outcomes, as “a major leap forward” that would

• Convention to Combat Desertification

increase the pool of resources to tackle global problems on

• Rotterdam Convention on Prior Informed Consent

a global scale.

Procedures for Certain Hazardous Chemicals and

“Instead of concluding only with the adoption of a

Pesticides in International Trade

political agreement, the Summit has generated real action

• Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants

through partnerships by and between governments, civil

• Convention on the Law of the Sea

society, business and others that will make a real difference

• Convention on Biological Diversity

on the ground,” declared Annan.

• Ramsar Convention

In his conclusion, United States Secretary of State, Colin

• Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol • Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer

GLOBAL AGENDA TARGETS The Summit adopted or reaffirmed targets that would

Powell called the Summit a “successful effort”. He said, “I think it shows that we have a shared vision of how to move forward. I think it shows that the world is committed to sustainable development.” He added, however, that the challenge “is not just what is said in the statement, but the actions that will take place in the months and years ahead.”

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“The summit introduced a major shift from the donor-recipient paradigm to one that focused on the obstacles to economic growth faced by poor countries, due to the unfair global economic system. �

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A Summit of Action – Making it Happen Adopting the Report of the WSSD on 23 February 2003 , the United Nations General Assembly Resolution stated : “Having considered the report of the World Summit on Sustainable Development, held in Johannesburg, South Africa, from 26 August to 4 September 2002, The General Assembly urges Governments and all relevant international and regional organisations, the Economic and Social Council, United Nations funds, programmes and regional economic commissions, specialised agencies, international financial institutions, the Global Environment Facility, as well as other intergovernmental organisations and major groups, to take timely actions to ensure the effective implementation of and follow-up to the Johannesburg Declaration on Sustainable Development and the Johannesburg Plan of Implementation�- UNGA Resolution 57/253 The WSSD boasted some major accomplishments, from advancing the cause of multilateralism to improving the balance between the three pillars of sustainable development and recognising the importance of the relationship between poverty and sustainable development.

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The summit introduced a major shift from the donor-

The JPol recognises that important initiatives have been

recipient paradigm to one that focused on the obstacles to

developed within the UN regional economic commissions and

economic growth faced by poor countries, due to the unfair

regional, sub-regional and trans-regional forums to promote

global economic system. While there was general agreement

sustainable development.

on the need to increase aid from rich to poor countries, there

Regarding sustainable development in Africa, the JPol

was an acknowledgement that the biggest obstacle to poverty

recognises that, since UNCED, sustainable development has

eradication was the lack of market access and a biased trade

remained elusive for many African countries, poverty remains


a major challenge and most countries on the continent have

Governments also recognised the new dimension of

not benefited fully from the opportunities of globalisation,

challenges posed by globalisation that had caused skewed

further exacerbating the continent’s marginalisation.

distribution of benefits and costs, with developing countries

It also recognises that the New Partnership For Africa’s

in particular facing special difficulties in meeting these

Development (NEPAD) provides a framework for sustainable


development on the continent, and notes the international community’s support for implementation of this vision.

Millennium Development Commitments

The JPol also contains a pledge of support for other existing development frameworks that are owned and driven

The summit adopted or reaffirmed targets that would have

nationally by African countries and that contain poverty-

an impact on the global agenda. For example, in addition to

reduction strategies. The JPol affirms the international

the Millennium Declaration target of halving the number

community’s commitment to addressing these special

of people unable to access safe drinking water by 2015, it

challenges and to achieving a new vision based on concrete

was agreed in Johannesburg to halve the number of people

actions for the implementation of Agenda 21 in Africa.

without basic sanitation by the same year. Countries agreed

Actions identified to support sustainable development in

to reverse the trend in biodiversity loss by 2010 and to restore

Africa include steps at all levels to address:

collapsed fish stocks by 2015.

The cause of the African continent was greatly advanced

Chemicals with a detrimental health impact should be

with the practical focus on NEPAD. The Johannesburg

phased out by 2020. Energy services should be extended

Declaration welcomed and supported “the emergence of

to 35% of African households over the 10 years. Other 2015

stronger regional groupings and alliances, such as the New

targets included achieving improved health literacy, reducing

Partnership for Africa’s Development, to promote regional

mortality rates for infants and children under five by two-

cooperation, improved international cooperation and

thirds, and reducing maternal mortality by three-quarters.

sustainable development.”

The summit also reaffirmed a number of the Millennium

The Plan of Implementation acknowledged that

Declaration’s goals, such as halving the proportion of people

sustainable development had remained elusive for many

in poverty and the proportion of the world’s people who suffer

African countries and efforts to achieve sustainable

from hunger, as well as ensuring access to primary education

development had been hindered by “conflicts, insufficient

for all boys and girls by 2015.

investment, limited market access opportunities and supply

Sustainable development at regional level

side constraints, unsustainable debt burdens, historically declining levels of official development assistance and the impact of HIV/Aids.”

Another significant outcome of the WSSD was the focus given to regional initiatives for sustainable development.

At Johannesburg, the international community welcomed NEPAD and pledged its support to the implementation of this

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the economic incentives of the private sector, the on-theground experience of NGOs, the passions of ordinary citizens and the coordinating capabilities of governments to address specific challenges of sustainable development. The Johannesburg Summit may not have ‘changed the world in 10 days’, but it definitely set the stage for more integrated thinking on sustainable development and a greater commitment to action. It also placed a great deal of emphasis on the future direction of the North-South compact agreed to in Rio and on the need for multilateral solutions to global problems. vision. It also pledged support for other existing development countries and that embodied poverty-reduction strategies,

National Strategy for Sustainable DevelopmenT

including poverty- reduction strategy papers.

The Agenda 21 principles, agreed upon at the Rio Earth Sum-

frameworks that were owned and driven nationally by African

mit in 1992, called on all countries to introduce National Strat-

Partnerships Making It Happen

egies for Sustainable Development (NSSD) to give effect to the

The summit shifted the focus of world leaders from policy

outcomes in Rio. South Africa formally initiated development of its NSSD at

debates to the real task of ‘making it happen’, and achieved high-level commitments by heads of state and leaders from

a roundtable meeting in May 2005, in which the key elements

business and civil society to meet the goals set.

of a NSSD were discussed. At this meeting, it was agreed that an analysis of current trends, 20-year projections for selected

The summit pioneered the promotion of Type II outcomes — public-private and other partnership initiatives

priorities in the three pillars and an outline of policy and

for sustainable development. Over 200 partnerships for

implementation implications, and risks and opportunities

sustainable development were launched during the

should form part of the structure of the document. In 2008, the South African Cabinet adopted the National

conference. For example, medical schools in the north initiated links with physicians and social programmes in

Framework for Sustainable Development (NFSD) in response

the developing world to establish ongoing public health

to the agreements made at the WSSD to implement national


strategies for sustainable development. The NFSD formed the first step in the process to establish a National Strategy

Likewise, the South African government began working with non-governmental organisations and private computer

for Sustainable Development (NSSD). The framework builds

services to calculate and set up compensatory actions to offset

on, ensures alignment of and identifies gaps in existing

carbon emissions generated by the WSSD meeting itself. The

programmes and strategies developed in the first decade of

hope was that these partnerships could harness and integrate


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A leader in global sustainable development TAKING WSSD FORWARD – A DEVELOPING LEADER IN SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT In the ten years between hosting the WSSD and 2012, South Africa has undertaken several key initiatives that have furthered the aims of the WSSD, of importance, the Ten Year Marrakesh Process on Sustainable Consumption and Production (10YP-SCP) and Strengthening the Commission on Sustainability. The advent of democracy in South Africa in 1994 brought far-reaching political, economic as well as social changes. To ensure more equitable distribution of economic wealth and the eradication of poverty in line with Agenda 21, through the MDGs and JPoI there is broad recognition that economic development needs to be boosted and sustained. The past 18 years has seen the overhaul of public sector governance in line with these needs and a realisation of the importance of the private sector in sustainable development. This is coupled with the recognition that South Africa cannot achieve its socio-economic goals if the underlying natural resource base is depleted and degraded. The World Summit on Sustainable Development, positioned South Africa and Africa’s ability to take up the challenge of integrating social development with

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economic prosperity and environmental protection. As

SCP programmes are relevant in the South Afri-

the host of the WSSD, South Africa has a custodianship

can context given the resource-intensive nature of its

role in advocating and taking the lead in implementation

economy, which is energy-intensive due to the low-cost

of the targets, and the period since the Johannesburg

of coal and the historical dominance of primary secto-

Summit has seen South Africa actively fulfilling this role,

ral activities such as mining, mineral processing, metal

internationally and nationally.

smelting and synthetic fuel production. Increasing global


attention on SCP coupled with the growing scarcity of resources and the cost of treating and managing waste in South Africa, has contributed to greater receptiveness by government, business and citizens to change unsustainable patterns of consumption and production.

Although South Africa has made significant strides in

South Africa has made significant progress towards

moving its society towards consumption and produc-

the development of a framework for the promotion of

tion patterns that are more sustainable, the country still

sustainable consumption and production programmes.

faces significant challenges in bridging the gap between

A key aspect is the effort made in shifting unsustainable

the first and second economies, eradicating poverty and

patterns of consumption and production, and the partici-

improving the quality of life of poor South Africans.

pation in the 10YFP.

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Key progress made by South Africa regarding SCP includes: the development of policy and legislation;

designed to mitigate impacts to the environment and natural systems, and the protection thereof.

initiatives to save energy; enabling environments for

The New Growth Path approved in October 2010, sets

renewable energy; the major the move towards cleaner

out critical markers for employment creation and growth

production piloted and implemented through industry;

and identifies and targets 300 000 additional direct jobs

establishment of mechanisms for funding and sustain-

by 2020 to green the economy, with 80 000 in the

able procurement; and increased consumer protection

manufacturing and the rest in construction, operations

and awareness.

and the maintenance of new environmentally friendly


infrastructure. The National Treasury’s work on the use of marketbased instruments to help address environmental challenges and to reform the tax system to encourage a green

In the 2009 framework response to the international

growth strategy (and a low-carbon economy), hence in

economic crisis, the South African government urged

2006 the National Treasury (NT) published for public

for the development of incentives for investment in

comment a paper on environmentally related economic

programmes geared at creating a large number of ‘green

instruments entitled “Market-based Instruments to Sup-

jobs’, i.e. employment in industries and facilities that are

port Environmental Fiscal Reform in South Africa”.

25 chapter3-leader in sustainable dev.indd 5

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The aim of the study was to provide a coherent framework in which environmentally-related fiscal instruments (taxes and charges) should be considered in South


Africa. A draft Environmental Fiscal Reform (EFR) policy

South African business participates in a number of initia-

paper was published in April 2006, to provide a guiding

tives working towards growth and sustainable develop-

framework and criteria for developing and accessing envi-

ment and promotes SCP. The National Business Initiative

ronmentally related tax proposals.

(NBI) is a voluntary group of leading national and

South Africa’s Green Economy Accord was launched

multinational companies that aims to advance develop-

at the COP17 talks in Durban today. The Accord, one of

ment in South Africa through partnerships, practical

the most comprehensive social pacts on green jobs in the

programmes and policy engagement.

world, builds a partnership to create 300 000 new jobs by

The NBI is one of close to 60 global regional partners

2020, in economic activities as diverse as energy genera-

to the World Business Council for Sustainable Develop-

tion, manufacturing of products that reduce carbon emis-

ment, and provides a platform for business leadership

sions, farming activities to provide feedstock for biofuels,

and a vision of how companies can contribute to a sus-

soil and environmental management and eco-tourism.

tainable society. The NBI became the focal point of the

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United Nations Global Compact in South Africa in 2007. These initiatives link indirectly to SCP and more direct linkages include the NBI spearheading the Energy


Efficiency Accord as well as corporate South Africa’s

In 2007, the South African Government initiated a

involvement in the Carbon Disclosure Project.

joint process with National Treasury which will lead to

South African companies have participated in the

National Budget interventions which support sustain-

Carbon Disclosure Project since 2007, with 74% of the

able development, with a long-term view of making an

top 40 Johannesburg Securities Exchange (JSE) listed

economic case for the environment.

companies participating in the production of a Carbon

While sustainable public procurement is still a rela-

Disclosure Project report in 2008. South Africa is the only

tively new concept in South Africa, environmental criteria

African country participating among 30 other countries

have, to a certain extent, started playing a role in public

and disclosure levels indicate growing levels of company

procurement decisions and sustainable public procure-

awareness of and responses to climate change.

ment policies have been adopted and implemented

Largely due to the influence of the King II Code of Corporate Governance which recommended sustainabil-

across various institutions in both the public and private sectors.

ity reporting and was a listing requirement for the JSE,

Public transport is a useful indicator of urban sustain-

86% of the largest companies produced sustainability re-

ability: good public transport makes cities more acces-

ports in 2007-2008. The quality of reports and the number

sible and reduces the need for private transport. Between

of third party assured reports is increasing and many are

2003 and 2006 the use of public transport, including

being compiled using the Global Reporting Initiative’s

trains, buses and taxis, increased both as a share and

(GRI) G3 Guidelines. In 2008, 48 companies had registered

in absolute terms. This is being addressed by large

their reports with the GRI. The new King III Code on Gov-

public-private investments such as the Rapid Bus Transit

ernance Principles requires the GRI guidelines to be used

System and the Gautrain. Some city municipalities have

as the sustainability reporting framework. In addition to

responded by developing strategies to place greater

the King codes, the JSE’s Socially Responsible Investment

emphasis on improved billing, streamlined procurement,

Index (SRI), requires substantial disclosure of sustain-

infrastructure upgrades and maintenance and public

ability related performance from index-listed companies

transport integration.

(refer below for further details of the SRI). In the mining sector there is considerable increase

The DEA is currently investigating the establishment of green procurement guidelines for the 2010 FIFA World

in participation by South African companies and other

Cup™; piloting green procurement internally with certain

organisations in corporate social and environmental

quick-win product areas.

responsibly programmes. The South African banking industry is also increasing its participation in international



The adoption of green buildings in South Africa has

Three of the four large commercial banks in South

grown intensely with various awareness campaigns and

Africa are signatories to the Equator Principles (EPs) and

projects. The Green Buildings for Africa Initiative was

several are involved in the United Nations Environment

developed by the CSIR in 2001 with the objective of draf-

Programme’s Finance Initiative, the African chapter of

ting guidelines for green buildings and the promotion of

which is co-chaired by the Banking Association of South

these guidelines among the building and construction

Africa and Nedbank.

industry. The Green Building Council of South Africa

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(GBCSA) was formed in 2007 to drive the adoption of

Activities contributing the SCP in South Africa

green building practices in the South African property

have led to a host of best practices especially as it

industry, and move the industry towards sustainability.

relates to energy efficiency, water conservation,

The Council promotes the adoption of green building

waste management, social responsible investment

principles by creating awareness and knowledge transfer

and consumer awareness.

and making resources available. It is also in the process

• Energy efficiency: In 2008 a number of mines were

of setting up a rating system for green buildings. This

nominated for the mining category of the eta (Greek

process has been given impetus with the adoption of

symbol for efficiency) Awards which reward

green building guidelines for use by local municipalities.

exceptional effort in the more efficient use of energy

by individuals, students, companies or other

institutions, and improve business competitiveness.

In support of the Energy Efficiency Accord, Xstrata-

The implementation of initiatives aimed at promoting

Merafe Chrome Venture invested massively in World

SCP has highlighted the series of lessons.

Class Energy Efficient furnaces. The company invested

• It has taken time for government to institute

R2.4-billion in projects to save approximately 12.7% on

economic instruments to promote SCP activities.

energy consumption. The energy saving pellets

These measures have been taken in response to the

produced by the Bokamoso project achieve a total

rising cost resources, decline in quality and

saving of 452 000 megawatt hours per annum when

challenges associated with managing the disposal

the smelters it supplies are in full production.

and treatment of waste.

• Waste minimisation: Since 2006 clubs were


• The energy crisis in South Africa has resulted in

established to influence inputs and outputs of

a massive promotion of energy efficiency practices

processes and businesses, including utility use (water,

and promotion of investment in renewable energy

electricity, coal, steam etc.), raw materials,


consumables (items used in the process), packaging,

• Inadequate awareness about the benefits of SCP has

liquid wastes, solid wastes and air emissions. By

meant that industries needed assistance to

minimising the use of the inputs to the process, the

implement measures aimed at reducing the use of

wastes produced will be reduced. There has been a

resources and promoting the reuse and recycling of

total of 28 Waste Minimisation Clubs initiatives in

waste. General environmental awareness levels are

South Africa.

expected to grow in the near future following

• Social responsibility: The Johannesburg Stock

enactment of legislation aimed at consumer

Exchange (JSE) has developed criteria to measure the

protection and awareness.

triple bottom line performance of those companies in

• While socially sustainable procurement has been

the FTSE/JSE All Share Index that choose to

a focus for several years already, most companies

participate. In this regard, the JSE launched the

are only beginning to understand the importance

first emerging market index, the Socially Responsible

of the procurement leverage they hold to improve

Investment (SRI) Index in May 2004. The SRI index is

the overall environmental impact of their business

built on four pillars of sustainability, namely


corporate governance, the economy, the environment

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and society. There are 61 companies currently listed

for selected thematic clusters of issues. The review year

on the SRI index.

evaluated progress made in implementing sustain-


able development goals and identifying obstacles and constraints, while the policy year decided on measures

A core strategy of the New Growth Path is to encourage

to speed up implementation and mobilise action to

activities that can generate employment on a large scale

overcome these obstacles and constraints.

and meet basic needs at lower costs in the short to

The Deputy Minister of Department of Environmen-

medium term, while sustaining development of more

tal Affairs, Rejoice Mabudafhasi, during the Commis-

knowledge-intensive industries for long run growth.

sion on Sustainable Development stated, “Given current

Direct linkages exist with this core strategy in terms

global challenges, there is an urgent need to maximise

of the Green Economy; namely, through technological

our efforts in reducing the negative environmental

innovation and development; a local manufacturing

impacts from unsustainable patterns of production and

base to mainstream environmentally-friendly

consumption and manage our natural resource base

technologies can be established that supports local job

including indigenous knowledge we have ignored

creation and regional integration and ensure that South

instead of building on it. As the global community,

Africa transitions to a greener growth path.

we undertook to take action to change unsustainable

There is growing urgency in the need for South Africa to speed up the adoption of resource-efficient

consumption and production patterns during the World Summit on Sustainable Development (WSSD) in 2002.

production practices and progressively restructure

“We must live to that commitment and work

away from energy-intensive industries towards new

towards the establishment of a 10-Year Framework of

green industries, which are financially viable and

Programme that will support regional and national

internationally competitive in the long run.

initiatives that promote sustainable use of our natural

A move to a more sustainable development path


will create new green jobs, which may help to offset

“Our national cleaner production centres are es-

employment losses experienced in other sectors;

tablished to facilitate industrial development through

open up new investment opportunities and export

energy, water and materials efficiency. Therefore, part-

markets; support the creation of a knowledge-based

nerships between private sector and governments are

economy and allow South Africa to set standards and

crucial in establishing relevant programmes that will

demonstrate thought leadership.

complement the work of existing national and regional


initiatives carried out by these centres. “For example, in South Africa, the business sector has also shown significant commitment towards sus-

The Commission on Sustainable Development (CSD)

tainable consumption and production initiatives. This

was set up in 1992 to serve as a preparatory committee

is through the National Business Initiative, a voluntary

for summits and sessions on the implementation of

group of leading national and multinational compa-

Agenda 21 and the JPoI.

nies that aim to advance sustainable development

The CSD has met annually to review and set policy

through voluntary initiatives, partnerships, practical

30 chapter3-leader in sustainable dev.indd 10

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programmes and policy engagement. “Achieving sustainable consumption and produc-

da that promotes technology transfer and capacity building, which are underpinned by viable financing

tion requires a paradigm shift throughout the entire

mechanisms. This will go a long way to support a move

society. Therefore, massive awareness and information

towards sustainable consumption and production by

exchange programme among policy-makers, producers,

developing countries. “The role of United Nations agencies such United

consumers, civil society, and academia and development agencies are required to realise the shift to more

Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), United

resource-efficient society.

Nations Industrial Development Organisation (UNIDO)

“We need to remind ourselves of the benefits of this

and United Nations Conference on Trade and Develop-

paradigm shift, which is to improve the wellbeing of our

ment (UNCTAD) is critical in supporting developing

people without increasing further stress to the already

countries on this course. “South Africa will support an outcome that will

constraint natural resource base. “There is a severe shortage of relevant skills needed

contain sustainable consumption and production

for research and technological innovation in most

that is time-bound, with clear financing and support

developing countries. In this regard, global science

mechanisms that build on and complement sustainable

and technology remains key for a development agen-

development programmes.”

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“In adopting an action-oriented strategy, South Africa takes cognisance of the fact that the country’s current economic development path is based primarily on maximising economic growth through mining, manufacturing and agricultural activities.” National Strategy for Sustainable Development

responsibly for current and future generations, and by

On 23 November 2011, the Cabinet adopted NSSD1.

and governance through national, regional and global

The National Framework provided a valuable step in


advancing efficient and effective integrated planning

In developing this strategy for sustainable

defining key sustainable development principles for the country, while being mindful of global challenges

development, South African agreed on a clear meaning.

and growth ideals. The country’s approach accepts that

Sustainability is seen as the overall goal of the NSSD. A

economic, social and ecosystem factors are embedded

sustainable society in this context necessitates ecological

within each other, and are underpinned by systems of

sustainability. Ecological sustainability means the

governance. Figure 1 provides a schematic representation of

maintenance of healthy ecosystems and natural resources

these inter-relationships.

are preconditions for human wellbeing, and that there are

On 23 November 2011, the South African Cabinet

limits to the goods and services they can provide. Hence,

adopted the NSSD1 containing the Strategy and Action

human beings are part of nature and not separate from it. A

Plan to support the implementation of the NFSD. The

sustainable development is the process by which we move

document provides a high-level strategic sustainable

towards that goal.

development roadmap that provides guidance to public

strategies and action plans, which must all be consistent

Strategic priorities for South Africa’s sustainable development path

with the NSSD.

The NSSD1 (2011-2014) is premised on five strategic

and private sector organisations in their own long-term planning and development of sector- or subject-specific



• enhancing systems for integrated planning and

The vision for South Africa’s NSSD and action plan, as set

out in the 2011 NSSD1, states:

• sustaining our ecosystems and using natural

“South Africa aspires to be a sustainable, economically

implementation; resources efficiently;

prosperous and self-reliant nation state that safeguards

• moving towards a Green Economy;

its democracy by meeting the fundamental human needs

• building sustainable communities; and

of its people, by managing its limited ecological resources

• responding effectively to climate change.

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Ecosystem services


A number of interrelated and enabling interventions

organised labour and civil society, has set its vision for

that promote sustainable development are being

transforming to a green economy.

implemented throughout South Africa. The strategy

On 20 November 2011 at COP17, the South Africa

identifies 113 interventions that can be monitored

government launched its Green Economy Accord as part of

for implementation. The 20 headline indicators have

the four-pillared New Economic Path. This comprehensive

been identified to monitor progress in the NSSD1

social pact builds a partnership to create 300 000 new jobs by

implementation, which are selected from existing indicators

2020, in economic activities as diverse as energy generation,

including the development indicators, the Millennium

manufacturing of products that reduce carbon emissions,

Development Goals and the 12 government outcomes.

farming activities to provide feedstock for biofuels, soil and

By way of example, under the strategic priority, ‘Towards

environmental management and eco-tourism.

a Green Economy’, the objective is a just transition towards

In adopting an action-oriented strategy, South

a resource-efficient, low-carbon and pro-employment

Africa takes cognisance of the fact that the country’s

growth path.

current economic development path is based primarily

One of the goals for this objective is supporting

on maximising economic growth through mining,

regulatory framework and the interventions are a National

manufacturing and agricultural activities. Placing the

Green Economy Strategy and sector Green Economy

country on a new development path will necessitate

Implementation Plans.

the implementation of actions aimed at dramatically

The Green Economy Report released by UNEP in

reducing the energy-intensive nature of the economy and

2011 demonstrates that the greening of economies is

maintaining the resource base. Success will depend in part

not generally a drag on growth but rather a new engine

on the alignment of the country’s socio-economic objectives

of growth is a net generator of decent jobs and is a vital

and strategic priorities for sustainable development. It will

strategy for the elimination of persistent poverty.

also require government to encourage a behavioural shift

In cooperation with international and regional agencies, the South African Government together with business,

in society by allowing people to make sustainable choices such as recycling and using public transport.

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1 PLANNING • National Planning Commission • Government cluster plans • Municipal IDPs • Private sector strategic plans • Civil society strategic plans

Independent review Multistakeholder Academia

Spheres of government International Institutions

National Committee on Sustainable Development

Civil society

Private sector




• Presidency • Government, Cabinet and cluster • Parliament • Government departments • Public entities • Municipalities • Academia • Civil society

• National departments • Provincial departments • Municipalities • Public entities • Civil society


Strengthening the institutional framework

A national focal point unit has been established within DEA to coordinate South Africa’s implementation

Since 2003, the Department of Environmental Affairs has

of the national sustainability vision and multilateral

driven the NSSD development process, in cooperation

agreements (MEAs). This unit will work with the NCSD,

with other government departments.

government departments, civil society, organised labour

The NSSD1 recognises that there are already a number

and business, as represented in Figure 2, to ensure

of sectors, which to a greater or lesser extent have

that there is effective planning and implementation

incorporated sustainability criteria into some or all of

of sustainable development throughout all spheres of

their policies, legislation, strategies and action plans. The

government, public entities and the private sector as well

strategy sets out an institutional framework that will

as participation with the United Nations systems and

ensure that there is effective coordination, planning and

structures. The private sector and civil society organisations are

monitoring/evaluation. Figure 2 is drawn from the NSSD1 and provides a responsibility matrix for sustainable

viewed as key partners in the implementation of the

development in South Africa.

sustainable development objectives and targets. The

An inter-governmental National Committee on

private sector, as suppliers of societal goods and

Sustainable Development will be established to oversee

services, has a pivotal contribution to achieving a

implementation and to engage civil society, private

sustainable development growth path. Industry bodies

sector, academia, independent review and other multi-

will be invited to send representatives to the consultative


forum that will be established for the implementation

The DEA, in collaboration with the relevant

of the NSSD1. Civil society, as represented by non-

government departments and stakeholders, will ensure

governmental organisations (NGOs), community-based

action towards the implementation of the NSSD1

organisations (CBOs) and labour, has a central role to

through harmonised planning of programmes and

play in promoting sustainable development in South



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“Government alone cannot manage and fund a just transition to a green economy and the private sector and civil society must play a fundamental role.�

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Green Economy FOR green growth While the South African economy, as measured by standard economic indicators, is considered relatively stable, there are a number of concerns from an ecological sustainability perspective. These include the following: • The economy is highly energy intensive and

includes a significant mining sector (7.7% of GDP

in 2006 and 6% of the labour force in 2008).

• The natural resource base is under severe pressure. • There is a national crisis in terms of electricity supply. • There is widespread poverty, unemployment and


Introduction A green economy implies the decoupling of resource use and environmental impacts from economic growth. It is characterised by substantially increased investment in green sectors, supported by enabling policy reforms. This implies moving towards a stable, steady-state economy “supplemented by conditions that ensure distributional equity, establish sustainable levels of resource throughput and emissions and provide for the protection of critical natural capital.” (Jackson, 2009) The South African approach is to ensure that a green economy is supported by a practical and implementable action plan that recognises the importance of building on existing best processes, programmes, initiatives and indigenous knowledge in key sectors, to shift towards a resource-efficient, low-carbon and pro-employment growth path. It also recognises that government alone cannot

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manage and fund a just transition to a green economy

culminate in proposals of the appropriate regulatory

and that the private sector and civil society must play a

framework to enable the development of sector action

fundamental role.

plans related to green markets and industries.

Green Economy Summit

The Cabinet approved a number of key supportive policies and this was the first sign that government was

The Economic Sectors and Employment cluster

prioritising the green economy. The policies in question

departments hosted the first national Green Economy

included the Medium-term Strategic Framework (MTSF)

Summit from 18 to 20 May 2010 to gather valuable insights

2009-2014, the 10-year Innovation Plan, the revised

on key focus areas and issues that require attention in

Industrial Policy Action Plan for 2010/11-2012/13 (IPAP2),

the short, medium and long-term. The President Jacob

the revised Integrated Resource Plan (IRP2) and New

Zuma, ministers, deputy ministers, members of the

Growth Path (NGP).

Executive Council (MECs) and Parliamentary Committee chairpersons, as well as representatives from the private

Green Fund

sector, NGOs and labour organisations, addressed the

The Green Fund is a unique, newly established national


fund that seeks to support green initiatives to assist South

In his address, the President highlighted the fact that

Africa’s transition to a low-carbon, resource-efficient and

ecosystem failure will seriously compromise the country’s

climate-resilient development path, delivering high impact

ability to address its social and economic priorities. He

economic, environmental and social benefits.

further reiterated that natural resources are national

Through the Department of Environmental

economic assets, and the economy depends heavily on

Affairs (DEA), the South African government has set

energy and mineral resources, biodiversity, agriculture,

aside R800-million to establish the Green Fund. This

forestry, fishing and tourism. The President pointed out

allocation represents the initial resources available for

that South Africa has no option but to manage its natural

disbursement by the Green Fund. The DEA has appointed

resources in a sustainable manner, and that it has no

the Development Bank of Southern Africa (DBSA) as the

choice but to be eco-friendly and develop a green economy.

implementing agent of the Green Fund. A Green Fund

National Strategy

Management Committee comprising representatives of the DEA, the DBSA and the National Treasury provide the

Through contributions from the various sectors’

direction and make final decisions on applications made

implementation plans, South Africa is to develop a

to the Green Fund. The objective of the Green Fund is to lay the basis

National Green Economy Strategy. The implementation of this strategy has a number of cross-cutting roles and

for the South African economy to make a transition to

responsibilities and will require work to ensure coherence

a low-carbon, resource-efficient and climate-resilient

and coordination within government and between social

development path delivering high impact economic,


environmental and social benefits. The Green Fund aims

• The strategy will also address crucial issues of

to provide catalytic finance to facilitate investment in

technology, innovation, localisation, manufacturing,

green initiatives that will support South Africa’s transition

skills and funding, drawing from a variety of potential

towards a green economy by:

sources, including the fiscus, international funds,

• Promoting innovative and high impact green

business and industry, public-private partnerships

(PPPs) and other possible measures.

• Reinforcing climate policy objectives through green

programmes and projects.

• The review of relevant regulatory, macro- and micro-

• Building an evidence base for the expansion of the

economic policies and institutional frameworks will


38 chapter4-Green economy.indd 4

2012/11/01 3:54 PM

green economy.

• Attracting additional resources to support South

Africa’s green economy development.

INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION The Industrial Development Corporation will set aside a capital allocation of R22-billion for green projects over the next five years and a further R3-billion will be made available for manufacturing of green products and components. The funding will aim to provide cofunding and industrial finance for commercially viable green economy projects. Attention will be given to identify opportunities for broad-based black economic empowerment targeting among others women and youth, as well as social enterprises. Viable investment projects need to be identified and supported in order to ensure take-up of available funding. Government therefore undertakes to compile a database of known projects in the green economy. Business commits to provide information on existing and potential projects in the green economy that it has available. The IDC commits to proactively identifying investment opportunities for South African investors, including small businesses and attract foreign investment to fast track development of the green economy.

Organised labour & government Organised labour commits to establish social enterprises (including cooperatives) and invest in vehicles that will create jobs and support the broader goals of the green economy, including through the Job Creation Trust. The social partners will provide information on maintenance and installation opportunities that social enterprises can tender for, in order to assist such enterprises to become sustainable. Government in Gauteng commits to the establishment of a climate-change innovation centre (“Climate Innovation Centre”) that will select, incubate, and provide technical assistance and hands-on mentoring to more than 100 Gauteng climate change technology entrepreneurs and SMEs and match technical assistance

chapter4-Green economy.indd 5

Guided by the outcomes of the National Green Economy Summit, the environment sector has developed an implementation plan for this sector’s contribution to national green economy action. The country began interventions and fundraising nationally and internationally for the implementation of the nine key focus areas: 1. Resource conservation and management; 2. Sustainable waste management practices; 3. Water management; 4. Environmental sustainability, which; comprises the following: a. Greening and legacy projects: Major events and tourism. b. Research, awareness, training, skills development and knowledge management. 5. Green buildings and the built environment; 6. Sustainable transport and infrastructure; 7. Clean energy and energy efficiency; 8. Agriculture, food production and forestry; and 9. Sustainable consumption and production.

The goals of a transition towards a green economy should include green growth contributions to economic growth and employment, while preventing environmental degradation and pollution, loss of biodiversity and unsustainable natural resource use. A green economy has identified the following necessary enablers of implementation: • Provide support to the regulatory framework. • Implement and upscale green economy programmes.

2012/11/01 3:54 PM

and mentoring with financing to all these enterprises.

increase public awareness of the opportunities that exists

A number of jobs will be created and a green skills

and the funding that is available.

learnership programme will form part of the initiative, with 100 participants a year. Business commits to support this effort. Business


will market green economy opportunities within the

The Green Passport Campaign is an initiative of the

investor community and work with private sector banks

International Task Force on Sustainable Tourism Devel-

and financial institutions to promote Green Funds and

opment, firmly rooted in the move to accelerate a global

portfolios of investment that include exposure to the

shift towards sustainable consumption and production

green economy. Within the retirement industry, business

(SCP) that emerged from the WSSD.

will promote the green economy as a site for investment that combines economic and social returns. Business recognises the investment opportunities

Task forces have been created to support the implementation of concrete activities and to focus on specific aspects of SCP. These voluntary initiatives, in

that exist in the green economy and commit to support

which experts from developing and developed countries

investment in the green economy through the following

participate, are instigated by countries that undertake


to cooperate with partners in carrying out activities in

• Work with government to attract multilateral

support of the implementation of specific Marrakech

and bilateral green funding to support investments

Process projects.

in initiatives that will contribute to the achievement of

a lower carbon growth path.

Working within the ITF-STD framework and building on the need to improve the tourism sector’s efforts

• Strengthen existing efforts by financial institutions to

to communicate with tourists on sustainable tourism,

fund private sector investments in the green economy

through campaigns on sustainability issues, UNEP and

and disseminate such information.

its partners are developing effective communication

• Pursue investment opportunities in manufacturing

tools. The Green Passport Campaign is one outcome of this

linked to renewable energy initiatives through

engagement under the auspices of the New Growth

process. The intention is to unlock the positive power of

Path (and IPAP2).

demand by raising tourists’ awareness of their potential

• Pursue investment opportunities in renewable

to contribute to sustainable development by making

energy generation and link these more clearly with

responsible holiday choices.

local component-manufacturing initiatives to improve

local industrial capacity.

• Strengthen investment in projects to improve

environmental performance of existing production


In South Africa, this was instituted for the 2010 FIFA World Cup as part of the event greening process and continued for the visitors to COP17 and CMP7. The aim of the Green Passport is to raise awareness amongst both the domestic and international visitors

The parties recognise the importance to bring small

about their potential to contribute towards sustainable

enterprises and social enterprises into the green

environmental management by making responsible

economy. Often such enterprises are unable to access

tourism choices.

available funding because information is not available

The Global Environment Facility (GEF) Fund, as a key

to them or application processes are cumbersome. The

partner on the initiative, unites 182 member govern-

parties agree to support green funding road shows to

ments – in partnership with international institutions,

40 chapter4-Green economy.indd 6

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non-governmental organisations and the private sector – to address global environmental issues. An independently operating financial organisation,

GREEN ECONOMY PROGRAMMES The Green Economy is prioritised as one of the key

the GEF provides grants to developing countries and

economic drivers in the Medium Term Strategic

countries with economies in transition, for projects

Framework (MTSF) 2009-2014 and, as part of the National

related to biodiversity, climate change, international

Framework for Sustainable Development (NFSD),

waters, land degradation, the ozone layer and persis-

it ensures that the country follows a sustainable

tent organic pollutants. These projects benefit the

development trajectory.

global environment, linking local, national and global

The New Growth Path targets 300 000 additional

environmental challenges and promoting sustainable

direct jobs by 2020 to green the economy, with 80 000 in


manufacturing and the rest in construction, operations

MAJOR EVENTS & THE ENVIRONMENT Globally there is growing awareness of the environ-

and maintenance of new environmentally friendly infrastructure. The potential for job creation rises to well over 400 000 by 2030.

mental impact of large events. “Green” has become the

Additional jobs will be created by expanding the

term used to describe activities or initiatives that may

existing public employment schemes to protect the

benefit the environment. Event Greening refers to the

environment, as well as in production of biofuels. Job

process of incorporating socially and environmentally

creation potentials are expected in the natural resource

responsible decision-making into the planning, organi-

management and construction in the short to medium

sation, implementation and participation in an event,

term, while renewable energy construction and

irrespective of the scale. It requires the application of

manufacture of inputs in the medium to long run. The Industrial Action Policy Plan (IPAP2), approved

sustainable development principles and practices to all levels of event organisation and aims to ensure that an

by cabinet in March 2011, focuses on the manufacturing

event is hosted in a responsible manner.

aspects of the green economy namely Green Industries

South Africa aimed to host COP17 as a low-carbon

and Industrial Energy Efficiency. It further champions

event based on the following objectives for planning

the South African Renewables Initiative (SARi) aimed

and implementation:

at funding initiatives to achieve greater critical mass of

• Undertake appropriate waste management;

renewable energy generation hand-in-hand with locali-

• Renewable energy and energy efficiency;

sation of manufacturing related to renewables.

• Water conservation;

The overall enablers of implementation for the

• Implement greening initiatives;

green economy programmes were identified as regula-

• Use of public transport;

tory framework; market-based instruments; innova-

• Promoting responsible tourism;

tion, science and technology commercialisation, greater

• Ongoing monitoring and evaluation;

localisation and manufacturing; investment, finance op-

• Enhancing environmental protection;

portunities and financing instruments include leverag-

• Effective communication and marketing;

ing of funds; availability of skills; institutional capabili-

• Promote local economic development and social

ties and capacity and partnerships.

The nine key focus areas identified in the green economy

cohesion; and

• Ensure a lasting legacy.

programmes report are:

For more information, go to

1. green buildings and the built environment;

41 chapter4-Green economy.indd 7

2012/11/01 3:55 PM

2. sustainable transport and infrastructure;

required, if the 46 identified potential green economy

3. clean energy and energy efficiency;

projects in 9 key focus areas for the environment sector

4. resource conservation and management;

are to be implemented with potential to create 22 627 job

5. sustainable waste management practices;


6. agriculture, food production and forestry;

This plan will be implemented through local and

7. water management;

international partnerships, with green investments, sup-

8. sustainable consumption and production; and

ported by domestic funding streams that could include

9. Environmental sustainability which includes

the National Treasury’s Green Fund, Clean Technology

Greening and Legacy and Research, awareness and

Fund, Employment Creation fund, DBSA and other

skills development and knowledge management.

possible streams including international organisations.

The environment sector adopted a phased approach

The key policy and regulatory challenges that a

that will therefore implement the initial Phase A for pro-

resource mobilisation mechanism needs to take into

grammes and projects in the four key focus areas:

consideration include the following:

1. Resource conservation and management

• The Green Economy is the ‘New business as usual’

• Energy from invasive alien plants projects on the

whereby environmental sustainability and transition-

ing to green growth is critical for a new development

Agulhas plains: Pilot projects for phase 2.

• The establishment of three new carbon sink


• The Green Economy is broader than renewable energy


• Introduction of bamboo as a long-term

and energy efficiency. It includes land use, water and


commercial crop.

2. Sustainable waste management practices

• Regulation and pricing signals by the state need to be

• Establishment of over 2 200 waste-preneurs that

stronger to support accelerated investment by the

private sector and to change consumer behaviour.

will collect and barter over 1 200 tons of recycling.

• Materials recycling and compost manufacture

• Domestic resources should be mobilised to fuel green

economy growth (taxes, pension funds, private sector,

from waste.

3. Water management


• Novel Rain Water Harvesting Technologies for Peri-

• The costing of externalities should be considered in

economic development interventions.

urban and Rural communities in South Africa.

4. Environmental Sustainability

• State interventions need to be coordinated to deliver

• Greening & Legacy – Major events and tourism;

scalable and replicable outcomes.

• Rural Sustainability Commons;

• Complex global negotiating platform and access to

• Early Warning System (Village Lightening Alarms);

climate finance needs to be addressed.

• Green Industry Knowledge Bank /

This implementation plan goes beyond consideration of

the net jobs created to also consider the jobs protected;

• Food and energy centre of excellence; and

(particularly in resource-dependent and export-based

• A nationwide human capacity development

industries) by improving national resource competitive-

programme in support of a green economy (The

ness and industry development, (e.g. carbon, energy and

Sustainability Commons Project).

water efficiency) and the livelihoods created (especially

The green economy programmes report analysis indi-

by generating incomes, services and wealth for the rural

cates that an amount of approximately R9.7 billion is


42 chapter4-Green economy.indd 8

2012/11/01 3:55 PM

EVERY LITTLE BIT HELPS. “Use electricity wisely and together we can create a brighter future for all South Africans.”

chapter9-our common future-roi+20.indd 1


Minister Malusi Gigaba

2012/10/31 2:28 PM

“Climate change is considered one of the most serious threats to sustainable development, with adverse impacts expected on the environment, human health, food security, economic activity and investment, natural resources and physical infrastructure.�

chapter5 climate change.indd 2

2012/11/01 7:57 PM


Climate ACTION Climate change is considered to be among the most serious threats to global sustainable development. South Africa has set itself the goal of achieving an inclusive, balanced, equitable and legally binding agreement to lower global emissions. The country also acknowledges that since terrestrial and marine ecosystems play a significant role in the carbon cycle, climate change mitigation and adaptation must include ecosystem-based solutions as well.

ENERGY AND CLIMATE CHANGE In South Africa, coal is one of the main sources of energy. Relatively cheap energy and abundant coal supplies have made it possible to build an energy-intensive economy. The national electricity crisis (load shedding, scheduled blackouts) experienced by South African citizens had driven the need to increase electricity tariffs to fund Eskom’s new build programme aimed at meeting the growing electricity demands and increased awareness and urgency of energy efficiency practices. Energy efficiency amongst industry and household consumers has been the focus of reducing electricity demand. The issue of global climate change calls for reducing anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs). The relatively high quantities of GHG emissions by the energy sector therefore create the platform for renewable energy technology to be implemented. There is a need to promote sustainable consumption patterns within the energy sector thereby reducing the current heavy reliance on fossil-fuel-based sources.

chapter5 climate change.indd 3

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This workgroup focused on South Africa, rather than

• Consider who to focus on – the consumer or the

global issues due to time constraints and distribution and

industry. Focusing on the poor consumer when large

generation of energy was also excluded from the discus-

consumers (industry) are using the bulk of the energy

sions for the same reason.

might be a wrong policy approach.

The main question the group was challenged with was

• Conduct more energy audits. More audits would

“Should we rather concentrate on the cause of carbon emis-

ensure that we have accurate data on trends in energy

sion in the country than on the effects of climate change?”

use thereby enabling us to have targeted interventions.

The group discussed the contribution of fossil fuels to

• Introduce policy instruments such as green budgets

climate change, as coal is a major source for greenhouse gas

and incentives for industry such as tax rebates. Offer

emissions in South Africa. It was suggested during the ses-

rewards for savings in tax rebates to the consumer.

sion to focus on priorities that can make a difference in the

Introduce effective subsidies for energy efficiency.

near future instead of looking at long-term priorities such

• Look into possibilities of providing affordable

as nuclear power stations. However, it was also stressed the

renewable energy, which can compete with the

short and the long-term effects should be considered in

traditional sources of energy, with the aim to reduce

parallel. We can achieve the biggest gains in the short-term

GHG emissions.

by implementing interventions; but we need to make the

• Consider introducing stepped tariffs like the water

right decision now for the future.

tariffs. They could influence the usage of energy.

• Consider introducing incentives to industry, which


can reduce the energy demand and achieve the

The main question that the participants of this working

objectives of the incentives.

group tried to answer was “If we look at short-term energy

• Encourage separation of domestic waste; it saves

and reducing per capita consumption energy over the

whole spectrum of use; what are the priorities that we can

• Integrate energy efficiency principles in school

come up with where we think the greatest

curriculum and enhance education and awareness

savings in energy can be made in the short-term?”



• Focus on industrial zones – they can lend themselves


to CHP plants to produce electricity and feed waste

• Increasing the price of energy could create a reduction

heat back to the companies.

in energy consumption, assuming that the price

• Make city planning more influential in the building

increase is large enough to form a proper incentive

for investment in energy saving technology and for

• Focus on sugar mills. Most of the sugar mills

changes in energy consumption behaviour.

generate their own power, and generate more than is

• Put in place minimum standards for appliances

needed but do not feed the excessive electricity to

that consume electrical power especially in domestic

the grid due to DME policy. In Europe, companies are

appliances. It is believed that this has already been

allowed to feed power back onto the grid.

done in certain industries in South Africa, but it is

• Look into introducing energy-efficient building

not well known and publicised.

of eco-industrial parks, green zones, CHP, etc.

standards, such as in Europe.

46 chapter5 climate change.indd 4

2012/11/01 10:03 PM

• Government must be mindful of techniques to

Powered Water Heaters with insurance claims on

promote and address sustainable development.

geyser replacements. This must be covered with

Consumption has limitations. When the government

government policy with DTI and DME.

decides to design and implement certain tools, they have to be effective. South Africa is not a closed

Hosting COP17

economy, therefore the production of goods covers

Between 28 November and 9 December 2011, South Africa

many geographical locations and regulation is

hosted the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate

Change (UNFCCC) 17th Conference of Parties (COP17) and the


• Standard of energy efficiency must be in line with

7th Conference of the Parties serving as the Meeting of the

SADC standards, as the load would just shift if South

Parties to the Kyoto Protocol (CMP7).

Africa becomes efficient and offloads all the non-

Climate change is considered one of the most serious

efficient equipment onto neighbours.

threats to sustainable development, with adverse impacts

• The government must make policy decisions that

expected on the environment, human health, food security,

promote projects in the rural areas and especially

economic activity and investment, natural resources and

make the access to energy economical. If we do not

physical infrastructure.

do something for rural areas where there is no

supply, if we do not change these consumption

comments from the Minister of Environmental Affairs, Edna

habits, we are not solving the problem.

Molewa on its successful conclusion.

This historic event can best be summed up by the

• Look into energy diversification as a policy. Then

“When South Africa agreed to host COP17, we set ourselves

South Africa would not be reliant on one source, but

the goal of achieving an inclusive, balanced, equitable


and legally binding agreement to lower global emissions

• Identify potential for innovations through energy

that went beyond simply making the Cancun agreements

operational. We also committed to making this COP inclusive

research and development.

• Consider promoting electric rail instead of road

and people driven.

transport. Transportation fuels consume a large

percent of energy supplies. Electric rail is the

able to agree on an ambitious deal, which significantly

cheapest mode of transport now.

advances the global climate change agenda. The Durban

In the final stages of this dramatic conference, we were

• Consider introducing a focus for the currently

outcome is historic and precedent setting. In terms of the

ongoing initiatives such as energy audits and

mitigation effort, this COP has been characterised by a


new willingness on the part of all parties to move beyond

• Develop a mechanism to enable independent power

entrenched negotiating positions and unconstructive rhetoric

producers (individual households) to feed back into

and engage with the requirements of development in a carbon-

the grid.

constrained environment in a more open and flexible manner.

• Consider changing dietary habits of people, i.e.

eating less meat, since livestock is a major

contributor to GHG emissions.

• Government underwrites loans, to replace Solar

This represents a significant and hopeful step forward. Crucially, we have been able to strengthen the UNFCCC mitigation regime by agreeing on a second commitment period under the Kyoto protocol, covering at least the five-year

47 chapter5 climate change.indd 5

2012/11/01 10:03 PM

period from 2013 to 2018. While the ratification of this second

In holding this event on African soil, we were able to put

commitment period by countries may be delayed, any gap

Africa’s priority of adapting to the impacts of climate change

that may arise is covered in terms of the agreement at this

firmly on the global agenda. We have strengthened the

COP by which Annex 1 countries will stick to their existing

international adaptation agenda and established an adaptation

commitments. In parallel, countries have agreed to initiate

committee that will spearhead global work on adaptation.

negotiations leading to a legal instrument, protocol or agreed

We have also operationalised the Technology Executive

outcome with legal force applicable to all countries, that will

Committee, as the policy-making body on technology issues

be adopted by 2015 and be operational no later than 2020.

and fine-tuned the procedures and modalities for the TEC.

This COP has reaffirmed a common vision for global

Working in synergy with the Climate Technology Centre

cooperation on climate change to hold the increase in global

and Network, the TEC will substantially strengthen the

average temperature below 2 degrees Celsius above pre-

UNFCCC’s operational arm on technology. The centre will

industrial levels. We recognise that the ambition and scope

assist developing countries in the negotiation of technology

of current commitments are inadequate. Even if the most

partnerships and transfer agreements and in adapting these

ambitious current emissions targets are met, this will exceed

technologies to country purposes. It will also assist with license

what science requires by an estimated 5 gigaton (Gt) of CO2

negotiations, and the establishment of national innovation

equivalent emissions, according to the UN Environment

systems for a low-carbon and climate-resillient future. We have

Programme’s Emissions Gap Report.

been able to initiate the process of selecting a host of the CTCN,

In an effort to address this gap, we have established a

which will set up the organisation.

process to increase the transparency of the mitigation efforts

An additional spin-off has been the unprecedented level

of both developed and developing countries. In the case of

of domestic mobilisation around climate issues. As COP

developed countries, we will review and assess their economy-

President, Minister Maite Nkoana-Mashabane has succeeded

wide emission reduction targets and commitments and in the

in bringing NGOs and civil society closer to the negotiations

case of developing countries, we will increase the transparency

process. Last Saturday saw a day of action by civil society, with

of the voluntary and nationally appropriate mitigation actions

a multitude of communities and NGOs marching under the

(NAMAs) of developing countries.

banner of climate action. The Durban Mayor’s Summit brought

Countries are also encouraged to prepare low-emission

over 100 mayors from cities around the world together to adopt

development strategies or plans in the context of sustainable

the Durban Adaptation Charter. The business community

development. This COP has also resulted in a strengthened and

held the largest number of side events and activities ever

environmentally sound framework for including emissions

associated with a COP and it is encouraging to see the extent

from deforestation and forest degradation, which will help

to which investment in new green technologies and jobs is

protect the world’s forests.

paving the path to a low-carbon economy. These actions by

We have also succeeded in bringing into operation the

civil society groups outside of the negotiations have helped

outcomes that were successfully negotiated in Cancun last year.

put the importance of an ambitious climate regime firmly on

These include the detailed design of the Green Climate Fund,

the agenda, and have increased pressure on negotiators for a

which Minister Trevor Manuel successfully steered through a

binding legal agreement.

year of difficult negotiations. The design of the fund includes a

South Africa can be extremely proud of its collective efforts

number of innovative mechanisms for bringing private sector

to host this COP. We have produced a world standard event

and market mechanisms into play to increase the potential flow

that has been complemented by the visitors and negotiators

of funding into climate change responses.

from across the spectrum and have successfully steered a

48 chapter5 climate change.indd 6

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complex negotiations process towards a successful conclusion. The outcome of Durban is a historical achievement and will substantially advance the global climate agenda.”

Climate change – going forward Climate change is considered to be among the most

The following are the overall specific goals that relate to the national climate change response:

serious threats to global sustainable development, if not the most serious threat, with adverse impacts expected on food and water security, economic activity, human health, physical infrastructure and natural resources. These impacts will seriously undermine efforts to achieve sustainable development and the Millennium Development Goals, particularly in developing countries that are not only the most vulnerable, but also the least equipped to deal with climate change.

• • • •

Decrease greenhouse gas emissions to levels required by science in line with Cabinet-approved targets – with particular emphasis on the energy sector, which accounts for over 70% of South Africa’s emissions. Reduce dependency on fossil fuels and enhance security of electricity supply. Build resilience to climate change in communities. Ensure that ecosystem resillience is not disrupted.

Conversely, addressing climate change by mitigating greenhouse gas emissions and building resilient communities will make a major contribution to achieving a sustainable society. Since terrestrial and marine ecosystems play a significant role in the carbon cycle, climate change mitigation and adaptation must include ecosystem-based solutions. The protection of natural habitats is particularly important, as the poorest people, who depend directly on natural systems, are also the most vulnerable to the effects of climate change. Many years ago, government recognised that climate change was real and that it was a significant threat to the country’s development. This was formally acknowledged during the National Climate Change Conference in 2005. In

“Addressing climate change by mitigating greenhouse gas emissions and building resilient communities will make a major contribution to achieving a sustainable society.”

chapter5 climate change.indd 7

November 2011, South Africa approved a National Climate Change Response white paper. This white paper presents government’s vision for an effective climate change response and a long-term, just transition to a climate-resilient and lower-carbon economy and society. This response is guided by principles set out in the Constitution, the Bill of Rights, the National Environmental Management Act (NEMA), the Millennium Declaration and the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. The development and implementation of an effective climate change response

2012/11/01 7:58 PM

strategy is a priority for South Africa, both in the short

term adaptation interventions to be addressed in sector

and long-term. Activities include continued participation


in the international climate change negotiations with a

• Identification of adaptation responses that require

view to concluding an equitable, but ambitious climate

coordination between specific sectors/departments and

change agreement for the post-2012 period. However, given

integration of adaptation strategies in sectoral plans.

the broader benefits of mitigation and adaptation-related

• Development and piloting of a methodology to downscale

activities, the National Programme on Climate Change should

climate information and comprehensive impact

be vigorously pursued regardless of delays in the international

assessments to specific geographical areas, as well as


monitoring and evaluation.

Climate Change Response Policy

• Research for Long-term Adaptation Scenarios, focusing on

Government’s National Climate Change Response Policy was

approved on Wednesday, 12 October 2011 and was formally

published as a White Paper in the Government Gazette on Wednesday, 19 October 2011 (Gazette No. 34695, Notice No. 757). The White Paper represents the culmination of an iterative

the following sectors: water, agriculture, commercial forestry, biodiversity and ecosystems, human settlements, health and disaster risk reduction.

Summary of the priority deliverables for the next 2 years

and participatory policy development process that was started

• Development of an Implementation Framework for the

in October 2005.

The White Paper is the product of a 6-year process that

National Priority Flagship programme.

• Development of detailed Action Plans for each Flagship

involved ground-breaking modelling and research activities,

two national conferences, numerous workshops and

• Provide a detailed analysis of mitigation outcomes

conferences in every province, hundreds of bilateral and key

stakeholder engagements, a NEDLAC review and Parliamentary

• Develop an Action Plan for realising local sustainable


development benefits, including employment, poverty

alleviation, industrial development, reduction in local air

pollution and others.

Objectives of NCCRP

Programme. expected to result from the programme.

Effectively manage inevitable climate change impacts through

• Develop a comprehensive reporting format which will

interventions that build and sustain South Africa’s social,

include a set of relevant indicators and a proposal to

economic and environmental resilience and emergency

establish annual reporting.

response capacity.

1. The Renewable Energy Flagship Programme - inclusive of

Make a fair contribution to the global effort to stabilise

a scaled-up renewable energy programme and expanded

GHG concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that avoids

solar water heating programme.

dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate

2. The Energy Efficiency and Energy Demand Management

system within a timeframe that enables economic, social

Flagship Programme – aggressive energy-efficiency

and environmental development to proceed in a sustainable

programmes in industry; government, residential, and


commercial sectors include; regulations, standards, and

codes of practice.

Summary of the deliverables required by the NCCRP

3. The Waste Management Flagship Programme

– investigating and implementing waste-to-energy

• Adoption of a regional approach to adaptation and

opportunities available within the solid-, semi-solid- and

liquid-waste management sectors, especially the

identification and prioritisation of key short- and medium-

50 chapter5 climate change.indd 8

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generation, capture, conversion and/or use of methane

rail re-capitalisation programme to facilitate both


passenger modal shifts and the shift of freight from road

4. The Carbon Capture and Sequestration Flagship

to rail; Government Vehicle Efficiency Programme

Programme – the development of a CCS Demonstration

including electric vehicle procurement objectives.

Plant to store the process emissions from an existing high-

carbon emissions facility.

5. The Adaptation Research Flagship Programme - the design

COORDINATION required by the NCCRP

and rollout of a national and regional research

Consistent implementation of the NCCRP requires a long-term

programme to scope sectoral adaptation requirements and

framework for institutional coordination, to:

costs and identify adaptation strategies with cross-sectoral

• Coordinate adaptation and mitigation actions and

linkages and benefits. The Climate Change Response


Public Works Flagship Programme – the consolidation and

• Measure, report and verify climate change responses.

expansion of, for example, Working for Water, Working on

• Coordinate research and development, and promote

Fire, and Working for Energy.


6. The Water Conservation and Demand Management

The NCCRP sets out roles of Parliament, the DG clusters, the

Flagship Programme – accelerated implementation of the

Intergovernmental Committee on Climate Change (IGCCC), the

National Water Conservation and Water Demand

National disaster Management Council, as well as provincial

Management Strategy in the industry, mining, power

and local government.

generation, agriculture and water services sectors,

accelerated provision of rainwater harvesting tanks in rural

outlines the role of business and industry, civil society,

and low-income settlements, etc.

academia and scientists, and identifies the National Committee

In respect of partnering with stakeholders, the NCCRP

7. The Transport Flagship Programme – enhanced public

on Climate (NCCC) and NEDLAC as the key co-ordination


transport programme; an Efficient Vehicles Programme;

51 chapter5 climate change.indd 9

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“When women come together, they always make a visible impact that improves the lives of their communities and countries.�

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CARETAKERS OF THE ENVIRONMENT WOMEN AND THE ENVIRONMENT Women are at the forefront of environmental change in South Africa, taking up key decision-making posts and effecting economically viable and sustainable development solutions by rallying together to initiate and realise change and growth. This is evident through the initiatives of the Expanded Public Works Programme (EPWP) and the Department of Environmental Affairs (DEA) commitment in appointing women in decision-making positions and its social responsibility programmes that empower and unite women in the fight against environmental degradation and poverty eradication.

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key decision-making posts and effecting economically viable and sustainable development solutions by rallying together to initiate and realise change and growth. This is evident through the initiatives of the Expanded Public Works Programme (EPWP) and the Department of Environmental Affairs (DEA) commitment in appointing women in decisionmaking positions and its social responsibility programmes that empower and unite

women in the fight against environmental degradation and poverty eradication.

chapter6-caretakers in our environment .indd 4


Women are at the forefront of environmental change in South Africa, taking up

Women and Environment Conferences DEA has hosted five Women and Environment conferences since 2005, recognising that people have over-used and abused our natural resources and that the environmental impact is real, present and knows no boundaries with the most vulnerable communities bearing the highest risk of severe impact. These challenges affect women, mostly in rural sectors, as they are often the ones left to deal with the deterioration. These conferences brought together women from various organisations, professional bodies, government departments in South Africa and abroad and community organisations to engage and learn from their regional and global counterparts on environmental challenges in order to develop strategies

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and solutions for environmental and economic sustainability

challenges and the opportunity to increase impacts and

and create a national forum to ensure that decisions

benefits of the programmes and projects, through building

undertaken at environmental conferences are implemented.

and strengthening relationships with government, experts,

The Department of Environmental Affairs organised

academics, business leaders and other women in South Africa:

the 2012 event from 20-21 August, in collaboration with

• Give women the platform to share their experiences in the

stakeholders such as Department of Water Affairs, Indalo

involvement in the environmental programmes; share

Yethu and Women in Environment. The theme for this year’s

the best practices in the environmental sector and

womens celebration is “56 Years of Women United against

encourage exchange of knowledge, skills and expertise

poverty, unemployment and inequality.”

among the women.

Gcinumzi Qotya, the Chief Director in the Environmental

• Explore institutional networking and capacity building.

Programmes and Infrastructure Development conducted a full

• Address funding mechanisms for women in the

presentation on environmental projects that are implemented

by the department, which included programmes such as

The second day offered four breakaway commissions,

Working on Fire, Working for Water and Working for Wetlands.

deliberating on the following issues:

Women in Dialogue explored solutions to the current

environmental sector; and Green Economy opportunities.

• Commission 1: Awareness, Organisational Development

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and Capacity Building and Institutional Mechanisms

The forum is an outcome of the 2008 Women &

• Commission 2: Funding and Financing (Green Fund, etc.),

Environment Conference resolution, which was implemented

through four provincial workshops and one national workshop

Partnerships and Markets

• Commission 3: Environmental & Water Programmes,

that informed the structure of the national forum, coordinated

by the department and Indalo Yethu throughout the provinces.

emerging opportunities and competitiveness

• Commission 4: Towards a national Sustainable Women in

Two representatives, from the provincial forums that were

established during the provincial workshops that preceded the

Water and Environment Programme

national conference, constitute the national forum.

National Forum for Women & THE Environment

flagship projects per province for implementation. The forum

Women are the majority of the poor in developing countries,

acts as a stakeholder group focussing on growing the sector.

including South Africa, and as they are highly dependent on

It will serve as a structure for engagement with the provincial

natural resources, they are disproportionately vulnerable to the

stakeholders and representatives to consolidate input,

effects of environmental or ecological, degradation and endure

make submissions on policy issues on behalf of provincial

the most of increases in energy costs, transport, healthcare and

structures, as well as monitoring the implementation of


the flagship projects and provide progress reports to the

It is also acknowledged that eradication of poverty cannot

The forum will develop an action plan by identifying two

department, Indalo Yethu and relevant partners. The forum

be accomplished through anti-poverty programmes alone but

will also inform the content of national conferences.

will require democratic participation and changes in economic

The forum will also act as link with the Network of Women

structures in order to ensure access for all women to resources,

Ministers and Leaders for the Environment that will be used

opportunities and public services.

as a case study for the implementation of the women and

Worldwide, women are directly affected by poverty and

environment programmes and activities. It will be composed

involved in the day-to-day efforts of improving the provision

of the provincial forum members, gender focal point members

of shelter, food, water and sanitation. For this reason, it

from DEA and officials from Indalo Yethu.

is important to ensure that women are at the heart of the

the mouthpiece of women and champion their empowerment

African Chapter of the Network of Women Ministers and Leaders in Environment

needs. The forum will also serve as the platform for women

Agenda 21 of the Rio Declaration of the World Conference

to inform policy and decision-making on issues that affect

on Environment and Development in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

women as well as monitor implementation of decisions we

(1992) recognised the crucial role that women played in

take at these conferences.

environmental management. This was further reinforced by

decision-making processes that affect their lives. The National Forum for Women & Environment will act as

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The Beijing platform of action of the United Nations Women’s

The broad objective of the global network is to promote

Conference in Beijing China (1995) and the Johannesburg

gender responsive sustainable environmental management

declaration of the World Summit on Sustainable Development

at regional and global levels and enhance representation and

held in Johannesburg, South Africa (2002).

involvement of women in decision-making in the areas of

The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN)

environment and sustainable development at all levels.

and the Council of World Women Leaders convened a meeting

Since its establishment in 2002, the global network has

of women ministers and leaders of environment in Helsinki,

been actively involved in a number of activities. One was the

Finland, which was chaired by the ex-Minister for Environment

hosting of first global women’s assembly on environment:

and Development Cooperation for Finland, Ms Satu Hassi

Women as the Voice for the Environment (WAVE) at the

and Rejoice Mabudafhasi, Deputy Minister for Environmental

headquarters of the United Nations Environment Programme,

Affairs, South Africa.

Nairobi, Kenya in 2004 that was attended by over 150

Twenty-two women ministers for the environment

participants from 65 countries.

and 28 women leaders representing non-governmental

One of the key resolutions was to promote existing

environmental organisations from Africa, Asia, Europe, North

small-scale projects initiated by communities and the

and South America attended the meeting. The purpose of the

formulation of women structures from local, national, regional

meeting was to mobilise women to take immediate action in

and global levels as platform to push the agenda of gender

addressing the challenge of environment degradation as it

mainstreaming in policy development and environmental

affects economic development and worsens poverty.

management. UNEP was tasked to develop a concrete

Women comprise more than half of the world’s population

gender plan of action that will realise the above-mentioned

and are the custodians of environment, therefore the meeting


unanimously agreed that women must come together

To grow strong and be more effective on the ground, in

and speak with one voice and play a leading role in the

February 2008, women ministers and leaders met in Monaco

development of environmental management policies in

and resolved to set up regional, sub-regional and national

our respective countries in order to ensure that gender is an

chapters that would ensure that the global objectives are

integral component of environmental management.

implemented. The 2010 launch of the National Forum on

The Network of Women Ministers for the Environment

Women & Environment in South Africa, the fourth Women

was thus born. At this inaugural meeting, Lena Sommestad,

& Environment Conference and the pre-launch of regional

Minister for the Environment of Sweden and Rejoice

chapters realised the resolution of the Monaco conference.

Mabudafhasi, Deputy Minister for Environmental Affairs,

Hon Sherry Ayittey, Minister of Environment, Science

South Africa were appointed co-chairs of the Network of

& Technology, Ghana launched the African Chapter of the

Women Ministers for the Environment representing the global

Network of Women Ministers and Leaders in Environment at

north and the global south.

the 2010 South African conference.

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Youth and THE environment working together

Successful programmes

Conscious that June is both Environment month and

window to the world of work on Friday, 21 September 2012,

Youth month, the Department of Environmental Affairs has

when they attended a one-day orientation programme for

made particular calls encouraging youth to participate in

an environmental learnership to be facilitated by the City of

environmental projects and to seek work within the areas


Eighty-seven unemployed Gauteng youths were given a

The successful candidates were selected for the year-long

covered by environment – from the purely technical to the practical. In 2012, the Environmental Affairs Minister, Edna

learnership, a brain-child of the Department of Environmental Affairs, from 152 applicants. The programme, which

Molewa, called on young people to be actively involved in

seeks to attract young people to job opportunities in the

the preservation of the environment. The minister explained

environmental field, is offered in partnership with the Local

that by restoring and preserving natural ecosystems, rural

Government Sector Education Training Authority (LGSETA). After the learnership, some of them will be absorbed into

economies could be stimulated, rural and urban jobs created, and these would help maintain critical ecosystem services

the City’s entities, including Pikitup, City Parks, Johannesburg

that are vital to the economy such as energy and water supply.

Market, Infrastructural Services Department and Environment

According to Molewa, her department has planned to

Health. The DEA’s move to fast-track skills development in the

create about 62 860 job opportunities within the department’s environmental programmes. She said 55% of beneficiaries

environmental sector is aimed at ensuring that South Africa

would be women, 40% would be youth and 2% would be

is adequately prepared to respond to the challenges of climate

people with disabilities.

change. The search for suitable candidates started in March

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2012 when the DEA identified the City as an ideal partner to recruit the youth in Gauteng for the learnership. The Cape West Coast Biosphere Reserve Company has partnered with the Department of Environmental Affairs and Development Planning (DEA&DP), local communities and local organisations in order to provide an initiative to young and inspired leaders who possess a passion for nature. The project aims to provide groups of young people from disadvantaged communities an opportunity to explore and experience the beauty of nature and an opportunity to learn about the natural environment. The project seeks to utilise the opportunity to educate

The South African government is already working towards promoting coherence in the initiatives that are aimed at promoting sustainable consumption and production and the country will be moving into the implementation phase of the green economy initiatives as one of the tools to achieving

sustainable development.

chapter6-caretakers in our environment .indd 9

youth about the importance of conserving the natural environment, as well as the social problems faced in the community. It aims to utilise the national monument, Table Mountain, the internationally renowned wetland site, the Langebaan Lagoon and the West Coast National Park to instill a sense of pride in South Africa’s youth and its San community project, !Khwa Ttu. Further educational aspects include the importance of conserving water and how to use it wisely. Littering is a very large problem within the communities and creates a bad impression on tourists who visit our townships and communities, so this initiative also aims to educate the youth about littering. The different aspects that this project covers, includes empowering disadvantaged youth about: • Training in facilitation and leadership skills; • Social issues and how to address them; • HIV/AIDS; • The history and cultural value of Table Mountain, the

Langebaan Lagoon and the West Coast Fossil Park;

• Our precious floral kingdom; • Awareness in sustainable utilisation of our natural

resources, including wise water usage;

• Our role to accomplish a clean environment where we live; • Biodiversity conservation; and • Visiting a successful community-driven and owned project

within the West Coast National Park.

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At this year’s People and Parks Conference, the Department

an interest in the environment as a career. The Department of Environmental Affairs is committed to

of Environmental Affairs in partnership with the Department of Education, SANParks and Pick and Pay, signed a new

continue engaging with the stakeholders and communities

Memorandum of Understanding (MOU), which ensures the

through various platforms on issues of environment. This

extension of the Kids in Parks Programme for the benefit of

includes publications, public participation engagements,

many learners around South Africa’s national parks across the

exhibitions, workshops, conferences and programmes aimed

country. The Kudu Green School initiative, recently launched

at youth.

in Gauteng will add more value to the programme.

Education key According to the Department of Environmental Affairs, the environmental sector depends heavily on school leavers being aware of the environmental field and holding environmental

Indalo Yethu

values. For many, school is the only opportunity for

Indalo Yethu was established to serve as an institution

developing such awareness and values, and teachers play a key

with the objective of developing and implementing the

role, in either inspiring these values, or exposing learners to

National Environmental Awareness Campaign. The Trust

shaping experiences during schooling.

was to serve as an endorsement brand, conduct an extensive

South Africa, as a signatory to the United Nations

communication, marketing and outreach campaign, establish

Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), has

and/or enter into partnerships; and generate the income

to fulfil certain obligations which includes amongst others

required to enable the smooth running of the Trust. It was envisaged that the Trust would be able to generate

promoting and cooperating in education, training and public awareness related to climate change. It is through education in raising awareness that people can change their attitudes towards the environment and take

sufficient income, through eco-endorsement, to fund the operations of the Trust after 2 years of being established. One of the main conclusions drawn from the review done by the

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Department was that the cost of compliance with regard to

and Environmental Awareness Educators , with further work

statutory requirements associated with a stand-alone entity

opportunities from the construction activities associated

and the operations of the Trust could not be supported from

with the building or erection of landfill site offices, ablution

the funds allocated for this purpose.

facilities as well as weigh pad platforms at landfill sites

The Department of Environmental Affairs has, after careful

across the country.

consideration decided to dissolve the Indalo Yethu Trust.

1. Landfill Site Operation and Management

This decision was reached following a review to determine

In response to the lack of technical knowledge in landfill

the viability of the organisation, the review of its functions

site operation and management and from the assessment

and strategic rethinking of the department towards its

of training evaluations, it is clear that the training has

communications, awareness and stakeholder engagement

significantly imparted necessary skills to municipal officials.


It is in this context that the DEA now wants to extend

The dissolution of the Trust process will result in

this training to 462 young people who will be placed in

functions that need to continue being incorporated into the

municipalities across the country in this current year. The

existing programmes of the Department and its entities and

young people, upon completing the short course will be

business partners and other stakeholders where appropriate.

based at the Landfill Operations and will assist with day to day management and administration related to the


operations at the landfills. 2. Waste Collection Planning and Administration

Scores of young people in South Africa are unemployed, some

Municipalities require assistance in the planning and

despite having achieved tertiary education. In March 2006

execution of waste collection operational plans. There

youth unemployment was estimated at 50.3% for 14-24 year

is substantial administration and management that is

olds and 29.5% for 25-35 year olds. This is an untenable state of

associated with waste collection planning and execution.

affairs and requires immediate attention by all organs of state

The young people would be placed within the municipal

as well the private sector.

offices, with reporting lines worked into the municipal

It is befitting therefore that in designing programmes


meant to deal with environmental issues, the youth become

3. Waste Management Awareness Campaign

central to the execution of these programmes. It is equally

The National Waste Management Strategy sets a target

necessary that youth development programmes entails large

for 80% of schools to be implementing waste awareness

scale creation of jobs as well as enterprise development.

programmes, such as recycling projects, by 2016. The target

It is in this light that the DEA increasingly expanding its

for the same year for local awareness campaigns is for 80%

programmes in job creation and enterprise development

of municipalities to be running campaigns about waste and

programmes within the Waste sector. Consequently, the

littering. Ultimately, awareness and recognition programmes

current initiative, termed, the ‘Jobs in Waste and Enterprise

around waste should result in visibly cleaner towns and

Development for Youth Programme� is aimed at dealing

cities, a reduction in illegal dumping, and the successful

with youth unemployment and specifically targets

implementation of separation at source programmes.

Unemployed young people in the country. The low levels of capacity in municipalities present

As part of this Youth Jobs in Waste Programme, the campaign would be aimed at creating awareness of

an excellent opportunity for creation of jobs, on the job

waste management issues. The young people, termed

training, continuous up-skilling as well as enterprise

Environmental Awareness Educators, would be involved in

development for the youth. An estimated 3 577 jobs will

the planning and execution of environmental awareness

be created by placing young people in Municipalities as

campaigns as well as developing educational materials for

Landfill Site Assistants, Waste Collection Administrators

the campaigns.

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The success of the city hosting the COP17 and its commitment through the leadership to promote local government’s CITY ENVIRONMENTAL PERFORMANCE HAS NATIONAL AS WELL AS LOCAL BENEFITS, AND THERE IS A STRONG CASE FOR NATIONAL LEVEL SUPPORT. South Africa has recognised that climate change is one of the critical factors influencing the environmental sustainability of cities, and that appropriate responses to climate change have fiscal implications (Financial and Fiscal Commission 2011). The City of Durban in eTthekwini Municipality has been much-admired for successfully hosting the 17th Conference of Parties UN Conference on Climate Change (UN COP). The eThekwini Municipality is leading the climate change revolution in local government and has been for a number of years.

involvement in leading and dealing with climate change was well received in the world as a host. Legally binding targets set in Durban will have massive implications for the country and South Africa and will need to develop climate change mitigation and adaptation strategies, and local government will be instrumental in ensuring the success of such policies on the ground. LGP4CC: COLLABORATING PARTNERS AND CURRENT INSTITUTIONAL SET-UP The commitment of South Africa to the global sustainable development agenda has given rise to a reenergised political awareness and will at the local level be driven by the development of a response programme that seeks to

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Metropolitan Municipality and supported by nine Climate Change Champions that are representative of South Africa’s nine provinces. Within this institutional arrangement, the Department of Environmental Affairs plays a pivotal role of providing the necessary inter-governmental relations between the local, provincial and national spheres of government. The South African Cities Network (SACN) has been tasked with managing the affairs of the LGP4CC through providing management quality assurance of its efforts. At the 17th Conference of the Parties (COP17) in 2011, the Partnership managed the Local Government Programme for Climate Change (LGP4CC). The LGP4CC had a mandate to mobilize the local government sector before, during and after the COP17 and their visible participation thereof at the Conference. The LGP4CC continues to be the vehicle for the strengthen adaptation mechanisms in local government. The Local Government Programme Partnership on Climate

implementation of climate change and sustainable development initiatives at local level. In this regard and in the

Change (LGP4CC) was conceptualised as a programmatic

wake of nations converging in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil for the

and sector response by the South African’s sphere of Local

20th anniversary of sustainable development negotiations/

Government in support of national efforts to deal with the

discussions, local government saw it necessary to showcase its

phenomenon of climate change. The Partnership for Climate

efforts on sustainable development.

Change (LGP4CC) is a joint programme partnership of South Africa’s 278 municipalities, the Department of Environmental


Affairs (DEA), the South African Local Government Association

There has been some level of momentum displayed by local

(SALGA) and the South African Cities Network (SACN), in

governments regarding mitigation and adaptation to climate

collaboration with provincial and national government sector

change in the last few years. In 2009 a number of African local


governments represented individual municipalities and

The LGP4CC continues to evolve in an institutional

through their associations met in South Africa to affirm their

arrangement in which it politically falls under the ambit of

commitment in combating climate change. Outcome of this

the South African Local Government Association (SALGA) and

gathering was later taken to Copenhagen COP15 as the African

as such, it is led by the Mayor James Nxumalo of eThekwini

position on climate change.

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South Africa is ranked among the top 10 emitters of greenhouse gases in the world. This is despite the country’s status of being a developing nation. In this regard, the national government has undertaken proactive steps by determining the Long-Term Mitigation Scenarios (LTMS), developing the Green House Gas inventory, defining the climate change policy

order to give effect to the notion of developmental local

direction through an extensive multi-stakeholder process that

government as articulated in the March 1998 White Paper on

involved extensive private sector participation.

Local Government.

At a discourse level, cities are also starting to translate

The initiative gained momentum and grew substantial

these ideas into practical actions. For example, the eThekwini

acceptance among mayors and city managers. The decision to

Municipality is a recognised global leader for its efforts in

formally establish the SA Cities Network (SACN) was taken in

integrating climate change into planning processes while cities

the year 2002, by among others, the Ministry and Department

of Johannesburg and Cape Town have undertaken exciting

of Cooperative Governance (formerly, the Department of

initiatives in public transport and renewable energy with clear

Provincial and Local Government), in collaboration with

climate change mitigation outcomes.

the mayors of South Africa’s nine largest metropolitan municipalities or cities and the South African Local


Government Association (SALGA).

Cities are cultural, economic, and social hubs that continue

These actions are wide ranging and include programmes to

to attract migration from rural areas due to their dynamism,

reduce emissions from buildings, deliver low carbon transport,

resources and the promise of economic opportunities. By 2050

reduce waste, encourage product reuse and recycling, promote

almost 70% of the global population will live in cities (World

integrated planning and land use, use renewable energy and

Bank 2010). In South Africa, the majority of the population

encourage efficient water and energy use (Desai 2011).

currently lives in urban areas and this ratio is expected to rise close to 80% by 2050. At inception, the South African Cities Network was

However, cities cannot make the transition to a climate resilient future unaided. South African cities, along with most of their developing country counterparts, face significant

regarded as a programme initiative aimed at researching

financial, regulatory, technical and capacity obstacles. These

and understanding the various patterns and trends that

need to be systematically addressed in order to help cities

characterise large and urban municipalities in South Africa,

become resilient to climate change and manage the transition

and then compare and contrast them internationally in

to a low-carbon economy.

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Riding tides and storms

The last decade has seen an increase in weatherrelated natural disasters that have negatively impacted on the lives of local communities. Through death, injury THE SOUTH AFRICAN WEATHER SERVICE (SAWS) WAS

and damage to property, these weather phenomena have


hampered sustainable development in both urban and rural

SERVICE ACT, ACT 8 OF 2001. The organisation celebrated


its 11th year as a government entity under the Ministry

SAWS is committed to reduce the impact of weather

of Environmental Affairs on 15 July 2012. SAWS received

disasters by consciously creating weather awareness and

certification as an ISO9001:2008 national provider of weather

investing in the latest and most technologically advanced

and climate products and services in October 2011 and is the

equipment. The latter aids us in the monitoring and

custodian of the South African climate databank.

prediction of weather patterns and the collection of related

By law, SAWS is the authoritative voice to issue severe

climatic data.

weather warnings. It therefore cooperates closely with

SAWS’ enhanced national weather observation network

government structures to minimise the impact of weather-

has resulted in a synthesis of more accurate weather and

related natural disasters towards improving the well-being of

climate information, helping us to provide early warning

all South Africans.

information to the Republic of South Africa. A recent study

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Weather Lines: 082 162 083 123 0500 For SMSs dial: *120*555# | Mobile web: | Follow us on Twitter: @SAWeatherServic

the World Meteorological Organisation (WMO) and acting

as the SA government representative in the fulfilment of

such obligations;

• Providing meteorological services as an obligation to the shows an overall public satisfaction rate of 84 percent with

SAWS’ products and services.

• Providing the public with information on daily rainfall and

SAWS is at the forefront of providing weather and

Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS) Convention; maximum and minimum temperatures;

climate information in South Africa and continuous future

• Operating the national meteorological telecommunication

developments will further improve preventative measures

– thereby protecting the South African public and keeping

• Acting as a knowledge centre and custodian of

weather-related damages to a minimum.

the National Meteorological Library and the National

Climatological Database;

network and computer infrastructure;

Our services include:

• Providing meteorological and climatological advice to

Public Good Services

• Weather, climate forecasting and warning services for the

• Providing meteorological and function-related training to

safety of life and property, as well as disaster mitigation;

government; the public;

• Gathering of meteorological and climatological data;

• Conducting research aimed at reducing the impact of

• Gathering of atmospheric trace gas data for the detection

• Providing meteorological support for aviation and

and monitoring of climate change;

• Carrying out international obligations in accordance with

weather-related natural disasters; maritime search and rescue activities;

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International involvement As a member of the World Meteorological Organisation (WMO), SAWS complies with international meteorological standards. SAWS maintains international relations with neighbouring countries, the South African Development Community (SADC) Secretariat, the Meteorological Association of Southern Africa (MASA), Africa, and the rest of the world.

“SAWS is committed to reduce the impact of weather disasters by consciously creating weather awareness and investing in the latest and most technologically advanced equipment.”

In its capacity as WMO-designated Regional Specialised Meteorological Centre, SAWS fulfils a critical role in data communications and operations in the SADC sub-region. Through WMO programmes such as the Severe Weather Forecasting Demonstration Project, the organisation works

• Providing meteorological services for the benefit of

towards the enhancement of meteorological services in

subsistence farmers, fishermen and disadvantaged or

southern Africa.

otherwise vulnerable communities;

• Conducting educational and awareness programmes

Aviation meteorology

Being designated by the South African government as

around weather and climate-related topics; and

• Providing learners, students and educators with

national Aviation Meteorological Authority, SAWS provides

weather services to the aviation industry, thereby fulfilling

educational material pertaining to weather and climate.

government’s international obligations under the Convention

Commercial Services

of the International Civil Aviation Authority (ICAO). SAWS is one of the very few organisations that has

Our portfolio of commercial offerings entails a specialised meteorological consultation service to, among others, legal and insurance companies and the manufacturing and selling

complied to ICAO’s requirement to be ISO9oo1:2008 certified.

of meteorological equipment to the state and other users.

Maritime forecasting services

The latter is supported by a follow-up maintenance and

SAWS are obligated to provide MET-ocean services under

standardisation service.

the Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS) Convention. These services

Other commercial services are:

comprise daily marine forecasts that are routed to shipping

• Client-specific specialised weather forecasts;

through a satellite-based network and broadcast via NAVTEX

• Specialised climate information;

and radiotelephone. South Africa’s area of responsibility for maritime

• Aviation meteorological services; • Services to the maritime industry which are not included

forecasting extends from 6 degrees South to the coast of

Antarctica and latitudinally from 20 degrees West to 80

in the SOLAS Convention;

• Contracted weather and climate related research; and

degrees East. SAWS provides maritime forecasts relating to

• The production and sale of weather and climate related

large oil spills and salvage operations, as well as search and

rescue operations.


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OUR Oceans and Coasts FOR LIFE The coasts of South Africa are impacted more directly by large open oceans, compared to countries of the northern hemisphere. It has immediate access to adjacent ocean spaces that are not shared with any other state. The Exclusive Economic Zone of South Africa is currently 1.5 million sqaure kilometres compared to South Africa’s terrestrial land mass of 1.2 million square kilometres. Further claims submitted to the United Nations will add a further 800 000 square kilometres. This includes oceans around South Africa’s territories in the southern ocean (Prince Edward Island and Marion Island).

Opportunities Oceans opportunities are very significant but South Africa is also exposed to potential threats. Economic opportunities include: • Tourism (including oceans and coasts, nature and science

“While the majority of South African oceans and coasts are relatively pristine, a few areas show biodiversity loss, marine pollution and inappropriate development”.


• Transport; • Mining; • Energy production; • Fishing; and • Bio-prospecting, e.g. pharmaceuticals. Historically South Africa has not focused on using offshore opportunities. This is probably due to the abundance of terrestrial natural resources and the high-energy, harsh ocean conditions. Technological advancement over the recent decades has made these harsh environments and previously out of reach resources accessible.

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These opportunities extend into the South African Exclu-

posed title is “Oceans and Coasts Environmental Planning and

sive Economic Zone, the adjacent “high” seas (including the

Management for Sustainable Development.” This additional

Sub-Antarctic oceans), and the Antarctic continent itself. South

chapter will have the vision for oceans and coasts ecosystem

Africa remains a party to the Antarctic Treaty (as an original

services for 2030.

signatory). The Antarctic treaty system seeks to manage all

It will also include the principles and objectives of the

human endeavours on the frozen continent. South Africa

Integrated Coastal Management Act and the draft Oceans

maintains a year-round research presence on Marion Island

policy and will propose solution to the challenges to achieving

and on the Antarctic Continent.

sustainable use of oceans and coasts concerning:


• Habitat loss (pollution); • Biodiversity Conservation and Protection;

• Ocean warming;

• Ecosystem Functioning; and

• Storm surges;

• Climate and Earth Systems (threats and response to

• High-energy storms;

• Sea-level rise;

The 2030 target will be the development and implementation

• Associated Coastal erosion; and

of an Oceans and Coasts Spatial Plan.

threats e.g. increased frequency and energy of storms.

• Increasingly variable weather and climate. South Africa is not in a position to halt these threats but it can position itself to understand better and manage their impacts (e.g. early warning systems). International and national trends show population migration to the coastal areas. Forty percent of the South African population resides in coastal areas. While the majority of South African oceans and coasts are relatively pristine, a few areas show biodiversity loss, marine pollution and inappropriate development. Ninety percent of South Africa’s exports are moved by maritime transport. In addition, there is a high volume of global tanker traffic passing around South Africa’s coastline. This makes South Africa’s coasts, coastal populations and investments vulnerable.

Future in spatial planning Spatial Planning at a national scale is required to minimise the potential threats arising from oceans, coastal and climatic processes, while maximising the opportunities presented by the oceans and coasts. Several maritime countries are exploring novel approaches to sustainable use and conservation of the oceans. This is evidenced by a rush in the development of integrated oceans and coastal planning across the world. Oceans and coasts propose a new chapter to be included focusing on oceans and coasts environmental planning. A pro-

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ThERE IS mORE TO PRINT ThaN INk. There is little doubt that the number of consumers making greener choices has multiplied. Consequently, there is growing pressure on companies to select environmentally responsible suppliers to produce their products. Paarl Media has taken the industry lead, proactively developing stringent environmental policies to limit the impact on our natural resources. Our commitment is reflected in an investment of more than R100 million in environmentally responsible practices to ensure the lowest possible impact on our natural resources without compromising on the quality of printing.

REDUCING YOUR CARBON FOOTPRINT • National network to ensure efficient delivery. • Digital workflow, including digital proofing. • Start-up paper waste reduced on sheetfed and heatset web offset presses. • A full in-house service from pre-press to finishing and despatch reduces transport requirements. • Bulk ink storage and deliveries with pump inking systems to all presses decreases wastage, as well as reduces transport requirements and impact on landfills. • Low energy consumption with advanced automation and high efficiency.

SUSTAINABLE PAPER OPTIONS • First African printer with FSC™ (Forest Stewardship Council™) CoC (Chain of Custody) certification*, an independent international verification that the products printed can be traced back from their point of origin to responsible wellmanaged forestry, controlled and recycled sources. • Local and international range of environmentally friendly paper stock from trusted sources. • New sheetfed presses include technology which reduces paper usage per press by approximately 750 000 sheets per year, equivalent to the conservation of approximately 1 040 trees per year per press.

ELIMINATING HARMFUL EMISSIONS • Regenerative Thermal Oxidisers on all heatset web offset presses eliminate harmful emissions in line with international standards. Energy recovered during the process is re-utilised in the drying section, thereby vastly reducing gas energy consumption. • All web offset printing is alcohol free. • Volatile organic compound free, vegetable-based inks used on sheetfed presses. • The energy efficient Kongskilde and Höcker system ensures 100% dust free air is released into the environment.

RECYCLING • All waste paper recycled using sophisticated baling facilities at plants. • Used gravure copper skins from engraved cylinders recycled. • Web and sheetfed plates are recycled. • The gravure ink solvent, Toluene, is recovered and sold back to ink manufacturers for re-use.


wITh PaaRL mEdIa The Paarl Media printing responsibly logo is a symbol of our commitment to environmentally sustainable practices. It can be applied to all products printed with the Paarl Media Group, to demonstrate to your clients that you are printing responsibly. Tel: +27 21 550 2500 E-mail: * Not currently available at Paarl Media KZN and Paarl Coldset Pietermaritzburg

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NWRS Advert 297x240HR.pdf



1:20 PM

NWRS-2 gives South Africans across the spectrum a say on how water resources should be managed. Currently, our country is experiencing significant water quality challenges. Water leaks and a lack of management and technical skills are costing the country millions of rands and this has a negative effect on the economy. NWRS-2 addresses concerns that the socio-economic growth in South Africa could be restricted if water security, water quality and associated water management are not resolved adequately. It’s therefore, incumbent upon us as South Africans to take ownership of our water resources by debating the current policies in public forums over the next three months. Officials of the Department of Water Affairs will visit every part of our country where they’ll convene public meetings to discuss NRWS-2. Your opinion and ideas in these meetings will be noted and considered for inclusion in the final draft of this dynamic document. The provincial and local workshops will culminate in an historic water indaba that will produce a milestone document on water management in South Africa. Mrs Edna Molewa, MP Minister of Water and Environmental Affairs

The draft NATIONAL WATER RESOURCE STRATEGY has been gazetted for puplic comments and inputs. To register your inputs log on to

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J O H A N N E S B U RG 1 0 Y E A R S : T H E D E PA RT M E N T O F WAT E R A F F A I R S

The Road from Johannesburg – Some (Water) for All There has been increasing collaboration in compliance and enforcement between the newly realigned DEA and DWA, especially at the provincial and local levels, as well as ongoing criminal investigations.

The National Water Resource Strategy II South Africa is a water scarce country with a highly variable climate – a situation that will be exacerbated by the effects of climate change (46). The required response to climate change consists of a suite of approaches, measures and actions, ranging from research to planning and implementation, to mitigation, as well as to reducing impacts through effective adaptation to the expected changes. The climate change SOUTH AFRICA IS A WATER STRESSED COUNTRY, AND THUS

strategy provides an integrated framework for the response to


minimise the overall detrimental impact of climate change and


to maximise any beneficial impact.

compounded by activities including intensive mining which makes relatively little use of recycled water while using about

Situation analysis

60% of the available water in South Africa.

The climate change strategy, as reflected in the NWRS 1,

Acid mine drainage from operational and abandoned coal

acknowledged that climate change should be addressed, but

and gold mines such as in the Highveld and Witwatersrand is a

advocated a balanced approach between preparedness and

particular threat to surface and groundwater quality, as well as

overreaction. The situation was to be carefully monitored in

ecosystem health. Furthermore, almost 50% of South Africa’s

un-impacted benchmark catchments and assessed for climate-

water is used for agriculture, with about 1.3 million hectares

change response measures with each review of the NWRS. Since then, consciousness of the seriousness of climate

under irrigation, contributing to changes in water quality. Other influences from agriculture are from stock production

change increased, demanding a more proactive and

and processing of products, fertiliser run-off from fields and

committed response to its potential impact. Through

pesticides that enter into water, air or soils.

initiatives such as Towards a Climate Change Response

To minimise the risk of water pollution, municipal landfill

Strategy for the Water Sector (47) and the Water Resource

sites are now constructed with measures including liners, and

Classification System, DWA positioned itself more

careful sifting away from surface and groundwater sources.

purposefully to meet the challenge of climate change

All the commercial hazardous waste disposal sites in South

adaptation. The development of a climate change response for the

Africa are now being controlled via permits, and a programme for the remediation of contaminated land is currently

water sector is a requirement of the White Paper on the

underway under the leadership of the DWA.

National Climate Change Response (46).

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“South Africa, as a signatory to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), has to fulfil certain obligations which include amongst others promoting and cooperating in education, training and public awareness related to climate change.�

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WASTE AND SUSTAINABLE LIVELIHOODS The Constitution of South Africa, 1996 (the Constitution) provides the foundation for environmental regulation and policy in South Africa. The right to environmental protection and to live in an environment that is not harmful to health or well-being is set out in the Bill of Rights (Section 24 of Chapter 2). This fundamental right underpins environmental policy and law, in particular, the framework environmental legislation established by the National Environmental Management Act, 1998 (Act 107 of 1998) (NEMA). This NWMS seeks a common platform for action between stakeholders to systematically improve waste management in South Africa. The country is faced with a rapidly growing, urbanisation and consumerist population, but our environment has a finite ability to absorb solid and liquid waste. Through the country’s commitment to sustainable development, South Africa aims to balance the broader economic and social challenges of a developing and unequal society while protecting our environmental resources. There is a need to eliminate the unnecessary use of raw materials and the need to support sustainable product design, resource efficiency and waste prevention. The NWMS is a legislative requirement of the National Environmental Management: Waste Act, 2008 (Act 59 of 2008),

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hereafter referred to as the “Waste Act�. The purpose of the

2. The Basel Convention, acceded to by South Africa in 1994,

NWMS is to achieve the objectives of the Waste Act, which

addresses the need to control the trans boundary

defines its scope and specifies its contents. Organs of state

movement of hazardous wastes and their disposal, setting

and affected persons are obliged to give effect to the NWMS.

out the categorisation of hazardous waste and the policies

The Waste Act creates a general duty for waste holders

between member countries.

to avoid generating waste and, failing that, to minimise

3. The Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic

the amount and the toxicity of the waste generated.

Pollutants (POPs), to which South Africa became a

Thereafter, they are expected to reuse, recycle or recover

signatory in 2001 and ratified in 2002, requires that member

waste. Various instruments in the Act give effect to this duty

countries phase out POPs and prevent their imports or

of care, including norms and standards, integrated waste


management plans, industry waste management plans,

4. The Montreal Protocol, to which South Africa became

extended producer responsibility, and priority wastes.

a signatory in 1990 and ratified subsequent amendments,

phases out the production of certain substances and so

environmental policy and depends in part on industrial policy

protects the ozone layer.

and supporting economic instruments. Government and

The South African government has committed to give effect to

industry will coordinate their actions in a waste minimisation

the provisions of the international conventions to which the

programme that knits together the different policy strands

country has acceded.

Promoting waste minimisation goes beyond the remit of

and that identifies the goods and services to which the provisions can feasibly apply.

Meeting our International Obligations

Finding Wealth in Waste Effective waste management has important economic and social impacts in addition to environmental benefits. The waste management sector is an important part of the

Various international agreements to which South Africa

emerging green economy, and a well regulated, formalised

has acceded relate to waste management. A number of

waste sector will improve the efficiency of the overall

non-binding conventions and protocols are also relevant


to waste management, while the modern system of global

In line with the Green Economy Plan, measures will be

environmental governance is to a large degree a consequence

implemented to strengthen and expand the waste economy

of the Rio Earth Summit 1992 and Agenda 21, which set in

so that it can generate and sustain jobs as well as formalise

motion a series of multilateral environmental agreements

existing jobs in the waste economy. Growing the waste

(MEAs). In relation to hazardous substances and waste, four

management sector will be primarily achieved through:

principal conventions apply: 1. The Rotterdam Convention, acceded to by South Africa in

1. Using labour intensive methods to extend domestic

2002, promotes and enforces transparency in the

waste collection services to unserviced communities

importation of hazardous chemicals.

where appropriate.

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Buyisa-e-Bag Buyisa-e-Bag was a Section 21 entity established by the South African Government in 2006 as a result of the plastic levy legislation which propelled transformation in the country’s plastic industry. Buyisa-e-Bag, a direct translation from isiZulu literally means “bring back a bag”, had a mandate to enhance and create opportunities for job creation, poverty alleviation and youth

2. Extending and formalising jobs in the various stages of


the recycling value chain, including collection, sorting,

reuse and repair, product recovery, processing and

manufacturing of recyclable materials.

As the only South African recycling initiative, Buyisa-e-Bag, was at the forefront of educating communities about the imperative of waste avoidance, reduce, reuse and recycling and the benefits such as wealth creation through efforts that not only encourage economic participation from previously disadvantaged individuals in the rural and peri-urban areas but also worked

3. Developing new markets for recycling of wastes. Job creation initiatives in the waste sector will be supported by the R9-billion jobs fund, as well as investments by development finance institutions. Government will provide financial and non-financial support to SMEs and cooperatives in the waste sector through Khula, the South African Micro-

towards nature preservation and a green, healthy

Finance Apex Fund and the IDC’s small business fund.

environment that could survive for future

Government is considering merging these three agencies’


services to maximise administrative efficiency.

During its tenure, Buyisa-e-Bag, created creating efforts, Buy-Back Recycling Centres were

Coordination is Key in Planning for Waste

established in all eight provinces for this business

Among others, backlogs in the waste collection services,

recovery initiative that aimed to make recycling

aging vehicles and equipment, growing human settlements

accessible to communities and collectors of

and decreasing airspace in landfills are stark challenges that

recyclables of used packaging materials such as

require a coordinated approach by each sphere of government.

plastics, used beverage cans, paper and glass.

Integrated waste management plans (IWMPs) are the principal

over 58 000 direct and indirect jobs. In its job

In the youth empowerment initiative programme, 270 youth were engaged nationally and 15 000 people participated in clean-up campaigns with over 18 000 refuse bags of waste collected. In the educational partnership programme, 336 schools received financial

tool to achieve this coordination. Integrated waste management planning at each level of government will align and integrate the actions of national, provincial and local government. The IWMPs will set targets and describe plans for the three tiers of government and give practical effect to the policies and instruments set out in this NWMS. IWMPs will importantly link to mainstream budgeting

benefits from their participation in Buyisa-e-

and resource allocation, and to systems for performance

Bag’s awareness and educational initiatives. An

monitoring and reporting.

average number of learners per school are 800 and

To integrate waste services within broader municipal

therefore a total of 268 800 individual learners

plans, municipalities need to amend their Integrated

were positively impacted.

Development Plans (IDPs) to take account of the provisions

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in the IWMP. To align the preparation of IWMPs with the local

the infrastructure required to provide the services. DEA

government IDP planning cycle (linked to local elections

will provide updated tariff setting guidelines, 37 of which

every five years), municipalities will aim to complete their

include volumetric charging for waste service tariffs and the

IWMPs during 2012.

establishment of revenue collection systems. Tariff increases will be appropriately phased in so

These IWMPs can then inform the new IDPs to be adopted within one year of the 2011 local government

that consumers and businesses can manage their impact.

elections. Waste planning requires accurate information on

Increasing user charges will take the number of indigent

waste flows. Comprehensive information on waste flows

households and local economic conditions into account.

from each waste management facility will be reported into the South African Waste Information System (SAWIS),

Polluters must pay

which will contribute to an accurate national waste balance.

While the Waste Act creates a comprehensive legal

The National Waste Information Regulations regulate the

framework for waste management, its provisions will be

reporting of waste information for the protection of the

meaningless without measures to monitor and, where

environment and the management of waste. By 2016, all

necessary, enforce compliance. Government cannot do

specified waste management facilities that are required

this alone. Business and civil society have a vital role to

to collect and report to the SAWIS are to have waste

play in creating a culture of compliance, and in reporting

quantification systems.

instances of non-compliance. For its part, government will systematically monitor compliance with the Waste Act,


which includes regulations published in terms of the Act,

Waste management is an under-provided basic service and

licences, industry waste management plans and integrated

inadequate refuse removal is a negative externality that

waste management plans.

will require internal and external sources of revenue to

Compliance monitoring is supported by a range of

compensate. The National Policy for the Provision of Basic

reporting provisions contained in the Waste Act. In addition

Refuse Removal Services to Indigent Households provides

to compliance, reports for waste management licences and

guidance on financing mechanisms and implementation

norms and standards, the Act has provisions for annual

strategies to budget for basic refuse removal from indigent

performance reports on the implementation of provincial

households. Revenue for these services comes from internal

and local Integrated Waste Management Plans. Industry

sources (cross-subsidies within the municipality) and

Waste Management Plans are subject to review at intervals

external sources (transfers from the national fiscus through

to be determined by the authority that mandated the plan.

the Equitable Share Grant and the Municipal Infrastructure

Furthermore, Environmental Management Inspectors and


Waste Management Officers can request a Waste Impact

Cost recovery by means of the customer’s municipal bill,

Report where they suspect a contravention of the Act,

which includes the billing for waste services, is essential

license conditions or exemption conditions. The existing

for a financially sustainable waste service. Municipalities

national hotline for waste-related environmental crimes, as

will structure the tariffs for waste services such that they

well as the whistle-blower provisions contained in NEMA

can fund the maintenance, renewal and expansion of

will augment the reporting mechanisms described above.

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“The South African government is already working towards promoting coherence in the initiatives that are aimed at promoting sustainable consumption and production. The country will be moving into the implementation phase of the green economy initiatives as one of the tools to achieving sustainable development.�

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Our common future: RIO+20 The Rio+20 Conference on Sustainable Development took place in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil from 20 to 22 June 2012 with the key outcome for South Africa being the recognition of green economy policies as a viable tool for advancing sustainable development and poverty eradication.

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The aims of the conference were to secure a renewed political commitment to sustainable development, assessing the progress and implementation gaps in meeting already agreed upon commitments, as well as addressing new and emerging challenges. The conference was convened under two overarching themes:

On 2 July 2012, the Minister for Environmental Affairs, Edna Molewa, made the following statement on the outcomes of Rio+20 Sustainable Development Conference: “The South African government is gratified with the outcomes of the Rio+20 United Nations Conference: on Sustainable Development and is ready to engage actively on proposed Sustainable Development Financing Strategy. It viewed the Rio+20 conference to be a critical milestone in the Global Sustainable Development regime, especially on key elements that included an agreement on the need to establish a Sustainable Development Council and General Assembly level and to upgrade the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) to become the authoritative voice on environmental governance with the view to promote coherence in the coordination of the environment leg of sustainable development. The conference also pronounced a process geared towards developing a set of sustainable development goals in line with the post 2015 development agenda.

“A green economy within the context of sustainable development” and “Poverty reduction and Institutional framework for sustainable development.”

Another pronouncement the department is pleased about is the establishment of a sustainable development finance mechanism and that a clear process towards such a mechanism has been defined. Furthermore, the global community has agreed on the establishment of a ‘High-Level Political Forum’ that will build on the functions of the Commission on Sustainable Development. This decision is aimed at strengthening the integration of the three pillars of sustainable development at a global level and promotes effective implementation of the sustainable development agenda.

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Our Government is gratified regarding the adoption

options to facilitate the mobilisation of resources and

of the Global Framework for Sustainable Consumption

their effective use in achieving sustainable development

and Production and the recognition of the importance of

objectives,” and calls for “a broad consultation with

a multilateral instrument that will be geared at managing

relevant international and regional financial institutions

marine biodiversity beyond national borders. South Africa

and other relevant stakeholders” to undertake this work.

was the lead voice in calling for the recognition of the

While several positive funding initiatives and

strategic role played by marine resources for sustainable

mechanisms are underway, we welcome the call for greater


coherence and coordination to support sustainable

The South African government is already working

development. We wish to highlight particularly the need

towards promoting coherence in the initiatives that

to identify challenges that currently inhibit sustained

are aimed at promoting sustainable consumption

finance for sustainable development by developing

and production. The country will be moving into the

particularly least developed countries. Left unaddressed,

implementation phase of the green economy initiatives

there is the unfortunate risk that the growing discourse

as one of the tools to achieving sustainable development.

on financing the green economy would be decoupled

To this effect, an acknowledgement of sustainability

from creating enabling financial “ecosystems” that

reporting for publicly listed companies and institutions

mainstream sustainable development finance in support

is also seen as a significant milestone taken at Rio +20

of the delivery of the goals committed to at Rio+20.

and the South African government will provide the

Creating an equitable and inclusive sustainable

necessary enabling framework for corporate sustainability

development finance landscape is a critical component of

performance and reporting.

creating the future we want. Therefore, the South African

South Africa has extended an invitation to its

government will lead a member-states engagement

fellow member states to come together to contribute

during the fourth quarter of 2012 to reflect on the critical

to the process created under the Finance “Means of

elements to activate work towards the development of a

Implementation” in the Rio+20 agreements. The

Sustainable Development Financing strategy to facilitate

process provides for the launch of an intergovernmental

mobilisation of resources and their effective use in

process to propose options on an effective Sustainable

achieving sustainable development objectives.

Development Financing Strategy to be considered by the UN General Assembly by 2014. This process will “assess financing needs, consider

Therefore, the government is proud to announce that the outcomes of the Rio +20 conference are in line with the national developmental interests and that the

the effectiveness, consistency and synergies of existing

commitments reached advance the decisions taken at the

instruments and frameworks, and evaluate additional

World Summit on Sustainable Development (WSSD) held

initiatives, with a view to prepare a report proposing

in Johannesburg in 2002.

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Learning by doing... A SYNTHESIS REPORT ON PROGRESS TOWARDS JPOI TARGETS The South African Department of Environmental Affairs commissioned the development of the synthesis country report to assess progress made towards the implementation of the JPOI targets in June 2012. The report highlights the progress made in the implementation of the sustainable development agenda, JPOI targets and thematic issues covered by the CSD programme of work, lessons learnt and best practices, relevant trends, constraints, challenges, emerging issues and recommendations since Rio in 1992. In the long term, this report will be used as a planning tool for expeditious implementation of the sustainable development agenda in South Africa. OVERVIEW The report explains the content of the JPOI and its guiding principles it then discusses the progress made under defined sections. These are: 1. Poverty eradication 2. Changing unsustainable patterns of consumption and production 3. Protecting and managing the natural resource base of economic and social development 4. Mining, minerals and metals 5. Sustainable development in a globalising world 6. Health and sustainable development 7. Sustainable development for Africa 8. Means of implementation of the JPOI POVERTY ERADICATION Poverty is understood as deficiency in an individual‘s socio-economic capabilities. Its manifestations include factors such as income, access to basic services, access to assets, information, social networks or social capital. This broad approach to poverty allows for engagement with the reality of poverty and the combination of things that should be done to deal with it. Poverty eradication has been a key focus of South Africa‘s agenda since the advent of the democracy in 1994. Economic growth combined

with a series of redistributive measures carried out by the government has contributed to a decline in absolute poverty, meaning people living under $2.50 per day. LESSONS LEARNED AND BEST PRACTICES In 2005, the Public Service Commission initiated a research process in which all government projects were compiled into a single database, thus providing a statistical overview of most of the poverty reduction initiatives that make up the country‘s Poverty Reduction Programme. This integrated database comprised 40 programmes and almost 30 000 projects, and categorised programmes as following in four major categories, namely Expanded Public Works Programme (EPWP), land redistribution, income generating projects and individual services. The findings of this research highlight a number of lessons and best practices. South African poverty-reduction strategy has proven to be innovative in its approaches to empowering disadvantaged communities. These innovative initiatives create opportunities through existing economic activities covering mining, tourism and catchment management amongst others. Of significance is the Working for Water Programme, aimed at the removal of alien invasive plants, which runs over 300 projects in all nine provinces. It has generated work opportunities and skills training of approximately 18 000 jobs per annum, predominantly rural, marginalised women. The programmes saw tremendous growth in budget allocation from its initial R25-million in 1995/6 to R442-million in 2003/4. The project works in partnership with a number of organisations including the Planned Parenthood Association of South Africa, organisations dealing with young ex-offenders and the Department of Welfare to assist with setting up of crèches. It enjoys sustained political support for its job creation efforts and fight against poverty. The large-scale rural poverty alleviation and job creation initiative has involved partnerships between government departments including the DEA, DAFF and the dti, provincial departments of agriculture, conservation and environment, research foundations and private companies.

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CHANGING UNSUSTAINABLE PATTERNS OF CONSUMPTION AND PRODUCTION BACKGROUND The Global Outlook on SCP Policies Report (2011) features the policy contributions made by countries, including South Africa, in support of SCP. South Africa has actively participated in a number of international processes that aim at furthering SCP objectives globally, regionally and nationally. South Africa has participated on bilateral programmes with international cooperation partners to create awareness, build institutional capacity and demonstrate the benefits of cleaner production in projects in the fishing, metal finishing and textile industry sectors. South Africa was able to profile the global and African SCP drive towards green building during the 2010 FIFA Soccer World Cup and the COP17 Conference held in Durban in 2011. LESSONS LEARNED AND BEST PRACTICES The implementation of initiatives aimed at promoting SCP has highlighted a series of lessons: It has taken time for government to institute economic instruments to promote SCP activities, which have been taken in response to the rising cost resources, decline in quality and challenges associated with managing the disposal and treatment of waste. The energy crisis in South Africa has resulted in a massive promotion of energy efficiency practices and of investment in renewable energy technologies. Activities contributing to the SCP in South Africa have led to a host of best practices especially as it relates to energy efficiency, water conservation, waste management, social responsible investment and consumer awareness. Some of these include: • Water conservation: In an effort to reducewater losses and wastage, the City of Cape Town has started installing water management devices in high water consumption areas that offer real benefits for the city’s poorer citizens. The water management device is a meter, which replaces the existing meter and it is programmed to dispense a pre-agreed amount of water each day. This amount can be set to just the free 6Kl (200 litres/day) that indigent households qualify for or to any amount the household can afford to pay. • Waste management and minimisation: During the 2010 FIFA World Cup, the City of Johannesburg’s waste-management agency, Pikitup, led

the way towards sustainable waste management through its Clean City campaign to encourage residents and businesses to change their behaviour regarding waste. Integrated water resources management: The 2004 National Water Resource Strategy set out several mechanisms to manage South Africa’s water resources in an integrated manner. The proposed mechanisms are broadly divided into ‘resource’ and ‘source directed’ controls and focus on the overall health or condition of an aquatic ecosystem that provides the abstracted water, as well as user requirements. The government uses water use licensing (through regulation), water use associations, water conservation and demand management (benchmarking of efficient water use, sector specific plans and control of invasive alien plants) and water pricing (water use charges, combined with financial assistance) as a means to control the use of water at source.

Protecting and managing the natural resource base of economic and social development This section provides an outline of progress made in relation to the protection and management of the natural resource base upon which economic and social development are dependent. It is divided into sections according to the following groupings of targets: • Biodiversity, protection of ecosystems and sustainable forest management • Integrated water resources management and efficiency • Oceans, seas, islands, coastal areas and fisheries • Vulnerability, risk assessment and disaster management • Climate change • Air pollution, acid deposition and ozone depletion • Agriculture, food security, land rights and land degradation • Sustainable tourism development BIODIVERSITY, PROTECTION OF ECOSYSTEMS AND SUSTAINABLE FOREST MANAGEMENT One of the three pillars of sustainable development is environmental protection, which in turn includes the avoidance and minimisation of damage to ecosystems and other natural resources. Cumulative impacts from human activities are causing increasing damage to the integrity of ecosystems and the biodiversity, which they support. The necessity of keeping the country’s biodiversity intact is a vital prerequisite for South Africa’s economic growth and sustainable development, due to the importance of the

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ecosystem services provided. More determined focus on conservation is now still required to ensure the wellbeing of South African society through such efforts as counteracting the effects of global warming, sustainable patterns of consumption and production, as well as through integrated catchment management and erosion control. BEST PRACTICES • The Department of Environmental Affairs’ bioregional planning approach to conservation and protected area management is based on spatial conservation assessment of regions, conservation priorities, opportunities and constraints. Its multi-sectoral partnership programmes aim to link biodiversity conservation with socio-economic development. Programmes include Cape Action for People and the Environment (CAPE); The Succulent Karoo Ecosystem Programme (SKEP); the Subtropical Thicket Ecosystem Planning Programme (STEP); Wild Coast Conservation and Sustainable Development Programme; Maloti-Drakensberg Transfrontier Project; National Grasslands Biodiversity Programme; and St Lucia World Heritage Site. • Through the DEA and SANParks, the establishment, development and management of transfrontier parks and transfrontier conservation areas in southern Africa. Authorities responsible for the respective areas formally agree to manage the areas as one integrated unit according to a streamlined management plan. The authorities also undertake to remove all human barriers within the transfrontier park so that animals can roam freely. Besides promoting conservation, transfrontier conservation areas and parks promote regional peace, cooperation and socioeconomic development. Transfrontier Parks established are: • Kgalagadi Transfrontier Park between Botswana and South Africa via a bilateral agreement signed in 1999; • Limpopo–Shashe Transfrontier Conservation Area between Zimbabwe, Botswana and South Africa; • Ai-Ais/Richtersveld Transfrontier Conservation Park between Namibia and South Africa, signed in 2003; • Maloti–Drakensberg Transfrontier Conservation Area for which Lesotho and South Africa signed a bilateral memorandum of understanding in 2001; • Lubombo Transfrontier Conservation Area between South Africa, Mozambique and Swaziland; • Great Limpopo Transfrontier Park and Resource Area for

which a joint agreement was signed in 2002 between South Africa, Zimbabwe and Mozambique. • The DEA Environmental Indicator’s Database, which houses the environmental indicators including the biodiversity and ecosystems-related targets covering aspects including area planted under GMOs and number of GMOs commercially released; catches (harvesting) of marine species; ecosystem status and habitat loss; threat and protection status of vegetation types per biome; and threatened species Projects include: • Working for Water which through over 300 projects has tackled invasive alien species covering over 1 million hectares throughout South Africa, while improving water yields in catchments and creating job opportunities. The programme has been globally recognised as one of the best environmental conservation initiatives on the continent. Work opportunities and some training has been given to about 20 000 people per annum, mostly the poor and marginalised. The establishment of the Secretariat for the Global Invasive Species Programme within South Africa has given additional impetus to the initiative. • The Working on Fire programme, which is designed to limit the impact of large veld fires on the environment and on the poor communities, exposed to them. Its R20-million annual budget from Working for Water is supplemented by significant support from the private sector. • The Working for Wetlands programme rehabilitates wetlands, thus creating employment and training employment opportunities. A joint initiative of DEA, DAFF and DWA, it is housed within SANBI and was established in 2000 to rehabilitate wetlands located throughout the country. INTEGRATED WATER RESOURCES MANAGEMENT AND EFFICIENCY Water resources and the ecosystems support form a vital component of the natural resource pillar supporting sustainable development. In line with the JPOI, South Africa has a groundbreaking legislative, policy and regulatory framework, which subscribes to protecting and managing natural water resources and associated ecosystems upon which economic and social development depend. INNOVATIVE APPROACHES AND BEST PRACTICES Innovations in integrated water management in South Africa in line with JPOI targets include the following:

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• Drinking water and wastewater quality: As water sector regulator, in 2008 the DWA introduced the flagship Blue and Green Drop Certification Programmes through an incentive-based regulation system for improvement in drinking water (Blue Drop) and wastewater (Green Drop) quality. According to the 2012 Blue Drop Annual Report, to attain the Blue Drop, municipalities must achieve 95% for the performance requirements including water safety planning, process management and control, drinking water quality compliance, management accountability and local regulation. The 2011 Green Drop Annual report notes that to attain Green Drop status requires 90% measured against stringent criteria including design capacity of the plant, operational flow, number of non-compliances of effluent quality and compliance with technical skills. Trained teams of assessors who also provide regulatory advice to municipalities conduct evaluations. The detailed annual reports have been produced since 2009 covering all municipalities in South Africa. • Desalination: South Africa’s biggest desalination plant has been commissioned in the Western Cape at Mossel Bay. This severely water-restricted area experiences recurrent drought in the summer months. Industrial development and growth in the local population have placed severe pressures on available water resources. The plant has a capacity of 15 million mega litres per day, with output currently being 5 mega litres per day, and is primarily used in a petrochemical plant. Brine generated is required to comply with DWA and DEA requirements, and the municipality is a leader in treatment of the waste having achieved both Green and Blue Drop status. • Water Allocation Reform (WAR). This programme uses economic development to redress issues including racial and gender inequalities regarding water-use among water-users, and is implemented through structures including provincial and local government through their provincial growth and development plans and IDPs. VULNERABILITY, RISK ASSESSMENT AND DISASTER MANAGEMENT Appropriate identification and management of vulnerability, risk and disasters is essential for ensuring a safer world in the 21st century. An integrated, multi-hazard and inclusive approach is essential for implementation of the JPOI and Agenda 21. LESSONS LEARNED • Combating desertification and drought: Communities

need to be involved in the monitoring of resource status, thereby promoting local level resource management and training is required to ensure communities are implementing the best land practise relevant to their situation. This is important to ensuring effective land use management at local levels. • Notification of pending natural disasters: It is essential that there is timeous and widespread notification regarding pending drought, or other disasters such as potential floods. The Disaster Management Act requires the Minister of Agriculture or provincial ministers to place a notice in the Gazette, thereby declaring a state of disaster to ensure coordinated assistance. • Maintaining and upgrading critical infrastructure: While local governments are responsible for critical infrastructure such as water, drainage, sanitation and hospitals, investments to make this infrastructure resilient to disaster risks are sometimes neglected or deterred. • The South African Land Degradation Assessment in Drylands project was launched during a 1st Stakeholder Workshop held at Agricultural Research Council- Institute for Soil, Climate and Water (ARC-ISCW in Pretoria on 13-14 March 2007. LADA SA forms part of a global LADA programme, funded by the GEF and implemented by UNEP. The FAO is executing the programme and in South Africa, one of six pilot countries participating, DAFF is the National Coordinator and ARC-ISCW the implementing agency. • The South African Weather Service has established a service platform for users that allows them to receive early warning notifications via SMS of impending unusual weather systems, events and storms. In a South African context where there is variable access to communications, cellular technology is invaluable. • Spill technology and pollution control is provided by the private sector as part of its response and rehabilitation procedures. Agreements between companies and local authorities provide response strategies and plans to emergencies relevant to incidents and spills. Municipalities, in partnership with DEA and expertise in the private sector, deal with incidents such as large-scale petrochemical spills. AIR POLLUTION, ACID DEPOSITION AND OZONE DEPLETION • The role that the atmosphere plays insupporting life including through protection from harmful solar radiation is under threat from anthropogenic sources of pollution

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including industrialsation, urban growth, population growth and unsustainable consumption and production. Pollutants also undergo chemical transformation in the atmosphere.

BEST PRACTICE • “Basa Njengo Magogo” is a Zulu phrase meaning, “make your fire like the old lady.” Fires typically form the centre of household activities amongst low-income households in South Africa and are used for cooking, water and space heat- ing. Ease of availability of coal means that it is frequently the chosen fuel resulting in high levels of indoor and outdoor air pollution. This system’s low-smoke fire lighting method improves ignition of the underlying coals and reduces emission of smoke. Improved air quality lessens the respiratory hazards associated with coal burning. It is also being rolled out through the Clean Fires Campaign, launched to raise awareness amongst communities living in the Vaal Triangle and Highveld priority areas that use coal fires for cooking and space heating about the impacts of pollution from these fuels. • The 1st Generation Governance Best Practice Manual Project to develop a manual to assist Licensing Authorities in regu- lating a selected priority ‘problem’ industrial sector in de- velopment and is due to be released in March 2013. This is anticipated to provide key support to decision-makers in ad vancing implementation of air quality standards. • Vaal Environmental Justice Alliance (VEJA) is an NGO within the Vaal Triangle Priority Area, which has been working with the assistance of the Bench Marks Foundation to establish community monitoring groups to observe and record environmental incidences, to take photographs and to report them to the relevant structures including the Department of Environmental Affairs’ Sub-directorate: Priority Area Implementation. • In response to air quality issues arising from fish processing plants, action has been taken by the DEA in St Helena Bay in the Western Cape. It initiated a human health risk assessment, which included measurements of gases in four fish processing plants. The assessment included those compounds known to be emitted by the fish industry that are also known to be toxic at certain concentration levels, namely hydrogen sulphide, trimethlyamine and formaldehyde. AGRICULTURE, FOOD SECURITY, LAND RIGHTS AND LAND DEGRADATION • Agricultural and land management issues feature

prominently in South Africa, with a large proportion of South Africans relying on agriculture for food, income and employment. Agriculture is a major source of exports and as such is the focus of policy and programmes to improve rural livelihoods and to ensure food security.

Lessons learned on degradation of the land include: • Protection of sensitive natural systems: Protection of the natural resource base needs to take account of systems at risk, including climate change. Measures should include the implementation of incentives, strategic partnerships and alternative conservation financing mechanisms (such as biodiversity stewardship, co-management and contractual park arrangements) to avoid the degradation key environments. • Local-level monitoring: Community buy-in to land conservation has been encouraged through such initiatives as the Sustainable Land use Management Assessments undertaken through the Land Degradation Assessments in Drylands Project. This has helped to bring about improvement in land conservation. • Assistance to aspirant farmers: There is a need for mechanism to assist white commercial farmers and the agricultural industry to facilitate success of aspirant black farmers through mentorship, access to markets, access to preferential procurement and skills transfer. • Guidelines for the ecological best practice of livestock production, prepared in 2009 for the Namaqua District in the Karoo by the Karoo Consortium in order to assist farmers in appropriate stacking rates and land management practices. The guideline also addresses suitable veld, animal health, wildlife and conservation management. • AGIS, a comprehensive agricultural geo-referenced information system that comprises dynamic maps based on metadata of aspects including climate, soil types, vegetation and rainfall. IT also features risks and hazards, as well as land cover and land use. This resource can assist decision-making that affects agricultural resources. The database covers the whole of South Africa. • Innovative business and biodiversity projects are currently underway in the Cape Floristic Region – involving creative partnerships between agricultural producers, industry associations, retailers, communities and conservationists, working together to conserve valuable biodiversity.

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SUSTAINABLE TOURISM DEVELOPMENT • South Africa benefits from a rich array of tourism attractions covering a variety of culture, biodiversity and landscapes but which could be vulnerable to unsustainable tourism. If conducted in a sustainable manner based on respect for cultural heritage, as well as non-consumptive and ecologically-sound practices, tourism has the potential to bring a wide range of benefits to communities and the country as a whole. BEST PRACTICES • Facilitation of research of international best practices for tourism growth and development by the NDT through its Research and Knowledge Management sub programme. • The Centre for Ecotourism at the Tshwane (Pretoria) University, which provides a wide-ranging service to the ecotourism industry in southern Africa. • The NGO FTTSA promotes sustainable tourism development through awareness raising, research and •

advocacy, capacity, building and by facilitating the world’s first tourism Fair Trade certification programme. FTTSA certifies tourism businesses based on criteria including fair wages and working conditions, fair purchasing, equitable distribution of benefits and respect for human rights, culture and protection of the environment. In 2010 FTTSA became the first sustainable tourism certification programme in the world to participate in the accreditation pilot project of the Tourism Sustainability Council (TSC). Promotion of responsible tourism by the City of Cape Town since 2002. In 2009 the City adopted the Responsible Tourism (RT) Policy and Action Plan to ensure that the city on its way towards being a truly responsible destination.

MINING, MINERALS AND METALS A key advancement towards a policy shift in the direction of sustainable development was made following the WSSD. An interrelated shift in South African Mineral law over the last decade has been the recognition of the state as the custodian of the natural resources of the country has brought South Africa in line with other major mineral producing countries in the world. It has also resulted in the freeing up of unused and privately owned mineral rights, which were effectively sterilised. Environmental sustainability of the mining industry

has been promoted, as this relates to legislation. Environmental Management issues in the mining sector of South Africa are regulated by the Department of Minerals and Energy through the legislation called Minerals and Petroleum Resources Development Act (MPRDA). The Act and its regulations marked a shift in the consciousness about the environmental impact management for mining activities and a holistic approach towards mine environmental management, adopting the cradle-tograve approach in prospecting and mining activities whilst ensuring a full internalisation of economic, social and environmental costs in order to achieve sustainable development of South Africa’s mineral resources. Through the enforcement of the environmental requirements in terms of the MPRDA, there has been significant progress in terms of ensuring environmental best practices in the mining industry and also in terms of making sure that the mining industry moves towards achieving environmental sustainability. BEST PRACTICE EMalahleni Water Treatment Plant, a joint venture between Anglo Coal South Africa and BHP Billiton Energy Coal South Africa (BECSA) that treats 23 mega litres of mine water from three operational coalmines and one defunct coal mine. Eighteen mega litres are pumped to the eMalahleni Municipality constituting 20% of its daily water requirements and of the remaining water, some pumped to surrounding mines for use in mining activities and coal processing, alleviating the demand on the municipality and an empowerment company in the local bottled water market bottles a small proportion. The construction of the plant created 650-700 temporary jobs and the operation of the plant has created 40 permanent jobs, 91% of which are people from the local area. The plant aims to be a zerowaste facility, with significant investment being made into R&D projects, focuses on 100% use of the by-products from the treatment plant. The plant won two categories of the Mail & Guardian’s Greening the Future Awards (innovative environmental strategies that improve business performance and water care) and the sustainability category of Nedbank Capital’s Green Mining Awards. SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN A GLOBALISING WORLD South Africa re-entered the to global economy in the early 1990s at the time when globalisation was beginning to gain momentum. Apart from coping with the forces

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of globalisation, the South African economy also has to manage its emerging market status. As indicated in the JPOI globalisation, this offers challenges and opportunities for sustainable development. BEST PRACTICES The successful hosting of the 2002 WSSD, 2010 Soccer World Cup and the COP17 provided a platform for South Africa to demonstrate its capabilities to the world by showcasing South African investment opportunities and products. Established in 2001 with the support of government, The Innovation Hub is a science and technology park that aims to increase the wealth of society by promoting the culture of innovation and the competitiveness of its associated businesses and knowledge-based institutions. For over 11 years, the Hub has supported the growth of innovative companies across sectors such as ICT, biosciences, green technologies and industrials. HEALTH AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT Environmental health services in South Africa are concerned with those aspects in the environment that constitute a health risk e.g. water quality, waste management, environmental pollution, noise, food safety, vector control, control of premises and chemical safety. Environmental Health Practitioners (EHP) are appointed under the National Health Act to ensure the prevention and elimination of environmental burden of diseases. Ensuring the linkages between sustainable development and health is being achieved through EHPs, as a member of the new primary health care structures of the district health system. BEST PRACTICES Promoting eco-health: The Environmental Health Practitioners and associated partners in the City of Johannesburg introduced a flagship project demonstrating the achievement of a shared value between human health and environmental vitality through an eco-health project. They have introduced owls as natural predators of rats to reduce the vector infestation. The rat problem in Johannesburg is a major challenge in overcrowded urbanised areas such as informal settlements.

MEANS OF IMPLEMENTATION OF THE JPOI South Africa, in the spirit of global partnership, has actively supported the implementation of Agenda 21, the Millennium Development Goals Declaration and the JPoI amongst others. Means of implementation include participation in international trade processes, technology development, transfer, dissemination, mobilisation of financial resources, and strengthening of cooperative frameworks and partnerships. GEF is the largest public funder of projects to improve the global environment. It is an independently operating financial organisation and provides grants for projects related to biodiversity, climate change, international waters, land degradation, the ozone layer and persistent organic pollutants. Since 1991, the GEF has achieved a strong record of accomplishment with developing countries and countries with economies in transition, providing $10.5-billion in grants and leveraging $51-billion in co -financing for over 2 700 projects in over 165 countries. Since inception in 2001, the GEF South African Small Grants Programme (SGP) has funded conservation of the environment, promotion of sustainable livelihoods interventions and empowerment of local communities. To achieve its objectives, the SGP SA works in partnership with various local and international stakeholders with interest in the environment and development of rural communities. The GEF also serves as financial mechanism for the following conventions: • Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) • United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) • Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) • UN Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD) • Although not linked formally to the Montreal Protocol on substances that deplete the ozone layer (MP), it supports implementation of the Protocol in countries with economies in transition. In support of DEA policy, GEF partnered with the United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) to fund the “Greening the COP17” held in Durban, South Africa in 2011. This was done through promotion of clean energy sources and by supporting targeted climate change awareness activities by decision-makers and the public. GEF (in partnership with UNEP) was further involved with supporting the greening of the 2010 FIFA World Cup held in South Africa.

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Origins of our Future  

For the public, the awareness around the environment, climate change and sustainable development may die down, as popular events pass out of...

Origins of our Future  

For the public, the awareness around the environment, climate change and sustainable development may die down, as popular events pass out of...