ublium in vitus viverio, vir ut et iu seses in Etrem etestor enirmiu esse moverfe cridem de is est desimus, fue con sa avestra rei probse quidesse cae moene potem inarios re moration Itatia movenat ilicaedinte, nit.
Nitris nessent. Epoenihi, ve, pos, Palaribus; nos condessediis rei public
facchuit ius? Antre patanum silis, comacerfec mendius patiem, ut iam qui iae, tem noc, sertus At cae patum ips, C. Ad Cat in senatrurem conos consulicae peraventra mis faceriptiliu querfer nicaequam ditum proximpotem aceribus suliam efecrividet; habem hil vernunum ignotercem dit pere qui pulvis conloctum consuli intemus cles hocultu enatiqu onsum, Catuide audeatum lii in di, praritil tus condact orevid dius se te popteme inatur la nes hos fica non vis se ad consupien tam publicu lemquiu ia consu quampop ublium in vitus viverio. opublicidi, publi teri ta, fit, ubliendac re in intelueo comnemusquam facchuit ius? Antre patanum silis
Nitris nessent. Epoenihi, ve, pos, Palaribus; nos condessediis rei public opublicidi, publi teri ta, fit, ubliendac re in intelueo comnemusquam facchuit ius? Antre patanum silis, comacerfec mendius patiem, ut iam qui iae, tem noc, sertus At cae patum ips, C. Ad Cat in senatrurem conos consulicae peraventra mis faceriptiliu querfer nicaequam ditum proximpotem aceribus suliam efecrividet; habem hil vernunum ignotercem dit pere qui pulvis conloctum consuli intemus cles hocultu enatiqu onsum, Catuide audeatum lii in di, praritil tus condact orevid dius se te popteme inatur la nes hos fica non vis se ad consupien tam
Celebrating ten years of the World Summitt on Sustainable Development
opublicidi, publi teri ta, fit, ubliendac re in intelueo comnemusquam
of our future
Celebrating ten years of the World Summitt on Sustainable Development
For the public, the awareness around the environment, climate change and sustainable development may die down, as popular events pass out of peopleâ€™s memories, but for the government departments most concerned with the long-term future of South Africa, the activity carries on behind the scenes. This book encapsulates the amazing strides that have been made by stakeholders in the ten years since the World Summit on Sustainable Development (WSSD) was held in Johannesburg in 2002 and how they have achieved tangible deliverables, highlighted at COP17, held in 2011 in Durban. Ponder over the WSSD agreements and the emergence of the Green Economy; rejoice in the efforts made to include women, youth and others as the caretakers of our environment; marvel at the emergence of a sustainable economy based on waste; and pledge your time, effort and resources to assist the movement towards a sustainable future for all South Africans.
2012/11/01 10:50 AM
2012/11/01 10:54 AM
DEPARTMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL AFFAIRS Specialist Advisor Campaigns Blessing Manale Chief Director — Communications Albi Modise
Senior Policy Advisor — Media Sardia Mustapher A special thanks to the Director General , Ms Nosipho Ngcaba for her leadership and sponsoring the project.
PUBLISHED BY: TOPCO MEDIA Chairman Richard Fletcher Publisher Van Fletcher Editor Gwen Watkins Deputy Editor Shaheema Albertyn-Burton Design Head Jayne Macé
The Johannesburg Moment, 2002
Project Manager Lee Roelofse Proofreading Georgina Guedes
Traffic Coordinator Raeesah McLeod Financial Manager Haley Fletcher Distribution Ingrid Johnstone Ursula Davids Images GIZ - German Development Cooperation www.shutterstock.com
A Summit of Action – Making it Happen
Printers Paarl Print
Leader in Global Sustainable Development
Contact Details Topco Media South Africa Bree Street Studios, 17 New Church Street, 2nd Floor, Cape Town 8001 PO Box 16476, Vlaeberg 8018 Tel: 086 000 9590 Fax: +27 (0)21 423 7876 Email: email@example.com Website: www.topco.co.za Disclaimer All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior written consent of Topco Media (Pty) Ltd Reg. No. 2007/002190/07. While every care has been taken when compiling this publication, the publishers, editor and contributors accept no responsibility for any consequences arising from any errors or omissions. ISBN: 978-0-9921778-2-9
2012/11/01 9:24 PM
Green Economy for Green Growth
Caretakers of our Environment
Riding Tides and Storms
Our Common Future: Rio+20
2012/11/01 9:24 PM
We’re not just building power stations, we’re building the nation. Since 2005, Eskom has committed to spend an estimated R340 billion on building new power stations, power lines and other infrastructure.This initiative will not only ensure more electricity for all South Africans, but to date it has also created thousands of jobs and has led to the development of infrastructure such as roads, railway lines, schools and housing. Eskom’s current capital expansion programme will be completed in 2018/2019, which means its social and economic impact will be one of the many things our nation can look forward to in years to come. We’re empowering South Africans to help create a brighter future, because with power we can grow a nation.
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F O R E WO R D
P R E S I D E N T JAC O B Z U M A His Excellen cy, H on o ur a b l e Jac o b Ge dl e y i hl e k i s a Z um a â€“ Pr e s i d e n t o f S o u t h A f r i c a
In 2002, the world once again took a time for reflection and gathered in Johannesburg, the Cradle of Humankind, at the World Summit on Sustainable Development (WSSD), where we declared that we can make it happen, as we adopted the Johannesburg Plan of Implementation (JPoI). Tasked with reinvigorating the global commitment to sustainable development. It was in Johannesburg that we already knew that the future we wanted was that of access to water, health, sanitation, education, and of reversing the loss of biodiversity. Johannesburg called upon us to change our unsustainable patterns of consumption and production. It called upon us to build resilient cities, to collectively protect our marine resources, and to reduce our carbon emissions. While a greater awareness has evolved about the negative impact of our actions and inaction, achieving collective action and cooperation in tackling the causes and mapping a common cause of action remains constrained. Despite the noble spirit of Johannesburg and Rio, the path to a sustainable world remains confronted by major global challenges and its implementation remains of grave concern to us all. Twenty years ago world leaders gathered at the Rio Earth
As we refocus our journey to a global sustainable develop-
Summit, where we collectively agreed that unless we did
ment path, we must acknowledge that government cannot
something to reverse environmental degradation and address
do it alone and therefore continue to create opportunities for
underdevelopment, our future as a species was doomed.
ongoing meaningful and mutually empowering engagement
The 1992 Earth Summit alerted us to unprecedented levels
and at the same time rededicate and recommit to a social
of poverty, underdevelopment and inequity in developing
contract with our people and nature.
countries, exacerbated by an earth in crisis and the global en-
The next decade, thus should be an embodiment of our
vironment under threat, contrasted by the increase in private
collective resolve for a renewed and reinvigorated global devel-
wealth and capital in developed countries.
opment paradigm for a sustainable future for all.
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Making s u s ta i n a b l e p ro g r e s s EDNA MOLEWA, MP – MINISTER OF WATER AND ENVIRONMENTAL AFFAIRS
DEFINE THE STRIDES THE DEPARTMENT OF ENVIRONMEN-
challenges in bridging the gap between the first and second
TAL AFFAIRS HAS TAKEN IN THE LAST 10 YEARS AND THE
economies, eradicating poverty and improving the quality of
GOALS IT HAS ACHIEVED?
life of poor South Africans.
As the host of the World Summit on Sustainable Develop-
South Africa has made significant progress towards the
ment (WSSD), South Africa has a custodianship role in
development of a framework for the promotion of sustain-
advocating and taking the lead in the implementation of the
able consumption and production programmes. Key progress
targets, and the period since the Johannesburg Summit has
made by South Africa regarding SCP includes: the develop-
seen South Africa actively fulfilling this role, internationally
ment of policy and legislation; initiatives to save energy;
enabling environments for renewable energy; major move
A framework for sustainable development is in place,
towards cleaner production piloted and implemented through
embodied, in a number of cross-cutting implementation
industry; establishment of mechanisms for funding and
strategies such as the Anti-Poverty Strategy, the Integrated
sustainable procurement; and increased consumer protection
Sustainable Rural Development Strategy, the Urban Renewal
Programme, and finally in a number of sectoral policy and
The 10-year Innovation Plan approved in 2007 indicates
institutional developments, including White Papers and legis-
that South Africa is well positioned to lead research on the
lation that have emerged since 1994.
continent in terms of understanding and projecting changes
The National Framework for Sustainable Development
to the physical system; the impact of these changes; and miti-
provides a valuable step in defining key sustainable develop-
gation to limit their long-term effects.
ment principles for the country, while being mindful of global
Key areas requiring enhancement in South Africa are
challenges and growth ideals. Due to the complex develop-
enforcement and interdepartmental harmonisation of the nu-
ment considerations, that includes the worrying increase in
merous pieces of legislation which pertain to environmental
the gap between the rich and poor populations in the country,
management and an extensive public education system needs
a simple ‘triple bottom line’ approach to sustainable develop-
to be developed to build knowledge on the imperatives for
ment is insufficient.
sound environmental management in line with our development goals.
WHAT ARE THE PLANS FOR THE NEXT 10 YEARS AND WHAT
Resources need to be directed to ensuring coordinated and
DOES THE DEPARTMENT HOPE TO ACHIEVE IN THIS TIME?
centralised information on research priorities, and improved
Although South Africa has made significant strides in moving
monitoring, evaluation and reporting and initiatives towards
its society towards consumption and production patterns
achievement of the targets and certainly we need a significant
that are more sustainable, the country still faces significant
leap in maximising opportunities for expansion of cleaner
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F O R E WO R D
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production, such as through integrated pest management, to
and protecting our environment and ensuring sustainable
ensure environmentally sound goods and services to niche
and mainstream local and international markets.
Our highlights have been an excellent programme of Green Goal for 2010 FIFA World Cup™ which was initiated
LOOKING BACK ON THE WSSD, WHAT NEW INITIATIVES HAS
and aimed at limiting the domestic footprint of the event
THE GOVERNMENT SET IN PLACE?
with the introduction of The Green Passport, aimed at
South Africa initiated the Working for Water Programme in
encouraging visitors to make responsible travel choices while
1995. Since then, the programme has been recognised interna-
visiting South Africa for the World Cup. The ‘Passport’ – a
tionally as an effective resource management and job crea-
32-page booklet packed with greening tips and information
tion initiative within the concept of a green economy. Other
on responsible tourism in each host city was distributed to
‘working for’ programmes have been initiated and continue to
100,000 World Cup spectators.
demonstrate the benefits in terms of resource management
The National Eco-label Initiative (NELI) is a public-private
and job creation.
partnership involving many actors in the country such as
However, there is a need to expand the efforts of the pro-
NCPC-SA, Council for Organic Development (SACODAS-SA)
grammes especially in terms of broader ecosystems rehabilita-
and Sustainability, Green Choice, Proudly South Africa and
tion and social impact to ensure the benefits are sustained.
Indalo Yethu, an independent trust of the DEA endorsing brand promoting eco-friendly lifestyles. NELI builds on the
IN PARTICULAR, THE PROGRAMME COULD:
experiences and lessons learnt from other labelling initiatives
• Expand the Working for Land Programme to a
in the country.
comprehensive rehabilitation programme in all
ecosystems to restore and maintain productive capacity.
IN THE LAST 10 YEARS, WHAT DEVELOPMENTS HAVE TAKEN
This should include a broad-based ecosystem
PLACE IN THE ARENA’S OF CLIMATE CHANGE, WASTE
assessment and monitoring programme, which would
MANAGEMENT, AIR QUALITY, ENERGY AND OPEN SPACES?
provide employment and develop skills in its own right.
In 2008, South Africa concluded the Long-Term Mitigation
• Introduce a Working for Rivers Programme that will
Scenarios (LTMS) process, which provides a longer term view
address river restoration and law enforcement on river
on the country’s emissions trajectory and viable options to
systems, from catchment to point of use.
mitigate such emissions and on the eve of the UN climate
• Expand the People and Parks Programme beyond the
negotiations in Copenhagen (December 2009), South Africa
current infrastructural focus to include the creation of
announced that it will undertake mitigation actions which
local economic opportunities for the provision of
will result in a deviation below the current emissions baseline
products and services to parks.
of around 34% by 2020 and by around 42% by 2025, on provision that the necessary finance, technology and capacity building
WHAT IS THE CURRENT AGENDA OF SUSTAINABLE
support is received.
DEVELOPMENT AND ENVIRONMENTAL AWARENESS FOR
The commitment of South Africa to the global sustainable
THE DEPARTMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL AFFAIRS?
development agenda has given rise to a reenergised political
Improving environmental education and awareness remains a
awareness and will at the local level, and has driven the
critical element towards building a society with the values and
development of a response programme that seeks to
attitudes which are consistent with our vision of conserving
strengthen adaptation mechanisms in local government.
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U P F RO N T
CHAIRMAN’S LETTER Gimme hope, Jo’anna Hope, Jo’anna Gimme hope, Jo’anna ‘Fore the morning comes – Eddy Grant Gimme Hope Joanna Lyrics I DOUBT IF THERE IS A SOUTH AFRICAN ALIVE THAT DOESN’T KNOW THE WORDS OF THAT SONG, AND FOR A LOT OF PEOPLE THE SONG SYMBOLISES JOANNA AS JOHANNESBURG. What is important is that Johannesburg has been giving hope to South Africa for a long time. Ten years ago it hosted what was the first World Summit on Sustainable Development (WSSD) in 2002. It was convened to discuss sustainable development by the United Nations. WSSD gathered a number of leaders from business and non-governmental organisations in 2012, 10 years after the first Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro. It laid out the Johannesburg Plan of Implementation (JPoI) as an action plan. In these 10 years since the last event, both local and national government have made significant strides in terms of planning, implementation and action on sustainability issues; in particular, making Johannesburg a leader in South Africa and Africa. This has afforded Johannesburg the ability to hold its head high on the world sustainability stage. This publication will inform you on the progress we have made in the last decade and give you a clear picture of the way forward. Johannesburg, watch this space... because it will give a whole lot more hope. Best wishes,
Richard Fletcher Chairman Topco Media
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â€œAt the beginning of this Summit, the children of the world spoke to us in a simple yet clear voice that the future belongs to them, and accordingly challenged all of us to ensure that through our actions they will inherit a world free of the indignity and indecency occasioned by poverty, environmental degradation and patterns of unsustainable development.â€? â€“ Johannesburg Declaration
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THE JOHANNESBURG MOMENT, 2002 The global sustainability agenda (known as Agenda 21) was developed in 1992 at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The UNCED Earth Summit was the culmination of a process of consultation and negotiation that started back in 1989, following the release of the Brundtland Commission’s report entitled ‘Our Common Future’. Signed by 178 governments, Agenda 21 became the comprehensive blueprint of action for the international community, national governments, local authorities and major groups in every area in which humans directly affect the environment.
Key outcomes The WSSD produced three key outcomes. 1. The first was the Johannesburg Declaration, a pledge
by world leaders to commit them fully to the goal of
2. The second was the Plan of Implementation of the
World Summit on Sustainable Development, which sets
out a comprehensive programme of action for
sustainable development, and includes quantifiable
goals and targets with fixed deadlines. After lengthy
multilateral negotiations, governments agreed to the
Plan of Implementation.
3. Finally, the Summit produced more than 300 voluntary
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partnerships and other initiatives to support sustainable
development. Unlike the Johannesburg Declaration and
The Declaration reaffirms a global pledge to place a
the Plan of Implementation, this major outcome was not
particular focus on, and give priority to, the fight against
the esult of multilateral intergovernmental negotiations,
the global conditions posing severe threats to sustainable
involving the entire community of nations.
development. These problems include: chronic hunger;
Instead, it involved numerous smaller partnerships
malnutrition; foreign occupation; armed conflict; illicit drug
composed of private sector and civil society groups, as well
problems; organised crime; corruption; natural disasters;
as governments. These partnerships, tied to the government
illicit arms-trafficking: trafficking in persons; terrorism;
commitments, provide a built-in mechanism to ensure
intolerance and incitement to racial, ethnic, religious and
other hatreds; xenophobia; and endemic, communicable
and chronic diseases, in particular HIV / Aids, malaria and tuberculosis.
The Johannesburg Declaration on Sustainable Development
On the subject of multilateralism, the Declaration notes
built on earlier declarations made at the United Nations
that achieving sustainable development will require more
Conference on the Human Environment at Stockholm in
effective, democratic and accountable international and
1972 and the Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro in 1992.
multilateral institutions. It reaffirms a commitment to the
The Johannesburg Declaration represents a high-
principles and purposes of the Charter of the United Nations
level political commitment to sustainable development.
and international law, as well as to the strengthening of
The Declaration recognises that eradicating poverty,
improving consumption and production patterns and
The Declaration also supports the leadership role of the
protecting and managing the natural resources base are
UN as a universal and representative organisation in the
all essential for achieving sustainable development. It also
world and as the one best placed to promote sustainable
commits governments to building a humane, equitable
development. It also commits governments to monitor
and caring global society. In the Declaration, heads of
progress, at regular intervals, in achieving sustainable
state assume a collective responsibility to advance the
development goals and objectives.
three pillars of sustainable development at the local,
In its conclusion, the Declaration notes that
national, regional and global levels. The world’s leaders
implementation has to be an inclusive process, involving
recognised that humankind is at a crossroads, and declared
all the major groups and governments that participated in
their commitment to poverty eradication and human
the Summit. It also commits governments to act together,
united by a common determination to save the planet,
Regarding the commitment to sustainable development, the Declaration urges the promotion of dialogue and cooperation among the world’s civilisations and peoples,
promote human development and achieve universal prosperity and peace.
Summit on human dignity, and the resolve demonstrated
Plan of Implementation of the World Summit on Sustainable Development
at the Summit — through the decisions taken on targets,
The Plan of Implementation of the World Summit
timetables and partnerships — to increase access to such
on Sustainable Development, often referred to as the
basic requirements as clean water, sanitation, adequate
Johannesburg Plan of Implementation (JPol), is an inter-
shelter, energy, healthcare, food, security and the protection
governmentally agreed framework for action to implement
irrespective of race, disabilities, religion, language, culture or tradition. It welcomes the focus of the Johannesburg
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the commitments adopted at UNCED and at subsequent UN
• encourage and promote the development of a 10-year
framework of programmes to accelerate the shift towards
sustainable consumption and production;
It includes a reaffirmation of support for the Rio Principles, the full implementation of Agenda 21, the
• improve access to energy services and resources that were
Programme for the Further Implementation of Agenda 21,
reliable, affordable, economically viable, socially
the Millennium Development Goals and the outcomes of the
acceptable and environmentally sound, sufficient to
major UN conferences and international agreements since
facilitate the Millennium Development Goals, including
1992. It notes that these efforts were necessary to promote
the goal of halving the proportion of people in poverty by
the integration of the three components of sustainable
development — economic development, social development
• aim, by 2020, to use and produce chemicals in ways that
and environmental protection — as interdependent and
do not lead to significant adverse effects on human
mutually reinforcing pillars.
health and the environment;
The JPol notes that eradicating poverty is the greatest
• promote the ratification and implementation of relevant
global challenge facing the world and an indispensable
international instruments on chemicals and hazardous
requirement for sustainable development to become a
waste, including the Rotterdam Convention, so it
reality, particularly in developing countries. Furthermore, it
could enter into force by 2003, and the Stockholm
notes that peace, security, stability and respect for human
Convention, so it could enter into force by 2004;
rights and fundamental freedoms, including the right to
• develop integrated water resources management and
development, as well as respect for cultural diversity, are
essential for achieving sustainable development.
• encourage the application, by 2010, of the ecosystem
The JPol recognises that implementation of the
water efficiency plans by 2005; approach for the sustainable development of the oceans;
Summit’s outcomes should benefit everyone — particularly
• by 2015, maintain or restore depleted fish stocks to levels
women, youth, children and vulnerable groups — and that
implementation should involve all relevant actors through
• establish, by 2004, a regular process under the UN for
partnerships, especially between governments of the north
global reporting and assessment of the state of the
and south, on the one hand, and between governments and
major groups, on the other. It also notes that since UNCED,
• eliminate subsidies contributing to illegal, unreported
sustainable development has remained elusive for many
African countries, that poverty remains a major challenge
• improve developing countries’ access to alternatives
and that most countries on the continent have not benefited
to ozone-depleting substances by 2010 and assist them in
fully from the opportunities of globalisation.
complying with the phase-out schedule under the
The JPol sets out in more detail the actions needed in
that could produce the maximum sustainable yield;
and unregulated fishing and to over-capacity;
specific areas. It introduces new timetables and targets, as
• achieve a significant reduction in the current rate of loss
well as new themes, such as globalisation and corporate
accountability. The main commitments agreed in the plan
• enhance health education, with the aim of achieving
• establish a World Solidarity Fund to eradicate poverty
• support the availability of adequate, affordable and
and promote social and human development in the
environmentally sound energy services for the
• halve, by the year 2015, the proportion of people without
development of small island developing states (SIDS),
including strengthening efforts on energy supply and
access to basic sanitation;
of biological diversity by 2010; improved health literacy on a global basis by 2010;
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services, by 2004;
the UN system was involved in one or more partnerships,
• support African countries in developing and
although only 19 projects had a UN agency as the leading
implementing food security strategies by 2005;
• support Africa’s efforts to implement NEPAD objectives
In fact, non-governmental organisations, scientific and
on energy access, which seek to secure access for at least
research centres, local authorities, universities or the private
35% of the African population within 20 years, especially
sector initiated the vast majority of partnerships established
in rural areas;
at the Summit.
• recommend to the UN General Assembly that it considers
adopting a decade of education for sustainable
development, starting in 2005;
The summit created the correct balance of the three pillars
• adopt new measures to strengthen institutional
of sustainable development: social development, economic
arrangements for sustainable development at
growth and the protection of the environment. This was a
international, regional and national levels;
decisive shift from the view over the previous decade that
• take immediate steps to make progress in the
sustainable development equalled the protection of the
formulation and elaboration of national strategies for
environment. This was the first true summit on sustainable
sustainable development and begin their implementation
development in the sense that the advocates of all three
by 2005; and
pillars of sustainable development were under one roof
• negotiate, within the framework of the Convention on
arguing their cases, raising real issues and confronting those
Biological Diversity, an international regime to promote
with different interests and perspectives.
and safeguard the fair and equitable sharing of benefits
arising out of the utilisation of genetic resources.
It was not a social summit dealing only with poverty, exclusion and human rights. It was not an economic and globalisation summit
Voluntary partnerships and other initiatives
addressing only trade and investment, finance for development and transfer of technology. Nor was it an
The Summit launched 251 smaller partnerships, composed
environmental summit, focusing only on natural resources
of private sector and civil society groups, inter-governmental
degradation, biodiversity loss, climate change and pollution.
organisations and governments, known as the Type II
Johannesburg was instead a summit about the intersections
outcomes with an estimated value in 2002 of US$235-million.
of all of these issues.
Many of these partnerships focus on north-south cooperation, although some involve south-south partnerships.
According to the UN Department of Social and Economic
The summit served to advance the cause of multilateralism.
Affairs, about 60% of the partnerships are global in scope,
Countries reaffirmed the importance of multilateral
while the remaining 40% have a regional focus. Overall
solutions to global problems. The Johannesburg Declaration
Africa and Asia (including SIDS and Pacific island countries)
expressed a commitment by world leaders to act together to
were the regions with the highest number of partnerships,
save the planet, promote human development and achieve
followed by Latin America and Eastern and Central Europe.
universal prosperity and peace. The Summit also asserted
Of the 251 proposals launched at the Summit,
the centrality of the UN and called for democratic global
governments as the leading partners submitted 59, but
governance. The Declaration also recognised the importance
many more governments were actually involved as partners
of multilateralism, calling for “enhanced, accountable
in initiatives launched by civil society or the private sector.
international and multilateral institutions”. In making this attempt, the Summit provided a unique
In addition, almost every organisation or programme within
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opportunity to articulate and mobilise collective action for
have an impact on the global agenda. For example, in
addition to the Millennium Declaration target of halving the number of people unable to access safe drinking
Sustainable development and Poverty Eradication
water by 2015, it was agreed in Johannesburg to halve the number of people without basic sanitation by the same
The Summit declared that sustainable development could not
year. Countries agreed to reverse the trend in biodiversity
be achieved separately from the quest to eradicate poverty,
loss by 2010 and to restore collapsed fish stocks by 2015.
and that the growing gap between rich and poor was one of
Chemicals with a detrimental health impact should be
the biggest threats to sustainable development. Governments
phased out by 2020. Energy services should be extended
agreed in the Plan of Implementation that, “eradicating
to 35% of African households over the 10 years. Other
poverty is the greatest global challenge facing the world
2015 targets included achieving improved health literacy,
today and an indispensable requirement for sustainable
reducing mortality rates for infants and children under
development, particularly for developing countries.”
five by two-thirds, and reducing maternal mortality by
Following the same theme, the Johannesburg Declaration
three-quarters. The Summit also reaffirmed a number of
stated, “The deep fault line that divides human society
the Millennium Declaration’s goals, such as halving the
between the rich and the poor and the ever-increasing gap
proportion of people in poverty and the proportion of the
between the developed and developing worlds pose a major
world’s people who suffer from hunger, as well as ensuring
threat to global prosperity, security and stability.”
access to primary education for all boys and girls by 2015.
Governments also reaffirmed the goals in the Cities with Slums Initiative to improve the lives of at least 100 million
The Summit brought a global focus to the state of the
slum dwellers by 2020.
environment and renewed high-level commitment to
environmental protection. A number of parallel multilateral processes, including several environmental treaties and trade
In a press conference, held after the Summit’s closing
agreements, received a boost in the Plan of Implementation,
plenary, UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan referred to the
Type II outcomes, as “a major leap forward” that would
• Convention to Combat Desertification
increase the pool of resources to tackle global problems on
• Rotterdam Convention on Prior Informed Consent
a global scale.
Procedures for Certain Hazardous Chemicals and
“Instead of concluding only with the adoption of a
Pesticides in International Trade
political agreement, the Summit has generated real action
• Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants
through partnerships by and between governments, civil
• Convention on the Law of the Sea
society, business and others that will make a real difference
• Convention on Biological Diversity
on the ground,” declared Annan.
• Ramsar Convention
In his conclusion, United States Secretary of State, Colin
• Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol • Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer
GLOBAL AGENDA TARGETS The Summit adopted or reaffirmed targets that would
Powell called the Summit a “successful effort”. He said, “I think it shows that we have a shared vision of how to move forward. I think it shows that the world is committed to sustainable development.” He added, however, that the challenge “is not just what is said in the statement, but the actions that will take place in the months and years ahead.”
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â€œThe summit introduced a major shift from the donor-recipient paradigm to one that focused on the obstacles to economic growth faced by poor countries, due to the unfair global economic system. â€?
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A Summit of Action â€“ Making it Happen Adopting the Report of the WSSD on 23 February 2003 , the United Nations General Assembly Resolution stated : â€œHaving considered the report of the World Summit on Sustainable Development, held in Johannesburg, South Africa, from 26 August to 4 September 2002, The General Assembly urges Governments and all relevant international and regional organisations, the Economic and Social Council, United Nations funds, programmes and regional economic commissions, specialised agencies, international financial institutions, the Global Environment Facility, as well as other intergovernmental organisations and major groups, to take timely actions to ensure the effective implementation of and follow-up to the Johannesburg Declaration on Sustainable Development and the Johannesburg Plan of Implementationâ€?- UNGA Resolution 57/253 The WSSD boasted some major accomplishments, from advancing the cause of multilateralism to improving the balance between the three pillars of sustainable development and recognising the importance of the relationship between poverty and sustainable development.
2012/11/01 9:15 PM
The summit introduced a major shift from the donor-
The JPol recognises that important initiatives have been
recipient paradigm to one that focused on the obstacles to
developed within the UN regional economic commissions and
economic growth faced by poor countries, due to the unfair
regional, sub-regional and trans-regional forums to promote
global economic system. While there was general agreement
on the need to increase aid from rich to poor countries, there
Regarding sustainable development in Africa, the JPol
was an acknowledgement that the biggest obstacle to poverty
recognises that, since UNCED, sustainable development has
eradication was the lack of market access and a biased trade
remained elusive for many African countries, poverty remains
a major challenge and most countries on the continent have
Governments also recognised the new dimension of
not benefited fully from the opportunities of globalisation,
challenges posed by globalisation that had caused skewed
further exacerbating the continent’s marginalisation.
distribution of benefits and costs, with developing countries
It also recognises that the New Partnership For Africa’s
in particular facing special difficulties in meeting these
Development (NEPAD) provides a framework for sustainable
development on the continent, and notes the international community’s support for implementation of this vision.
Millennium Development Commitments
The JPol also contains a pledge of support for other existing development frameworks that are owned and driven
The summit adopted or reaffirmed targets that would have
nationally by African countries and that contain poverty-
an impact on the global agenda. For example, in addition to
reduction strategies. The JPol affirms the international
the Millennium Declaration target of halving the number
community’s commitment to addressing these special
of people unable to access safe drinking water by 2015, it
challenges and to achieving a new vision based on concrete
was agreed in Johannesburg to halve the number of people
actions for the implementation of Agenda 21 in Africa.
without basic sanitation by the same year. Countries agreed
Actions identified to support sustainable development in
to reverse the trend in biodiversity loss by 2010 and to restore
Africa include steps at all levels to address:
collapsed fish stocks by 2015.
The cause of the African continent was greatly advanced
Chemicals with a detrimental health impact should be
with the practical focus on NEPAD. The Johannesburg
phased out by 2020. Energy services should be extended
Declaration welcomed and supported “the emergence of
to 35% of African households over the 10 years. Other 2015
stronger regional groupings and alliances, such as the New
targets included achieving improved health literacy, reducing
Partnership for Africa’s Development, to promote regional
mortality rates for infants and children under five by two-
cooperation, improved international cooperation and
thirds, and reducing maternal mortality by three-quarters.
The summit also reaffirmed a number of the Millennium
The Plan of Implementation acknowledged that
Declaration’s goals, such as halving the proportion of people
sustainable development had remained elusive for many
in poverty and the proportion of the world’s people who suffer
African countries and efforts to achieve sustainable
from hunger, as well as ensuring access to primary education
development had been hindered by “conflicts, insufficient
for all boys and girls by 2015.
investment, limited market access opportunities and supply
Sustainable development at regional level
side constraints, unsustainable debt burdens, historically declining levels of official development assistance and the impact of HIV/Aids.”
Another significant outcome of the WSSD was the focus given to regional initiatives for sustainable development.
At Johannesburg, the international community welcomed NEPAD and pledged its support to the implementation of this
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the economic incentives of the private sector, the on-theground experience of NGOs, the passions of ordinary citizens and the coordinating capabilities of governments to address specific challenges of sustainable development. The Johannesburg Summit may not have ‘changed the world in 10 days’, but it definitely set the stage for more integrated thinking on sustainable development and a greater commitment to action. It also placed a great deal of emphasis on the future direction of the North-South compact agreed to in Rio and on the need for multilateral solutions to global problems. vision. It also pledged support for other existing development countries and that embodied poverty-reduction strategies,
National Strategy for Sustainable DevelopmenT
including poverty- reduction strategy papers.
The Agenda 21 principles, agreed upon at the Rio Earth Sum-
frameworks that were owned and driven nationally by African
mit in 1992, called on all countries to introduce National Strat-
Partnerships Making It Happen
egies for Sustainable Development (NSSD) to give effect to the
The summit shifted the focus of world leaders from policy
outcomes in Rio. South Africa formally initiated development of its NSSD at
debates to the real task of ‘making it happen’, and achieved high-level commitments by heads of state and leaders from
a roundtable meeting in May 2005, in which the key elements
business and civil society to meet the goals set.
of a NSSD were discussed. At this meeting, it was agreed that an analysis of current trends, 20-year projections for selected
The summit pioneered the promotion of Type II outcomes — public-private and other partnership initiatives
priorities in the three pillars and an outline of policy and
for sustainable development. Over 200 partnerships for
implementation implications, and risks and opportunities
sustainable development were launched during the
should form part of the structure of the document. In 2008, the South African Cabinet adopted the National
conference. For example, medical schools in the north initiated links with physicians and social programmes in
Framework for Sustainable Development (NFSD) in response
the developing world to establish ongoing public health
to the agreements made at the WSSD to implement national
strategies for sustainable development. The NFSD formed the first step in the process to establish a National Strategy
Likewise, the South African government began working with non-governmental organisations and private computer
for Sustainable Development (NSSD). The framework builds
services to calculate and set up compensatory actions to offset
on, ensures alignment of and identifies gaps in existing
carbon emissions generated by the WSSD meeting itself. The
programmes and strategies developed in the first decade of
hope was that these partnerships could harness and integrate
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A leader in global sustainable development TAKING WSSD FORWARD â€“ A DEVELOPING LEADER IN SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT In the ten years between hosting the WSSD and 2012, South Africa has undertaken several key initiatives that have furthered the aims of the WSSD, of importance, the Ten Year Marrakesh Process on Sustainable Consumption and Production (10YP-SCP) and Strengthening the Commission on Sustainability. The advent of democracy in South Africa in 1994 brought far-reaching political, economic as well as social changes. To ensure more equitable distribution of economic wealth and the eradication of poverty in line with Agenda 21, through the MDGs and JPoI there is broad recognition that economic development needs to be boosted and sustained. The past 18 years has seen the overhaul of public sector governance in line with these needs and a realisation of the importance of the private sector in sustainable development. This is coupled with the recognition that South Africa cannot achieve its socio-economic goals if the underlying natural resource base is depleted and degraded. The World Summit on Sustainable Development, positioned South Africa and Africaâ€™s ability to take up the challenge of integrating social development with
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economic prosperity and environmental protection. As
SCP programmes are relevant in the South Afri-
the host of the WSSD, South Africa has a custodianship
can context given the resource-intensive nature of its
role in advocating and taking the lead in implementation
economy, which is energy-intensive due to the low-cost
of the targets, and the period since the Johannesburg
of coal and the historical dominance of primary secto-
Summit has seen South Africa actively fulfilling this role,
ral activities such as mining, mineral processing, metal
internationally and nationally.
smelting and synthetic fuel production. Increasing global
CHANGING UNSUSTAINABLE CONSUMPTION AND PRODUCTION PATTERNS SCP IN SOUTH AFRICA A NEW GREEN TRANSITION
attention on SCP coupled with the growing scarcity of resources and the cost of treating and managing waste in South Africa, has contributed to greater receptiveness by government, business and citizens to change unsustainable patterns of consumption and production.
Although South Africa has made significant strides in
South Africa has made significant progress towards
moving its society towards consumption and produc-
the development of a framework for the promotion of
tion patterns that are more sustainable, the country still
sustainable consumption and production programmes.
faces significant challenges in bridging the gap between
A key aspect is the effort made in shifting unsustainable
the first and second economies, eradicating poverty and
patterns of consumption and production, and the partici-
improving the quality of life of poor South Africans.
pation in the 10YFP.
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Key progress made by South Africa regarding SCP includes: the development of policy and legislation;
designed to mitigate impacts to the environment and natural systems, and the protection thereof.
initiatives to save energy; enabling environments for
The New Growth Path approved in October 2010, sets
renewable energy; the major the move towards cleaner
out critical markers for employment creation and growth
production piloted and implemented through industry;
and identifies and targets 300 000 additional direct jobs
establishment of mechanisms for funding and sustain-
by 2020 to green the economy, with 80 000 in the
able procurement; and increased consumer protection
manufacturing and the rest in construction, operations
and the maintenance of new environmentally friendly
GREEN ECONOMY FOR SOUTH AFRICA – FINDING OPPORTUNITY IN CRISIS
infrastructure. The National Treasury’s work on the use of marketbased instruments to help address environmental challenges and to reform the tax system to encourage a green
In the 2009 framework response to the international
growth strategy (and a low-carbon economy), hence in
economic crisis, the South African government urged
2006 the National Treasury (NT) published for public
for the development of incentives for investment in
comment a paper on environmentally related economic
programmes geared at creating a large number of ‘green
instruments entitled “Market-based Instruments to Sup-
jobs’, i.e. employment in industries and facilities that are
port Environmental Fiscal Reform in South Africa”.
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The aim of the study was to provide a coherent framework in which environmentally-related fiscal instruments (taxes and charges) should be considered in South
PEOPLE PLANET PROSPERITY: CORPORATE SOCIAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL RESPONSIBILITY
Africa. A draft Environmental Fiscal Reform (EFR) policy
South African business participates in a number of initia-
paper was published in April 2006, to provide a guiding
tives working towards growth and sustainable develop-
framework and criteria for developing and accessing envi-
ment and promotes SCP. The National Business Initiative
ronmentally related tax proposals.
(NBI) is a voluntary group of leading national and
South Africaâ€™s Green Economy Accord was launched
multinational companies that aims to advance develop-
at the COP17 talks in Durban today. The Accord, one of
ment in South Africa through partnerships, practical
the most comprehensive social pacts on green jobs in the
programmes and policy engagement.
world, builds a partnership to create 300 000 new jobs by
The NBI is one of close to 60 global regional partners
2020, in economic activities as diverse as energy genera-
to the World Business Council for Sustainable Develop-
tion, manufacturing of products that reduce carbon emis-
ment, and provides a platform for business leadership
sions, farming activities to provide feedstock for biofuels,
and a vision of how companies can contribute to a sus-
soil and environmental management and eco-tourism.
tainable society. The NBI became the focal point of the
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United Nations Global Compact in South Africa in 2007. These initiatives link indirectly to SCP and more direct linkages include the NBI spearheading the Energy
A RESPONSIBLE GOVERNMENT: SUSTAINABLE PUBLIC PROCUREMENT AND SERVICES
Efficiency Accord as well as corporate South Africa’s
In 2007, the South African Government initiated a
involvement in the Carbon Disclosure Project.
joint process with National Treasury which will lead to
South African companies have participated in the
National Budget interventions which support sustain-
Carbon Disclosure Project since 2007, with 74% of the
able development, with a long-term view of making an
top 40 Johannesburg Securities Exchange (JSE) listed
economic case for the environment.
companies participating in the production of a Carbon
While sustainable public procurement is still a rela-
Disclosure Project report in 2008. South Africa is the only
tively new concept in South Africa, environmental criteria
African country participating among 30 other countries
have, to a certain extent, started playing a role in public
and disclosure levels indicate growing levels of company
procurement decisions and sustainable public procure-
awareness of and responses to climate change.
ment policies have been adopted and implemented
Largely due to the influence of the King II Code of Corporate Governance which recommended sustainabil-
across various institutions in both the public and private sectors.
ity reporting and was a listing requirement for the JSE,
Public transport is a useful indicator of urban sustain-
86% of the largest companies produced sustainability re-
ability: good public transport makes cities more acces-
ports in 2007-2008. The quality of reports and the number
sible and reduces the need for private transport. Between
of third party assured reports is increasing and many are
2003 and 2006 the use of public transport, including
being compiled using the Global Reporting Initiative’s
trains, buses and taxis, increased both as a share and
(GRI) G3 Guidelines. In 2008, 48 companies had registered
in absolute terms. This is being addressed by large
their reports with the GRI. The new King III Code on Gov-
public-private investments such as the Rapid Bus Transit
ernance Principles requires the GRI guidelines to be used
System and the Gautrain. Some city municipalities have
as the sustainability reporting framework. In addition to
responded by developing strategies to place greater
the King codes, the JSE’s Socially Responsible Investment
emphasis on improved billing, streamlined procurement,
Index (SRI), requires substantial disclosure of sustain-
infrastructure upgrades and maintenance and public
ability related performance from index-listed companies
(refer below for further details of the SRI). In the mining sector there is considerable increase
The DEA is currently investigating the establishment of green procurement guidelines for the 2010 FIFA World
in participation by South African companies and other
Cup™; piloting green procurement internally with certain
organisations in corporate social and environmental
quick-win product areas.
responsibly programmes. The South African banking industry is also increasing its participation in international
The adoption of green buildings in South Africa has
Three of the four large commercial banks in South
grown intensely with various awareness campaigns and
Africa are signatories to the Equator Principles (EPs) and
projects. The Green Buildings for Africa Initiative was
several are involved in the United Nations Environment
developed by the CSIR in 2001 with the objective of draf-
Programme’s Finance Initiative, the African chapter of
ting guidelines for green buildings and the promotion of
which is co-chaired by the Banking Association of South
these guidelines among the building and construction
Africa and Nedbank.
industry. The Green Building Council of South Africa
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(GBCSA) was formed in 2007 to drive the adoption of
Activities contributing the SCP in South Africa
green building practices in the South African property
have led to a host of best practices especially as it
industry, and move the industry towards sustainability.
relates to energy efficiency, water conservation,
The Council promotes the adoption of green building
waste management, social responsible investment
principles by creating awareness and knowledge transfer
and consumer awareness.
and making resources available. It is also in the process
• Energy efficiency: In 2008 a number of mines were
of setting up a rating system for green buildings. This
nominated for the mining category of the eta (Greek
process has been given impetus with the adoption of
symbol for efficiency) Awards which reward
green building guidelines for use by local municipalities.
exceptional effort in the more efficient use of energy
by individuals, students, companies or other
institutions, and improve business competitiveness.
In support of the Energy Efficiency Accord, Xstrata-
The implementation of initiatives aimed at promoting
Merafe Chrome Venture invested massively in World
SCP has highlighted the series of lessons.
Class Energy Efficient furnaces. The company invested
• It has taken time for government to institute
R2.4-billion in projects to save approximately 12.7% on
economic instruments to promote SCP activities.
energy consumption. The energy saving pellets
These measures have been taken in response to the
produced by the Bokamoso project achieve a total
rising cost resources, decline in quality and
saving of 452 000 megawatt hours per annum when
challenges associated with managing the disposal
the smelters it supplies are in full production.
and treatment of waste.
• Waste minimisation: Since 2006 clubs were
LEARNING BY DOING: LESSONS AND BEST PRACTICES
• The energy crisis in South Africa has resulted in
established to influence inputs and outputs of
a massive promotion of energy efficiency practices
processes and businesses, including utility use (water,
and promotion of investment in renewable energy
electricity, coal, steam etc.), raw materials,
consumables (items used in the process), packaging,
• Inadequate awareness about the benefits of SCP has
liquid wastes, solid wastes and air emissions. By
meant that industries needed assistance to
minimising the use of the inputs to the process, the
implement measures aimed at reducing the use of
wastes produced will be reduced. There has been a
resources and promoting the reuse and recycling of
total of 28 Waste Minimisation Clubs initiatives in
waste. General environmental awareness levels are
expected to grow in the near future following
• Social responsibility: The Johannesburg Stock
enactment of legislation aimed at consumer
Exchange (JSE) has developed criteria to measure the
protection and awareness.
triple bottom line performance of those companies in
• While socially sustainable procurement has been
the FTSE/JSE All Share Index that choose to
a focus for several years already, most companies
participate. In this regard, the JSE launched the
are only beginning to understand the importance
first emerging market index, the Socially Responsible
of the procurement leverage they hold to improve
Investment (SRI) Index in May 2004. The SRI index is
the overall environmental impact of their business
built on four pillars of sustainability, namely
corporate governance, the economy, the environment
28 chapter3-leader in sustainable dev.indd 8
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and society. There are 61 companies currently listed
for selected thematic clusters of issues. The review year
on the SRI index.
evaluated progress made in implementing sustain-
able development goals and identifying obstacles and constraints, while the policy year decided on measures
A core strategy of the New Growth Path is to encourage
to speed up implementation and mobilise action to
activities that can generate employment on a large scale
overcome these obstacles and constraints.
and meet basic needs at lower costs in the short to
The Deputy Minister of Department of Environmen-
medium term, while sustaining development of more
tal Affairs, Rejoice Mabudafhasi, during the Commis-
knowledge-intensive industries for long run growth.
sion on Sustainable Development stated, “Given current
Direct linkages exist with this core strategy in terms
global challenges, there is an urgent need to maximise
of the Green Economy; namely, through technological
our efforts in reducing the negative environmental
innovation and development; a local manufacturing
impacts from unsustainable patterns of production and
base to mainstream environmentally-friendly
consumption and manage our natural resource base
technologies can be established that supports local job
including indigenous knowledge we have ignored
creation and regional integration and ensure that South
instead of building on it. As the global community,
Africa transitions to a greener growth path.
we undertook to take action to change unsustainable
There is growing urgency in the need for South Africa to speed up the adoption of resource-efficient
consumption and production patterns during the World Summit on Sustainable Development (WSSD) in 2002.
production practices and progressively restructure
“We must live to that commitment and work
away from energy-intensive industries towards new
towards the establishment of a 10-Year Framework of
green industries, which are financially viable and
Programme that will support regional and national
internationally competitive in the long run.
initiatives that promote sustainable use of our natural
A move to a more sustainable development path
will create new green jobs, which may help to offset
“Our national cleaner production centres are es-
employment losses experienced in other sectors;
tablished to facilitate industrial development through
open up new investment opportunities and export
energy, water and materials efficiency. Therefore, part-
markets; support the creation of a knowledge-based
nerships between private sector and governments are
economy and allow South Africa to set standards and
crucial in establishing relevant programmes that will
demonstrate thought leadership.
complement the work of existing national and regional
COMMISSION FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
initiatives carried out by these centres. “For example, in South Africa, the business sector has also shown significant commitment towards sus-
The Commission on Sustainable Development (CSD)
tainable consumption and production initiatives. This
was set up in 1992 to serve as a preparatory committee
is through the National Business Initiative, a voluntary
for summits and sessions on the implementation of
group of leading national and multinational compa-
Agenda 21 and the JPoI.
nies that aim to advance sustainable development
The CSD has met annually to review and set policy
through voluntary initiatives, partnerships, practical
30 chapter3-leader in sustainable dev.indd 10
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programmes and policy engagement. “Achieving sustainable consumption and produc-
da that promotes technology transfer and capacity building, which are underpinned by viable financing
tion requires a paradigm shift throughout the entire
mechanisms. This will go a long way to support a move
society. Therefore, massive awareness and information
towards sustainable consumption and production by
exchange programme among policy-makers, producers,
developing countries. “The role of United Nations agencies such United
consumers, civil society, and academia and development agencies are required to realise the shift to more
Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), United
Nations Industrial Development Organisation (UNIDO)
“We need to remind ourselves of the benefits of this
and United Nations Conference on Trade and Develop-
paradigm shift, which is to improve the wellbeing of our
ment (UNCTAD) is critical in supporting developing
people without increasing further stress to the already
countries on this course. “South Africa will support an outcome that will
constraint natural resource base. “There is a severe shortage of relevant skills needed
contain sustainable consumption and production
for research and technological innovation in most
that is time-bound, with clear financing and support
developing countries. In this regard, global science
mechanisms that build on and complement sustainable
and technology remains key for a development agen-
31 chapter3-leader in sustainable dev.indd 11
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“In adopting an action-oriented strategy, South Africa takes cognisance of the fact that the country’s current economic development path is based primarily on maximising economic growth through mining, manufacturing and agricultural activities.” National Strategy for Sustainable Development
responsibly for current and future generations, and by
On 23 November 2011, the Cabinet adopted NSSD1.
and governance through national, regional and global
The National Framework provided a valuable step in
advancing efficient and effective integrated planning
In developing this strategy for sustainable
defining key sustainable development principles for the country, while being mindful of global challenges
development, South African agreed on a clear meaning.
and growth ideals. The country’s approach accepts that
Sustainability is seen as the overall goal of the NSSD. A
economic, social and ecosystem factors are embedded
sustainable society in this context necessitates ecological
within each other, and are underpinned by systems of
sustainability. Ecological sustainability means the
governance. Figure 1 provides a schematic representation of
maintenance of healthy ecosystems and natural resources
are preconditions for human wellbeing, and that there are
On 23 November 2011, the South African Cabinet
limits to the goods and services they can provide. Hence,
adopted the NSSD1 containing the Strategy and Action
human beings are part of nature and not separate from it. A
Plan to support the implementation of the NFSD. The
sustainable development is the process by which we move
document provides a high-level strategic sustainable
towards that goal.
development roadmap that provides guidance to public
strategies and action plans, which must all be consistent
Strategic priorities for South Africa’s sustainable development path
with the NSSD.
The NSSD1 (2011-2014) is premised on five strategic
and private sector organisations in their own long-term planning and development of sector- or subject-specific
• enhancing systems for integrated planning and
The vision for South Africa’s NSSD and action plan, as set
out in the 2011 NSSD1, states:
• sustaining our ecosystems and using natural
“South Africa aspires to be a sustainable, economically
implementation; resources efficiently;
prosperous and self-reliant nation state that safeguards
• moving towards a Green Economy;
its democracy by meeting the fundamental human needs
• building sustainable communities; and
of its people, by managing its limited ecological resources
• responding effectively to climate change.
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Governance FIGURE 1. SCHEMATIC REPRESENTATION OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT (TAKEN FROM THE NSSD1)
A number of interrelated and enabling interventions
organised labour and civil society, has set its vision for
that promote sustainable development are being
transforming to a green economy.
implemented throughout South Africa. The strategy
On 20 November 2011 at COP17, the South Africa
identifies 113 interventions that can be monitored
government launched its Green Economy Accord as part of
for implementation. The 20 headline indicators have
the four-pillared New Economic Path. This comprehensive
been identified to monitor progress in the NSSD1
social pact builds a partnership to create 300 000 new jobs by
implementation, which are selected from existing indicators
2020, in economic activities as diverse as energy generation,
including the development indicators, the Millennium
manufacturing of products that reduce carbon emissions,
Development Goals and the 12 government outcomes.
farming activities to provide feedstock for biofuels, soil and
By way of example, under the strategic priority, ‘Towards
environmental management and eco-tourism.
a Green Economy’, the objective is a just transition towards
In adopting an action-oriented strategy, South
a resource-efficient, low-carbon and pro-employment
Africa takes cognisance of the fact that the country’s
current economic development path is based primarily
One of the goals for this objective is supporting
on maximising economic growth through mining,
regulatory framework and the interventions are a National
manufacturing and agricultural activities. Placing the
Green Economy Strategy and sector Green Economy
country on a new development path will necessitate
the implementation of actions aimed at dramatically
The Green Economy Report released by UNEP in
reducing the energy-intensive nature of the economy and
2011 demonstrates that the greening of economies is
maintaining the resource base. Success will depend in part
not generally a drag on growth but rather a new engine
on the alignment of the country’s socio-economic objectives
of growth is a net generator of decent jobs and is a vital
and strategic priorities for sustainable development. It will
strategy for the elimination of persistent poverty.
also require government to encourage a behavioural shift
In cooperation with international and regional agencies, the South African Government together with business,
in society by allowing people to make sustainable choices such as recycling and using public transport.
34 chapter3-leader in sustainable dev.indd 14
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1 PLANNING • National Planning Commission • Government cluster plans • Municipal IDPs • Private sector strategic plans • Civil society strategic plans
Independent review Multistakeholder Academia
Spheres of government International Institutions
National Committee on Sustainable Development
2 MONITORING, EVALUATION AND REPORT
• Presidency • Government, Cabinet and cluster • Parliament • Government departments • Public entities • Municipalities • Academia • Civil society
• National departments • Provincial departments • Municipalities • Public entities • Civil society
FIGURE 2. RESPONSIBILITY MATRIX FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN SOUTH AFRICA
Strengthening the institutional framework
A national focal point unit has been established within DEA to coordinate South Africa’s implementation
Since 2003, the Department of Environmental Affairs has
of the national sustainability vision and multilateral
driven the NSSD development process, in cooperation
agreements (MEAs). This unit will work with the NCSD,
with other government departments.
government departments, civil society, organised labour
The NSSD1 recognises that there are already a number
and business, as represented in Figure 2, to ensure
of sectors, which to a greater or lesser extent have
that there is effective planning and implementation
incorporated sustainability criteria into some or all of
of sustainable development throughout all spheres of
their policies, legislation, strategies and action plans. The
government, public entities and the private sector as well
strategy sets out an institutional framework that will
as participation with the United Nations systems and
ensure that there is effective coordination, planning and
structures. The private sector and civil society organisations are
monitoring/evaluation. Figure 2 is drawn from the NSSD1 and provides a responsibility matrix for sustainable
viewed as key partners in the implementation of the
development in South Africa.
sustainable development objectives and targets. The
An inter-governmental National Committee on
private sector, as suppliers of societal goods and
Sustainable Development will be established to oversee
services, has a pivotal contribution to achieving a
implementation and to engage civil society, private
sustainable development growth path. Industry bodies
sector, academia, independent review and other multi-
will be invited to send representatives to the consultative
forum that will be established for the implementation
The DEA, in collaboration with the relevant
of the NSSD1. Civil society, as represented by non-
government departments and stakeholders, will ensure
governmental organisations (NGOs), community-based
action towards the implementation of the NSSD1
organisations (CBOs) and labour, has a central role to
through harmonised planning of programmes and
play in promoting sustainable development in South
35 chapter3-leader in sustainable dev.indd 15
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â€œGovernment alone cannot manage and fund a just transition to a green economy and the private sector and civil society must play a fundamental role.â€?
chapter4-Green economy.indd 2
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Green Economy FOR green growth While the South African economy, as measured by standard economic indicators, is considered relatively stable, there are a number of concerns from an ecological sustainability perspective. These include the following: • The economy is highly energy intensive and
includes a significant mining sector (7.7% of GDP
in 2006 and 6% of the labour force in 2008).
• The natural resource base is under severe pressure. • There is a national crisis in terms of electricity supply. • There is widespread poverty, unemployment and
Introduction A green economy implies the decoupling of resource use and environmental impacts from economic growth. It is characterised by substantially increased investment in green sectors, supported by enabling policy reforms. This implies moving towards a stable, steady-state economy “supplemented by conditions that ensure distributional equity, establish sustainable levels of resource throughput and emissions and provide for the protection of critical natural capital.” (Jackson, 2009) The South African approach is to ensure that a green economy is supported by a practical and implementable action plan that recognises the importance of building on existing best processes, programmes, initiatives and indigenous knowledge in key sectors, to shift towards a resource-efficient, low-carbon and pro-employment growth path. It also recognises that government alone cannot
chapter4-Green economy.indd 3
2012/11/01 3:54 PM
manage and fund a just transition to a green economy
culminate in proposals of the appropriate regulatory
and that the private sector and civil society must play a
framework to enable the development of sector action
plans related to green markets and industries.
Green Economy Summit
The Cabinet approved a number of key supportive policies and this was the first sign that government was
The Economic Sectors and Employment cluster
prioritising the green economy. The policies in question
departments hosted the first national Green Economy
included the Medium-term Strategic Framework (MTSF)
Summit from 18 to 20 May 2010 to gather valuable insights
2009-2014, the 10-year Innovation Plan, the revised
on key focus areas and issues that require attention in
Industrial Policy Action Plan for 2010/11-2012/13 (IPAP2),
the short, medium and long-term. The President Jacob
the revised Integrated Resource Plan (IRP2) and New
Zuma, ministers, deputy ministers, members of the
Growth Path (NGP).
Executive Council (MECs) and Parliamentary Committee chairpersons, as well as representatives from the private
sector, NGOs and labour organisations, addressed the
The Green Fund is a unique, newly established national
fund that seeks to support green initiatives to assist South
In his address, the President highlighted the fact that
Africa’s transition to a low-carbon, resource-efficient and
ecosystem failure will seriously compromise the country’s
climate-resilient development path, delivering high impact
ability to address its social and economic priorities. He
economic, environmental and social benefits.
further reiterated that natural resources are national
Through the Department of Environmental
economic assets, and the economy depends heavily on
Affairs (DEA), the South African government has set
energy and mineral resources, biodiversity, agriculture,
aside R800-million to establish the Green Fund. This
forestry, fishing and tourism. The President pointed out
allocation represents the initial resources available for
that South Africa has no option but to manage its natural
disbursement by the Green Fund. The DEA has appointed
resources in a sustainable manner, and that it has no
the Development Bank of Southern Africa (DBSA) as the
choice but to be eco-friendly and develop a green economy.
implementing agent of the Green Fund. A Green Fund
Management Committee comprising representatives of the DEA, the DBSA and the National Treasury provide the
Through contributions from the various sectors’
direction and make final decisions on applications made
implementation plans, South Africa is to develop a
to the Green Fund. The objective of the Green Fund is to lay the basis
National Green Economy Strategy. The implementation of this strategy has a number of cross-cutting roles and
for the South African economy to make a transition to
responsibilities and will require work to ensure coherence
a low-carbon, resource-efficient and climate-resilient
and coordination within government and between social
development path delivering high impact economic,
environmental and social benefits. The Green Fund aims
• The strategy will also address crucial issues of
to provide catalytic finance to facilitate investment in
technology, innovation, localisation, manufacturing,
green initiatives that will support South Africa’s transition
skills and funding, drawing from a variety of potential
towards a green economy by:
sources, including the fiscus, international funds,
• Promoting innovative and high impact green
business and industry, public-private partnerships
(PPPs) and other possible measures.
• Reinforcing climate policy objectives through green
programmes and projects.
• The review of relevant regulatory, macro- and micro-
• Building an evidence base for the expansion of the
economic policies and institutional frameworks will
38 chapter4-Green economy.indd 4
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• Attracting additional resources to support South
Africa’s green economy development.
INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION The Industrial Development Corporation will set aside a capital allocation of R22-billion for green projects over the next five years and a further R3-billion will be made available for manufacturing of green products and components. The funding will aim to provide cofunding and industrial finance for commercially viable green economy projects. Attention will be given to identify opportunities for broad-based black economic empowerment targeting among others women and youth, as well as social enterprises. Viable investment projects need to be identified and supported in order to ensure take-up of available funding. Government therefore undertakes to compile a database of known projects in the green economy. Business commits to provide information on existing and potential projects in the green economy that it has available. The IDC commits to proactively identifying investment opportunities for South African investors, including small businesses and attract foreign investment to fast track development of the green economy.
Organised labour & government Organised labour commits to establish social enterprises (including cooperatives) and invest in vehicles that will create jobs and support the broader goals of the green economy, including through the Job Creation Trust. The social partners will provide information on maintenance and installation opportunities that social enterprises can tender for, in order to assist such enterprises to become sustainable. Government in Gauteng commits to the establishment of a climate-change innovation centre (“Climate Innovation Centre”) that will select, incubate, and provide technical assistance and hands-on mentoring to more than 100 Gauteng climate change technology entrepreneurs and SMEs and match technical assistance
chapter4-Green economy.indd 5
Guided by the outcomes of the National Green Economy Summit, the environment sector has developed an implementation plan for this sector’s contribution to national green economy action. The country began interventions and fundraising nationally and internationally for the implementation of the nine key focus areas: 1. Resource conservation and management; 2. Sustainable waste management practices; 3. Water management; 4. Environmental sustainability, which; comprises the following: a. Greening and legacy projects: Major events and tourism. b. Research, awareness, training, skills development and knowledge management. 5. Green buildings and the built environment; 6. Sustainable transport and infrastructure; 7. Clean energy and energy efficiency; 8. Agriculture, food production and forestry; and 9. Sustainable consumption and production.
The goals of a transition towards a green economy should include green growth contributions to economic growth and employment, while preventing environmental degradation and pollution, loss of biodiversity and unsustainable natural resource use. A green economy has identified the following necessary enablers of implementation: • Provide support to the regulatory framework. • Implement and upscale green economy programmes.
2012/11/01 3:54 PM
and mentoring with financing to all these enterprises.
increase public awareness of the opportunities that exists
A number of jobs will be created and a green skills
and the funding that is available.
learnership programme will form part of the initiative, with 100 participants a year. Business commits to support this effort. Business
GREEN PASSPORT PROJECT IN SOUTH AFRICA
will market green economy opportunities within the
The Green Passport Campaign is an initiative of the
investor community and work with private sector banks
International Task Force on Sustainable Tourism Devel-
and financial institutions to promote Green Funds and
opment, firmly rooted in the move to accelerate a global
portfolios of investment that include exposure to the
shift towards sustainable consumption and production
green economy. Within the retirement industry, business
(SCP) that emerged from the WSSD.
will promote the green economy as a site for investment that combines economic and social returns. Business recognises the investment opportunities
Task forces have been created to support the implementation of concrete activities and to focus on specific aspects of SCP. These voluntary initiatives, in
that exist in the green economy and commit to support
which experts from developing and developed countries
investment in the green economy through the following
participate, are instigated by countries that undertake
to cooperate with partners in carrying out activities in
• Work with government to attract multilateral
support of the implementation of specific Marrakech
and bilateral green funding to support investments
in initiatives that will contribute to the achievement of
a lower carbon growth path.
Working within the ITF-STD framework and building on the need to improve the tourism sector’s efforts
• Strengthen existing efforts by financial institutions to
to communicate with tourists on sustainable tourism,
fund private sector investments in the green economy
through campaigns on sustainability issues, UNEP and
and disseminate such information.
its partners are developing effective communication
• Pursue investment opportunities in manufacturing
tools. The Green Passport Campaign is one outcome of this
linked to renewable energy initiatives through
engagement under the auspices of the New Growth
process. The intention is to unlock the positive power of
Path (and IPAP2).
demand by raising tourists’ awareness of their potential
• Pursue investment opportunities in renewable
to contribute to sustainable development by making
energy generation and link these more clearly with
responsible holiday choices.
local component-manufacturing initiatives to improve
local industrial capacity.
• Strengthen investment in projects to improve
environmental performance of existing production
In South Africa, this was instituted for the 2010 FIFA World Cup as part of the event greening process and continued for the visitors to COP17 and CMP7. The aim of the Green Passport is to raise awareness amongst both the domestic and international visitors
The parties recognise the importance to bring small
about their potential to contribute towards sustainable
enterprises and social enterprises into the green
environmental management by making responsible
economy. Often such enterprises are unable to access
available funding because information is not available
The Global Environment Facility (GEF) Fund, as a key
to them or application processes are cumbersome. The
partner on the initiative, unites 182 member govern-
parties agree to support green funding road shows to
ments – in partnership with international institutions,
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non-governmental organisations and the private sector – to address global environmental issues. An independently operating financial organisation,
GREEN ECONOMY PROGRAMMES The Green Economy is prioritised as one of the key
the GEF provides grants to developing countries and
economic drivers in the Medium Term Strategic
countries with economies in transition, for projects
Framework (MTSF) 2009-2014 and, as part of the National
related to biodiversity, climate change, international
Framework for Sustainable Development (NFSD),
waters, land degradation, the ozone layer and persis-
it ensures that the country follows a sustainable
tent organic pollutants. These projects benefit the
global environment, linking local, national and global
The New Growth Path targets 300 000 additional
environmental challenges and promoting sustainable
direct jobs by 2020 to green the economy, with 80 000 in
manufacturing and the rest in construction, operations
MAJOR EVENTS & THE ENVIRONMENT Globally there is growing awareness of the environ-
and maintenance of new environmentally friendly infrastructure. The potential for job creation rises to well over 400 000 by 2030.
mental impact of large events. “Green” has become the
Additional jobs will be created by expanding the
term used to describe activities or initiatives that may
existing public employment schemes to protect the
benefit the environment. Event Greening refers to the
environment, as well as in production of biofuels. Job
process of incorporating socially and environmentally
creation potentials are expected in the natural resource
responsible decision-making into the planning, organi-
management and construction in the short to medium
sation, implementation and participation in an event,
term, while renewable energy construction and
irrespective of the scale. It requires the application of
manufacture of inputs in the medium to long run. The Industrial Action Policy Plan (IPAP2), approved
sustainable development principles and practices to all levels of event organisation and aims to ensure that an
by cabinet in March 2011, focuses on the manufacturing
event is hosted in a responsible manner.
aspects of the green economy namely Green Industries
South Africa aimed to host COP17 as a low-carbon
and Industrial Energy Efficiency. It further champions
event based on the following objectives for planning
the South African Renewables Initiative (SARi) aimed
at funding initiatives to achieve greater critical mass of
• Undertake appropriate waste management;
renewable energy generation hand-in-hand with locali-
• Renewable energy and energy efficiency;
sation of manufacturing related to renewables.
• Water conservation;
The overall enablers of implementation for the
• Implement greening initiatives;
green economy programmes were identified as regula-
• Use of public transport;
tory framework; market-based instruments; innova-
• Promoting responsible tourism;
tion, science and technology commercialisation, greater
• Ongoing monitoring and evaluation;
localisation and manufacturing; investment, finance op-
• Enhancing environmental protection;
portunities and financing instruments include leverag-
• Effective communication and marketing;
ing of funds; availability of skills; institutional capabili-
• Promote local economic development and social
ties and capacity and partnerships.
The nine key focus areas identified in the green economy
• Ensure a lasting legacy.
programmes report are:
For more information, go to www.unep.org/greenpassport
1. green buildings and the built environment;
41 chapter4-Green economy.indd 7
2012/11/01 3:55 PM
2. sustainable transport and infrastructure;
required, if the 46 identified potential green economy
3. clean energy and energy efficiency;
projects in 9 key focus areas for the environment sector
4. resource conservation and management;
are to be implemented with potential to create 22 627 job
5. sustainable waste management practices;
6. agriculture, food production and forestry;
This plan will be implemented through local and
7. water management;
international partnerships, with green investments, sup-
8. sustainable consumption and production; and
ported by domestic funding streams that could include
9. Environmental sustainability which includes
the National Treasury’s Green Fund, Clean Technology
Greening and Legacy and Research, awareness and
Fund, Employment Creation fund, DBSA and other
skills development and knowledge management.
possible streams including international organisations.
The environment sector adopted a phased approach
The key policy and regulatory challenges that a
that will therefore implement the initial Phase A for pro-
resource mobilisation mechanism needs to take into
grammes and projects in the four key focus areas:
consideration include the following:
1. Resource conservation and management
• The Green Economy is the ‘New business as usual’
• Energy from invasive alien plants projects on the
whereby environmental sustainability and transition-
ing to green growth is critical for a new development
Agulhas plains: Pilot projects for phase 2.
• The establishment of three new carbon sink
• The Green Economy is broader than renewable energy
• Introduction of bamboo as a long-term
and energy efficiency. It includes land use, water and
2. Sustainable waste management practices
• Regulation and pricing signals by the state need to be
• Establishment of over 2 200 waste-preneurs that
stronger to support accelerated investment by the
private sector and to change consumer behaviour.
will collect and barter over 1 200 tons of recycling.
• Materials recycling and compost manufacture
• Domestic resources should be mobilised to fuel green
economy growth (taxes, pension funds, private sector,
3. Water management
• Novel Rain Water Harvesting Technologies for Peri-
• The costing of externalities should be considered in
economic development interventions.
urban and Rural communities in South Africa.
4. Environmental Sustainability
• State interventions need to be coordinated to deliver
• Greening & Legacy – Major events and tourism;
scalable and replicable outcomes.
• Rural Sustainability Commons;
• Complex global negotiating platform and access to
• Early Warning System (Village Lightening Alarms);
climate finance needs to be addressed.
• Green Industry Knowledge Bank /
This implementation plan goes beyond consideration of
the net jobs created to also consider the jobs protected
• Food and energy centre of excellence; and
(particularly in resource-dependent and export-based
• A nationwide human capacity development
industries) by improving national resource competitive-
programme in support of a green economy (The
ness and industry development, (e.g. carbon, energy and
Sustainability Commons Project).
water efficiency) and the livelihoods created (especially
The green economy programmes report analysis indi-
by generating incomes, services and wealth for the rural
cates that an amount of approximately R9.7 billion is
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2012/11/01 3:55 PM
EVERY LITTLE BIT HELPS. “Use electricity wisely and together we can create a brighter future for all South Africans.”
chapter9-our common future-roi+20.indd 1
Minister Malusi Gigaba
2012/10/31 2:28 PM
â€œClimate change is considered one of the most serious threats to sustainable development, with adverse impacts expected on the environment, human health, food security, economic activity and investment, natural resources and physical infrastructure.â€?
chapter5 climate change.indd 2
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Climate ACTION Climate change is considered to be among the most serious threats to global sustainable development. South Africa has set itself the goal of achieving an inclusive, balanced, equitable and legally binding agreement to lower global emissions. The country also acknowledges that since terrestrial and marine ecosystems play a significant role in the carbon cycle, climate change mitigation and adaptation must include ecosystem-based solutions as well.
ENERGY AND CLIMATE CHANGE In South Africa, coal is one of the main sources of energy. Relatively cheap energy and abundant coal supplies have made it possible to build an energy-intensive economy. The national electricity crisis (load shedding, scheduled blackouts) experienced by South African citizens had driven the need to increase electricity tariffs to fund Eskomâ€™s new build programme aimed at meeting the growing electricity demands and increased awareness and urgency of energy efficiency practices. Energy efficiency amongst industry and household consumers has been the focus of reducing electricity demand. The issue of global climate change calls for reducing anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs). The relatively high quantities of GHG emissions by the energy sector therefore create the platform for renewable energy technology to be implemented. There is a need to promote sustainable consumption patterns within the energy sector thereby reducing the current heavy reliance on fossil-fuel-based sources.
chapter5 climate change.indd 3
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This workgroup focused on South Africa, rather than
• Consider who to focus on – the consumer or the
global issues due to time constraints and distribution and
industry. Focusing on the poor consumer when large
generation of energy was also excluded from the discus-
consumers (industry) are using the bulk of the energy
sions for the same reason.
might be a wrong policy approach.
The main question the group was challenged with was
• Conduct more energy audits. More audits would
“Should we rather concentrate on the cause of carbon emis-
ensure that we have accurate data on trends in energy
sion in the country than on the effects of climate change?”
use thereby enabling us to have targeted interventions.
The group discussed the contribution of fossil fuels to
• Introduce policy instruments such as green budgets
climate change, as coal is a major source for greenhouse gas
and incentives for industry such as tax rebates. Offer
emissions in South Africa. It was suggested during the ses-
rewards for savings in tax rebates to the consumer.
sion to focus on priorities that can make a difference in the
Introduce effective subsidies for energy efficiency.
near future instead of looking at long-term priorities such
• Look into possibilities of providing affordable
as nuclear power stations. However, it was also stressed the
renewable energy, which can compete with the
short and the long-term effects should be considered in
traditional sources of energy, with the aim to reduce
parallel. We can achieve the biggest gains in the short-term
by implementing interventions; but we need to make the
• Consider introducing stepped tariffs like the water
right decision now for the future.
tariffs. They could influence the usage of energy.
• Consider introducing incentives to industry, which
can reduce the energy demand and achieve the
The main question that the participants of this working
objectives of the incentives.
group tried to answer was “If we look at short-term energy
• Encourage separation of domestic waste; it saves
and reducing per capita consumption energy over the
whole spectrum of use; what are the priorities that we can
• Integrate energy efficiency principles in school
come up with where we think the greatest
curriculum and enhance education and awareness
savings in energy can be made in the short-term?”
• Focus on industrial zones – they can lend themselves
to CHP plants to produce electricity and feed waste
• Increasing the price of energy could create a reduction
heat back to the companies.
in energy consumption, assuming that the price
• Make city planning more influential in the building
increase is large enough to form a proper incentive
for investment in energy saving technology and for
• Focus on sugar mills. Most of the sugar mills
changes in energy consumption behaviour.
generate their own power, and generate more than is
• Put in place minimum standards for appliances
needed but do not feed the excessive electricity to
that consume electrical power especially in domestic
the grid due to DME policy. In Europe, companies are
appliances. It is believed that this has already been
allowed to feed power back onto the grid.
done in certain industries in South Africa, but it is
• Look into introducing energy-efficient building
not well known and publicised.
of eco-industrial parks, green zones, CHP, etc.
standards, such as in Europe.
46 chapter5 climate change.indd 4
2012/11/01 10:03 PM
• Government must be mindful of techniques to
Powered Water Heaters with insurance claims on
promote and address sustainable development.
geyser replacements. This must be covered with
Consumption has limitations. When the government
government policy with DTI and DME.
decides to design and implement certain tools, they have to be effective. South Africa is not a closed
economy, therefore the production of goods covers
Between 28 November and 9 December 2011, South Africa
many geographical locations and regulation is
hosted the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate
Change (UNFCCC) 17th Conference of Parties (COP17) and the
• Standard of energy efficiency must be in line with
7th Conference of the Parties serving as the Meeting of the
SADC standards, as the load would just shift if South
Parties to the Kyoto Protocol (CMP7).
Africa becomes efficient and offloads all the non-
Climate change is considered one of the most serious
efficient equipment onto neighbours.
threats to sustainable development, with adverse impacts
• The government must make policy decisions that
expected on the environment, human health, food security,
promote projects in the rural areas and especially
economic activity and investment, natural resources and
make the access to energy economical. If we do not
do something for rural areas where there is no
supply, if we do not change these consumption
comments from the Minister of Environmental Affairs, Edna
habits, we are not solving the problem.
Molewa on its successful conclusion.
This historic event can best be summed up by the
• Look into energy diversification as a policy. Then
“When South Africa agreed to host COP17, we set ourselves
South Africa would not be reliant on one source, but
the goal of achieving an inclusive, balanced, equitable
and legally binding agreement to lower global emissions
• Identify potential for innovations through energy
that went beyond simply making the Cancun agreements
operational. We also committed to making this COP inclusive
research and development.
• Consider promoting electric rail instead of road
and people driven.
transport. Transportation fuels consume a large
percent of energy supplies. Electric rail is the
able to agree on an ambitious deal, which significantly
cheapest mode of transport now.
advances the global climate change agenda. The Durban
In the final stages of this dramatic conference, we were
• Consider introducing a focus for the currently
outcome is historic and precedent setting. In terms of the
ongoing initiatives such as energy audits and
mitigation effort, this COP has been characterised by a
new willingness on the part of all parties to move beyond
• Develop a mechanism to enable independent power
entrenched negotiating positions and unconstructive rhetoric
producers (individual households) to feed back into
and engage with the requirements of development in a carbon-
constrained environment in a more open and flexible manner.
• Consider changing dietary habits of people, i.e.
eating less meat, since livestock is a major
contributor to GHG emissions.
• Government underwrites loans, to replace Solar
This represents a significant and hopeful step forward. Crucially, we have been able to strengthen the UNFCCC mitigation regime by agreeing on a second commitment period under the Kyoto protocol, covering at least the five-year
47 chapter5 climate change.indd 5
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period from 2013 to 2018. While the ratification of this second
In holding this event on African soil, we were able to put
commitment period by countries may be delayed, any gap
Africa’s priority of adapting to the impacts of climate change
that may arise is covered in terms of the agreement at this
firmly on the global agenda. We have strengthened the
COP by which Annex 1 countries will stick to their existing
international adaptation agenda and established an adaptation
commitments. In parallel, countries have agreed to initiate
committee that will spearhead global work on adaptation.
negotiations leading to a legal instrument, protocol or agreed
We have also operationalised the Technology Executive
outcome with legal force applicable to all countries, that will
Committee, as the policy-making body on technology issues
be adopted by 2015 and be operational no later than 2020.
and fine-tuned the procedures and modalities for the TEC.
This COP has reaffirmed a common vision for global
Working in synergy with the Climate Technology Centre
cooperation on climate change to hold the increase in global
and Network, the TEC will substantially strengthen the
average temperature below 2 degrees Celsius above pre-
UNFCCC’s operational arm on technology. The centre will
industrial levels. We recognise that the ambition and scope
assist developing countries in the negotiation of technology
of current commitments are inadequate. Even if the most
partnerships and transfer agreements and in adapting these
ambitious current emissions targets are met, this will exceed
technologies to country purposes. It will also assist with license
what science requires by an estimated 5 gigaton (Gt) of CO2
negotiations, and the establishment of national innovation
equivalent emissions, according to the UN Environment
systems for a low-carbon and climate-resillient future. We have
Programme’s Emissions Gap Report.
been able to initiate the process of selecting a host of the CTCN,
In an effort to address this gap, we have established a
which will set up the organisation.
process to increase the transparency of the mitigation efforts
An additional spin-off has been the unprecedented level
of both developed and developing countries. In the case of
of domestic mobilisation around climate issues. As COP
developed countries, we will review and assess their economy-
President, Minister Maite Nkoana-Mashabane has succeeded
wide emission reduction targets and commitments and in the
in bringing NGOs and civil society closer to the negotiations
case of developing countries, we will increase the transparency
process. Last Saturday saw a day of action by civil society, with
of the voluntary and nationally appropriate mitigation actions
a multitude of communities and NGOs marching under the
(NAMAs) of developing countries.
banner of climate action. The Durban Mayor’s Summit brought
Countries are also encouraged to prepare low-emission
over 100 mayors from cities around the world together to adopt
development strategies or plans in the context of sustainable
the Durban Adaptation Charter. The business community
development. This COP has also resulted in a strengthened and
held the largest number of side events and activities ever
environmentally sound framework for including emissions
associated with a COP and it is encouraging to see the extent
from deforestation and forest degradation, which will help
to which investment in new green technologies and jobs is
protect the world’s forests.
paving the path to a low-carbon economy. These actions by
We have also succeeded in bringing into operation the
civil society groups outside of the negotiations have helped
outcomes that were successfully negotiated in Cancun last year.
put the importance of an ambitious climate regime firmly on
These include the detailed design of the Green Climate Fund,
the agenda, and have increased pressure on negotiators for a
which Minister Trevor Manuel successfully steered through a
binding legal agreement.
year of difficult negotiations. The design of the fund includes a
South Africa can be extremely proud of its collective efforts
number of innovative mechanisms for bringing private sector
to host this COP. We have produced a world standard event
and market mechanisms into play to increase the potential flow
that has been complemented by the visitors and negotiators
of funding into climate change responses.
from across the spectrum and have successfully steered a
48 chapter5 climate change.indd 6
2012/11/01 7:58 PM
complex negotiations process towards a successful conclusion. The outcome of Durban is a historical achievement and will substantially advance the global climate agenda.”
Climate change – going forward Climate change is considered to be among the most
The following are the overall specific goals that relate to the national climate change response:
serious threats to global sustainable development, if not the most serious threat, with adverse impacts expected on food and water security, economic activity, human health, physical infrastructure and natural resources. These impacts will seriously undermine efforts to achieve sustainable development and the Millennium Development Goals, particularly in developing countries that are not only the most vulnerable, but also the least equipped to deal with climate change.
• • • •
Decrease greenhouse gas emissions to levels required by science in line with Cabinet-approved targets – with particular emphasis on the energy sector, which accounts for over 70% of South Africa’s emissions. Reduce dependency on fossil fuels and enhance security of electricity supply. Build resilience to climate change in communities. Ensure that ecosystem resillience is not disrupted.
Conversely, addressing climate change by mitigating greenhouse gas emissions and building resilient communities will make a major contribution to achieving a sustainable society. Since terrestrial and marine ecosystems play a significant role in the carbon cycle, climate change mitigation and adaptation must include ecosystem-based solutions. The protection of natural habitats is particularly important, as the poorest people, who depend directly on natural systems, are also the most vulnerable to the effects of climate change. Many years ago, government recognised that climate change was real and that it was a significant threat to the country’s development. This was formally acknowledged during the National Climate Change Conference in 2005. In
“Addressing climate change by mitigating greenhouse gas emissions and building resilient communities will make a major contribution to achieving a sustainable society.”
chapter5 climate change.indd 7
November 2011, South Africa approved a National Climate Change Response white paper. This white paper presents government’s vision for an effective climate change response and a long-term, just transition to a climate-resilient and lower-carbon economy and society. This response is guided by principles set out in the Constitution, the Bill of Rights, the National Environmental Management Act (NEMA), the Millennium Declaration and the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. The development and implementation of an effective climate change response
2012/11/01 7:58 PM
strategy is a priority for South Africa, both in the short
term adaptation interventions to be addressed in sector
and long-term. Activities include continued participation
in the international climate change negotiations with a
• Identification of adaptation responses that require
view to concluding an equitable, but ambitious climate
coordination between specific sectors/departments and
change agreement for the post-2012 period. However, given
integration of adaptation strategies in sectoral plans.
the broader benefits of mitigation and adaptation-related
• Development and piloting of a methodology to downscale
activities, the National Programme on Climate Change should
climate information and comprehensive impact
be vigorously pursued regardless of delays in the international
assessments to specific geographical areas, as well as
monitoring and evaluation.
Climate Change Response Policy
• Research for Long-term Adaptation Scenarios, focusing on
Government’s National Climate Change Response Policy was
approved on Wednesday, 12 October 2011 and was formally
published as a White Paper in the Government Gazette on Wednesday, 19 October 2011 (Gazette No. 34695, Notice No. 757). The White Paper represents the culmination of an iterative
the following sectors: water, agriculture, commercial forestry, biodiversity and ecosystems, human settlements, health and disaster risk reduction.
Summary of the priority deliverables for the next 2 years
and participatory policy development process that was started
• Development of an Implementation Framework for the
in October 2005.
The White Paper is the product of a 6-year process that
National Priority Flagship programme.
• Development of detailed Action Plans for each Flagship
involved ground-breaking modelling and research activities,
two national conferences, numerous workshops and
• Provide a detailed analysis of mitigation outcomes
conferences in every province, hundreds of bilateral and key
stakeholder engagements, a NEDLAC review and Parliamentary
• Develop an Action Plan for realising local sustainable
development benefits, including employment, poverty
alleviation, industrial development, reduction in local air
pollution and others.
Objectives of NCCRP
Programme. expected to result from the programme.
Effectively manage inevitable climate change impacts through
• Develop a comprehensive reporting format which will
interventions that build and sustain South Africa’s social,
include a set of relevant indicators and a proposal to
economic and environmental resilience and emergency
establish annual reporting.
1. The Renewable Energy Flagship Programme - inclusive of
Make a fair contribution to the global effort to stabilise
a scaled-up renewable energy programme and expanded
GHG concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that avoids
solar water heating programme.
dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate
2. The Energy Efficiency and Energy Demand Management
system within a timeframe that enables economic, social
Flagship Programme – aggressive energy-efficiency
and environmental development to proceed in a sustainable
programmes in industry; government, residential, and
commercial sectors include; regulations, standards, and
codes of practice.
Summary of the deliverables required by the NCCRP
3. The Waste Management Flagship Programme
– investigating and implementing waste-to-energy
• Adoption of a regional approach to adaptation and
opportunities available within the solid-, semi-solid- and
liquid-waste management sectors, especially the
identification and prioritisation of key short- and medium-
50 chapter5 climate change.indd 8
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generation, capture, conversion and/or use of methane
rail re-capitalisation programme to facilitate both
passenger modal shifts and the shift of freight from road
4. The Carbon Capture and Sequestration Flagship
to rail; Government Vehicle Efficiency Programme
Programme – the development of a CCS Demonstration
including electric vehicle procurement objectives.
Plant to store the process emissions from an existing high-
carbon emissions facility.
5. The Adaptation Research Flagship Programme - the design
COORDINATION required by the NCCRP
and rollout of a national and regional research
Consistent implementation of the NCCRP requires a long-term
programme to scope sectoral adaptation requirements and
framework for institutional coordination, to:
costs and identify adaptation strategies with cross-sectoral
• Coordinate adaptation and mitigation actions and
linkages and benefits. The Climate Change Response
Public Works Flagship Programme – the consolidation and
• Measure, report and verify climate change responses.
expansion of, for example, Working for Water, Working on
• Coordinate research and development, and promote
Fire, and Working for Energy.
6. The Water Conservation and Demand Management
The NCCRP sets out roles of Parliament, the DG clusters, the
Flagship Programme – accelerated implementation of the
Intergovernmental Committee on Climate Change (IGCCC), the
National Water Conservation and Water Demand
National disaster Management Council, as well as provincial
Management Strategy in the industry, mining, power
and local government.
generation, agriculture and water services sectors,
accelerated provision of rainwater harvesting tanks in rural
outlines the role of business and industry, civil society,
and low-income settlements, etc.
academia and scientists, and identifies the National Committee
In respect of partnering with stakeholders, the NCCRP
7. The Transport Flagship Programme – enhanced public
on Climate (NCCC) and NEDLAC as the key co-ordination
transport programme; an Efficient Vehicles Programme;
51 chapter5 climate change.indd 9
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â€œWhen women come together, they always make a visible impact that improves the lives of their communities and countries.â€?
chapter6-caretakers in our environment .indd 2
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CARETAKERS OF THE ENVIRONMENT WOMEN AND THE ENVIRONMENT Women are at the forefront of environmental change in South Africa, taking up key decision-making posts and effecting economically viable and sustainable development solutions by rallying together to initiate and realise change and growth. This is evident through the initiatives of the Expanded Public Works Programme (EPWP) and the Department of Environmental Affairs (DEA) commitment in appointing women in decision-making positions and its social responsibility programmes that empower and unite women in the fight against environmental degradation and poverty eradication.
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key decision-making posts and effecting economically viable and sustainable development solutions by rallying together to initiate and realise change and growth. This is evident through the initiatives of the Expanded Public Works Programme (EPWP) and the Department of Environmental Affairs (DEA) commitment in appointing women in decisionmaking positions and its social responsibility programmes that empower and unite
women in the fight against environmental degradation and poverty eradication.
chapter6-caretakers in our environment .indd 4
Women are at the forefront of environmental change in South Africa, taking up
Women and Environment Conferences DEA has hosted five Women and Environment conferences since 2005, recognising that people have over-used and abused our natural resources and that the environmental impact is real, present and knows no boundaries with the most vulnerable communities bearing the highest risk of severe impact. These challenges affect women, mostly in rural sectors, as they are often the ones left to deal with the deterioration. These conferences brought together women from various organisations, professional bodies, government departments in South Africa and abroad and community organisations to engage and learn from their regional and global counterparts on environmental challenges in order to develop strategies
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and solutions for environmental and economic sustainability
challenges and the opportunity to increase impacts and
and create a national forum to ensure that decisions
benefits of the programmes and projects, through building
undertaken at environmental conferences are implemented.
and strengthening relationships with government, experts,
The Department of Environmental Affairs organised
academics, business leaders and other women in South Africa:
the 2012 event from 20-21 August, in collaboration with
• Give women the platform to share their experiences in the
stakeholders such as Department of Water Affairs, Indalo
involvement in the environmental programmes; share
Yethu and Women in Environment. The theme for this year’s
the best practices in the environmental sector and
womens celebration is “56 Years of Women United against
encourage exchange of knowledge, skills and expertise
poverty, unemployment and inequality.”
among the women.
Gcinumzi Qotya, the Chief Director in the Environmental
• Explore institutional networking and capacity building.
Programmes and Infrastructure Development conducted a full
• Address funding mechanisms for women in the
presentation on environmental projects that are implemented
by the department, which included programmes such as
The second day offered four breakaway commissions,
Working on Fire, Working for Water and Working for Wetlands.
deliberating on the following issues:
Women in Dialogue explored solutions to the current
environmental sector; and Green Economy opportunities.
• Commission 1: Awareness, Organisational Development
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and Capacity Building and Institutional Mechanisms
The forum is an outcome of the 2008 Women &
â€˘ Commission 2: Funding and Financing (Green Fund, etc.),
Environment Conference resolution, which was implemented
through four provincial workshops and one national workshop
Partnerships and Markets
â€˘ Commission 3: Environmental & Water Programmes,
that informed the structure of the national forum, coordinated
by the department and Indalo Yethu throughout the provinces.
emerging opportunities and competitiveness
â€˘ Commission 4: Towards a national Sustainable Women in
Two representatives, from the provincial forums that were
established during the provincial workshops that preceded the
Water and Environment Programme
national conference, constitute the national forum.
National Forum for Women & THE Environment
flagship projects per province for implementation. The forum
Women are the majority of the poor in developing countries,
acts as a stakeholder group focussing on growing the sector.
including South Africa, and as they are highly dependent on
It will serve as a structure for engagement with the provincial
natural resources, they are disproportionately vulnerable to the
stakeholders and representatives to consolidate input,
effects of environmental or ecological, degradation and endure
make submissions on policy issues on behalf of provincial
the most of increases in energy costs, transport, healthcare and
structures, as well as monitoring the implementation of
the flagship projects and provide progress reports to the
It is also acknowledged that eradication of poverty cannot
The forum will develop an action plan by identifying two
department, Indalo Yethu and relevant partners. The forum
be accomplished through anti-poverty programmes alone but
will also inform the content of national conferences.
will require democratic participation and changes in economic
The forum will also act as link with the Network of Women
structures in order to ensure access for all women to resources,
Ministers and Leaders for the Environment that will be used
opportunities and public services.
as a case study for the implementation of the women and
Worldwide, women are directly affected by poverty and
environment programmes and activities. It will be composed
involved in the day-to-day efforts of improving the provision
of the provincial forum members, gender focal point members
of shelter, food, water and sanitation. For this reason, it
from DEA and officials from Indalo Yethu.
is important to ensure that women are at the heart of the
the mouthpiece of women and champion their empowerment
African Chapter of the Network of Women Ministers and Leaders in Environment
needs. The forum will also serve as the platform for women
Agenda 21 of the Rio Declaration of the World Conference
to inform policy and decision-making on issues that affect
on Environment and Development in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
women as well as monitor implementation of decisions we
(1992) recognised the crucial role that women played in
take at these conferences.
environmental management. This was further reinforced by
decision-making processes that affect their lives. The National Forum for Women & Environment will act as
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The Beijing platform of action of the United Nations Womenâ€™s
The broad objective of the global network is to promote
Conference in Beijing China (1995) and the Johannesburg
gender responsive sustainable environmental management
declaration of the World Summit on Sustainable Development
at regional and global levels and enhance representation and
held in Johannesburg, South Africa (2002).
involvement of women in decision-making in the areas of
The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN)
environment and sustainable development at all levels.
and the Council of World Women Leaders convened a meeting
Since its establishment in 2002, the global network has
of women ministers and leaders of environment in Helsinki,
been actively involved in a number of activities. One was the
Finland, which was chaired by the ex-Minister for Environment
hosting of first global womenâ€™s assembly on environment:
and Development Cooperation for Finland, Ms Satu Hassi
Women as the Voice for the Environment (WAVE) at the
and Rejoice Mabudafhasi, Deputy Minister for Environmental
headquarters of the United Nations Environment Programme,
Affairs, South Africa.
Nairobi, Kenya in 2004 that was attended by over 150
Twenty-two women ministers for the environment
participants from 65 countries.
and 28 women leaders representing non-governmental
One of the key resolutions was to promote existing
environmental organisations from Africa, Asia, Europe, North
small-scale projects initiated by communities and the
and South America attended the meeting. The purpose of the
formulation of women structures from local, national, regional
meeting was to mobilise women to take immediate action in
and global levels as platform to push the agenda of gender
addressing the challenge of environment degradation as it
mainstreaming in policy development and environmental
affects economic development and worsens poverty.
management. UNEP was tasked to develop a concrete
Women comprise more than half of the worldâ€™s population
gender plan of action that will realise the above-mentioned
and are the custodians of environment, therefore the meeting
unanimously agreed that women must come together
To grow strong and be more effective on the ground, in
and speak with one voice and play a leading role in the
February 2008, women ministers and leaders met in Monaco
development of environmental management policies in
and resolved to set up regional, sub-regional and national
our respective countries in order to ensure that gender is an
chapters that would ensure that the global objectives are
integral component of environmental management.
implemented. The 2010 launch of the National Forum on
The Network of Women Ministers for the Environment
Women & Environment in South Africa, the fourth Women
was thus born. At this inaugural meeting, Lena Sommestad,
& Environment Conference and the pre-launch of regional
Minister for the Environment of Sweden and Rejoice
chapters realised the resolution of the Monaco conference.
Mabudafhasi, Deputy Minister for Environmental Affairs,
Hon Sherry Ayittey, Minister of Environment, Science
South Africa were appointed co-chairs of the Network of
& Technology, Ghana launched the African Chapter of the
Women Ministers for the Environment representing the global
Network of Women Ministers and Leaders in Environment at
north and the global south.
the 2010 South African conference.
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Youth and THE environment working together
Conscious that June is both Environment month and
window to the world of work on Friday, 21 September 2012,
Youth month, the Department of Environmental Affairs has
when they attended a one-day orientation programme for
made particular calls encouraging youth to participate in
an environmental learnership to be facilitated by the City of
environmental projects and to seek work within the areas
Eighty-seven unemployed Gauteng youths were given a
The successful candidates were selected for the year-long
covered by environment – from the purely technical to the practical. In 2012, the Environmental Affairs Minister, Edna
learnership, a brain-child of the Department of Environmental Affairs, from 152 applicants. The programme, which
Molewa, called on young people to be actively involved in
seeks to attract young people to job opportunities in the
the preservation of the environment. The minister explained
environmental field, is offered in partnership with the Local
that by restoring and preserving natural ecosystems, rural
Government Sector Education Training Authority (LGSETA). After the learnership, some of them will be absorbed into
economies could be stimulated, rural and urban jobs created, and these would help maintain critical ecosystem services
the City’s entities, including Pikitup, City Parks, Johannesburg
that are vital to the economy such as energy and water supply.
Market, Infrastructural Services Department and Environment
According to Molewa, her department has planned to
Health. The DEA’s move to fast-track skills development in the
create about 62 860 job opportunities within the department’s environmental programmes. She said 55% of beneficiaries
environmental sector is aimed at ensuring that South Africa
would be women, 40% would be youth and 2% would be
is adequately prepared to respond to the challenges of climate
people with disabilities.
change. The search for suitable candidates started in March
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2012 when the DEA identified the City as an ideal partner to recruit the youth in Gauteng for the learnership. The Cape West Coast Biosphere Reserve Company has partnered with the Department of Environmental Affairs and Development Planning (DEA&DP), local communities and local organisations in order to provide an initiative to young and inspired leaders who possess a passion for nature. The project aims to provide groups of young people from disadvantaged communities an opportunity to explore and experience the beauty of nature and an opportunity to learn about the natural environment. The project seeks to utilise the opportunity to educate
The South African government is already working towards promoting coherence in the initiatives that are aimed at promoting sustainable consumption and production and the country will be moving into the implementation phase of the green economy initiatives as one of the tools to achieving
chapter6-caretakers in our environment .indd 9
youth about the importance of conserving the natural environment, as well as the social problems faced in the community. It aims to utilise the national monument, Table Mountain, the internationally renowned wetland site, the Langebaan Lagoon and the West Coast National Park to instill a sense of pride in South Africa’s youth and its San community project, !Khwa Ttu. Further educational aspects include the importance of conserving water and how to use it wisely. Littering is a very large problem within the communities and creates a bad impression on tourists who visit our townships and communities, so this initiative also aims to educate the youth about littering. The different aspects that this project covers, includes empowering disadvantaged youth about: • Training in facilitation and leadership skills; • Social issues and how to address them; • HIV/AIDS; • The history and cultural value of Table Mountain, the
Langebaan Lagoon and the West Coast Fossil Park;
• Our precious floral kingdom; • Awareness in sustainable utilisation of our natural
resources, including wise water usage;
• Our role to accomplish a clean environment where we live; • Biodiversity conservation; and • Visiting a successful community-driven and owned project
within the West Coast National Park.
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At this yearâ€™s People and Parks Conference, the Department
an interest in the environment as a career. The Department of Environmental Affairs is committed to
of Environmental Affairs in partnership with the Department of Education, SANParks and Pick and Pay, signed a new
continue engaging with the stakeholders and communities
Memorandum of Understanding (MOU), which ensures the
through various platforms on issues of environment. This
extension of the Kids in Parks Programme for the benefit of
includes publications, public participation engagements,
many learners around South Africaâ€™s national parks across the
exhibitions, workshops, conferences and programmes aimed
country. The Kudu Green School initiative, recently launched
in Gauteng will add more value to the programme.
Education key According to the Department of Environmental Affairs, the environmental sector depends heavily on school leavers being aware of the environmental field and holding environmental
values. For many, school is the only opportunity for
Indalo Yethu was established to serve as an institution
developing such awareness and values, and teachers play a key
with the objective of developing and implementing the
role, in either inspiring these values, or exposing learners to
National Environmental Awareness Campaign. The Trust
shaping experiences during schooling.
was to serve as an endorsement brand, conduct an extensive
South Africa, as a signatory to the United Nations
communication, marketing and outreach campaign, establish
Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), has
and/or enter into partnerships; and generate the income
to fulfil certain obligations which includes amongst others
required to enable the smooth running of the Trust. It was envisaged that the Trust would be able to generate
promoting and cooperating in education, training and public awareness related to climate change. It is through education in raising awareness that people can change their attitudes towards the environment and take
sufficient income, through eco-endorsement, to fund the operations of the Trust after 2 years of being established. One of the main conclusions drawn from the review done by the
60 chapter6-caretakers in our environment .indd 10
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Department was that the cost of compliance with regard to
and Environmental Awareness Educators , with further work
statutory requirements associated with a stand-alone entity
opportunities from the construction activities associated
and the operations of the Trust could not be supported from
with the building or erection of landfill site offices, ablution
the funds allocated for this purpose.
facilities as well as weigh pad platforms at landfill sites
The Department of Environmental Affairs has, after careful
across the country.
consideration decided to dissolve the Indalo Yethu Trust.
1. Landfill Site Operation and Management
This decision was reached following a review to determine
In response to the lack of technical knowledge in landfill
the viability of the organisation, the review of its functions
site operation and management and from the assessment
and strategic rethinking of the department towards its
of training evaluations, it is clear that the training has
communications, awareness and stakeholder engagement
significantly imparted necessary skills to municipal officials.
It is in this context that the DEA now wants to extend
The dissolution of the Trust process will result in
this training to 462 young people who will be placed in
functions that need to continue being incorporated into the
municipalities across the country in this current year. The
existing programmes of the Department and its entities and
young people, upon completing the short course will be
business partners and other stakeholders where appropriate.
based at the Landfill Operations and will assist with day to day management and administration related to the
YOUTH IN WASTE: PIONEERS FOR THE ENVIRONMENT
operations at the landfills. 2. Waste Collection Planning and Administration
Scores of young people in South Africa are unemployed, some
Municipalities require assistance in the planning and
despite having achieved tertiary education. In March 2006
execution of waste collection operational plans. There
youth unemployment was estimated at 50.3% for 14-24 year
is substantial administration and management that is
olds and 29.5% for 25-35 year olds. This is an untenable state of
associated with waste collection planning and execution.
affairs and requires immediate attention by all organs of state
The young people would be placed within the municipal
as well the private sector.
offices, with reporting lines worked into the municipal
It is befitting therefore that in designing programmes
meant to deal with environmental issues, the youth become
3. Waste Management Awareness Campaign
central to the execution of these programmes. It is equally
The National Waste Management Strategy sets a target
necessary that youth development programmes entails large
for 80% of schools to be implementing waste awareness
scale creation of jobs as well as enterprise development.
programmes, such as recycling projects, by 2016. The target
It is in this light that the DEA increasingly expanding its
for the same year for local awareness campaigns is for 80%
programmes in job creation and enterprise development
of municipalities to be running campaigns about waste and
programmes within the Waste sector. Consequently, the
littering. Ultimately, awareness and recognition programmes
current initiative, termed, the â€˜Jobs in Waste and Enterprise
around waste should result in visibly cleaner towns and
Development for Youth Programmeâ€? is aimed at dealing
cities, a reduction in illegal dumping, and the successful
with youth unemployment and specifically targets
implementation of separation at source programmes.
Unemployed young people in the country. The low levels of capacity in municipalities present
As part of this Youth Jobs in Waste Programme, the campaign would be aimed at creating awareness of
an excellent opportunity for creation of jobs, on the job
waste management issues. The young people, termed
training, continuous up-skilling as well as enterprise
Environmental Awareness Educators, would be involved in
development for the youth. An estimated 3 577 jobs will
the planning and execution of environmental awareness
be created by placing young people in Municipalities as
campaigns as well as developing educational materials for
Landfill Site Assistants, Waste Collection Administrators
61 chapter6-caretakers in our environment .indd 11
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WE BUILT THIS CITY ONâ€Ś
The success of the city hosting the COP17 and its commitment through the leadership to promote local governmentâ€™s CITY ENVIRONMENTAL PERFORMANCE HAS NATIONAL AS WELL AS LOCAL BENEFITS, AND THERE IS A STRONG CASE FOR NATIONAL LEVEL SUPPORT. South Africa has recognised that climate change is one of the critical factors influencing the environmental sustainability of cities, and that appropriate responses to climate change have fiscal implications (Financial and Fiscal Commission 2011). The City of Durban in eTthekwini Municipality has been much-admired for successfully hosting the 17th Conference of Parties UN Conference on Climate Change (UN COP). The eThekwini Municipality is leading the climate change revolution in local government and has been for a number of years.
involvement in leading and dealing with climate change was well received in the world as a host. Legally binding targets set in Durban will have massive implications for the country and South Africa and will need to develop climate change mitigation and adaptation strategies, and local government will be instrumental in ensuring the success of such policies on the ground. LGP4CC: COLLABORATING PARTNERS AND CURRENT INSTITUTIONAL SET-UP The commitment of South Africa to the global sustainable development agenda has given rise to a reenergised political awareness and will at the local level be driven by the development of a response programme that seeks to
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Metropolitan Municipality and supported by nine Climate Change Champions that are representative of South Africa’s nine provinces. Within this institutional arrangement, the Department of Environmental Affairs plays a pivotal role of providing the necessary inter-governmental relations between the local, provincial and national spheres of government. The South African Cities Network (SACN) has been tasked with managing the affairs of the LGP4CC through providing management quality assurance of its efforts. At the 17th Conference of the Parties (COP17) in 2011, the Partnership managed the Local Government Programme for Climate Change (LGP4CC). The LGP4CC had a mandate to mobilize the local government sector before, during and after the COP17 and their visible participation thereof at the Conference. The LGP4CC continues to be the vehicle for the strengthen adaptation mechanisms in local government. The Local Government Programme Partnership on Climate
implementation of climate change and sustainable development initiatives at local level. In this regard and in the
Change (LGP4CC) was conceptualised as a programmatic
wake of nations converging in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil for the
and sector response by the South African’s sphere of Local
20th anniversary of sustainable development negotiations/
Government in support of national efforts to deal with the
discussions, local government saw it necessary to showcase its
phenomenon of climate change. The Partnership for Climate
efforts on sustainable development.
Change (LGP4CC) is a joint programme partnership of South Africa’s 278 municipalities, the Department of Environmental
LOCAL GOVERNMENT AND CLIMATE CHANGE
Affairs (DEA), the South African Local Government Association
There has been some level of momentum displayed by local
(SALGA) and the South African Cities Network (SACN), in
governments regarding mitigation and adaptation to climate
collaboration with provincial and national government sector
change in the last few years. In 2009 a number of African local
governments represented individual municipalities and
The LGP4CC continues to evolve in an institutional
through their associations met in South Africa to affirm their
arrangement in which it politically falls under the ambit of
commitment in combating climate change. Outcome of this
the South African Local Government Association (SALGA) and
gathering was later taken to Copenhagen COP15 as the African
as such, it is led by the Mayor James Nxumalo of eThekwini
position on climate change.
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South Africa is ranked among the top 10 emitters of greenhouse gases in the world. This is despite the countryâ€™s status of being a developing nation. In this regard, the national government has undertaken proactive steps by determining the Long-Term Mitigation Scenarios (LTMS), developing the Green House Gas inventory, defining the climate change policy
order to give effect to the notion of developmental local
direction through an extensive multi-stakeholder process that
government as articulated in the March 1998 White Paper on
involved extensive private sector participation.
At a discourse level, cities are also starting to translate
The initiative gained momentum and grew substantial
these ideas into practical actions. For example, the eThekwini
acceptance among mayors and city managers. The decision to
Municipality is a recognised global leader for its efforts in
formally establish the SA Cities Network (SACN) was taken in
integrating climate change into planning processes while cities
the year 2002, by among others, the Ministry and Department
of Johannesburg and Cape Town have undertaken exciting
of Cooperative Governance (formerly, the Department of
initiatives in public transport and renewable energy with clear
Provincial and Local Government), in collaboration with
climate change mitigation outcomes.
the mayors of South Africaâ€™s nine largest metropolitan municipalities or cities and the South African Local
BUILDING SUSTAINABLE CITIES
Government Association (SALGA).
Cities are cultural, economic, and social hubs that continue
These actions are wide ranging and include programmes to
to attract migration from rural areas due to their dynamism,
reduce emissions from buildings, deliver low carbon transport,
resources and the promise of economic opportunities. By 2050
reduce waste, encourage product reuse and recycling, promote
almost 70% of the global population will live in cities (World
integrated planning and land use, use renewable energy and
Bank 2010). In South Africa, the majority of the population
encourage efficient water and energy use (Desai 2011).
currently lives in urban areas and this ratio is expected to rise close to 80% by 2050. At inception, the South African Cities Network was
However, cities cannot make the transition to a climate resilient future unaided. South African cities, along with most of their developing country counterparts, face significant
regarded as a programme initiative aimed at researching
financial, regulatory, technical and capacity obstacles. These
and understanding the various patterns and trends that
need to be systematically addressed in order to help cities
characterise large and urban municipalities in South Africa,
become resilient to climate change and manage the transition
and then compare and contrast them internationally in
to a low-carbon economy.
64 sa cities network-new text-for repro.indd 4
2012/11/01 9:12 PM
2012/11/01 8:56 AM
Riding tides and storms
The last decade has seen an increase in weatherrelated natural disasters that have negatively impacted on the lives of local communities. Through death, injury THE SOUTH AFRICAN WEATHER SERVICE (SAWS) WAS
and damage to property, these weather phenomena have
ESTABLISHED IN TERMS OF THE SOUTH AFRICAN WEATHER
hampered sustainable development in both urban and rural
SERVICE ACT, ACT 8 OF 2001. The organisation celebrated
its 11th year as a government entity under the Ministry
SAWS is committed to reduce the impact of weather
of Environmental Affairs on 15 July 2012. SAWS received
disasters by consciously creating weather awareness and
certification as an ISO9001:2008 national provider of weather
investing in the latest and most technologically advanced
and climate products and services in October 2011 and is the
equipment. The latter aids us in the monitoring and
custodian of the South African climate databank.
prediction of weather patterns and the collection of related
By law, SAWS is the authoritative voice to issue severe
weather warnings. It therefore cooperates closely with
SAWSâ€™ enhanced national weather observation network
government structures to minimise the impact of weather-
has resulted in a synthesis of more accurate weather and
related natural disasters towards improving the well-being of
climate information, helping us to provide early warning
all South Africans.
information to the Republic of South Africa. A recent study
66 chapter7 riding tides & storms.indd 2
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Weather Lines: 082 162 083 123 0500 For SMSs dial: *120*555# | Mobile web: www.weathersa.co.za/m | Follow us on Twitter: @SAWeatherServic
the World Meteorological Organisation (WMO) and acting
as the SA government representative in the fulfilment of
• Providing meteorological services as an obligation to the shows an overall public satisfaction rate of 84 percent with
SAWS’ products and services.
• Providing the public with information on daily rainfall and
SAWS is at the forefront of providing weather and
Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS) Convention; maximum and minimum temperatures;
climate information in South Africa and continuous future
• Operating the national meteorological telecommunication
developments will further improve preventative measures
– thereby protecting the South African public and keeping
• Acting as a knowledge centre and custodian of
weather-related damages to a minimum.
the National Meteorological Library and the National
network and computer infrastructure;
Our services include:
• Providing meteorological and climatological advice to
Public Good Services
• Weather, climate forecasting and warning services for the
• Providing meteorological and function-related training to
safety of life and property, as well as disaster mitigation;
government; the public;
• Gathering of meteorological and climatological data;
• Conducting research aimed at reducing the impact of
• Gathering of atmospheric trace gas data for the detection
• Providing meteorological support for aviation and
and monitoring of climate change;
• Carrying out international obligations in accordance with
weather-related natural disasters; maritime search and rescue activities;
67 chapter7 riding tides & storms.indd 3
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International involvement As a member of the World Meteorological Organisation (WMO), SAWS complies with international meteorological standards. SAWS maintains international relations with neighbouring countries, the South African Development Community (SADC) Secretariat, the Meteorological Association of Southern Africa (MASA), Africa, and the rest of the world.
“SAWS is committed to reduce the impact of weather disasters by consciously creating weather awareness and investing in the latest and most technologically advanced equipment.”
In its capacity as WMO-designated Regional Specialised Meteorological Centre, SAWS fulfils a critical role in data communications and operations in the SADC sub-region. Through WMO programmes such as the Severe Weather Forecasting Demonstration Project, the organisation works
• Providing meteorological services for the benefit of
towards the enhancement of meteorological services in
subsistence farmers, fishermen and disadvantaged or
otherwise vulnerable communities;
• Conducting educational and awareness programmes
Being designated by the South African government as
around weather and climate-related topics; and
• Providing learners, students and educators with
national Aviation Meteorological Authority, SAWS provides
weather services to the aviation industry, thereby fulfilling
educational material pertaining to weather and climate.
government’s international obligations under the Convention
of the International Civil Aviation Authority (ICAO). SAWS is one of the very few organisations that has
Our portfolio of commercial offerings entails a specialised meteorological consultation service to, among others, legal and insurance companies and the manufacturing and selling
complied to ICAO’s requirement to be ISO9oo1:2008 certified.
of meteorological equipment to the state and other users.
Maritime forecasting services
The latter is supported by a follow-up maintenance and
SAWS are obligated to provide MET-ocean services under
the Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS) Convention. These services
Other commercial services are:
comprise daily marine forecasts that are routed to shipping
• Client-specific specialised weather forecasts;
through a satellite-based network and broadcast via NAVTEX
• Specialised climate information;
and radiotelephone. South Africa’s area of responsibility for maritime
• Aviation meteorological services; • Services to the maritime industry which are not included
forecasting extends from 6 degrees South to the coast of
Antarctica and latitudinally from 20 degrees West to 80
in the SOLAS Convention;
• Contracted weather and climate related research; and
degrees East. SAWS provides maritime forecasts relating to
• The production and sale of weather and climate related
large oil spills and salvage operations, as well as search and
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OUR Oceans and Coasts FOR LIFE The coasts of South Africa are impacted more directly by large open oceans, compared to countries of the northern hemisphere. It has immediate access to adjacent ocean spaces that are not shared with any other state. The Exclusive Economic Zone of South Africa is currently 1.5 million sqaure kilometres compared to South Africa’s terrestrial land mass of 1.2 million square kilometres. Further claims submitted to the United Nations will add a further 800 000 square kilometres. This includes oceans around South Africa’s territories in the southern ocean (Prince Edward Island and Marion Island).
Opportunities Oceans opportunities are very significant but South Africa is also exposed to potential threats. Economic opportunities include: • Tourism (including oceans and coasts, nature and science
“While the majority of South African oceans and coasts are relatively pristine, a few areas show biodiversity loss, marine pollution and inappropriate development”.
• Transport; • Mining; • Energy production; • Fishing; and • Bio-prospecting, e.g. pharmaceuticals. Historically South Africa has not focused on using offshore opportunities. This is probably due to the abundance of terrestrial natural resources and the high-energy, harsh ocean conditions. Technological advancement over the recent decades has made these harsh environments and previously out of reach resources accessible.
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These opportunities extend into the South African Exclu-
posed title is “Oceans and Coasts Environmental Planning and
sive Economic Zone, the adjacent “high” seas (including the
Management for Sustainable Development.” This additional
Sub-Antarctic oceans), and the Antarctic continent itself. South
chapter will have the vision for oceans and coasts ecosystem
Africa remains a party to the Antarctic Treaty (as an original
services for 2030.
signatory). The Antarctic treaty system seeks to manage all
It will also include the principles and objectives of the
human endeavours on the frozen continent. South Africa
Integrated Coastal Management Act and the draft Oceans
maintains a year-round research presence on Marion Island
policy and will propose solution to the challenges to achieving
and on the Antarctic Continent.
sustainable use of oceans and coasts concerning:
• Habitat loss (pollution); • Biodiversity Conservation and Protection;
• Ocean warming;
• Ecosystem Functioning; and
• Storm surges;
• Climate and Earth Systems (threats and response to
• High-energy storms;
• Sea-level rise;
The 2030 target will be the development and implementation
• Associated Coastal erosion; and
of an Oceans and Coasts Spatial Plan.
threats e.g. increased frequency and energy of storms.
• Increasingly variable weather and climate. South Africa is not in a position to halt these threats but it can position itself to understand better and manage their impacts (e.g. early warning systems). International and national trends show population migration to the coastal areas. Forty percent of the South African population resides in coastal areas. While the majority of South African oceans and coasts are relatively pristine, a few areas show biodiversity loss, marine pollution and inappropriate development. Ninety percent of South Africa’s exports are moved by maritime transport. In addition, there is a high volume of global tanker traffic passing around South Africa’s coastline. This makes South Africa’s coasts, coastal populations and investments vulnerable.
Future in spatial planning Spatial Planning at a national scale is required to minimise the potential threats arising from oceans, coastal and climatic processes, while maximising the opportunities presented by the oceans and coasts. Several maritime countries are exploring novel approaches to sustainable use and conservation of the oceans. This is evidenced by a rush in the development of integrated oceans and coastal planning across the world. Oceans and coasts propose a new chapter to be included focusing on oceans and coasts environmental planning. A pro-
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ThERE IS mORE TO PRINT ThaN INk. There is little doubt that the number of consumers making greener choices has multiplied. Consequently, there is growing pressure on companies to select environmentally responsible suppliers to produce their products. Paarl Media has taken the industry lead, proactively developing stringent environmental policies to limit the impact on our natural resources. Our commitment is reflected in an investment of more than R100 million in environmentally responsible practices to ensure the lowest possible impact on our natural resources without compromising on the quality of printing.
REDUCING YOUR CARBON FOOTPRINT • National network to ensure efficient delivery. • Digital workflow, including digital proofing. • Start-up paper waste reduced on sheetfed and heatset web offset presses. • A full in-house service from pre-press to finishing and despatch reduces transport requirements. • Bulk ink storage and deliveries with pump inking systems to all presses decreases wastage, as well as reduces transport requirements and impact on landfills. • Low energy consumption with advanced automation and high efficiency.
SUSTAINABLE PAPER OPTIONS • First African printer with FSC™ (Forest Stewardship Council™) CoC (Chain of Custody) certification*, an independent international verification that the products printed can be traced back from their point of origin to responsible wellmanaged forestry, controlled and recycled sources. • Local and international range of environmentally friendly paper stock from trusted sources. • New sheetfed presses include technology which reduces paper usage per press by approximately 750 000 sheets per year, equivalent to the conservation of approximately 1 040 trees per year per press.
ELIMINATING HARMFUL EMISSIONS • Regenerative Thermal Oxidisers on all heatset web offset presses eliminate harmful emissions in line with international standards. Energy recovered during the process is re-utilised in the drying section, thereby vastly reducing gas energy consumption. • All web offset printing is alcohol free. • Volatile organic compound free, vegetable-based inks used on sheetfed presses. • The energy efficient Kongskilde and Höcker system ensures 100% dust free air is released into the environment.
RECYCLING • All waste paper recycled using sophisticated baling facilities at plants. • Used gravure copper skins from engraved cylinders recycled. • Web and sheetfed plates are recycled. • The gravure ink solvent, Toluene, is recovered and sold back to ink manufacturers for re-use.
wITh PaaRL mEdIa The Paarl Media printing responsibly logo is a symbol of our commitment to environmentally sustainable practices. It can be applied to all products printed with the Paarl Media Group, to demonstrate to your clients that you are printing responsibly. Tel: +27 21 550 2500 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org www.paarlmedia.co.za * Not currently available at Paarl Media KZN and Paarl Coldset Pietermaritzburg
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NWRS Advert 297x240HR.pdf
NWRS-2 gives South Africans across the spectrum a say on how water resources should be managed. Currently, our country is experiencing significant water quality challenges. Water leaks and a lack of management and technical skills are costing the country millions of rands and this has a negative effect on the economy. NWRS-2 addresses concerns that the socio-economic growth in South Africa could be restricted if water security, water quality and associated water management are not resolved adequately. Itâ€™s therefore, incumbent upon us as South Africans to take ownership of our water resources by debating the current policies in public forums over the next three months. Officials of the Department of Water Affairs will visit every part of our country where theyâ€™ll convene public meetings to discuss NRWS-2. Your opinion and ideas in these meetings will be noted and considered for inclusion in the final draft of this dynamic document. The provincial and local workshops will culminate in an historic water indaba that will produce a milestone document on water management in South Africa. Mrs Edna Molewa, MP Minister of Water and Environmental Affairs
The draft NATIONAL WATER RESOURCE STRATEGY has been gazetted for puplic comments and inputs. To register your inputs log on to www.dwa.gov.za
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J O H A N N E S B U RG 1 0 Y E A R S : T H E D E PA RT M E N T O F WAT E R A F F A I R S
The Road from Johannesburg – Some (Water) for All There has been increasing collaboration in compliance and enforcement between the newly realigned DEA and DWA, especially at the provincial and local levels, as well as ongoing criminal investigations.
The National Water Resource Strategy II South Africa is a water scarce country with a highly variable climate – a situation that will be exacerbated by the effects of climate change (46). The required response to climate change consists of a suite of approaches, measures and actions, ranging from research to planning and implementation, to mitigation, as well as to reducing impacts through effective adaptation to the expected changes. The climate change SOUTH AFRICA IS A WATER STRESSED COUNTRY, AND THUS
strategy provides an integrated framework for the response to
POLLUTION OF THE LIMITED FRESHWATER RESOURCES IS
minimise the overall detrimental impact of climate change and
A PRIORITY CONCERN FOR SOUTH AFRICA. The problem is
to maximise any beneficial impact.
compounded by activities including intensive mining which makes relatively little use of recycled water while using about
60% of the available water in South Africa.
The climate change strategy, as reflected in the NWRS 1,
Acid mine drainage from operational and abandoned coal
acknowledged that climate change should be addressed, but
and gold mines such as in the Highveld and Witwatersrand is a
advocated a balanced approach between preparedness and
particular threat to surface and groundwater quality, as well as
overreaction. The situation was to be carefully monitored in
ecosystem health. Furthermore, almost 50% of South Africa’s
un-impacted benchmark catchments and assessed for climate-
water is used for agriculture, with about 1.3 million hectares
change response measures with each review of the NWRS. Since then, consciousness of the seriousness of climate
under irrigation, contributing to changes in water quality. Other influences from agriculture are from stock production
change increased, demanding a more proactive and
and processing of products, fertiliser run-off from fields and
committed response to its potential impact. Through
pesticides that enter into water, air or soils.
initiatives such as Towards a Climate Change Response
To minimise the risk of water pollution, municipal landfill
Strategy for the Water Sector (47) and the Water Resource
sites are now constructed with measures including liners, and
Classification System, DWA positioned itself more
careful sifting away from surface and groundwater sources.
purposefully to meet the challenge of climate change
All the commercial hazardous waste disposal sites in South
adaptation. The development of a climate change response for the
Africa are now being controlled via permits, and a programme for the remediation of contaminated land is currently
water sector is a requirement of the White Paper on the
underway under the leadership of the DWA.
National Climate Change Response (46).
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â€œSouth Africa, as a signatory to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), has to fulfil certain obligations which include amongst others promoting and cooperating in education, training and public awareness related to climate change.â€?
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WASTE AND SUSTAINABLE LIVELIHOODS The Constitution of South Africa, 1996 (the Constitution) provides the foundation for environmental regulation and policy in South Africa. The right to environmental protection and to live in an environment that is not harmful to health or well-being is set out in the Bill of Rights (Section 24 of Chapter 2). This fundamental right underpins environmental policy and law, in particular, the framework environmental legislation established by the National Environmental Management Act, 1998 (Act 107 of 1998) (NEMA). This NWMS seeks a common platform for action between stakeholders to systematically improve waste management in South Africa. The country is faced with a rapidly growing, urbanisation and consumerist population, but our environment has a finite ability to absorb solid and liquid waste. Through the countryâ€™s commitment to sustainable development, South Africa aims to balance the broader economic and social challenges of a developing and unequal society while protecting our environmental resources. There is a need to eliminate the unnecessary use of raw materials and the need to support sustainable product design, resource efficiency and waste prevention. The NWMS is a legislative requirement of the National Environmental Management: Waste Act, 2008 (Act 59 of 2008),
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hereafter referred to as the â€œWaste Actâ€?. The purpose of the
2. The Basel Convention, acceded to by South Africa in 1994,
NWMS is to achieve the objectives of the Waste Act, which
addresses the need to control the trans boundary
defines its scope and specifies its contents. Organs of state
movement of hazardous wastes and their disposal, setting
and affected persons are obliged to give effect to the NWMS.
out the categorisation of hazardous waste and the policies
The Waste Act creates a general duty for waste holders
between member countries.
to avoid generating waste and, failing that, to minimise
3. The Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic
the amount and the toxicity of the waste generated.
Pollutants (POPs), to which South Africa became a
Thereafter, they are expected to reuse, recycle or recover
signatory in 2001 and ratified in 2002, requires that member
waste. Various instruments in the Act give effect to this duty
countries phase out POPs and prevent their imports or
of care, including norms and standards, integrated waste
management plans, industry waste management plans,
4. The Montreal Protocol, to which South Africa became
extended producer responsibility, and priority wastes.
a signatory in 1990 and ratified subsequent amendments,
phases out the production of certain substances and so
environmental policy and depends in part on industrial policy
protects the ozone layer.
and supporting economic instruments. Government and
The South African government has committed to give effect to
industry will coordinate their actions in a waste minimisation
the provisions of the international conventions to which the
programme that knits together the different policy strands
country has acceded.
Promoting waste minimisation goes beyond the remit of
and that identifies the goods and services to which the provisions can feasibly apply.
Meeting our International Obligations
Finding Wealth in Waste Effective waste management has important economic and social impacts in addition to environmental benefits. The waste management sector is an important part of the
Various international agreements to which South Africa
emerging green economy, and a well regulated, formalised
has acceded relate to waste management. A number of
waste sector will improve the efficiency of the overall
non-binding conventions and protocols are also relevant
to waste management, while the modern system of global
In line with the Green Economy Plan, measures will be
environmental governance is to a large degree a consequence
implemented to strengthen and expand the waste economy
of the Rio Earth Summit 1992 and Agenda 21, which set in
so that it can generate and sustain jobs as well as formalise
motion a series of multilateral environmental agreements
existing jobs in the waste economy. Growing the waste
(MEAs). In relation to hazardous substances and waste, four
management sector will be primarily achieved through:
principal conventions apply: 1. The Rotterdam Convention, acceded to by South Africa in
1. Using labour intensive methods to extend domestic
2002, promotes and enforces transparency in the
waste collection services to unserviced communities
importation of hazardous chemicals.
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Buyisa-e-Bag Buyisa-e-Bag was a Section 21 entity established by the South African Government in 2006 as a result of the plastic levy legislation which propelled transformation in the country’s plastic industry. Buyisa-e-Bag, a direct translation from isiZulu literally means “bring back a bag”, had a mandate to enhance and create opportunities for job creation, poverty alleviation and youth
2. Extending and formalising jobs in the various stages of
the recycling value chain, including collection, sorting,
reuse and repair, product recovery, processing and
manufacturing of recyclable materials.
As the only South African recycling initiative, Buyisa-e-Bag, was at the forefront of educating communities about the imperative of waste avoidance, reduce, reuse and recycling and the benefits such as wealth creation through efforts that not only encourage economic participation from previously disadvantaged individuals in the rural and peri-urban areas but also worked
3. Developing new markets for recycling of wastes. Job creation initiatives in the waste sector will be supported by the R9-billion jobs fund, as well as investments by development finance institutions. Government will provide financial and non-financial support to SMEs and cooperatives in the waste sector through Khula, the South African Micro-
towards nature preservation and a green, healthy
Finance Apex Fund and the IDC’s small business fund.
environment that could survive for future
Government is considering merging these three agencies’
services to maximise administrative efficiency.
During its tenure, Buyisa-e-Bag, created creating efforts, Buy-Back Recycling Centres were
Coordination is Key in Planning for Waste
established in all eight provinces for this business
Among others, backlogs in the waste collection services,
recovery initiative that aimed to make recycling
aging vehicles and equipment, growing human settlements
accessible to communities and collectors of
and decreasing airspace in landfills are stark challenges that
recyclables of used packaging materials such as
require a coordinated approach by each sphere of government.
plastics, used beverage cans, paper and glass.
Integrated waste management plans (IWMPs) are the principal
over 58 000 direct and indirect jobs. In its job
In the youth empowerment initiative programme, 270 youth were engaged nationally and 15 000 people participated in clean-up campaigns with over 18 000 refuse bags of waste collected. In the educational partnership programme, 336 schools received financial
tool to achieve this coordination. Integrated waste management planning at each level of government will align and integrate the actions of national, provincial and local government. The IWMPs will set targets and describe plans for the three tiers of government and give practical effect to the policies and instruments set out in this NWMS. IWMPs will importantly link to mainstream budgeting
benefits from their participation in Buyisa-e-
and resource allocation, and to systems for performance
Bag’s awareness and educational initiatives. An
monitoring and reporting.
average number of learners per school are 800 and
To integrate waste services within broader municipal
therefore a total of 268 800 individual learners
plans, municipalities need to amend their Integrated
were positively impacted.
Development Plans (IDPs) to take account of the provisions
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in the IWMP. To align the preparation of IWMPs with the local
the infrastructure required to provide the services. DEA
government IDP planning cycle (linked to local elections
will provide updated tariff setting guidelines, 37 of which
every five years), municipalities will aim to complete their
include volumetric charging for waste service tariffs and the
IWMPs during 2012.
establishment of revenue collection systems. Tariff increases will be appropriately phased in so
These IWMPs can then inform the new IDPs to be adopted within one year of the 2011 local government
that consumers and businesses can manage their impact.
elections. Waste planning requires accurate information on
Increasing user charges will take the number of indigent
waste flows. Comprehensive information on waste flows
households and local economic conditions into account.
from each waste management facility will be reported into the South African Waste Information System (SAWIS),
Polluters must pay
which will contribute to an accurate national waste balance.
While the Waste Act creates a comprehensive legal
The National Waste Information Regulations regulate the
framework for waste management, its provisions will be
reporting of waste information for the protection of the
meaningless without measures to monitor and, where
environment and the management of waste. By 2016, all
necessary, enforce compliance. Government cannot do
specified waste management facilities that are required
this alone. Business and civil society have a vital role to
to collect and report to the SAWIS are to have waste
play in creating a culture of compliance, and in reporting
instances of non-compliance. For its part, government will systematically monitor compliance with the Waste Act,
which includes regulations published in terms of the Act,
Waste management is an under-provided basic service and
licences, industry waste management plans and integrated
inadequate refuse removal is a negative externality that
waste management plans.
will require internal and external sources of revenue to
Compliance monitoring is supported by a range of
compensate. The National Policy for the Provision of Basic
reporting provisions contained in the Waste Act. In addition
Refuse Removal Services to Indigent Households provides
to compliance, reports for waste management licences and
guidance on financing mechanisms and implementation
norms and standards, the Act has provisions for annual
strategies to budget for basic refuse removal from indigent
performance reports on the implementation of provincial
households. Revenue for these services comes from internal
and local Integrated Waste Management Plans. Industry
sources (cross-subsidies within the municipality) and
Waste Management Plans are subject to review at intervals
external sources (transfers from the national fiscus through
to be determined by the authority that mandated the plan.
the Equitable Share Grant and the Municipal Infrastructure
Furthermore, Environmental Management Inspectors and
Waste Management Officers can request a Waste Impact
Cost recovery by means of the customerâ€™s municipal bill,
Report where they suspect a contravention of the Act,
which includes the billing for waste services, is essential
license conditions or exemption conditions. The existing
for a financially sustainable waste service. Municipalities
national hotline for waste-related environmental crimes, as
will structure the tariffs for waste services such that they
well as the whistle-blower provisions contained in NEMA
can fund the maintenance, renewal and expansion of
will augment the reporting mechanisms described above.
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â€œThe South African government is already working towards promoting coherence in the initiatives that are aimed at promoting sustainable consumption and production. The country will be moving into the implementation phase of the green economy initiatives as one of the tools to achieving sustainable development.â€?
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Our common future: RIO+20 The Rio+20 Conference on Sustainable Development took place in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil from 20 to 22 June 2012 with the key outcome for South Africa being the recognition of green economy policies as a viable tool for advancing sustainable development and poverty eradication.
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The aims of the conference were to secure a renewed political commitment to sustainable development, assessing the progress and implementation gaps in meeting already agreed upon commitments, as well as addressing new and emerging challenges. The conference was convened under two overarching themes:
On 2 July 2012, the Minister for Environmental Affairs, Edna Molewa, made the following statement on the outcomes of Rio+20 Sustainable Development Conference: “The South African government is gratified with the outcomes of the Rio+20 United Nations Conference: on Sustainable Development and is ready to engage actively on proposed Sustainable Development Financing Strategy. It viewed the Rio+20 conference to be a critical milestone in the Global Sustainable Development regime, especially on key elements that included an agreement on the need to establish a Sustainable Development Council and General Assembly level and to upgrade the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) to become the authoritative voice on environmental governance with the view to promote coherence in the coordination of the environment leg of sustainable development. The conference also pronounced a process geared towards developing a set of sustainable development goals in line with the post 2015 development agenda.
“A green economy within the context of sustainable development” and “Poverty reduction and Institutional framework for sustainable development.”
Another pronouncement the department is pleased about is the establishment of a sustainable development finance mechanism and that a clear process towards such a mechanism has been defined. Furthermore, the global community has agreed on the establishment of a ‘High-Level Political Forum’ that will build on the functions of the Commission on Sustainable Development. This decision is aimed at strengthening the integration of the three pillars of sustainable development at a global level and promotes effective implementation of the sustainable development agenda.
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Our Government is gratified regarding the adoption
options to facilitate the mobilisation of resources and
of the Global Framework for Sustainable Consumption
their effective use in achieving sustainable development
and Production and the recognition of the importance of
objectives,” and calls for “a broad consultation with
a multilateral instrument that will be geared at managing
relevant international and regional financial institutions
marine biodiversity beyond national borders. South Africa
and other relevant stakeholders” to undertake this work.
was the lead voice in calling for the recognition of the
While several positive funding initiatives and
strategic role played by marine resources for sustainable
mechanisms are underway, we welcome the call for greater
coherence and coordination to support sustainable
The South African government is already working
development. We wish to highlight particularly the need
towards promoting coherence in the initiatives that
to identify challenges that currently inhibit sustained
are aimed at promoting sustainable consumption
finance for sustainable development by developing
and production. The country will be moving into the
particularly least developed countries. Left unaddressed,
implementation phase of the green economy initiatives
there is the unfortunate risk that the growing discourse
as one of the tools to achieving sustainable development.
on financing the green economy would be decoupled
To this effect, an acknowledgement of sustainability
from creating enabling financial “ecosystems” that
reporting for publicly listed companies and institutions
mainstream sustainable development finance in support
is also seen as a significant milestone taken at Rio +20
of the delivery of the goals committed to at Rio+20.
and the South African government will provide the
Creating an equitable and inclusive sustainable
necessary enabling framework for corporate sustainability
development finance landscape is a critical component of
performance and reporting.
creating the future we want. Therefore, the South African
South Africa has extended an invitation to its
government will lead a member-states engagement
fellow member states to come together to contribute
during the fourth quarter of 2012 to reflect on the critical
to the process created under the Finance “Means of
elements to activate work towards the development of a
Implementation” in the Rio+20 agreements. The
Sustainable Development Financing strategy to facilitate
process provides for the launch of an intergovernmental
mobilisation of resources and their effective use in
process to propose options on an effective Sustainable
achieving sustainable development objectives.
Development Financing Strategy to be considered by the UN General Assembly by 2014. This process will “assess financing needs, consider
Therefore, the government is proud to announce that the outcomes of the Rio +20 conference are in line with the national developmental interests and that the
the effectiveness, consistency and synergies of existing
commitments reached advance the decisions taken at the
instruments and frameworks, and evaluate additional
World Summit on Sustainable Development (WSSD) held
initiatives, with a view to prepare a report proposing
in Johannesburg in 2002.
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Learning by doing... A SYNTHESIS REPORT ON PROGRESS TOWARDS JPOI TARGETS The South African Department of Environmental Affairs commissioned the development of the synthesis country report to assess progress made towards the implementation of the JPOI targets in June 2012. The report highlights the progress made in the implementation of the sustainable development agenda, JPOI targets and thematic issues covered by the CSD programme of work, lessons learnt and best practices, relevant trends, constraints, challenges, emerging issues and recommendations since Rio in 1992. In the long term, this report will be used as a planning tool for expeditious implementation of the sustainable development agenda in South Africa. OVERVIEW The report explains the content of the JPOI and its guiding principles it then discusses the progress made under defined sections. These are: 1. Poverty eradication 2. Changing unsustainable patterns of consumption and production 3. Protecting and managing the natural resource base of economic and social development 4. Mining, minerals and metals 5. Sustainable development in a globalising world 6. Health and sustainable development 7. Sustainable development for Africa 8. Means of implementation of the JPOI POVERTY ERADICATION Poverty is understood as deficiency in an individual‘s socio-economic capabilities. Its manifestations include factors such as income, access to basic services, access to assets, information, social networks or social capital. This broad approach to poverty allows for engagement with the reality of poverty and the combination of things that should be done to deal with it. Poverty eradication has been a key focus of South Africa‘s agenda since the advent of the democracy in 1994. Economic growth combined
with a series of redistributive measures carried out by the government has contributed to a decline in absolute poverty, meaning people living under $2.50 per day. LESSONS LEARNED AND BEST PRACTICES In 2005, the Public Service Commission initiated a research process in which all government projects were compiled into a single database, thus providing a statistical overview of most of the poverty reduction initiatives that make up the country‘s Poverty Reduction Programme. This integrated database comprised 40 programmes and almost 30 000 projects, and categorised programmes as following in four major categories, namely Expanded Public Works Programme (EPWP), land redistribution, income generating projects and individual services. The findings of this research highlight a number of lessons and best practices. South African poverty-reduction strategy has proven to be innovative in its approaches to empowering disadvantaged communities. These innovative initiatives create opportunities through existing economic activities covering mining, tourism and catchment management amongst others. Of significance is the Working for Water Programme, aimed at the removal of alien invasive plants, which runs over 300 projects in all nine provinces. It has generated work opportunities and skills training of approximately 18 000 jobs per annum, predominantly rural, marginalised women. The programmes saw tremendous growth in budget allocation from its initial R25-million in 1995/6 to R442-million in 2003/4. The project works in partnership with a number of organisations including the Planned Parenthood Association of South Africa, organisations dealing with young ex-offenders and the Department of Welfare to assist with setting up of crèches. It enjoys sustained political support for its job creation efforts and fight against poverty. The large-scale rural poverty alleviation and job creation initiative has involved partnerships between government departments including the DEA, DAFF and the dti, provincial departments of agriculture, conservation and environment, research foundations and private companies.
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CHANGING UNSUSTAINABLE PATTERNS OF CONSUMPTION AND PRODUCTION BACKGROUND The Global Outlook on SCP Policies Report (2011) features the policy contributions made by countries, including South Africa, in support of SCP. South Africa has actively participated in a number of international processes that aim at furthering SCP objectives globally, regionally and nationally. South Africa has participated on bilateral programmes with international cooperation partners to create awareness, build institutional capacity and demonstrate the benefits of cleaner production in projects in the fishing, metal finishing and textile industry sectors. South Africa was able to profile the global and African SCP drive towards green building during the 2010 FIFA Soccer World Cup and the COP17 Conference held in Durban in 2011. LESSONS LEARNED AND BEST PRACTICES The implementation of initiatives aimed at promoting SCP has highlighted a series of lessons: It has taken time for government to institute economic instruments to promote SCP activities, which have been taken in response to the rising cost resources, decline in quality and challenges associated with managing the disposal and treatment of waste. The energy crisis in South Africa has resulted in a massive promotion of energy efficiency practices and of investment in renewable energy technologies. Activities contributing to the SCP in South Africa have led to a host of best practices especially as it relates to energy efficiency, water conservation, waste management, social responsible investment and consumer awareness. Some of these include: • Water conservation: In an effort to reducewater losses and wastage, the City of Cape Town has started installing water management devices in high water consumption areas that offer real benefits for the city’s poorer citizens. The water management device is a meter, which replaces the existing meter and it is programmed to dispense a pre-agreed amount of water each day. This amount can be set to just the free 6Kl (200 litres/day) that indigent households qualify for or to any amount the household can afford to pay. • Waste management and minimisation: During the 2010 FIFA World Cup, the City of Johannesburg’s waste-management agency, Pikitup, led
the way towards sustainable waste management through its Clean City campaign to encourage residents and businesses to change their behaviour regarding waste. Integrated water resources management: The 2004 National Water Resource Strategy set out several mechanisms to manage South Africa’s water resources in an integrated manner. The proposed mechanisms are broadly divided into ‘resource’ and ‘source directed’ controls and focus on the overall health or condition of an aquatic ecosystem that provides the abstracted water, as well as user requirements. The government uses water use licensing (through regulation), water use associations, water conservation and demand management (benchmarking of efficient water use, sector specific plans and control of invasive alien plants) and water pricing (water use charges, combined with financial assistance) as a means to control the use of water at source.
Protecting and managing the natural resource base of economic and social development This section provides an outline of progress made in relation to the protection and management of the natural resource base upon which economic and social development are dependent. It is divided into sections according to the following groupings of targets: • Biodiversity, protection of ecosystems and sustainable forest management • Integrated water resources management and efficiency • Oceans, seas, islands, coastal areas and fisheries • Vulnerability, risk assessment and disaster management • Climate change • Air pollution, acid deposition and ozone depletion • Agriculture, food security, land rights and land degradation • Sustainable tourism development BIODIVERSITY, PROTECTION OF ECOSYSTEMS AND SUSTAINABLE FOREST MANAGEMENT One of the three pillars of sustainable development is environmental protection, which in turn includes the avoidance and minimisation of damage to ecosystems and other natural resources. Cumulative impacts from human activities are causing increasing damage to the integrity of ecosystems and the biodiversity, which they support. The necessity of keeping the country’s biodiversity intact is a vital prerequisite for South Africa’s economic growth and sustainable development, due to the importance of the
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ecosystem services provided. More determined focus on conservation is now still required to ensure the wellbeing of South African society through such efforts as counteracting the effects of global warming, sustainable patterns of consumption and production, as well as through integrated catchment management and erosion control. BEST PRACTICES • The Department of Environmental Affairs’ bioregional planning approach to conservation and protected area management is based on spatial conservation assessment of regions, conservation priorities, opportunities and constraints. Its multi-sectoral partnership programmes aim to link biodiversity conservation with socio-economic development. Programmes include Cape Action for People and the Environment (CAPE); The Succulent Karoo Ecosystem Programme (SKEP); the Subtropical Thicket Ecosystem Planning Programme (STEP); Wild Coast Conservation and Sustainable Development Programme; Maloti-Drakensberg Transfrontier Project; National Grasslands Biodiversity Programme; and St Lucia World Heritage Site. • Through the DEA and SANParks, the establishment, development and management of transfrontier parks and transfrontier conservation areas in southern Africa. Authorities responsible for the respective areas formally agree to manage the areas as one integrated unit according to a streamlined management plan. The authorities also undertake to remove all human barriers within the transfrontier park so that animals can roam freely. Besides promoting conservation, transfrontier conservation areas and parks promote regional peace, cooperation and socioeconomic development. Transfrontier Parks established are: • Kgalagadi Transfrontier Park between Botswana and South Africa via a bilateral agreement signed in 1999; • Limpopo–Shashe Transfrontier Conservation Area between Zimbabwe, Botswana and South Africa; • Ai-Ais/Richtersveld Transfrontier Conservation Park between Namibia and South Africa, signed in 2003; • Maloti–Drakensberg Transfrontier Conservation Area for which Lesotho and South Africa signed a bilateral memorandum of understanding in 2001; • Lubombo Transfrontier Conservation Area between South Africa, Mozambique and Swaziland; • Great Limpopo Transfrontier Park and Resource Area for
which a joint agreement was signed in 2002 between South Africa, Zimbabwe and Mozambique. • The DEA Environmental Indicator’s Database, which houses the environmental indicators including the biodiversity and ecosystems-related targets covering aspects including area planted under GMOs and number of GMOs commercially released; catches (harvesting) of marine species; ecosystem status and habitat loss; threat and protection status of vegetation types per biome; and threatened species Projects include: • Working for Water which through over 300 projects has tackled invasive alien species covering over 1 million hectares throughout South Africa, while improving water yields in catchments and creating job opportunities. The programme has been globally recognised as one of the best environmental conservation initiatives on the continent. Work opportunities and some training has been given to about 20 000 people per annum, mostly the poor and marginalised. The establishment of the Secretariat for the Global Invasive Species Programme within South Africa has given additional impetus to the initiative. • The Working on Fire programme, which is designed to limit the impact of large veld fires on the environment and on the poor communities, exposed to them. Its R20-million annual budget from Working for Water is supplemented by significant support from the private sector. • The Working for Wetlands programme rehabilitates wetlands, thus creating employment and training employment opportunities. A joint initiative of DEA, DAFF and DWA, it is housed within SANBI and was established in 2000 to rehabilitate wetlands located throughout the country. INTEGRATED WATER RESOURCES MANAGEMENT AND EFFICIENCY Water resources and the ecosystems support form a vital component of the natural resource pillar supporting sustainable development. In line with the JPOI, South Africa has a groundbreaking legislative, policy and regulatory framework, which subscribes to protecting and managing natural water resources and associated ecosystems upon which economic and social development depend. INNOVATIVE APPROACHES AND BEST PRACTICES Innovations in integrated water management in South Africa in line with JPOI targets include the following:
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• Drinking water and wastewater quality: As water sector regulator, in 2008 the DWA introduced the flagship Blue and Green Drop Certification Programmes through an incentive-based regulation system for improvement in drinking water (Blue Drop) and wastewater (Green Drop) quality. According to the 2012 Blue Drop Annual Report, to attain the Blue Drop, municipalities must achieve 95% for the performance requirements including water safety planning, process management and control, drinking water quality compliance, management accountability and local regulation. The 2011 Green Drop Annual report notes that to attain Green Drop status requires 90% measured against stringent criteria including design capacity of the plant, operational flow, number of non-compliances of effluent quality and compliance with technical skills. Trained teams of assessors who also provide regulatory advice to municipalities conduct evaluations. The detailed annual reports have been produced since 2009 covering all municipalities in South Africa. • Desalination: South Africa’s biggest desalination plant has been commissioned in the Western Cape at Mossel Bay. This severely water-restricted area experiences recurrent drought in the summer months. Industrial development and growth in the local population have placed severe pressures on available water resources. The plant has a capacity of 15 million mega litres per day, with output currently being 5 mega litres per day, and is primarily used in a petrochemical plant. Brine generated is required to comply with DWA and DEA requirements, and the municipality is a leader in treatment of the waste having achieved both Green and Blue Drop status. • Water Allocation Reform (WAR). This programme uses economic development to redress issues including racial and gender inequalities regarding water-use among water-users, and is implemented through structures including provincial and local government through their provincial growth and development plans and IDPs. VULNERABILITY, RISK ASSESSMENT AND DISASTER MANAGEMENT Appropriate identification and management of vulnerability, risk and disasters is essential for ensuring a safer world in the 21st century. An integrated, multi-hazard and inclusive approach is essential for implementation of the JPOI and Agenda 21. LESSONS LEARNED • Combating desertification and drought: Communities
need to be involved in the monitoring of resource status, thereby promoting local level resource management and training is required to ensure communities are implementing the best land practise relevant to their situation. This is important to ensuring effective land use management at local levels. • Notification of pending natural disasters: It is essential that there is timeous and widespread notification regarding pending drought, or other disasters such as potential floods. The Disaster Management Act requires the Minister of Agriculture or provincial ministers to place a notice in the Gazette, thereby declaring a state of disaster to ensure coordinated assistance. • Maintaining and upgrading critical infrastructure: While local governments are responsible for critical infrastructure such as water, drainage, sanitation and hospitals, investments to make this infrastructure resilient to disaster risks are sometimes neglected or deterred. • The South African Land Degradation Assessment in Drylands project was launched during a 1st Stakeholder Workshop held at Agricultural Research Council- Institute for Soil, Climate and Water (ARC-ISCW in Pretoria on 13-14 March 2007. LADA SA forms part of a global LADA programme, funded by the GEF and implemented by UNEP. The FAO is executing the programme and in South Africa, one of six pilot countries participating, DAFF is the National Coordinator and ARC-ISCW the implementing agency. • The South African Weather Service has established a service platform for users that allows them to receive early warning notifications via SMS of impending unusual weather systems, events and storms. In a South African context where there is variable access to communications, cellular technology is invaluable. • Spill technology and pollution control is provided by the private sector as part of its response and rehabilitation procedures. Agreements between companies and local authorities provide response strategies and plans to emergencies relevant to incidents and spills. Municipalities, in partnership with DEA and expertise in the private sector, deal with incidents such as large-scale petrochemical spills. AIR POLLUTION, ACID DEPOSITION AND OZONE DEPLETION • The role that the atmosphere plays insupporting life including through protection from harmful solar radiation is under threat from anthropogenic sources of pollution
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including industrialsation, urban growth, population growth and unsustainable consumption and production. Pollutants also undergo chemical transformation in the atmosphere.
BEST PRACTICE • “Basa Njengo Magogo” is a Zulu phrase meaning, “make your fire like the old lady.” Fires typically form the centre of household activities amongst low-income households in South Africa and are used for cooking, water and space heat- ing. Ease of availability of coal means that it is frequently the chosen fuel resulting in high levels of indoor and outdoor air pollution. This system’s low-smoke fire lighting method improves ignition of the underlying coals and reduces emission of smoke. Improved air quality lessens the respiratory hazards associated with coal burning. It is also being rolled out through the Clean Fires Campaign, launched to raise awareness amongst communities living in the Vaal Triangle and Highveld priority areas that use coal fires for cooking and space heating about the impacts of pollution from these fuels. • The 1st Generation Governance Best Practice Manual Project to develop a manual to assist Licensing Authorities in regu- lating a selected priority ‘problem’ industrial sector in de- velopment and is due to be released in March 2013. This is anticipated to provide key support to decision-makers in ad vancing implementation of air quality standards. • Vaal Environmental Justice Alliance (VEJA) is an NGO within the Vaal Triangle Priority Area, which has been working with the assistance of the Bench Marks Foundation to establish community monitoring groups to observe and record environmental incidences, to take photographs and to report them to the relevant structures including the Department of Environmental Affairs’ Sub-directorate: Priority Area Implementation. • In response to air quality issues arising from fish processing plants, action has been taken by the DEA in St Helena Bay in the Western Cape. It initiated a human health risk assessment, which included measurements of gases in four fish processing plants. The assessment included those compounds known to be emitted by the fish industry that are also known to be toxic at certain concentration levels, namely hydrogen sulphide, trimethlyamine and formaldehyde. AGRICULTURE, FOOD SECURITY, LAND RIGHTS AND LAND DEGRADATION • Agricultural and land management issues feature
prominently in South Africa, with a large proportion of South Africans relying on agriculture for food, income and employment. Agriculture is a major source of exports and as such is the focus of policy and programmes to improve rural livelihoods and to ensure food security.
Lessons learned on degradation of the land include: • Protection of sensitive natural systems: Protection of the natural resource base needs to take account of systems at risk, including climate change. Measures should include the implementation of incentives, strategic partnerships and alternative conservation financing mechanisms (such as biodiversity stewardship, co-management and contractual park arrangements) to avoid the degradation key environments. • Local-level monitoring: Community buy-in to land conservation has been encouraged through such initiatives as the Sustainable Land use Management Assessments undertaken through the Land Degradation Assessments in Drylands Project. This has helped to bring about improvement in land conservation. • Assistance to aspirant farmers: There is a need for mechanism to assist white commercial farmers and the agricultural industry to facilitate success of aspirant black farmers through mentorship, access to markets, access to preferential procurement and skills transfer. • Guidelines for the ecological best practice of livestock production, prepared in 2009 for the Namaqua District in the Karoo by the Karoo Consortium in order to assist farmers in appropriate stacking rates and land management practices. The guideline also addresses suitable veld, animal health, wildlife and conservation management. • AGIS, a comprehensive agricultural geo-referenced information system that comprises dynamic maps based on metadata of aspects including climate, soil types, vegetation and rainfall. IT also features risks and hazards, as well as land cover and land use. This resource can assist decision-making that affects agricultural resources. The database covers the whole of South Africa. • Innovative business and biodiversity projects are currently underway in the Cape Floristic Region – involving creative partnerships between agricultural producers, industry associations, retailers, communities and conservationists, working together to conserve valuable biodiversity.
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SUSTAINABLE TOURISM DEVELOPMENT • South Africa benefits from a rich array of tourism attractions covering a variety of culture, biodiversity and landscapes but which could be vulnerable to unsustainable tourism. If conducted in a sustainable manner based on respect for cultural heritage, as well as non-consumptive and ecologically-sound practices, tourism has the potential to bring a wide range of benefits to communities and the country as a whole. BEST PRACTICES • Facilitation of research of international best practices for tourism growth and development by the NDT through its Research and Knowledge Management sub programme. • The Centre for Ecotourism at the Tshwane (Pretoria) University, which provides a wide-ranging service to the ecotourism industry in southern Africa. • The NGO FTTSA promotes sustainable tourism development through awareness raising, research and •
advocacy, capacity, building and by facilitating the world’s first tourism Fair Trade certification programme. FTTSA certifies tourism businesses based on criteria including fair wages and working conditions, fair purchasing, equitable distribution of benefits and respect for human rights, culture and protection of the environment. In 2010 FTTSA became the first sustainable tourism certification programme in the world to participate in the accreditation pilot project of the Tourism Sustainability Council (TSC). Promotion of responsible tourism by the City of Cape Town since 2002. In 2009 the City adopted the Responsible Tourism (RT) Policy and Action Plan to ensure that the city on its way towards being a truly responsible destination.
MINING, MINERALS AND METALS A key advancement towards a policy shift in the direction of sustainable development was made following the WSSD. An interrelated shift in South African Mineral law over the last decade has been the recognition of the state as the custodian of the natural resources of the country has brought South Africa in line with other major mineral producing countries in the world. It has also resulted in the freeing up of unused and privately owned mineral rights, which were effectively sterilised. Environmental sustainability of the mining industry
has been promoted, as this relates to legislation. Environmental Management issues in the mining sector of South Africa are regulated by the Department of Minerals and Energy through the legislation called Minerals and Petroleum Resources Development Act (MPRDA). The Act and its regulations marked a shift in the consciousness about the environmental impact management for mining activities and a holistic approach towards mine environmental management, adopting the cradle-tograve approach in prospecting and mining activities whilst ensuring a full internalisation of economic, social and environmental costs in order to achieve sustainable development of South Africa’s mineral resources. Through the enforcement of the environmental requirements in terms of the MPRDA, there has been significant progress in terms of ensuring environmental best practices in the mining industry and also in terms of making sure that the mining industry moves towards achieving environmental sustainability. BEST PRACTICE EMalahleni Water Treatment Plant, a joint venture between Anglo Coal South Africa and BHP Billiton Energy Coal South Africa (BECSA) that treats 23 mega litres of mine water from three operational coalmines and one defunct coal mine. Eighteen mega litres are pumped to the eMalahleni Municipality constituting 20% of its daily water requirements and of the remaining water, some pumped to surrounding mines for use in mining activities and coal processing, alleviating the demand on the municipality and an empowerment company in the local bottled water market bottles a small proportion. The construction of the plant created 650-700 temporary jobs and the operation of the plant has created 40 permanent jobs, 91% of which are people from the local area. The plant aims to be a zerowaste facility, with significant investment being made into R&D projects, focuses on 100% use of the by-products from the treatment plant. The plant won two categories of the Mail & Guardian’s Greening the Future Awards (innovative environmental strategies that improve business performance and water care) and the sustainability category of Nedbank Capital’s Green Mining Awards. SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN A GLOBALISING WORLD South Africa re-entered the to global economy in the early 1990s at the time when globalisation was beginning to gain momentum. Apart from coping with the forces
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of globalisation, the South African economy also has to manage its emerging market status. As indicated in the JPOI globalisation, this offers challenges and opportunities for sustainable development. BEST PRACTICES The successful hosting of the 2002 WSSD, 2010 Soccer World Cup and the COP17 provided a platform for South Africa to demonstrate its capabilities to the world by showcasing South African investment opportunities and products. Established in 2001 with the support of government, The Innovation Hub is a science and technology park that aims to increase the wealth of society by promoting the culture of innovation and the competitiveness of its associated businesses and knowledge-based institutions. For over 11 years, the Hub has supported the growth of innovative companies across sectors such as ICT, biosciences, green technologies and industrials. HEALTH AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT Environmental health services in South Africa are concerned with those aspects in the environment that constitute a health risk e.g. water quality, waste management, environmental pollution, noise, food safety, vector control, control of premises and chemical safety. Environmental Health Practitioners (EHP) are appointed under the National Health Act to ensure the prevention and elimination of environmental burden of diseases. Ensuring the linkages between sustainable development and health is being achieved through EHPs, as a member of the new primary health care structures of the district health system. BEST PRACTICES Promoting eco-health: The Environmental Health Practitioners and associated partners in the City of Johannesburg introduced a flagship project demonstrating the achievement of a shared value between human health and environmental vitality through an eco-health project. They have introduced owls as natural predators of rats to reduce the vector infestation. The rat problem in Johannesburg is a major challenge in overcrowded urbanised areas such as informal settlements.
MEANS OF IMPLEMENTATION OF THE JPOI South Africa, in the spirit of global partnership, has actively supported the implementation of Agenda 21, the Millennium Development Goals Declaration and the JPoI amongst others. Means of implementation include participation in international trade processes, technology development, transfer, dissemination, mobilisation of financial resources, and strengthening of cooperative frameworks and partnerships. GEF is the largest public funder of projects to improve the global environment. It is an independently operating financial organisation and provides grants for projects related to biodiversity, climate change, international waters, land degradation, the ozone layer and persistent organic pollutants. Since 1991, the GEF has achieved a strong record of accomplishment with developing countries and countries with economies in transition, providing $10.5-billion in grants and leveraging $51-billion in co -financing for over 2 700 projects in over 165 countries. Since inception in 2001, the GEF South African Small Grants Programme (SGP) has funded conservation of the environment, promotion of sustainable livelihoods interventions and empowerment of local communities. To achieve its objectives, the SGP SA works in partnership with various local and international stakeholders with interest in the environment and development of rural communities. The GEF also serves as financial mechanism for the following conventions: • Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) • United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) • Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) • UN Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD) • Although not linked formally to the Montreal Protocol on substances that deplete the ozone layer (MP), it supports implementation of the Protocol in countries with economies in transition. In support of DEA policy, GEF partnered with the United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) to fund the “Greening the COP17” held in Durban, South Africa in 2011. This was done through promotion of clean energy sources and by supporting targeted climate change awareness activities by decision-makers and the public. GEF (in partnership with UNEP) was further involved with supporting the greening of the 2010 FIFA World Cup held in South Africa.
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For the public, the awareness around the environment, climate change and sustainable development may die down, as popular events pass out of...
Published on Nov 5, 2012
For the public, the awareness around the environment, climate change and sustainable development may die down, as popular events pass out of...