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Disc la ime r All righ t s res erve d . N o p ar t of this p ub lication m ay b e rep rodu c e d, store d in a re tr ie va l syste m or tr a n sm itte d, in a n y f or m or by a n y m e a n s , e l e c t ro n i c , me c h a n i c a l , p h o t o c o p y i n g , reco rdin g o r ot her wise, without the p r ior wr itten consent of Top M e dia & C om m u n ic a tion s (P ty) L td Re g. N o. 2011/ 105655/ 07. Wh ile e ve r y c a re h a s b e e n t a k e n w h e n c o mp i l i n g t h is pu blicat io n , the p ub lisher s, ed itor and contr ib utor s a c c e pt n o re spon sibility f or a n y c on se qu e n c e s a r isin g f rom a n y e r ror s or om issions . I S B N: 9 7 8 - 0 - 6 2 0 - 6 0 5 8 7 - 8
CONTENTS CHAPTER ONE | C RAD L E O F T HE NAT I O N M es s a g e f ro m t h e E x e c u t i v e Ma y or 0 7 C re a t i n g a n e w l e g a c y 09 Th e j e we l o f Ga u t e n g 12 B ir th p l a c e o f t e c h n o l o g y 14 Polit i c a l st r u g g l e 16 K n ow y o u r st re e t h e ro e s 1 8 M ap o f Ts h wa n e 24 F ree d o m i n o u r l i f e t i me 26 Ec on o m i c Gro wt h 30 Un io n B u i l d i n g s: Ou r S e a t 34 Th e J a c a r a n d a Ci t y 36 F a s t f a c t s 39
CHAPTER TWO | 20 YEARS OF ACHIEVEMENTS In te g r a t e d p l a n n i n g 41 Ele c t r i c i t y 43 Wat e r a n d sa n i t a t i o n 46 H ous i n g 48 Tr ansp o r t i n f r a s t r u c t u re 5 2 Pa r k s a n d re c re a t i o n 53 Solid wa st e 56 In for ma t i o n & Co mmu n i c a t i o n s Te c hnology ( I CT)
Em e r g e n c y se r v i c e s 5 9 Pu b l i c t r a n sp o r t 60 En v i ro n m e n t 65 Ts h w a n e h o u se – R i s i n g l i k e a P hoe nix
CH AP TER THREE | KEY INV ES T M ENT S EC T O RS Ts h w an e k e y I n v e st m e n t S e c t o r s 69 A e ros p a c e a n d D e f e n c e 70 A gr icu lt u re a n d A g ro -p ro c e ssi n g 71 A u tom ot i v e a n d Co mp o n e n t i n d u s t r y 76 Tou r is m 78
CH AP TER FOUR | REGIONAL O PPO RT UNI T I ES R e gion a li s a t i o n a n d I n t e r g r a t i o n 83 R e gion 1 84 R e gion 2 84 R e gion 3 85 R e gion 4 87 R e gion 5 88 R e gion 6 88 R e gion 7 90
CH AP TER FIV E | HOUS ING T HE M AS S ES R e s t or in g d i g n i t y t h ro u g h t h e p ro v i sion of housing
CH AP TER S IX | T HE FUTURE 2055 V is ion of a n e w Ci t y o f Tsh wa n e
C lim at e c h a n g e 108 G reen in g t h e c i t y 113
CRADLE OF THE NATION
Message from The Executive Mayor CHAPTER 1
We welcome our readers, be they residents, fellow South Africans, visitors or investors to the City of Tshwaneâ€™s expression of joy at the celebration of 20 years of democracy. What a wonderful road this has been, as we have led Africa as an example of democratic governance and leadership over the past two decades. This book gives a glimpse of the power and vision that Tshwane has for its residents, both present now and those that will join us, as the City moves towards its 2055 vision. That vision is a combination of shortterm strategic actions and long-term planning directives that will see the City grow over the next four decades to become one of Africaâ€™s greatest capital cities. With this book, we salute those who fought for our freedom and whose names are forever inscribed in our capital City. It began with our beloved and missed Madiba, who first made his mark as an intellectual at the University of South Africa (UNISA), where he completed his law degree in 1941. We remember those who gave their lives that we may be free - many of whom are now enshrined in our new street names. As one of South Africaâ€™s largest metropolitan areas, our goals have always been geared towards extricating the masses from poverty and underdevelopment. Our chief priorities and interests are decided by those that need development the most; the poorest of the poor, rural masses, women, youth, elderly, and people living with disabilities. Our long-term strategy is to ensure that the City is financially sustainable and able to respond with the agility required to fund our growth and development strategy, policies, priorities and infrastructure needs. This means that due to the limited revenue base (municipal rates, user charges and grants/subsidies), we have to be proactive in the minimisation of costs and the maximisation of efficiencies to meet dailyincreasing service delivery imperatives The section on local government and service delivery explains how far we have come in our efforts to deliver on these goals and the importance of the participation of all our residents in achieving these goals. The metropole is more than just a large land mass and millions of people, it is also the numerous investment sectors that put it far above other major centres.
T h e E x e c u t i v e M a y o r, C o u n c i l l o r K g o s i e n t s o R a m o k g o p a
The City is renowned for its scientific research and concomitant electronics and IT industries, its internationally acclaimed defence industry, its motor industry, and the extensive and world leading educational sector. Leisure is also an important aspect of the City and has been ever since its inception. It boasts one of the finest zoological gardens in the world, a Big-5 game reserve, numerous parks and gardens and an array of cultural sights. The seven regions of the City of Tshwane all have potential to expand in various ways to meet the needs of their residents and each region offers unique aspects of life in an African capital City. Find your region and consider how best you can add to its life and development, to ensure it fulfils its potential. Finally, we unpack the 2055 vision - one where the City of Tshwane is liveable, resilient and inclusive; whose citizens enjoy a high quality of life, have access to social, economic and enhanced political freedoms and are partners in the development of the African capital City of excellence. The vision rests on six outcomes that we, the people of Tshwane must strive towards: • A resilient and resource efficient City • A growing economy that is inclusive, diversified and competitive • A quality infrastructure development that supports liveable communities • E quitable City that supports happiness, social cohesion, safety and healthy citizens • A n African capital City that promotes excellence and innovative governance solutions • A South African capital with citizens who are aware of their rights and are partners in tackling societal challenges
As we prepare to celebrate with our brothers and sisters across the country, let us use this celebration to enthuse and energise the people of Tshwane and use their constructive energy to set an agenda for unity, peace and development in the 21st century.
Creating a new legacy Human Rights Day on 21 March, which was officially declared a public holiday in 1995 following the inauguration of former president Nelson Mandela, and Freedom Day on 27 April are especially important days for South Africa in 2014 as the country celebrates 20 years of democracy and freedom. Tshwane residents were among the first in South Africa to get into the swing of celebrations to mark the country’s 20 years of freedom and democracy when they experienced a unique interactive exhibition held in the city by the Department of Rural Development to observe 20 years of land restitution in South Africa. Sol Plaatjie’s famous quote “Awaking on Friday morning, June 20, 1913, the South African native found himself, not actually a slave, but a pariah in the land of his birth,” not only explains the pain felt by many South Africans, but now shows us that we are no longer slaves, rather part of a citizenry that enjoy the fruits of exercising democratic rights. “Every person who experiences the exhibition is drawn into the fantasy world of history as the actors and performers bring to life the pain we endured as a nation and the freedom we celebrate today. Williams noted that this is an appropriate time for South Africans, especially the youth to get an understanding and reflect on the challenges faced by their ancestors and to realise the great strides made since the birth of the new democratic South Africa in 1994. As we celebrate 20 years of freedom this year, let us reflect on our past experiences during the struggle and appreciate where we are today as a nation, and continue to work together with government to address any challenges that still exist.
“Compared to before 1994, we can now proudly proclaim that millions of people now have water, electricity, sanitation and housing. By our own standards, we declare that this is not good enough; that we must not rest until all the people can claim a better life,” she adds. SHARPEVILLE REMEMBERED As we celebrate Human Rights Day and 20 years of freedom, South Africans remember where they have come from and must make sure they never venture down that dark road again. We remind ourselves that the violence perpetrated under apartheid, the violations of human rights, and oppression must never be repeated. We commemorate in particular the brave men and women of Sharpeville who, more than 50 years ago, took to the streets across the country to protest against apartheid’s unjust pass laws. The pass laws were one of the most oppressive policies used to support apartheid; it controlled the movement of black Africans in such a way that made them pariahs in their own country. Sharpeville became a symbol in the struggle of all those who were committed to human rights for all South Africans and heightened our national consciousness around our rights. Over the last 20 years of democracy, we have recorded substantial advances in the promotion and protection of human rights. President Zuma has said, “It is unacceptable when people’s rights are violated by perpetrators of violent actions, such as actions that lead to injury and death of persons, damage to property and the destruction of valuable public infrastructure.”
As we celebrate, we need to awaken the spirit of 1960 and recommit ourselves in a way that entrenches human rights in the daily lives of every South African. It begins with an understanding that every hard-fought for right has an accompanying responsibility. We must exercise our rights in a responsible manner and within the ambit of the law. Government, as custodian of the Constitution, will protect the rights of protesters and non-protesters alike, uphold the rights of victims in criminal and civil cases, and ensure that the law is observed. “The citizens of our country have a right to expect that their democratic state will exercise its authority in defence of the Constitution that so many struggled so long and hard for. We cannot disappoint this expectation, continued the President. In celebrating Human Rights Day, we are conscious of the challenges we continue to face particularly in overcoming decades of underdevelopment. We all have a responsibility to ensure that our human rights record and history are preserved and strengthened for future generations. South Africa is blessed with the Bill of Rights that enshrines the rights of all people. Chapter 2 of the Constitution affirms the rights of every person to human dignity, equality and freedom. It protects the rights of all South Africans. The Bill of Rights also includes the right to freedom of expression, right to life, freedom of association, freedom of religion, belief and opinion, rights to education, health care, food, shelter, water and social security. “Many people sacrificed their lives for this freedom. It is the responsibility of the current generation to protect this freedom, as Human Rights are a channel to a peaceful democratic society,” she concludes.
compromising the policy objectives of the various agencies and entities,” she says.
The jewel of Gauteng
The Gauteng Growth and Development Agency (GGDA) will manage the GIC. Its CEO, Siphiwe Ngwenya, says agreements have been struck with the three metro municipalities – Tshwane, Johannesburg and Ekurhuleni, government departments, and the private sector. Gauteng will become Africa’s first global city region because it is seen as the decision-making capital of South Africa, both on the corporate and political level. GROWTH ENGINE OF SOUTH AFRICA
The City of Tshwane has taken into account the broad economic and spatial strategies and goals of Gauteng province. This includes the re-alignment of the manufacturing sector away from traditional heavy industry input markets and low value-added production towards sophisticated, high value-added production and the development of other production activities in the agriculture and mineral sectors. This is part of government’s plan to build Gauteng into an integrated and globally competitive region. The economic activities of different parts of the province will complement each other in consolidating it as an economic hub of Africa and an internationally recognised global city region. The idea of a global city region is to improve the coordination and facilitation of planning and development across political and administrative boundaries between spheres of government. This would help make the province globally competitive and more socially and spatially cohesive. Various stakeholders have welcomed the launch of the Gauteng Investment Centre (GIC) as a support centre for investors and business. It will go a long way in assisting Gauteng’s efforts to become a competitive global city and a preferred business hub. According to the Gauteng Premier Nomvula Mokonyane, the GIC would offer quicker investor approval turnaround times. “This heeds the call by the investment community to reduce the cost of doing business in Gauteng and simplifies the procedural steps required to invest, without
Gauteng is essentially one big city, with 97 percent of its population living in urban centres. Gauteng mass accounts for just 1.4 percent of South Africa’s land area, but houses 22 percent of the country’s population. The province punches above its weight economically, contributing more than 33 percent to the national economy and 10 percent to the gross domestic product (GDP) of the African continent. The province has the best telecommunications and technology network on the continent, with correspondents for the world’s major media stationed here, in addition to South Africa’s five television stations. It also has the highest concentration of radio, internet and print media companies in Africa. Manufacturing includes basic iron and steel, fabricated and metal products, food, machinery, electrical machinery, appliances and electrical supplies, vehicle parts, accessories, and chemical products. Gauteng’s agricultural sector is geared to provide the cities and towns of the province with daily fresh produce. The districts of Bronkhorstspruit, Cullinan, and Heidelberg hold important agricultural land, where groundnuts, sunflowers, cotton, and sorghum are produced. ADDING VALUE Without pitting Tshwane against Johannesburg and Ekurhuleni, the city has the advantage of being the seat
of government and the foreign diplomatic corps. It is also known for having the most important educational and health centres and most of South Africaâ€™s research and development institutions. This includes the Innovation Hub that is Africaâ€™s first internationally accredited science park and a full member of the International Association of Science Parks. Evidence has shown that many rapidly growing countries with significant development needs, such as Brazil, Sri Lanka, or Singapore, have benefitted from the presence of at least one global city region around which growth has centred, for the wider benefit of the nation and its sub-regions. For South Africa to succeed in making the most of opportunities presented by the global economy, it
needs at least one such place that is able to grow the attractiveness of the country and the wider SADC region, through performing a number of roles. The Gauteng city region represents a useful place in this respect. Building on the assets that Gauteng already has at its disposal and the existing infrastructure, services, skills, logistics arrangements, and economy will allow the nation and its various provinces to gain maximum benefit at relatively low cost. Delivering on the full potential of the Gauteng city region could result in a range of benefits for our country, including an enhanced reputation internationally, and even greater levels of talent attraction, economic growth, decent work opportunities, tourism, and foreign direct investment.
Birthplace of technology Technology in the City of Tshwane goes back to at least some time between 550 and 700 AD with two major sites within the Broederstroom area showing signs of advanced iron smelting and forging. The sites, excavated in the 70s, provide evidence for the production of iron and copper, the farming of cattle and sheep and the construction of large villages by people who were probably ancestors to the present Tswana population. As farmers, metal producers, and village builders, they continued into the middle Iron Age, which would have begun sometime around 1000 AD and lasted until approximately 1500 and 1600 AD. The late Iron Age saw a population explosion. By about 1500 AD, extensive stone building characterised these later Iron Age sites on the Highveld. Probably most important of all, it seems highly likely that the era was marked by a far greater emphasis on cattle keeping and milking than had been the case earlier on. Probably the most densely-settled area of South Africa in Iron Age times was the southern Gauteng, between the plateau basin and the Vaal River. Its well-watered grasslands were suitable for both stock-keeping and extensive agriculture and it had rich iron resources. In the later Iron Age, it would appear that certain groups developed into specialised metalworkers and, especially where the environment was otherwise unsuited to agriculture or cattle keeping, traded in copper, iron, or even tin and alluvial gold in exchange for grain or stock and women. Declining rainfall in the last decades of the eighteenth century, followed by a calamitous 10-year drought that began in about 1800, caused massive disruption and suffering. Further armed conflict added to the woes of the local people when Mzilikazi, a general who had fled from King Shakaâ€™s army, arrived in the area, and conquered the local people. Mzilikazi made Pretoria his home by building two military kraals on the Apies River; enDinaneni was situated north-west of Pretoria on the road to Hartbeespoort Dam and enKungweni was built along the Daspoort range of hills. His main residence was on the south side of Meintjieskop, but he later moved to the north of the Magaliesberg range, to a place named emHlahlandlela. Having attacked the Voortrekkers, led by Potgieter, Mzilikazi triggered retaliatory wars that saw him
eventually cross the Limpopo in 1837. Although some Tswana tribes returned to the Apies River area after the departure of the Ndebele, large communities did not return to the area. In 1840, the brothers Lucas and Gert Bronkhorst registered the farms Groenkloof and Elandspoort. Groenkloof encompassed the Fountains Valley area, while Elandspoort extended from the south to Daspoortrand in the north and from Pretoria west through to Hatfield in the east. Later, a trek led by Andries Pretorius from Ohrigstad, together with a
It became the capital of the South African Republic on 1 May 1860. The First Anglo-Boer War, or the Transvaal War, was fought from 16 December 1880 until 23 March 1881. The peace treaty that ended the war was signed in Pretoria on 3 August 1881 at the Pretoria Convention. The Second Anglo-Boer War, from 1899 to 1902, resulted in the end of the Transvaal Republic and start of British control in South Africa. The City surrendered to British forces under Frederick Roberts on 5 June 1900 and the conflict was ended in Pretoria with the
few stragglers from Natal and the Orange Free State, also settled in the area. The British recognised the independence of the Voortrekkers north of the Vaal with the signing of the Sand River Convention in 1852.
signing of the Peace of Vereeniging on 31 May 1902. The Boer Republics of the ZAR and the Orange River Colony were united with the Cape Colony and Natal Colony in 1910 to become the Union of South Africa. Pretoria then became the administrative capital of South Africa, with Cape Town the legislative capital. Between 1860 and 1994, the City was also the capital of the province of Transvaal. The local government institutional transformation processes were aimed at reversing apartheid-style municipal administration and management leading to an all-inclusive, democratic dispensation within the local government sphere.
The following year, the son of Andries Pretorius, Marthinus Wessels Pretorius, purchased two farms, Elandspoort and Koedoespoort, with the intention of founding a town that would be the centre of the new state. In November 1853, the two farms were declared a town, which came to be known as Pretoria.
The City of Tshwane Metropolitan Municipality was established as the Greater Pretoria Metropolitan Council on 5 December 2000. This entailed the amalgamation of a number of existing local authorities, which previously served the greater Pretoria and surrounding areas: • Greater Pretoria Metropolitan Council • City Council of Pretoria • Town Council of Centurion • Northern Pretoria Metropolitan Substructure • Hammanskraal Local Area Committee • Eastern Gauteng Services Council • Pienaarsrivier Transitional Representative Council • Crocodile River Transitional Council • Western Gauteng Services Council • Winterveld Transitional Representative Council
• Temba Transitional Representative Council • Mabopane Transitional Representative Council • Ga-Rankuwa Transitional Representative Council • Eastern District Council The amalgamation resulted in the following towns and townships now forming part of the new metropolitan area - Pretoria, Centurion, Akasia, Soshanguve, Mabopane, Atteridgeville, Ga-Rankuwa, Winterveld, Hammanskraal, Temba, Pienaarsrivier, Crocodile River, and Mamelodi. In 2000, the first Mayor of a democratic Tshwane, Father Smangaliso Mkhatshwa said, “We inherited a City divided along racial and geographic lines, but we rose to the challenge by seamlessly integrating the east, west, north, and south into one City – a single municipality of black and white and rich and poor united in the common objective of creating a City comparable to the leading capital cities of the world.”
Political struggle As the capital of South Africa, the City has had a long history of activism and struggle against Apartheid.
WOMEN’S MARCH One of the more famous movements was the Women’s Day March on 9 August 1956, which had its roots in the June 1913 anti-pass defiance campaign when Charlotte Maxeke led about 700 women to the Bloemfontein City Council in the Orange Free State to petition the mayor. The first national protest took place on 27 October 1955, when 2000 women of all races marched on the Union Buildings in Pretoria planning to meet with the
cabinet ministers responsible for the administration of apartheid laws. The Minister of Native Affairs, Dr Verwoerd, under whose jurisdiction the pass laws fell, pointedly refused to receive a multiracial delegation. The ANC Women’s League and the Federation of South African Women organised a second major demonstration - this time focussing exclusively on the pass laws. On 9 August 1956, 20 000 women from all parts of South Africa staged a second march on the Union Buildings.
It was a spectacular success. Women from all parts of the country arrived in Pretoria, some from as far afield as Cape Town and Port Elizabeth. They flocked to the Union Buildings in a determined yet orderly manner. They filled the entire amphitheatre, dressed in traditional clothes, Congress colours, saris and western garb, led by Helen Joseph, Rahima Moosa, Lillian Ngoyi, and Sophia Williams. Prime Minister Strijdom, who had been notified of the women`s mission, was not there to receive them. In lieu of a meeting, the women left bundles of petitions containing more than 100 000 signatures at his door. Outside the government building, they stood silently for 30 minutes, their hands raised in the Congress salute. The women concluded their demonstration by singing freedom songs, including a new one composed especially for the occasion, “Wathint’ abafazi, Strijdom! Wathint’ imbokodo uzo kufa!”, “Now you have touched the women, Strijdom! You have struck a rock, you will be crushed!” Since then, the phrase “wathint’ abafazi, wathint’ imbokodo” (You strike a woman, you strike a rock) has come to represent the courage and strength of South African women. The month of August was declared Women’s Month by the democratically-elected government of South Africa and the nineth a public holiday, as a tribute to those women who marched against the pass laws.
RIVONIA TRIAL Nelson Mandela’s relationship with the capital City will probably forever be associated with the Rivonia trial. It took place between 1963 and 1964, when 10 leaders of the ANC were charged, and eight eventually convicted, on four broad charges. They were Nelson Mandela, Walter Sisulu, Denis Goldberg, Govan Mbeki, Ahmed Kathrada, Lionel Bernstein (acquitted), Raymond Mhlaba, James Kantor (acquitted), Elias Motsoaledi and Andrew Mlangeni. At the beginning of the defence’s proceedings, Nelson Mandela gave a three-hour speech from the defendant’s dock, in which he explained and defended the ANC’s key political positions. His defence ended with the famous speech, “During my lifetime I have dedicated my life to this struggle of the African people. I have fought against white domination and I have fought against black domination. I have cherished the ideal of a democratic and free society in which all persons will live together in harmony and with equal opportunities. It is an ideal for which I hope to live for and to see realised. But, My Lord, if it needs be, it is an ideal for which I am prepared to die.”
Women‘s march to the Union Buildings on 9 August 1956
Know Your Heroes The 27 new street names in Tshwane, excluding Nelson Mandela Drive and Madiba Street, honour men and women who have contributed to the development of the country’s democracy by their conduct, example and sometimes even their lives, who may not be known to a wider audience. Here is a brief overview of their lives, but all are worthy of more research and reading to understand the price of democracy. 1. Charlotte Maxeke (1871 - 16 October 1939) by 1919, she was active in the anti-pass laws demonstrating, which led her to found the Bantu Women’s League, which later became part of the African National Congress Women’s League.
2. Elias Motsoaledi (26 July 1924 - 9 May 1994) was a South African anti-apartheid activist and one of the eight men sentenced to life imprisonment at the Rivonia Trial. After 26 years on Robben Island, he was elected to the National Executive Committee of the ANC.
3. Es’kia Mphahlele (17 December 1919 27 October 2008) was a South African writer, educationist, artist and activist. He is celebrated as the father of African Humanism and was one of the founding figures of modern African literature. His journey from childhood in the slums of Pretoria to literary icon was an odyssey both intellectually and politically.
4. Florence Ribeiro (3 November 1933 1 December 1986) and her husband Fabian collected extensive evidence about the atrocities committed by the apartheid government. They sheltered victims of apartheid and helped people who were wanted by the government to the country. Agents of the state gunned them down in the courtyard of their home on 1 December 1986.
5. Francis Baard (1 October 1909 - 1997) was an organiser of the ANC Women’s League during the 1952 Defiance Campaign and later became secretary and treasurer of the League’s Port Elizabeth branch. She was actively involved with the drafting of the Freedom Charter in 1955 and played a leading role in the Women’s March to the Union Buildings on 9 August 1956, to protest against the pass laws.
6. Helen Joseph (8 April 1905 25 December 1992) was pivotal in the formation of the Federation of South African Women and, together with the organisation’s leadership, spearheaded a march of 20 000 women to the Union Buildings in Pretoria to protest against pass laws on 9 August 1956. She was a defendant at the 1956 Treason Trial and acquitted in 1961. She became the first person to be placed under house arrest under the Sabotage Act. Her last banning order was lifted when she was 80 years old.
7. Justice Ismail Mahomed SC (5 July 1931 17 June 2000) was a Pretoria-born lawyer who was the first non-white to take silk. He served as the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of Namibia and co-authored the constitution of Namibia. In 1991, he became the Chair of the Convention for a Democratic South Africa and the country’s first non-white judge of the Supreme Court of South Africa. He was later appointed to the Appeal Court. He was made a judge of the Constitutional Court in 1995 and, in 1996, President Nelson Mandela made him the Chief Justice of South Africa.
8. Jan Shoba was a member of Azanian People’s Liberation Army (APLA) High Command, the
armed wing of the Pan Africanist Congress (PAC). He was arrested in 1984 and placed in Robben Island Prison. On the island, the PAC collapsed its army structures and operated politically and socially. He served in the leadership structures and was a deeply committed and efficient operator of the PAC activities, including coordinating the news analysis project. In 1990, following the negotiated Harare Declaration, he was released from jail and became the personal bodyguard of former PAC President, Mlamli Makwetu. In 1992, he was
assassinated outside his yard in Atteridgeville and his killers have never been found.
9. January Masilela (23 February 1955 24 August 2008) left the country in 1975 for Zambia where he joined the Umkhonto we Sizwe and later trained in Libya, Russia, and Cuba. He served as an Umkhonto we Sizwe regional commissar in Angola through most of the 1980s. On his return from exile, he became the Secretary of Defence and Deputy SecretaryGeneral of the ANC. He was killed in an apparent car accident near Bronkhorstspruit.
10. Jeff Masemola (12 December 1931 17 April 1990) was born in Pretoria and was
known as the “Tiger of Azania”. He joined the ANC Youth League in 1958. In 1959, he became one of the founding members of the PAC. He was charged in June 1963 with conspiracy to commit acts of sabotage and the intention to overthrow the government by violent means. He was convicted and sentenced to imprisonment on Robben Island in 1963 and released in 1989. He was killed in a suspicious car crash.
11. Professor Johan Heyns (27 May 1928 5 November 1994), was an influential Afrikaner Calvinist theologian and moderator of the general synod of the NG Kerk (NGK). He was instrumental in the 1986 NGK decision to abandon its support for apartheid and brand it a sin. In September 1989, at a time when the government indiscriminately crushed all protest marches, mediation by NGK leadership under Heyns convinced the government to allow peaceful protests. This heralded the first swing away from the armed struggle to a strategy of non-violent confrontation. He was assassinated at his home in Waterkloof Ridge in 1994.
12. Johannes Ramokhoase (1951 - 2003) was the headmaster of Mamelodi High School and became the first black mayor of Pretoria in 1995. He was instrumental in fusing the old City Council of Pretoria with the local municipalities of Mamelodi, Atteridgeville and other surrounding areas. He was the longest serving chairman of the South African Democratic Teachers Union.
13. Lilian Ngoyi (25 September 1911 13 March 1980), born in Pretoria, was the first woman elected to the executive committee of the ANC and helped launch the Federation of South African Women. In 1953, she was elected as President of the Women’s League. On 9 August 1956, she led a march along with Helen Joseph, Rahima Moosa, Sophia Williams-De Bruyn, Bertha Gxowa and Albertina Sisulu of 20 000 women to the Union Buildings of Pretoria in protest against the apartheid government requiring women to carry passbooks as part of the pass laws.
14. Molefe Makinta (1932 – 16 July 2004) was sentenced to 12 years on Robben Island from 1964 to 1976. He was released just before the
1976 Soweto uprising, hunted down by the security branch and went underground. He was instrumental in the formation of the United Democratic Front in 1983. He served in various positions in the ANC between 1995 and 2000. He became the special advisor on traditional affairs to the former North West Premier, Popo Molefe.
15. Nana Sita (1898 - 23 December 1969) joined the Transvaal Indian Congress and became secretary of its Pretoria branch and later its President. He believed in passive resistance and was a follower of Ghandi. In June 1952, the ANC and the South African Indian Congress jointly launched the “Campaign of Defiance against Unjust Laws” in which over 8 000 people of all racial origins were to court imprisonment. He was one of the first volunteers in that campaign and came out of jail in shattered health. He was detained during the 1960 State of Emergency, banned and imprisoned for defying the Group Areas Act.
16. Nico Smith (1929 - 19 June 2010) was a professor of theology at the University of Stellenbosch, a member of the Afrikaner Broederbond organisation and a minister of the apartheid-supporting Dutch Reformed Church (DRC). However, he abandoned his upper-class lifestyle to live with the impoverished and segregated blacks of Mamelodi. From there, he worked to support the black community and oppose apartheid. Smith joined the Dutch Reformed Church in Africa (DRCA), the separate branch of the DRC for non-whites, due to the church’s refusal to oppose apartheid. He also demanded an investigation into suspicious murders of anti-apartheid activists.
17. Peter Magano (1927 - 22 June 2002) was a member of the ANC and the Pretoria Regional Action Committee, which was established in early 1955. He became one of the first volunteers to join Umkhonto we Sizwe and spent 17 years with Mandela on Robben Island. He died in a car crash.
18. Robert Sobukwe (5 December 1924 - 27 February 1978) was a South African political dissident, who founded the PAC in opposition to South Africa under apartheid. After serving three years in prison, under the Pass Laws, he was interned on
Robben Island. The new General Law Amendment Act was passed, allowing his imprisonment to be renewed annually at the discretion of the Minister of Justice. This procedure became known as the Sobukwe Clause and went on for a further three years. Sobukwe was the only person imprisoned under this clause. He was released in 1969. He was allowed to live in Kimberley with his family, but remained under house arrest. He was also restricted through a banning order, which disallowed political activities. He died of lung cancer, aged 54.
19. Sefako Makgatho (1861 - 23 May 1951) was the key figure in the formation of the African Political Union (APU) and the Transvaal Native Organisation, both of which merged with the South African Native National Congress (SANNC) in 1912. He became SANNC President in 1917. In the seven years he was president of the SANNC (renamed the African National Congress during his tenure), he used the courts to challenge legislation that affected and undermined Africans in the urban areas, particularly laws relating to their freedom of movement.
20. K gosi Sekwati Mampuru was a local chief during the 19th century and his kraal was on the banks of the Apies River. He was a revolutionary figure who fought the Pretoria Boers. He was sentenced to death for the murder of his half-brother Sekhukhune and inciting rebellion and was hanged in a Pretoria prison on 22 November 1883.
21. S olomon Mahlangu (10 July 1956 - 6 April 1979) was born in Pretoria, joined the ANC in September 1976 and left the country to be trained as an Umkhonto we Sizwe soldier. He returned to South Africa as a heavily armed cadre to assist with student protests on 11 June 1977. On 13 June 1977, police in Goch Street, Johannesburg accosted Mahlangu and his companions, Mondy Johannes Motloung and George “Lucky” Mahlangu. In the ensuing gun battle, two civilian men were killed and two wounded. Solomon Mahlangu and Motloung were arrested. Mahlangu was found guilty on two counts of murder and three charges under the Terrorism Act and he was sentenced to death by hanging.
22. Sophia De Bruyn (1938 - present) is the only surviving member of the four leaders of the historic women’s march to Pretoria that took place on 9 August 1956. She was a founder member of the South African Congress of Trade Unions (SACTU). In exile, she rose to the position of secretary of the ANC’s Women’s League (ANCWL) that was based in Zambia. On her return to South Africa, she was appointed assistant administrator to the Deputy Secretary-General. The President appointed her to serve as a Commissioner on the Gender Commission and was the Deputy Speaker in the Gauteng Legislature. She received numerous awards.
23. Stanza Bopape (26 April 1961 -12 June 1988) was born in Pretoria and was elected in 1987 as the first General Secretary of the South African National Civic Organisation (SANCO) in Mamelodi. Despite being on the run, he managed to mobilise and organise people against apartheid. On 10 June 1988, he was finally arrested by the police and taken to John Vorster Square where he was brutally tortured along with Murphy Morobe, a young activist from Soweto. He died on 12 June 1988, while in police custody, apparently from a heart attack following electric shock torture. His body was dumped in the crocodile-infested Komati River on the border of Mozambique and South Africa. On 4 July 1988, police told his parents that he had escaped from prison.
24. Steve Biko (18 December 1946 – 12 September 1977) was an anti-apartheid activist in South Africa in the 1960s and 1970s. A student leader, he later founded the Black Consciousness Movement that would empower and mobilise much of the urban black population. He was tortured and killed in police custody. Because of his high profile, news of his death spread quickly, opening many eyes around the world to the brutality of the apartheid regime. Over 10 000 people, including numerous ambassadors and other diplomats from the US and Western Europe, attended his funeral.
25. T habo Sehume (Unknown – 2005) was a member of the South African Student’s Organisation and the Black People’s Convention, both of which were banned in 1977. He was then elected national organiser of the Azanian People’s Organisation. He was a Black Consciousness Movement member, a community worker and leader, a shrewd trade unionist and a revolutionary intellectual. He was banned, put under house arrest and detained without trial countless times. He dedicated his time to working with the municipal workers union, general mobilisation work and the establishment of an advice centre for Tshwane, particularly the community of Atteridgeville.
26. D r William Frederick Nkomo (1915 26 March 1972) was born near Pretoria and was a medical doctor, teacher, steward of the Methodist Church, trustee of the Bantu Welfare Trust, President of the South African institute of Race Relations and Chairman of the ANCYL provisional executive committee. During the Sharpeville massacre of 1961, he acted as a mediator
between the government and the oppressed. He was also honorary physician for Itireleng School for the Blind near Hammanskraal.
27. W alter Sisulu (18 May 1912 - 5 May 2003) was an anti-apartheid activist and member of the ANC. In 1943, together with Nelson Mandela and Oliver Tambo, he joined the ANC Youth League, founded by Anton Lembede, of which he was initially the treasurer. He was made secretary general of the ANC in 1949 and held that post until 1954. He also joined the South African Communist Party. He was jailed at Robben Island and in October 1989, he was released after 26 years in prison. In July 1991, he was elected ANC Deputy President at the ANC’s first national conference and remained in that position until after South Africa’s first democratic election in 1994. S o u rc e s i n c l u d e w w w. w i k i p e d i a . o r g ; w w w. s a h i s t o r y. o r g . z a a n d w w w. a n c . o r g . z a
ATTRACTION S 1 . Union Build ings a nd ga rd e ns 2 . Chu rch Squ a re L aw Chambe r s Palace of J us tic e Old Raadsa a l/ Old Counc il Cha mb e r s Nat ional Tre a s ur y 3 . Freedom Pa r k 4 . Fort Klappe r k op 5 . Voort rekker M onume nt an d Nat ure R e s e r v e Fort Sch ans k op 6 . City Hall 7 . Lof t us Versf e ld 8 . Marlamman Te mp le â€“ M a r a b a s ta d MUSEUMS 9 . Museum of Na tur a l His tor y 1 0 Mu seu m of Cultur a l His tor y 1 1.Mu seu m of S c ie nc e and Techn ology
12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18.
Pre t o r i a Ar t Mu s e u m Me l ro s e H o u s e K r u g e r H o u s e Mu s e u m Af r i c a n W i n d o w Bu rg e r s Pa r k C o r re c t i o n a l Se r v i c e Mu s e u m N a t i o n a l F i l m , Vi de o a n d So u n d Arc h i v e s 1 9 . SA N a t i o n a l Mi l i t a r y Mu s e u m PL A C ES O F I N TER ES T 2 0 . So u t h Af r i c a n St a t e T h e a t re 2 1 . Ts h wa n e E v e n t s C e n t re 2 2 . So u t h Af r i c a n Re s e r v e Ba n k 2 3 . Pre t o r i a Ra i l wa y St a t i o n 2 4 . G a u t r a i n St a t i o n
27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32.
Au s t i n R o ber t s Bi rd S an ct u ar y C h a m b er l ai n Bi rd S an ct u ar y C o l b y n N at u re Reser ve J a n C i l li er s P ar k Ve n n i n g P ar k Sp r i n g bo k P ar k
M A J O R S H OPPI NG CENT R ES 3 3 . H a t f i e l d S qu are H a t f i e l d P l aza 3 4 . Arc a di a S h o ppi n g C en t re 3 5 . Sa n c a rd i a S h o ppi n g C en t re 3 6 . T h e Tr am sh ed 3 7 . Bro o k l y n M al l 3 8 . Su n n y p ar k M ap p ro v id ed by th e C i ty o f Ts h w a n e M u n i c i pa l i ty
R EC R EATI O N 2 5 . F o u n t a i n s Va l l e y Re c re a t i o n Re s o r t a n d c a r a v a n pa r k 2 6 . N a t i o n a l Z o o l o g i c a l G a rd e n s
*Inf o rmat io n co r re c t a t th e ti m e o f pr i n t
Freedom in our lifetime After South Africa’s first national democratic elections held in April 1994, the President of the African National Congress (ANC), Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela, was sworn in as South Africa’s first democratic president at the Union Buildings on 10 May 1994, after being un-animously elected by parliament. He replaced the outgoing National Party leader FW de Klerk.
on 14 June 1999 and inaugurated on 16 June 1999 at a ceremony held at the Union Buildings, during which President Mandela stepped down from public office. The theme of the inauguration was “Faranani: Towards a New Century” and 4 500 guests, including various international dignitaries, attended the ceremony, which was shown on big screens throughout the country.
More than 100 000 South African men, women and children of all races sang and danced with joy when Mandela was inaugurated. When he appeared on the lawns of the Union Buildings, flanked by first Deputy President Thabo Mbeki and second Deputy President FW de Klerk, the crowd was jubilant. The inauguration ceremony took place at the Union Building amphitheatre and was attended by politicians and dignitaries from more than 140 countries around the world.
During his inaugural speech, he said, “Our country is in that period of time which the seTswana-speaking people of Southern Africa graphically describe as “mahube a naka tsa kgomo” - the dawning of the dawn, when only the tips of the horn of the cattle can be seen etched against the morning sky and far horizon.
During his inauguration speech, Mandela said, “The time for the healing of the wounds has come. The moment to bridge the chasms that divide us has come. The time to build is upon us. We have, at last, achieved our political emancipation. We pledge ourselves to liberate all our people from the continuing bondage of poverty, deprivation, suffering, gender, and other discrimination. We succeeded to take our last steps to freedom in conditions of relative peace. We commit ourselves to the construction of a complete, just, and lasting peace.” Mandela was instrumental in setting up one of Tshwane’s landmarks, Freedom Park. In 1999, when discussions were underway, Mandela envisioned its significance, stating, “The day should not be far off when we shall have a people’s shrine, a freedom park, where we shall honour those who endured pain, so we should experience the joy of freedom.” This vision was realised 10 years later when he visited Freedom Park to pay tribute to those who sacrificed their lives for the struggle. After the ANC registered a landslide victory in the 1999 general elections, Thabo Mbeki, who had replaced Nelson Mandela as the party’s leader, became the second black president of the Republic of South Africa. He was unanimously appointed by the new parliament
“As the sun continues to rise to banish the darkness of the long years of colonialism and apartheid, what the new light over our land must show is a nation diligently at work to create a better life for itself. “What it must show is a palpable process of the comprehensive renewal of our country - its rebirth - driven by the enormous talents of all our people, both black and white, and made possible by the knowledge and realisation that we share a common destiny, regardless of the shapes of our noses. “What we will have to see in the rising light is a government that is fully conscious of the fact that it has entered into a contract with the people, to work in partnership with them to build a winning nation. “In practical and measurable ways, we have to keep pace with the rising sun, progressing from despair to hope, away from a brutal past that forever seeks to drag us backwards towards a new tomorrow that speaks of change in a forward direction.” 15 years into a maturing democracy, South Africa once again held free and fair elections, in which millions of South Africans cast their votes for a new government. President Jacob Zuma, as the third black president of a democratic South Africa, took office on 10 May 2009 and addressed the thousands who flocked to the event, which was blessed by showers of rain. The atmosphere reflected Zuma’s earthy populism and his rise from the deepest rural poverty to the nation’s top post.
“We gather here determined to renew that most solemn undertaking, to build a society in which all people are freed from the shackles of discrimination, exploitation, want and disease. We gather here determined that the struggles and sacrifices of our people over many decades shall not be in vain. Instead, they shall inspire us to complete the task for which so much blood was shed, and so much hardship endured. This is a moment of renewal.” President Zuma went on to say, “We recommit ourselves to continue to be an active member of the international community. We will continue to use multilateral and bilateral forums and relations to take forward the goals of eradicating global poverty, strengthening peace and security and to promote
democracy. We will promote international friendship and cooperation through, amongst others, the 2010 FIFA World Cup. South Africa will deliver a world-class event that will forever change the perceptions of the international community, and also ensure a lasting legacy for the people of Africa. Fellow South Africans, let us move forward decisively, together. Let us build a nation that remains forever mindful of its history, of those who have sacrificed so much, and the many who put down their lives so we can be here today. A nation filled with the laughter and joy of children. A nation filled with a hope born of the knowledge that if we work together, we will achieve our dreams.”
Economic Growth The City of Tshwane has a striving and balanced economy. It contributes an estimated 27 percent of the gross domestic product (GDP) to the Gauteng province and 9.4 percent to the national economy. Its economy is highly service-based with community services and government, financial services, and manufacturing are the most dominating sectors.
The City’s developmental initiatives are premised on the Tshwane 2055 long-term strategy, its Integrated Development Plan (IDP) and the Service Delivery and Budget Implementation Plan (SDBIP) for the delivery of public services.
The City’s GDP reached R272 - billion in 2011 (in current prices) and has experienced a growth of 21 percent since the 2009 slump. It has been the fastest growing municipality in South Africa, on average, between 1997 and 2011. GDP per capita was R93 158 (in current prices) in 2011 reflecting a growth of 13 percent when compared with 2009. The City’s economy has also enjoyed above average growth rates when compared with both the national and Gauteng province average for the past 10 years.
This is an articulation of the future and vision that will propel the City to be liveable, resilient, and inclusive. It also reflects the aspirations not only of the Tshwane residents, but all South Africans as outlined in the National Development Plan 2030 vision. Its main purpose is to provide broad development logic to guide interventions and programme decision-making process over the period to 2050. It is also aimed at ensuring that all structures of civil society, community-based organisations and private business are coordinated around the implementation of agreed short- to longterm priorities.
The City has a well-established manufacturing sector with the automotive industry being a key player in this sector. It has the highest concentration of automotive original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) in the country. This has translated into a favourable and rapidly growing trade performance with exports in 2011 comprising 61.7 percent as a percentage of GDP and a contribution of 22.2 percent to the nation’s total exports and 15.9 percent to its total trade in 2011. DEVELOPMENTAL CHALLENGES The City is severely affected by past policies. The legacy is one of polarisation between the relatively affluent in the south and those left behind by the poverty trap, in the north. Trends reflect that from 1975, the gap between these two groups has been increasing. Therefore, this municipality will continue to face the enormous challenge of integrating a City largely polarised in terms of income groups and race. In the context of this divide, the most significant challenges facing the City relate to improving access to employment, quality education, health opportunities, and upgrading the provision of infrastructure and service delivery. Therefore, the uppermost challenges facing the City are primarily access and sustainability.
TSHWANE VISION 2055
2011-2016 INTERGRATED DEVELOPMENT PLAN This is one of the major legislative tools for synchronising development across the three tiers of government. It is applied in the context of, or in conjunction with, other pieces of legislation relevant to the local government. Law requires each municipality immediately after the start of its term of office, to put in place a single, inclusive strategic plan that links, integrates and coordinate plans, and proposals for development within its jurisdiction. This plan should include the alignment and consolidation of resources around a seamless budget cycle. The City has accordingly drawn its IDP cycles around its five-year strategy during which it has identified strategic areas of importance to receive attention. The 2011-2016 IDP cycle is the municipality’s third, since its inception in 2000. One of the key objectives of the IDP is to ensure that there exists alignment between national and provincial priorities, policies, and strategies. The IDP links, integrate and co-ordinate development plans for the City. Resources and capacity are aligned with the implementation of the plan, forming the basis on which the annual budget must be based. The IDP is
The South African Reserve Bank
M a n d e l a â€™s S t a t u e a t t h e Union Buildings 2013
also compatible with national development plans and planning requirements binding on the municipality in terms of legislation. The IDP has seven strategic objectives: • Provide basic services, roads and stormwater • Economic growth and development and job creation • S ustainable communities with clean, healthy and safe environments, and integrated social services • Participatory democracy and Batho Pele • Promote sound governance • Ensure financial sustainability • Organisational development and transformation In analysing capital expenditure in terms of the seven strategic objectives, a large fraction of expenditure for the City goes to providing basic services, roads and storm water (67 percent), followed by participatory democracy and Batho Pele (16 percent), while the rest of the strategic areas receive minimal capital allocation. In summation, the alignment of budgeted revenue, expenditure and capital expenditure with the IDP strategic objectives reveals that provision of basic services, roads and storm water is the most important strategic objective for the City compared to the rest of the strategic objectives. SDBIP The SDBIP is a detailed plan for implementing the delivery of services and the budget on annual basis, in accordance with the provisions of the Municipal Finance Management Act. It serves as a contract between the administration, council, and the community expressing the goals and objectives set by the council as quantifiable outcomes to be implemented by the administration over the next 12 months.
MEDIUM-TERM REVENUE AND EXPENDITURE FRAMEWORK (MTREF) The strategic objectives of the IDP take into consideration the business and financial planning processes of the City that culminate in the MTREF. The IDP therefore directly informs the MTREF. Its objective is to ensure that the City remains financially sustainable and that service delivery is maintained. Maintaining financial viability of the City is critical to the achievement of service delivery and economic objectives. Revenue generation is fundamental in strengthening the institutional environment for the delivery of municipal basic services and infrastructure. The capacity of generating revenue is challenged by high poverty and unemployment rates prevalent in the City. Revenue generated from rates and service charges forms a significant percentage (approximately 80 percent) of the revenue basket for the City of Tshwane. In the 2012/13 financial year, revenue from rates and service charges totalled R16.6 - billion (80.4 percent) of the total revenue, excluding capital transfers and contributions. This increases to R17.8 - billion, R19.4 - billion and R21.2 - billion in the respective financial years of the MTREF. Electricity is the main revenue source contributing R9.1 - billion, or 41.6 percent of the total revenue, and escalates to R10.6 - billion in 2015/16. Property rates is the second largest revenue source, totalling 20.5 percent of the total revenue of R21.9 - billion and will increase to R5.4 - billion by 2015/16. The third-largest source is water, followed by other revenue, which consists of various items such as revenue received from building plan fees, connection fees, admission fees, and so forth. Operating grants and transfers totalled R2.8 - billion in the 2013/14 financial year and will steadily increase to R3.6 - billion by 2015/16.
Union Buildings: Our Seat As one of the centres of political life in South Africa, the Union Buildings is one of the most popular tourist attractions in the capital City and an emblem of democracy. In December 2013, the Union Buildings celebrated its centenary with events, the most notable being the installation on 16 December 2013 of the tallest figurative bronze statue of Nelson Mandela in the world. The nine-metre statue shows Madiba smiling and stretching out his arms, in what President Jacob Zuma described as, “Embracing the whole nation.” South African sculptors Andre Prinsloo and Ruhan Janse van Vuuren created the R8 - million bronze-plated statue that weighs 3.5 tons. Dali Tambo, the son of struggle veteran Oliver Tambo, who was a close friend of Mandela, oversaw the project. A committee including Paul Mashatile, the Minister of Arts and Culture, Tambo and representatives from the National Heritage Council, approved the design. It is close to the Union Buildings’ lawns, overlooking Arcadia and replaces the statue of prime minister J B M Hertzog. Other programmes that celebrated the Union Building’s centenary included:
The concept of an acropolis and an iconic building agreed with renowned British architect, Sir Christopher Wren’s theory that a public building should be a national ornament that establishes a nation, draws people and commerce, and makes people love their country. The design was largely determined by the nature of the site. Baker envisaged identical wings of rectangular office blocks, each representing one of the two official languages of the time, linked by a semi-circular wing, with the space in between the two wings levelled to form a Greek-styled, 9 000-seater amphitheatre for gatherings of national and ceremonial importance. This was renamed the Nelson Mandela Amphitheatre on 16 December 2013. The terraces and retaining walls in the grounds are built predominantly of mountain stone, quarried on site, the foundation of the building is of granite and sandstone is used for the exterior walls, the amphitheatre and major courtyards. Originally built to house the entire public service of the Union of South Africa, it was then the largest building in the country and possibly the Southern Hemisphere. Today, it houses the Presidency. GARDENS AND MONUMENTS
• T he installation of artwork that reflects the richness and diversity of South Africa’s cultures and art • T he naming of buildings and rooms in the Union Buildings • Installation of a granite interpretative plaque as part of the nomination, grading and declaration of the Union Buildings complex, as a National Heritage Site • The restoration and maintenance of the buildings HISTORY In 1909, Sir Herbert Baker was commissioned to design a government building of the Union of South Africa (which was formed on 31 May 1910) in Pretoria, as the administrative centre for the new government. In November 1910, the cornerstone of the Union Building was laid and it was officially completed in 1913, having required over 1 265 artisans, workers and labourers. The Union Buildings are considered by many to be Sir Herbert’s greatest achievement.
The building is surrounded by beautifully terraced gardens of indigenous plants that contain various monuments and statues. Within the grounds are various monuments, statues and memorials. Starting at the bottom of the gardens, a large statue of General Louis Botha (first Prime Minister of the Union of South Africa) on horseback dominates the lawn. About half way up the terraces, the Delville Wood War Memorial is a tribute to South African troops who died during the First World War and a plaque in memory of those that died during the Korean War. The South African Police Memorial is located at the top right of the gardens. The South African National Film, Video and Sound Archives are also located in the grounds of the Union Buildings, adjacent to the Police Memorial. On the buildings, the matching statues on top of the domed towers are Atlas, holding up the world, sculpted by Abraham Broadbent. The statue on the domed rostrum in the amphitheatre between the wings is Mercury, a mythic Roman messenger and a god of trade, sculpted by George Ness.
The Union Buildings
Jacaranda City It is estimated that there are between 40 000 and 70 000 Jacaranda trees in Tshwane, nicknamed the Jacaranda City, which choreograph their spectacular show over an eightweek period in late spring each year. Almost 100 rare white Jacarandas can be found in Herbert Baker Street in Groenkloof. The trees were introduced in the late 1800s, became very popular and still today attract visitors to view the showy purple carpet.
MUSEUMS The City however, has much more to offer culturally. Amongst its premier museums is the African Window, which houses the Ditsong National Museum of Cultural History (DNMCH) of South Africa. This was amalgamated with the Pretoria-based Transvaal Museum for Natural History (now the Ditsong National Museum of Natural History) and the South African National Museum of Military History (now the Ditsong National Museum of Military History) on 1 April 1999 to form the Northern Flagship Institution. In April 2010, the new name was launched and it became Ditsong Museums of South Africa, which now amalgamates eight national museums, seven in Tshwane and one in Johannesburg. These museums have diverse collections covering the fields of fauna and flora, palaeontology, military history, cultural history, geology, anthropology and archaeology. The Mapungubwe Museum at the University of Pretoria houses the national treasures of Mapungubwe, a 13thcentury Iron Age site in the Limpopo Valley and a World Heritage Site. Gold ornaments, ivory, bone, ceramicware, clay figurines, trade beads, iron, and copper artefacts are on permanent public display. Freedom Park is situated on Salvokop in Pretoria. It includes a memorial with a list of the names of those killed in the South African Wars, World War I, World War II as well as during the apartheid era. In March 2009, 24 deceased liberation struggle heroes were proposed for inclusion to the memorial. Some of these include Steve Biko, Oliver Tambo, Helen Joseph, Albert Lutuli and Bram Fischer. International and continental leaders were also among those considered for their contribution to the liberation of South Africa or the repressed in general.
The continental leaders included Mozambican President Samora Machel and Amílcar Cabral. Amongst the international list was Che Guevara, a revolutionary who fought alongside former Cuban President Fidel Castro, and Toussaint Louverture, who fought during Haiti’s war for independence. ARCHITECTURE Over the years, the City has had very diverse cultural influences and this is reflected in the architectural styles that can be found in the City. It ranges from British colonial architecture to Art Deco with a good mix of uniquely South African style mixed in. Many of the museums are housed in good architectural examples. Some of the notable structures in Pretoria include the Union Buildings, Voortrekker Monument, the main campus of the University of South Africa, Mahlamba Ndlopfu (the President’s House), Reserve Bank of South Africa (Office Tower) and the Telkom Lukas Rand Transmission Tower. Other known structures and buildings include the Loftus Versfeld Stadium, the South African State Theatre, the University of Pretoria and the headquarters of the Department of International Relations and CoOperation (modern architecture). ZOOLOGICAL GARDENS The National Zoological Gardens of South Africa is an 85-hectare zoo, founded by J W B Gunning in 1899. It became the official National Zoological Gardens in 1916, is the largest zoo in the country and the only one with national status. It is a facility of the National Research Foundation.
More than 600 000 people visit the zoo annually. The total length of the walkways in the zoo is approximately six kilometres. The zoo houses 3 117 specimens of 209 mammal species, 1 358 specimens of 202 bird species, 3 871 specimens of 190 fish species, 388 specimens of four invertebrate species, 309 specimens of 93 reptile species and 44 specimens of seven amphibian species. An aquarium, which is the largest inland marine aquarium in the country, and a reptile park also form part of the facility. It has the third largest collection of exotic trees in South Africa.
The Dinokeng Game Reserve
DINOKENG The Dinokeng Game Reserve is the first free-roaming Big-5 residential game reserve in Gauteng â€“ and the first adjacent to an urbanised area. It is a private/ public initiative for which planning and development started in the early 2000s. It was officially opened on 22 September 2011 after the introduction of four of the Big-5. The last of the Big-5 to be introduced in late 2012 were buffalo. The reserve has about 30 lodges ranging from camping and caravanning to self-catering lodges or tented accommodation and fully catered accommodation. A number of licensed restaurants offer a range of menus.
Tshwane fast facts • Tshwane is South Africa’s capital City and the lens through which the African continent, and the entire world, see the country. • The City is home to 134 foreign embassies and missions, giving it the largest concentration of diplomatic and foreign missions in the world after Washington DC in the US. • Tshwane is the third largest metropolitan municipality in the world, by land size, after New York in the US and Tokyo in Japan. It has a population of 2 921 488. • It is developing into a sport mecca and ideal destination for sport enthusiasts owing to its extensive sport infrastructure and moderate climate. • Tshwane is recognised in the fields of manufacturing, technology, electronics and defence design and construction as the business and investment capital. • The presence of motoring giants Nissan, BMW, Ford and, Tata in the nearby industrial areas has led to Tshwane becoming known as the motor capital of South Africa. • The City is regarded as the knowledge centre of South Africa and has an impressive concentration of academic, research, technology, and scientific institutes offering varying levels of education and training. • Tshwane is the birthplace of South Africa’s democracy. All Presidents in democratic South Africa are inaugurated at the Union Buildings, which symbolises the status of the City as the administrative headquarters of the national government. • It is renowned for its natural heritage and recently became the only City in the world with a Big-5 game reserve within City boundaries - the 90 000-hectare Dinokeng Big five Game Reserve. • Tshwane is also home to the first proclaimed game sanctuary in Africa, the 500-hectare Groenkloof Nature Reserve, which was proclaimed in 1895. • The metropolitan also has one of the world’s largest urban nature reserves, the Rietvlei Nature Reserve. This is a unique retreat where many bird and animal species can be viewed on 3 800 hectares of open grassland. • Tswaing is Gauteng’s best kept astronomical secret. The Tswaing Meteorite Crater Museum in Soshanguve, 40 kilometres to the north of the City centre, is the only ecotourism destination of its kind in Africa. • Tshwane is home of the Nan Hua Buddhist Temple, the largest Buddhist temple in the southern hemisphere and the only one in Africa.
20 YEARS OF ACHIEVEME NTS
The University of Pretoria
Local government & service delivery INTEGRATED PLANNING
The early years of democratic government in South Africa were fraught with a minefield of old apartheid legislation defining what could and could not be done. Given that this legislation was very restrictive and contradictory in how land could be assembled, what plans could be passed, how buildings were regulated and the like, national government passed the Development Facilitation Act (DFA) in 1995 to allow for the fast tracking of larger developments. Whilst meant to be for the development of RDP housing, many private sector developers took advantage of this legislation in Gauteng, building shopping centres and walled estates all over the province. Notwithstanding this, the DFA was important in developing new principles for planning and, by 2000, the Gauteng Spatial Development Framework identified five factors for development in the province: 1. Contained urban growth 2. Resource - based economic development (resulting in the identification of the economic core) 3. Re-direction of urban growth 4. Protection of rural areas and enhancement of tourism and agricultural related activities 5. Increased access and mobility The Gauteng Planning and Development Act, 2003, which outlined principles to promote the spatial restructuring and development of Gauteng, followed this. It provided a framework for the preparation of development plans and spatial frameworks and set out principles for planning and development in the province to promote spatial restructuring and sustainable development. These principles correlate with those as set out in the DFA. As Tshwane started taking shape in the early 2000s, its leadership realised the importance of ensuring the development of a clear strategy. This led to the 2004 City Development Strategy providing an excellent set of focus areas for City planning: 1. Infrastructure-led expansion of development potential of the north to tackle poverty. 2. Continued sound management and development of the established urban areas (Pretoria Central, Centurion, South-eastern Pretoria, Mamelodi and Atteridgeville/Laudium) by maintaining services and
supporting market-driven initiatives to support the overall development of Tshwane. 3. S trengthening key economic clusters to gain leverage from growth trends in manufacturing, government and business services. 4. C elebrating the national capital and repositioning the inner City as a vibrant cultural and government centre. 5. B uilding high levels of social cohesion and civic responsibility to maximise development opportunities. 6. E nsuring a solid foundation by modernising the administration for developmental service delivery through phased restructuring and institution building 7. C reating municipal financial fundamentals as platform for services and development. Subsequently, a number of other important policy and planning frameworks were developed, including the Tshwane Compaction and Densification Strategy. This strategy provided guides and norms for densification within the City and respond to: • H ow residential development in the City can be made more efficient, sustainable and equitable. • H ow the aims of the CDS can be furthered through intensification and densification. • T he strategy sets four key density zones and then sets out the priorities for each: ➢ - Concentration Zones – areas influenced by transportation or concentration of economic activity. These included high-density zones and transit promotion zones. ➢ - Linear Zones - refer specifically to high activity areas that are located along major mobility routes. The mobility routes usually carry high capacities of traffic to areas such as our zones of concentration and transit-orientated zones to encourage the feasibility of public transport. ➢ - Suburban Densification Zones – those existing low density areas where there is potential for moderate densification. ➢ - Low Density Zones – mono-functional suburbs with single dwelling units and large stand sizes.
All of this was happening while at a national level in 2006 a National Spatial Development Perspective to define future development and investment. With this national guidance, in 2006 Tshwane then set about developing an Inner City Development and Regeneration Strategy and the 2006 Growth and Development Strategy aimed at focusing and prioritising efforts to contribute to national and provincial targets. This was followed by the Single Township Planning Scheme, an innovative way of integrating the six in the City township schemes providing a seamless and efficient system for investors, residents, and even its employees to manage, and the next year the Tshwane Metropolitan Spatial Development Framework. These planning frameworks were certainly put to good use with Tshwane in 2009 processing more development applications of all metropoles, some 11 600 applications being processed, more than 152 000m 2 of office space, 97 500m 2 of retail space and 148 700m 2 are for houses and industrial space. By 2009, there was a need to focus on the City’s growing rural areas and a focus on poverty and food security led to further planning frameworks. The launch in 2011 of the National Development Plan – vision for 2030 – focused attention on bringing dignity to all South Africans, which would include access to education, health, services, water, housing, electrification, social security, addressing poverty, and reducing inequality. Together with the National Spatial Planning and Land Use Management Act of 2013, these two national plans will do more to restructure cities away from the apartheid legacy than anything before. Moreover, with this context the timeous launch of Tshwane’s 2055 vision creates the framework within which the next 40 years will occur. Finally, in addition to these macro-economic plans, each year the democratic council of Tshwane reviewed and adopted its Integrated Development Plan, which provided the basis for its annual budget, Service Delivery and Implementation Programme (SDBIP) and performance plans to be developed. These planning frameworks have allowed the development processes to unfold and for a remarkably significant number of plans to be passed each year, valued at billions of rands.
Category Before 2000 2000-2005 2006-2010 2011-2013 Plans approved
15 000 pa
15 738 pa
12 000 pa
Value of plans passed
R10.2 - billion pa
R11 - billion pa
R11.5 - billion pa
In summary, the past 20 years have witnessed the following focal areas: • B efore 2000 elections, the existing planning capacity of Pretoria and Centurion continued to focus on those areas, but started to broaden, initially to Mamelodi and Atteridgeville, then later Soshanguve • O nly in the post-2000 period was there a more comprehensive focus and the 2004: Planning for the future City Development Strategy (CDS) was seminal in its integrated and focused strategies. • Short-term priority “developing the north” (targeted 80 percent of capital for the north, with 50 percent being for water and sanitation). • M edium post-2006 – strengthening economic clusters; celebrating the capital; building social cohesion; and sound management facilitating ongoing development of existing urban areas. • Lower priority internal focus; sound financial fundamentals; and strong developmental municipal institution. • CDS had eight lead-in initiatives: (i) International logistics cluster; (ii) Metropolitan mobility ring complete PWV 9 west Pretoria, (iii) Increasing densities linked to transport, (iv) Digital hub development, (v) Planned reinvestment in infrastructure, (vi) Public transport, (vii) Vibrant capital programme, (viii) Quality public places programme. • Important inner-city strategies to ensure Tshwane’s responsibility as the capital City include the Re Kgabisa Tshwane programme led by Public Works and Public Services Administration including Tshwane - ensuring long-term accommodation for over 40 national head offices and agencies within the inner-city. • Urban renewal plans for Cullinan, Rayton, Bronkhorstspruit and Winterveld have been drawn up.
ELECTRICITY As noted above, except for Mamelodi and Atteridgeville, relatively little happened outside the formally white areas of the City in the pre-interim and interim periods. However, from 2000 to 2005 the programme to improve access to electricity began in earnest and some R154.5 - million was spent to electrify houses and light public places; this included 10 000 new connections in Temba and Winterveld, and the installation of new high‐ mast lighting units. Of course, this could not be done without some overall policy development and, in 2007, a policy on the determination of appropriate levels of service for infrastructure in Tshwane was passed. The aim of this policy was to provide guidance to various council departments on service levels in order to determine backlogs, baselines and implementation. Most projects focused on the previously disadvantaged communities of the North Western, the North Eastern and the Southern Regions. These tremendous initiatives to provide access to electricity have led to a situation today where, other than areas where Eskom capacity is constrained, the City has no significant backlogs in providing services to new residential and business customers. Campaigns such as the “Electricity for all” and “Electricity for Winterveld” programmes led to 10s of thousands of connections to formally disadvantaged areas. Today, though, it is not just access to electricity that is important, but the focus is very much on energy efficiency - working to increase non-conventional sources of energy. Pilot projects have been introduced such as the gas cylinder plant in Atteridgeville, solar water heating, solar - powered street lighting, and solar powered traffic lights.
Proudly, the City of Tshwane could announce in 2010 that with Tshwane experiencing the highest growth in private residential development of all the metropolitan areas, the target of 2 000 streetlights over five years has already been exceeded with over 5 000 new streetlights. 13 high-mast lights were provided, particularly in informal areas and 13 new ones will be provided in the new year. The census of 2011 showed the great record that had been accomplished with over 80 percent of all households having been connected to electricity. The five-year targets for all aspects of electricity provision had been exceeded. Only the provision of high-mast lighting was lagging slightly behind and solar water heating had been rolled out in Winterveld. In the 2012/2013 financial year alone over 6 500 households in informal settlements such as Brazzaville, Itireleng, Letlotlo and Rethuseng will benefit from the electrification programme.
The following table outlines the situation with regard to the provision of electricity: Access to electricity
630 751 HH
CoT: (i) 180 312 prepaid; (ii) 350 213 commercial ESKOM: (i) 97 065 prepaid;
No access to electricity
(ii) 3 161 commercial 122 000 with 93 566 in informal settlements
The past 20 years have found major investments in electricity, some of which include: • Investments made in north west, north east, and southern areas where there had been no electricity before • 1 72 600 connections to formal and informal areas • 4 5 informal settlements electrified
The focus on maintenance and shortening response times has also received a lot of attention with a turnaround time of 48 hours for the repair of reported faulty lights. Furthermore, interventions such the realtime monitoring of streetlights will be investigated as part of proactive maintenance to ensure 100 percent visibility at night. There is now an established partnership (and funding) with Eskom to look at the households it supplies directly to ensure universal access.
• 4 7 788 new streetlights • 9 35 new high mast lights • 1 0 650 solar water heaters in RDP houses • 2 3 222 retrofitting streetlights • 2 48 retrofitting traffic lights • 5 0 000 retrofitting municipal buildings • 1 385 MVA total capacity
This includes upgrading substations and significant focus on the Nokeng Tsa Taemane and Kungwini areas. This is part of a free basic electricity service where indigent customers will receive 100 kWh per month. This also includes a sustainability programme run together with Eskom, which aims to rollout solar water heaters.
WATER AND SANITATION
and the City will keep a close eye on the situation until an extension and refurbishment of Rooiwal WWTW is completed in 2015.
Once the City had been consolidated, its major focus for capital expenditure was on electricity, water and sanitation. Whilst there were some upgrades of formal townships like Mamelodi and Atteridgeville in the 1990s, the significant programmes to provide access to water occurred from early 2000s.
Secondly, the focus over the past 20 years has been primarily around giving all households access to clean water. Each year, 10s of thousands of residents have been provided with access when there was none before. Initially the focus for informal settlements was to get water to within 200 metres of the yard, but by 2009, the call had become one for providing intermediary services of a tap in the yard as approved by the Council.
Firstly, major bulk expenditure was required such as the investment in the Temba Bulk Water Supply Scheme to alleviate water shortages. These bulks are costly and take time to plan and properly develop, constraining easy access to water and sanitation. It is hoped, though, that most bulks are now properly planned for. At the same time, recent setbacks such as the Rooiwal sewer spill into the Apies River, which resulted in farmers complaining of contaminated borehole water, led to urgent City action at the Rooiwal Waste Water Treatment Works (WWTW). This has now been repaired
By 2011, Council could proudly claim that by the end of December 2010 the City had installed 68 315 metres of bulk water pipelines and 1 041 522 metres of internal water network pipes in various areas. The quality of our water has achieved the South African National Standard 241 level of 98.9 percent, meaning that we have one of the best drinking water supplies in the country.
Category Before 2000 2000-2005 2006-2010 2011-2013 Water â€“ bulk
202 Million KL pa
237 Million KL pa
202 Million KL pa
Water â€“ connections N/D 8 900 11 120 2 230 Wastewater treatment N/D 10 527 ML/day N/D 17 573 ML/day Upgrading N/D 71.5 157.3 105.1 water lines (kms) Upgrading N/D N/D 22.2 37.5 sanitation infra (km)
In summary, the achievements of The City of Tshwane over the past 20 years have been significant in providing access to clean water:
â€˘ T he City-wide strategy is to divide the City into three contexts: - F ormal suburbs - full water service with metered connections. - In-site areas that can be formalised - basic water standpipes or tankers provided less than 200 metres from household. - Temporary settlements - rudimentary service less than 500 m from households.
â€˘ K ey initiatives at present to significantly impact on water and sanitation backlogs include: - Winterveld - rural sanitation and on-site dry sanitation UDS toilets at each stand, with 9 399 toilets delivered since 2005. - Temba â€“ 60 000 households backlog should be covered when bulk water comes on stream (2015). - T he Ekangala WWTW - presently under construction and should address backlogs in Ekangala and Zithobeni. - B lue and Green Drop programmes, where Tshwane has done very well. - Non-revenue water - a water conservation plan developed in 2008. Currently NRW is 25.2 percent, well below national average of 36 percent. - Council has resolved that, by the end of December 2014, the existing 38 760 backlogs in basic sanitation must be addressed.
HOUSING In the first 10 years of Council’s operation, housing was not an established local government function, but since the early 2000s, the housing and human settlements programme has become a major priority. The 2004 National Programme of Breaking New Ground provided impetus to ensure that government delivers sustainable human settlements that are near socio-economic opportunities. Many initiatives have been adopted in the City and have continued well after adoption, including:
• 2006: Focus on dormant housing and office blocks policy allowing private developers to rehabilitate dormant housing and office blocks in the City to create rental housing units. This has resulted in affordable housing within the City, and also regenerated and gentrified some parts of the City. • 2006: Provision of title deeds - between 2000 and 2005, 80 000 title deeds were issued to residents who had been denied property rights.
• 2 012: Together with the Gauteng provincial department, the City ran a programme aimed at providing decent accommodation for backyard dwellers. • 2 012: Speeding up the delivery process through the appointment of turnkey contractors for a three-year period, the appointment of a panel of professional teams for a three-year period, the development of annual procurement plans and the establishment of the Rapid Response Team. • 2 012: Land tenure became a focus with the Marabastad Land Tenure Upgrade report approved by Council on 26 January 2012. Identified owners of buildings are now, after centuries, the legal owners of the properties on which they have built. • 2 013: Veterans were being looked after with the allocation of houses for military veterans in the GaRankuwa Extension 24, Thorntree and Winterveld.
• 2 006: Converting hostels into family units and in 2010 looked at alternative mechanisms of raising the funds to do this.
• 2 013: Students’ accommodation became another priority and the City appointed developers as part of the West Capital to provide accommodation to 7 000 students in the City amongst others, given that there is a backlog of some 65 000 student beds.
• 2007: Mixed settlement housing development policy focusing on working with the financial institutions to house those who do not qualify for subsidies but can have access to bonds.
• 2 013: The City was recognised as the best performer in relation to the spending of the Urban Settlement Development Grant (USDG), spending some 98 percent of this grant.
• 2007: Promotion of cooperative housing revisiting the mandate of Housing Company Tshwane to promote housing co-operatives and increase rental stock. Nantes and the white block in Eersterust and Laudium respectively were piloted as cooperatives. • 2007: Formalisation of informal settlements – targets were set to formalise the 65 informal settlements, giving them water and sanitation as well as title deeds. As the merger with Metsweding came about an additional 27 informal settlements were brought into this programme. By 2008, some 23 of 65 informal settlements were formalised. By 2010, 33 of the 65 areas were formalised, but then in 2012 some 27 additional informal settlements were brought into the City.
In addition to these initiatives, the City provided 10s of thousands of housing: Category
Built RDP houses
2 658 pa
5 595 pa
4 354 pa
CRUs N/D 211 pa 340 pa N/D Providing title deeds
15 000 pa
4 000 pa
4 000 pa
Title deeds programme restores dignity
Flagship housing projects
Thousands of City of Tshwane residents are proudly making history towards their own total emancipation and economic freedom by receiving long-awaited title deeds from the City as part of its Re Aga Tshwane programme, growth and development strategy, and Vision 2055. The Re Aga Tshwane Programme is aimed at promoting security of tenure for all beneficiaries in the City while the vision for 2055 aims to provide residents with a liveable, inclusive, and resilient capital City. The aim of the growth and development strategy is to transform the City’s unequal and segregated landscape by building sustainable communities and providing adequate, quality services and infrastructure for all who live in Tshwane.
In September 2013 the City of Tshwane, in partnership with Nissan South Africa, launched a flagship housing project in Ga-Rankuwa, to improve the lives of 200 families in the area. To fast track the process of restoring dignity to the beneficiaries, the City of Tshwane donated 200 stands to Nissan. The City has also exempted Nissan from building control registration fees to allow it to build houses through its Blue Citizenship global housing initiative. The first phase of the project saw 50 houses being built by the end of 2013.
The process is also part of the City’s programme to speed up formalising informal settlements in Tshwane and restoring the dignity of its people. By undertaking the project of handing over title deeds to residents, the City of Tshwane is positively contributing to: • Security of tenure • M ore equitable and cost-effective collection of land taxes, service charge revenue and property taxation • Security and access to credit • Stimulation of the land market • P aving the way for installation of services and infrastructure • Increasing the value of the land through development • R edistributing real wealth – property – and thereby contributing to the improvement of the lives of the City’s residents
It is the City’s goal to collaborate with strategic partners and corporates to improve service delivery and provide decent housing and dignity to its citizens, especially the indigents, through property ownership. The City will also provide roads, walk-ups and all rudimentary services in the area. The total eradication of informal settlements remains an important goal of the City.
The City will be partnering with the private sector with a clear intention to fast-track the formalisation of informal settlements, proclaim un-proclaimed townships, issue title deeds to RDP beneficiaries and relocate families that have settled along servitude reserves to permanent serviced stands.
The City of Tshwane has completed the servicing of 1 200 stands in the 2011/12 financial year and an additional 1 072 stands in the 2012/13 financial year in Ga-Rankuwa Zone 10. R60 - million has been spent on the servicing of stands, including the installation of bulk water and sewer infrastructure. Sites have already
been pinpointed for schools, community facilities and parks. A further R36 - million has been budgeted for the 2013/14 financial year for the provision of access roads and storm water infrastructure.
Access to a safe, clean, and healthy environment is one of the most important functions of local government. Tshwane has played its part in delivering that with major initiatives to:
In summary, there has been a huge focus over the 20 years on formalising informal settlements, firstly through providing basic services and more recently with creating more human settlements, with a range of services linked more closely to economic opportunities and public transport.
• Renovate existing clinics • B uild new ones, such as in 2006 with Klip‐Kruisfontein and Akasia, with Phomolong Clinic being extended
Over 20 years the following delivery occurred:
• C ontinue working to strengthen free primary healthcare (PHC) services in the 23 municipal clinics and over 60 percent of facilities are now providing a comprehensive PHC
• 252 596 stands
• E stablishing ward-based health committees
• 164 798 free standing houses
• E mploying hundreds of community-based healthcare workers
• 20 320 CRUs • In 2011 Tshwane received level -1 and -2 accreditation to assist in driving the programmes going forward • T he Tsosoloso programme focuses on ensuring quality public spaces in township areas • O verall, in Tshwane, some 74 percent live in formal housing (11 percent high density, 8 percent medium, 55 percent low) and 26 percent in informal housing (14 percent in houses and 12 percent in backyards)
• Improving air quality trough better monitoring, such as the many mobile air monitoring networks • T he campaign to clean our rivers and streams especially in underprivileged communities • F ood safety and pollution control • P rojects in the Cities for Climate Protection (CCP) campaign and Sustainable Energy for Development (SEED) programme were implemented to reduce greenhouse gases in the atmosphere • E nsuring by 2008 that 98 percent of households have access to a PHC within five kilometres
Key focus areas in 2013 include: • M ilitary veterans housing • S tudent accommodation, given demand is at least 60 000 beds • Establishment of a Rapid Response Team • Health (including environmental health and safety)
While these and other initiatives were being implemented, the City continued to provide a municipal health service to millions of people at its clinics. The figures below indicate the incredible number of people making use of these facilities:
615 000 pa
960 000 pa
2011-2013 1 700 000 pa
In summary • C ity of Tshwane operates some 23 clinics and three satellites • A cross the City, 98 percent of households have access to PHC within five kilometres of their home • N ew clinics built: Three from 2000-2005, two from 2006-2010, and two from 2011-2013 • U pgrading of clinics: Six from 2000-2005, four from 2006-2010, and four from 2011-2013 • O ver 75 percent of children are vaccinated and tuberculosis rates have declined
TRANSPORT INFRASTRUCTURE With the amalgamation of Tshwane, it became clear that there was a need to eradicate the roads infrastructure backlog especially in old townships. This included the construction and upgrading of roads, tarring of gravel roads, and new storm water drainage services. By 2006, it was estimated that Tshwane tarring of 2 300 kilometres of gravel road, mostly in previously disadvantaged areas, would cost R2.6 - billion, with storm water systems costing another R1.2 - billion. As a result, Tshwane accelerated the development of master plans to address this situation, and budgets were doubled from then onwards. Facilities were also upgraded, such as public transport infrastructure in the case of the Bloed Street Taxi Rank project. Importantly, maintenance was also prioritised and the following are some of the key areas: • A target fixing time of 48 hours of potholes from the time that a pothole has been reported was set • P rioritising the clearing and cleaning of the stormwater system, to reduce the effects of heavy rains in our residential areas • Fixing faulty traffic lights • Stabilising of the Tshwane bus service
By 2008, non-motorised transport started receiving the priority it deserved, with the planning for cycle routes. Overall, Tshwane adopted a deliberate prioritisation of the eradication of roads infrastructure backlog, especially in those previously-neglected areas of the City. To this end, the following budgets were expended over the past 20 years, even though the City remains with almost 2 500 kilometres of unimproved roads.
Category Before 2000 2000-2005 2006-2010 2011-2013 Backlog roads (km) N/D 2 274 2 284 2 448 Roads – operating (Mil) 171.7 321.7 538 588 Roads – capital (Mil) 117.7 99.1 397.6 534.7
In summary: • T he capacity to deliver CAPEX for roads has significantly increased during the 20 year period. • Estimates in 2007 indicated the cost of upgrading all gravel in former disadvantaged areas would be around R2.6 - billion with stormwater costing another R1.2 - billion. • Council has targeted the end of 2015/16 financial year that all roads in Soshanguve, Mabopane, Winterveld and Ga-Rankuwa need to be tarred. • T he increased size of Tshwane has led to an increased backlog in the provision of roads.
PARKS AND RECREATION Parks and recreation play a very important part in the life and health of a City. By 2006, some 210 sports and recreational facilities across Tshwane were being managed, with significant expenditures being made to upgrade them. By 2012, it became necessary to create a uniform system and so the council adopted the concept of two parks per ward in an effort to redress the backlogs. A consultative process with Councillors to enable communities to have a significant input in the design and location of such recreational infrastructure was undertaken. The vision is for neighbourhood parks to have standard features such as ablution amenities, ablution blocks, walking trails, playground equipment, and requisite park furniture.
Fitness parks add to health, environment The people of Atteridgeville became the first community to benefit from the City of Tshwane’s
improved two parks per ward initiative, which now incorporates a fitness park, an amphitheatre and children’s playground. The park in Kalafong Heights, where anyone can now keep fit for free, was officially handed over to the community in late 2013. The park, which was previously used as an illegal dumping site, has been transformed at a cost of R7.2 - million. The initial plan of the two parks per ward programme is aimed to ensure that there is sufficient park infrastructure in all communities in the City. This would increase the rate of landscape beautification initiatives across the municipality and overall, address park development backlogs. The parks will incorporate fitness parks, amphitheatres for social interaction of the community and children’s playgrounds to keep them off the streets. The Kalafong Heights Park may be the first one to incorporate a fitness park, but nine others have already been handed over to communities in the region since the City started the initiative. It is envisaged that all wards in Tshwane will eventually have a minimum of two parks. As not all people can afford paying for expensive gyms, the facility will encourage residents to adopt a healthy lifestyle and become healthy citizens. The equipment in the park consists of high-quality climbing walls, kids’ play equipment such as swings, merry-go-rounds and slides, rowing machines, exercise bikes, weights, and cross trainers that are all permanently mounted on the ground. The equipment is made out of robust, weatherproof material that can withstand rain, sun, and cold. People of all ages and fitness levels can use it, including the handicapped. Residents are urged to protect the equipment from vandals and from being stolen.
This project is proof that the City of Tshwane has been responsive to the needs of its residents with a park that now provides certain environmental and social spinoffs, such as reducing illegal waste dumping and improving general health conditions in the area. The concept also encourages communities to workout outside in a public park, breathing fresh air, and enjoying the natural light.
The aim of the R20 - million greening project is to expedite the provision of sport facilities to communities across Tshwane and consist of short-term intervention through the rehabilitation of existing formal and informal facilities, and long-term intervention by constructing new multi-purpose facilities or converting existing facilities into multipurpose centres.
The initiative has also been responsible for job creation and economic development in the City because every time a park is developed, local members of the communities are afforded an opportunity to be employed. Prospects also exist for local up and coming businesses to subcontract in the projects. Materials where possible are similarly sourced locally creating an economic spin. Employees are furthermore trained in the process, leaving them with hard skills they can use in future employment and awarding them opportunities of creating a gap for piece jobs in the community. The concept is also in line with the Cityâ€™s energy saving principles, which promote low consumption of electricity, no air conditioning, and no electrical lights, as compared to exercising in a building.
One of the short-term interventions that the City has embarked on is the greening of all existing informal facilities and dilapidated formal facilities. In order to ensure that these facilities remain in good condition for a longer period and to cut down on their maintenance costs, artificial turfs are being used for this project.
New pitch for stadium Green artificial pitch has been laid at Mbolekwa Stadium as part of the City of Tshwaneâ€™s greening project of sports facilities in response to the deteriorating state of sport facilities in the municipality.
Two five-a-side centres will also be constructed at the Ga-Rankuwa SAB Park and Stanza Bopape Multipurpose Centre respectively, while the full artificial pitch at the Mbolekwa Sports Centre is now in full use. The facilities that have been identified were confirmed after consultation with local football associations, as they are the key stakeholders and users thereof. The key mandate of the Sport and Recreational Services Department is to create an environment that is conducive to sport development in Tshwane, and this can only be achieved by ensuring that sports facilities are available and accessible for sport programmes and recreational purposes across the City.
The expenditure in the upgrades and building of new parks and facilities across the City is contained in the following table:
Category Before 2000 2000-2005 2006-2010 2011-2013 Sports and Recreation
93.6 - million
87.7 - million
87.7 - million
In summary: • E arly in 2006, some 210 sports facilities were being managed by the City and this continues to increase as more facilities are being provided and others upgraded. • R ecently, the development of parks as part of a human settlement strategy has been prioritised. • C ouncil resolved that at least two neighbourhood parks must be found in each ward. The standard features in each of these are to have ablution amenities, ablution blocks, walking trails, playgrounds, and the requisite park furniture.
SOLID WASTE A major problem facing cities is the collection and disposal of solid waste. In 1994, only the formalised parts of Tshwane had a formal system of waste collection and disposal. Over the 20-year period, significant steps have been taken to improve access to solid waste removal processes. In addition to increasing coverage:
• B y 2013, 766 064 households in proclaimed (formalised) areas received a full kerbside service. • U nder apartheid, there were differentiated standards that are now being replaced. For example, where black South Africans received wheeled bins they had 85L bins compared to the 240L bins in white areas. This is now changing as the City rolls out 240L bins across its jurisdiction. • In 2012, the City decided to the lease of 92 state-ofthe-art vehicles over a period of three years, allowing the City to focus exclusively on the provision of primary service. • In 2012, as part of the Expanded Public Works Programme (EPWP), the City of Tshwane launched the Vat Alles operation where more than 38 000 work opportunities will be developed from the operation that is aimed at keeping Tshwane clean. The Vat Alles soldiers are responsible for general litter picking, the maintenance of cemeteries, shopping centres and open spaces, the clearance of illegal dumping and basic maintenance at sporting facilities.
• W ard-based education programmes aimed at cleanliness were conducted. • O ver 157 000 households in informal settlements receive plastic bags. By 2013, this meant that over 1 161 893 plastic bags for waste collection were distributed in these areas.
Waste collection has now become a massive operation as the following figures showing the increase in the number of points at which solid waste is collected:
Category Before 2000 2000-2005 2006-2010 2011-2013 Waste collection points – full curbside
In summary: • O ver 750 000 collection points service residents and businesses within Tshwane. • Since 2010, over 95 percent of all residents in informal settlements received plastic bags for waste collection. • O ver 38 000 opportunities have been developed from the Vat Alles EPWP programme, where community workers collect litter, maintain cemeteries, clean up open spaces and shopping centres, clear illegal dumping areas, and provide basic maintenance of sports facilities.
INFORMATION & COMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGY (ICT) The drive to improve ICT in order to run the City more efficiently and effectively, as well as provide additional services for the residents is not an easy accomplishment given the digital divide our country faces. The path to give improved access to ICT include the following: • 2 009: System operationalised including an international partner and the Broadbank programme begins. • 2 011: Provision of Wi-Fi facilities at public places such as the Es’kia Mphahlele, Saulsville and Atteridgeville libraries. • 2 012: Technical study tour focused on smart grid development, highlighting best practices and lessons learned in electricity distribution modernisation and smart metering. Broadband is the backbone for most of the smart City initiatives. The City has deployed in excess of 500 kilometres of fibre through the Smart City Project, this has resulted in significant savings over the last three years by connecting City buildings and infrastructure on City-owned networks and by making use of the City’s own infrastructure as opposed to outsourcing voice and data communication. • 2 012: The City of Tshwane’s digital trunked radio communication is being rolled out in the progression of phases. Phase 1 has been completed and the
additional base stations will be constructed to fill in the radio coverage gaps. • 2 012: 69 public internet access sites have been connected. • 2 013: Priority on laying fibre in the more rural areas of the City.
Provision of free wi-fi The City is now offering free Wi-Fi connectivity in selected areas around Tshwane. At least 10 000 users will be able to connect to the internet at the same time at each of the existing five Wi-Fi hotspots. It has rolled out free Wi-Fi to poor communities, dense urban areas, and the City’s educational institutions. The first phase of the project provides free connectivity to five locations at the Tshwane University of Technology’s Soshanguve campus, the University of Pretoria’s Hatfield campus, Tshwane North College, Mamelodi Community Centre and Church Square in the CBD. The sites were chosen strategically to be closer to people in need and with main emphasis on education. The City of Tshwane feels that the internet should be classified as a basic service like electricity and water. For example, the new e-Tshwane service, which property owners can use to manage their municipal bills online, will fail if people are not able to access the internet. Based on the City’s level of education, being the seat of government and the third-largest municipality in the world in terms of land mass, it is justified to enter the internet space. Phase 2 of the project will begin in early 2014 and focus on providing Wi-Fi coverage to 219 schools in Soshanguve, Mamelodi and Atteridgeville. It is expected that this phase will be completed by June 2014. The free Wi-Fi project is undertaken in partnership with Project Isizwe, a non-profit global movement aimed at providing free Internet to Africa as a form of investing in the continent’s intellectual capital. Former Mxit CEO
Alan Knott-Craig founded project Isizwe. Phase 1 of the project will be paid for by the City, which has budgeted R1 million for it. The first phase is expected to provide 5 000 m2 coverage.
• R ural areas are now being prioritised in the laying of fibre.
A wide variety of services are provided by the City including disaster management, emergency services, fire services, metro police and many more. Their accomplishments are many, including:
The initiative forms part of the City’s ICT strategy, another key element of which is turning Tshwane into a smart City using ICT to enhance the delivery of basic services, improve revenue collection, stimulate economic growth, and attempt to bridge the digital divide. Further projects involving ICT include rolling out smart metering systems, having Wi-Fi connectivity on the A Re Yeng Rapid Bus Service, intelligent traffic management systems, and improving public safety. In the past two years, the City has already connected dozens of municipal offices, libraries and customer care centres. It intends expanding this coverage to every corner of the City within two years.
• T he City continues to train communities in basic life skills, Buddy Aid, basic fire information session, candle safety, paraffin safety, gas safety, pre–winter awareness campaignand flood awareness campaign. • T he Safer City Policy and Strategy – in this regard we are grateful to the South African Police Service and MEC Cachalia for endorsing the establishment of a joint and sustained integrated approach to rid our society of the wave of criminality that has hit our peaceful City.
• In 2009, a City-wide broadband strategy was adopted.
• D isaster Management Framework March 2008: In response to a national imperative, this policy ensures an integrated approach to disaster risk management and to drive the activities of the municipal disaster management centre.
• In 2011, Wi-Fi access provided at public places such as the Es’kia Mphahlele, Saulsville, and Atteridgeville libraries.
• E stablishment of a youth brigade, where young people were taught firefighting and disaster management skills.
• City-owned buildings are now on programme to be connected with the City’s own infrastructure being utilised.
• In responding to the Metsweding merger, the fire department acquired new grass fire and command response vehicles.
• B y 2012, some 69 public internet sites were available. Some of figures are as follows:
Category Before 2000 2000-2005 2006-2010 2011-2013 Ambulance and emergency calls 34 200 60 500 60 100 66 500 Fire calls 6 940 8 230 8 600 15 540
Police and traffic personnel increase The City of Tshwane is moving faster than anticipated in transforming South Africa’s capital City into a safe, secure, and liveable place for its 2.9 million residents. It has seen the placement of nearly 500 newly-graduated metro police and the deployment of dozens of traffic wardens through the City’s partnership with Radio 702 and OUTsurance. The graduation of the new metro police will help boost the strength of law enforcement across the City and make it possible for officers to focus on high-end priorities. The expansion of the OUTsurance mobile pointsmen initiative will be a major relief for motorists amid the spatial transformation underway in the CBD because of the A re Yeng Bus Rapid Transit construction. Through the initiatives, the City also responds to unemployment by skilling the youth through on-thejob training. In terms of the public-private partnership (PPP) initiative with OUTsurance, Radio 702 and Traffic Freeflow, the current 27 static pointsmen will be replaced with 60 mobile pointsmen. The new metro police recruits and the pointsmen fulfils the City of Tshwane commitment to build a safe, secure and liveable City by turning around the metro police via the implementation of the ward-based deployment strategy, aimed at deploying 10 officers per ward at any given time. The strategy has been evolving in three interlinked phases namely: • T he renewal of the ageing metro police fleet. In this regard, the City received in the previous financial year new vehicles valued at R21 - million. • T he strengthening of the shift supervisory cadre within the metro police with the appointment of 70 superintendents, who became shift supervisors. They commenced their duties in April 2012. • T he recruitment of 500 students who underwent two-year training to become metro police officers. It is the City’s aim that, come 2014, the overall number
of metro police officers should have risen from the current 1 600 to 3 500. The City will recruit another 1 000 metro police officers to realise its vision of 10 metro police officers per ward. To make sure the trainees are adequately equipped for the work, they undergo intensive and rigorous training for a period of 15 months. The training programmes are regarded as the best South African metro police training programmes. To complement this force, the City will continue to expand the use of technology in its crime prevention strategies and extend the deployment of CCTV cameras to most parts of the City and major public facilities. In summary: • S cale of service delivery has increased significantly over the past 20 years. • O ne of the first cities to create a one-stop call centre, improving effectiveness and efficiency. • S trong policies and frameworks in place – disaster management, emergency services, and fire. • Youth brigade formed. • O ver 10 000 community engagements each year dealing with basic life skills, Buddy Aid, fire information, candle and paraffin safety, pre-winter awareness, and flood awareness.
PUBLIC TRANSPORT Addressing the effects of apartheid requires the establishment of an integrated, effective, efficient, and safe public transport system. This must also be done in conjunction with the creation of a more economic built environment. Until around 2007, the transport system was fragmented, unsafe, poorly organised, inefficient and uneconomic. A number of steps have been taken since then to create an integrated system: • 2 007: Early stages in creation of an Integrated Transport Plan (ITP)
• 2008: Work started on seven key elements of the ITP
o Introduce BRT
o Municipal buses in the north
o Upgrade Wonderboom
o Tshwane Freight Airport
o Rail system improvements including Gautrain
o Strengthen collaboration with taxi, bus, and rail industries
o Improve road system for NMT
• 2 012: The initial BRT route has been re-aligned to the recommendations from National Treasury and national Department of Roads and Transport through residential areas. It will commence in the Zone of choice coming to town. • 2 012: All the major public transport routes in the areas of Hammanskraal and the former Metsweding areas will be tarred from June 2014, with work on the remainder of the internal roads commencing in July 2014.
Some of the figures of bus passenger capacity are as follows:
Around 12 million pa
Around 13.5 million pa
Bus kilometres driven
Around 7.4 million km pa
Around 7.9 million km pa
New buses for tbs
Bus Rapid Transit (BRT)
The Tshwane Bus Service (TBS) is set to replenish its current fleet with 120 new buses in the 2013/14 financial year. It is set to undergo a major overhaul with the acquisition of a new top of-the range fleet aimed at improving an effective bus service to the community of Tshwane.
The overall goal of the BRT initiative is to improve the quality of life of the Tshwane citizens through the provision of a high quality and affordable public transport system. The long-term vision is to develop a system that places 85 percent of Tshwane’s population within 500 metres of the BRT trunk or feeder corridor. The long-term objectives of the IRT project encompass the fundamental pillars of Tshwane’s competitiveness as a city, including economic, social, and environmental sustainability.
The TBS, a specialised unit of the Department of Transport, has been plagued by a myriad challenges for quite some time, including the unavailability of buses. In a bid to reverse its underperformance and to bring it to acceptable levels, it has adopted a turnaround strategy. The City Manager of Tshwane said the primary aim of the turnaround strategy was to deal with internal constraints and unfavourable practices inhibiting the provision of acceptable services to the public, customers, and the City. He said 260 buses are required to have a fully recapitalised bus fleet. The first delivery of the 120 buses is expected in February 2014, and 12 of those buses will have facilities for wheelchairs. Some of the key features of the contract with MAN Bus and Truck include low floor buses, Euro four buses as well as training for drivers and workshop personnel. Over and above the 120 buses to be supplied by MAN, 40 are currently leased from PRASA until the new fleet is delivered. The leasing of PRASA buses was to alleviate the shortfall of TBS buses, extend coverage to routes that are affected and improve availability. PRASA buses were delivered in April 2013 and are now operational, covering various routes within the area of the operation.The leased buses are of the highest standard as they were mainly used for leisure and luxury trips, but the TBS will utilise them for local trips. They boast special features such as DVD screens, air conditioners, radios and adjustable seats to suit the passenger sitting position. MAN Truck and Bus will further carry out repairs and maintenance on buses to assist in clearing the backlog for a period of a year. The other type of a bus (Mercedes Benz), which forms part of the City’s fleet, will continue to be repaired and maintained by TBS personnel.
The development of the network was informed by recent travel demand data and the need to serve the largest percentage of the municipal population in a cost efficient manner without compromising the quality of the service. The network comprises five elements: •
Park and ride facilities
The BRT will operate on dedicated infrastructure that will provide a high priority bus service from Akasia to Menlyn via the CBD during Phase 1. A dedicated bus feeder and a NMT network providing greater accessibility to the system will support the trunk operations. The BRT System will be characterised by various elements such as segregated median bus lanes, BRT stations, state of the art busses, ITS and UTC Technology, and EMV Smartcard technology, which will provide the system the tools to attain the efficiency, safety, and universal accessibility - some of the goals and objectives the BRT System. The principles of BRT stress rapid service to minimise travel times, while also providing security, comfort, and convenience to the customer. To facilitate rapid boarding and alighting of customers, pre-board fare collection will be utilised. At boarding stations as well, dwell times will be reduced as boarding will be quick due to level platform boarding. This will make the system more accessible to people with physical
disabilities. It is envisaged that at peak capacities, vehicles will arrive every three to five minutes. During nonpeak periods, busses will arrive at least every 10 minutes. At this stage, it is projected that the system will operate from 05:00 until 21:00. The BRT system is envisaged to integrate with all modes including feeder vehicles, bicycles, pedestrian, private cars and metered taxis. The physical, network information, and fare integration will ensure that the system is integrated and functions as a single and seamless system to benefit the user. The clean fuels and modern propulsion systems will ensure that the BRT minimises its impact on the environment. An estimated 174 buses will be procured for the system and will comply with the latest European emission standards. The City further approved a decision to roll out CNG fuel for at least 30 percent of the BRT bus fleet, post inception phase. This is part of the City’s commitment to reduce carbon emissions, while driving sustainability. The smart card technology will be utilised for fare collection and fare verification. The smart card to be used will conform to the NDOT recommended standards and will be interoperable (can be used in more than one mode). BRT is just one part of a larger package of the proposed solutions for Tshwane. It will go a long way in addressing some of the current transport challenges. It will be important that other strategies be considered, such as non-motorised transport, good land-use planning and disincentives for private vehicle use. Although both rail and BRT are urban transit systems, the BRT should complement rail given the capacity that rail can handle. City of Tshwane is working very closely with PRASA in order to ensure mutual synergies in terms of fare and integration. BRT is aimed at transforming the existing road-transport system. By offering point of integration between the two systems, BRT can help maximise customer convenience and provide services to rail. The whole BRT project is based on the premise that there will be no loss of employment in the sector;
the taxi industry should not be made worse off. BRT will use larger vehicles in order to achieve system efficiency; drivers and other staff will work on a shift basis and there should be no overall reduction. There will be a stable income rather than a salary that is dependent on the number of passengers collected. There will be many opportunities that currently do not exist such as customer service staff, fare collection staff, security workers, and maintenance staff. The BRT will significantly improve work conditions for thousands of persons working in the transport industry. The BRT is a platform for rationalising, professionalising, and improving public transport across Tshwane. The rationale of bringing minibus taxi operators and existing bus operators together on with profitable and non-subsidised operations is a win-win scenario for both the public and the taxi operators. In the long term, BRT corridors will encompass all the major arterial routes in Tshwane and feeder vehicles will eventually serve all residential areas. Given that the BRT is implemented in phases, the current focus is on Line 1 and Line 2 (Phase 1). Other areas will be part of Phase 2 and it is envisaged that this will be post 2016. The BRT is a clear opportunity to put the minibus taxi on a level playing field with the existing bus operators. Much of the current industry’s history emanates from the fact that some public transport providers are being subsidised whilst the taxi industry continues to struggle with no subsidy at all. The City of Tshwane is in a process of finalising a value chain framework that will outline areas where the taxi industry will benefit in the implementation of the BRT. In summary: • T shwane is making significant investments in the development of an Integrated Transport Plan, passed in 2007 • T he strategy aims to integrate taxis, buses, rail and non-motorised transport • T he Bus Rapid Transit system is being extended particularly to the north of the City
ENVIRONMENT Some of the key environmental initiatives include: • 2005: Tshwane Sustainable Energy and Climate Change Strategy • 2007: Tshwane Integrated Environment Policy • 2010: D evelopment of a policy and by-laws around green buildings, setting minimum standards, and putting systems in place for increasing the number of green buildings in the City • 2013: Green economy in partnership with CSIR and UNEP
Tshwane House - Rising like a phoenix After being destroyed in a fire in 1997, the former municipal headquarters, Munitoria has finally been imploded to make way for Tshwane House, the new state-of-the-art municipal headquarters with a reconstruction estimate of R3 - billion. HISTORY OF MUNITORIA BUILDING The first owner of the land on which Munitoria was erected was the City’s founder and then president, Marthinus Wessel Pretorius. This land was given as compensation after he had bought the Elandspoort and Daspoort farms on which Pretoria was established for R1 200. After his retirement in office, he sold the land in 1876 to an English immigrant, T W Beckett, for R300. Beckett registered this land in the Deeds Office in the name of his six-year-old son George William and erected his first thatched-roof dwelling and planted exotic trees which he believed to be the Australian blackwood tree although they were Casuarina trees, also Australian, which were still standing there when the site was cleared for the erection of Munitoria.
that time, Pretoria had few buses and a majority of councillors rejected this offer. One councillor, then the chairperson of the City Council’s finance committee, Saul Rutowitz, was against the decision to reject the offer. Two years later, he submitted a memorandum to the council urging the purchase of this site, arguing that the site was in danger of being cut up and losing its value. After careful consideration, the City Council decided to negotiate with Beckett, but it was not until after the World War II that the City Council was informed that Beckett was prepared to sell the Blackwood Villa site for R200 000. After further negotiations, Beckett accepted an offer of R190 000 and the property was acquired in March 1945. Munitoria was a name chosen by means of a public competition in 1965 and derived from the words Municipality and Pretoria. The City Council’s headquarters were built during the 1960s, with the official inauguration taking place on 28 February 1969. FIRE DEVASTATES BUILDING
One of the Pretoria’s early hotels was built on this site and because of the trees growing there, the hotel soon became known as the Blackwood Villa Hotel. For many years it was one of Pretoria’s leading hotels, being particularly popular with visitors from the rural areas who found the stables and the efficient grooms much to their liking. With the growth of Pretoria and the erection of new hotels, the Blackwood Villa Hotel lost its popularity and eventually became a boarding house. The site retained the name however, and it was known as Blackwood Villa when George William Beckett offered his inheritance to the City Council for R80 000 in 1936. “It seems to us that this is an ideal site either for a market or for a bus garage or for parking buses,” Beckett wrote in a letter to the City Council. At
On 3 March 1997, a fire was sighted in the office of the Licensing Department in the basement level of the rates and taxes hall of the west block. The Pretoria Fire and Ambulance Division Control Centre received its first fire call at 18:24 and immediately dispatched the first team of fighters. It took the team six minutes to reach the scene. An incident command centre was set up at the entrance of Munitoria. Additional fire tenders arrived from other fire departments of the Council. As the fire spread, the incident commander requested assistance from Centurion and Akasia fire departments. Further fire supports services came from as far as Sandton. According to the Chief Fire Officer, Steve Combrink, who led the command centre at Munitoria, the support from the neighbouring towns was incredible. He said it was ironic that the fire started in the division of CCP’s
Community Safety Department. Two of the Community Safety Department’s divisions and the Department’s head offices were destroyed while staff of the department fought for 12 hours to bring the fire under control. The team fought long and hard to extinguish the fire, but more importantly to prevent the fire spreading into the south block and into the Mayor’s office, which were situated in a two-level bridge linking Munitoria and Sammy Marks building. The fire was eventually extinguished at approximately 08:30 on 4 March 1997. A number of firefighting crews remained at the scene of the fire to continue with damping down operations. Unfortunately, the fire reignited in the southern section of the west block during that evening and continued to smoulder for another three days before being completely extinguished on 7 March. The first damage reports confirmed that the west block could not be saved and that the smoke, soot, and water damage to the south block would necessitate extensive refurbishment of the building and its contents.
interior of the building to leave a skeleton that would allow a controlled and full implosion. Draco Demolition, a well-established full-service demolition company that successfully, safely, and routinely carries out turnkey demolitions for South Africa’s largest construction contractors was appointed to handle the implosion on 7 July 2014. The new headquarters will create enough space to accommodate its services currently scattered throughout the City. It will accommodate 1 500 municipal employees, considered to be the nerve centre of the municipality and will thus reduce costs and provide for efficient decision-making. It will enable greater ease of access to services for Tshwane citizens and will further entrench a culture of increased organisational efficiency. The reconstruction is estimated to cost around R3 - billion. The development will be funded jointly by the City and private partners in what is said to be the first public-private partnership of its scale in the country at a municipal level.
After some investigation, the conclusion was that the west block would have to be demolished by means of explosives. Finally, on 1 February 1998, a blast reduced the west block into a 40 000 tons of rubble in just three seconds. DEMOLITION MAKES WAY FOR FUTURE In 2013, the City handed the Munitoria site over to Tsela Tshweu Construction Joint Venture signalling the first chapter of the municipality’s new residence – Tshwane House. The first phase was the demolition of the existing structure. This took shape by knocking down the
Munitoria and Sammy Marks building
KEY INVESTMENT SECTORS
Tshwane key Investment Sectors CHAPTER 3
In the Cityâ€™s 2013 State of the City Address, its representatives made a commitment to embark on a number of initiatives to ensure the creation of a conducive environment for increased investments in order to address the triple challenges of poverty, inequality, and high unemployment facing the City and the South African economy in general. Through partnerships, the City and business can identify bottlenecks hindering sector growth, jointly mobilise resources to support sector growth, develop measures aimed at ensuring sustainability in the various sectors, and ensure the monitoring and evaluation of interventions geared towards sector growth and development. This aims for the joint identification and implementation of sector programmes and projects within the Cityâ€™s priority economic sectors and the establishment and operation of a platform in which the City can engage with business. The City will be collaborating with the Tshwane Business Forum (TBF), as an umbrella body for business chambers in the City with the following areas of collaboration: 1. E stablishment of a platform for TBF to be officially recognised by the City as the preferred collective business voice for the business community in the City and promoting ongoing contact between the City and organised business. 2. Creation of awareness and the promotion of the business communitiesâ€™ acceptance of their responsibilities and obligations towards socio-economic and environmental issues. 3. E ffective coordination and alignment of programmes for an integrated approach to support the economic development and the promotion of local content. 4. Adequate representation and useful contribution on economic development initiatives to the City and other government departments, structures and agencies in order to foster mutual support. 5. Assistance to the City with progress monitoring regarding the implementation of economic development programmes and projects. We are confident that through collaboration with the TBF in these strategic areas, more businesses will be encouraged to participate in the TBF, which will engage with all relevant stakeholders and the City, in an organised manner. Currently about 2 000 businesses are part of this
organised structure and we anticipate this number to be doubled in the next few years. It is for this reason that the Memorandum of Understanding between the City and TBF has been developed to support the objectives of economic development in Tshwane. Underpinning the development of our key sectors is most importantly a Research and Development Agenda which drives and positions the City of Tshwane as an anchor to South Africa’s knowledge economy advantages as espoused in the national Development Plan 2030.
WATERKLOOF AIR FORCE BASE Waterkloof Air Force Base (WAFB) has had its main runway upgraded in recent years to allow the largest current civilian and military aircraft to land safety. The airport also fulfils an important diplomatic service and cannot be used as a public airport. However, what has become important to the City is the development of the Centurion Aerospace Village (CAV) as a high tech defence advanced manufacturing cluster located on WAFB property and adjacent to it. CENTURION AEROSPACE VILLAGE
The development and promotion of strategic partnerships remains a key requirement towards the cultivation and creation of an enabling environment for economic growth and development. The City has identified and prioritised the following sectors as having the potential to drive the Tshwane economy going forward: • Aerospace and defence technologies • Agriculture and agro-processing • Automotive and components • Business process outsourcing and off-shoring • Tourism and related services
Aerospace and defence The Industrial Policy Action Plan (IPAP) identifies the aerospace sector as a sector with advanced capabilities that can increase the level of industrialisation and contribute towards establishing a knowledge economy in South Africa. This sector involves the research, design manufacturing, maintenance, overhaul, refurbishment, upgrading, and operation of aircraft. Activities in this sector are predominantly concentrated in Gauteng, Western Cape, and KwaZulu-Natal.
Centurion Aerospace Village (CAV), an initiative of the Department of Trade and Industry (dti), was established because of the Aerospace Industry Support Initiative (AISI) supply chain development programme and was awarded special project status by City of Tshwane. Its purpose is to retain existing technologies, skills and internationally recognised products and services, to build on these and in the process to create international partnerships with leading aviation manufacturers and suppliers. The AISI will also drive the national agenda of growth, employment, and equity. It therefore supports the Tshwane vision for 2055. It is a high-tech advanced manufacturing aeromechanical and defence cluster aimed at integrating sub-tier suppliers of the local industry into the global supply chain. This cluster development is aimed at strengthening the supply chain by bringing aerospace and defence industry suppliers in close proximity to one another and locating them next to tier1 supplier companies and anchor industry partners. The local aerospace and defence industry will benefit from the CAV development that will contribute to the industry remaining internationally competitive. The City will be partnering with the dti’s National Aerospace Centre (NAC) and AISI, jointly operating as the integrated dti Aerospace Programme. The AISI, hosted at the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), will be acting as the contact point with the City in the partnership, with an intention of
unlocking economic opportunities in the aerospace sector. In the 2013/14 financial year, the following projects will be jointly implemented with the AISI emanating from areas of collaboration: • T he implementation of a skills development programme in the aerospace sector to train 100 students in the City. • T he hosting of two sector forum breakfasts aimed at creating a platform for the City to engage with role players in the aerospace industry towards the growth and development of the sector. • P articipation in the executive mayor’s sector panel of experts aimed at strategically analysing the sector in order to determine growth potential and possible constraints. • T he development of a profile for the Tshwane aerospace sector.
Agricultural and agro-processing The agricultural sector in the City contributed to 0.09 percent of business turnover in the City by 2011. Based on turnover distribution statistics of agricultural businesses in the City, it can be concluded that the bulk of agricultural businesses are in the low-turnover income categories reflecting a low level of sectorial development. The City has a comparative advantage in the agricultural sector due to the availability of land in Regions 5 and 7. There is an opportunity to increase the current agricultural output for the benefits of its rural and urban communities to deal effectively with the challenges of low food security and generate more production for importing. Land ownership by farmers for a successful agricultural programme has the potential to “reduce land hunger” and provide food security. Moreover, the City hosts the headquarters of various departments and boards and is partnering with Agri Gauteng and the African Farmers Association of South
Africa (AFASA) in the following areas in order to enable the growth and development of this critical primary sector of the economy: • • • • •
Industry stakeholder mobilisation and management Skills development Strategy development and implementation Promotion of the agricultural sector The provision of continuous research into the sector
Sustainable agricultural development will play a significant role in the economy of the City of Tshwane to unlock the full potential of the land available and human and financial resources to optimise agricultural output. There is still a significant amount of work to be done around defining what constitutes a sustainable food system for a City, not to mention how one goes about measuring it. That said, locally-produced food should be a key element to reduce the transportation requirements over long distances and improve the diets of residents (who should have increased access to fresh and healthy food, without the additional expense of costly distribution networks). Agriculture should also play an important role in poverty alleviation and job creation, in support of school feeding programmes. Urban agriculture can help to solve such problems by turning urban wastes into a productive resource. Farmers may use wastewater for irrigating their farms when they lack access to other sources of water or because of its high price. URBAN AGRICULTURE Further investments in agro-processing and value added services by integrating farmers throughout the value chain and maximising all open spaces available for agricultural development will be critical for the City of Tshwane. The City will aggressively pursue various forms of urban agriculture that must be investigated and supported, such as allotments, communal, school, and collective gardens. Urban farmers can operate on an individual or family basis, formally or informally, and be organised in a group, cooperative, or other types of farmer organisations.
We have begun to imagine how our future urban agriculture serves the purpose of creating jobs, supports economic development, and strengthens food security. Urban agriculture for the City of Tshwane could take the form of, but is not limited to emergence of: • Urban food producers who are profit driven and use the latest technology to produce food mainly in empty buildings, for which no other use has been found. This would see suppliers, service providers and other businesses settling next to each other to make use of waste streams, products, and services. Using technology, residents could purchase their produce that would be delivered to their homes through a peer-to-peer deliverance service. • Developmental urban farmers who, while driven by profit, are also driven by sharing their expertise with others. Urban farmers would have multifunctional farms with fruits, vegetables, and animals as well as serve as training centres. For their employees, urban farmers would rely on volunteers in addition to their regular employees. • Citizen growers include people making use of unused grounds and rooftops to develop urban gardens. People use the food that they grow for personal consumption and sell the excess to fresh produce centres throughout the City. Regardless of the form of urban agriculture, there are a number of ecological functions and environmental benefits. By producing food locally and balancing production with consumption, the embodied energy of the food required to feed the cities is reduced because of lower transportation distance, less packaging and processing, and greater efficiency in the production inputs. GREEN BENEFITS The reduced energy requirements could in turn decrease greenhouse gas emissions and global warming impacts compared with conventional food systems. Energy is also conserved by reusing urban waste products locally, both biodegradable wastes for compost, and wastewater (storm water and grey water)
for irrigation. The reuse of waste offers another benefit in reducing transportation and land use requirements for disposal and long-term management, essentially closing the loop in the cycle of waste resources. Urban agriculture, like urban gardens, can also contribute to biodiversity conservation, particularly when native species are integrated into the system. These systems can offer additional ecological benefits in modifying the urban microclimate by regulating humidity, reducing wind and providing shade. By using intensive production strategies and focusing on high-value crops, the economic value of urban agriculture systems can be substantial. Urban agriculture activities are broad and diverse and can include the cultivation of vegetables, medicinal plants, spices, mushrooms, fruit trees, and other productive plants, as well as the keeping of livestock for eggs, milk, meat, wool, or other products. The City recognises the importance of the agriculture sector to support rural development and transformation. Two fundamental economic and community development principles come into play when the City addresses sustainable rural economic development. The first is that the City will need to identify differentiators that will develop a sustainable rural economy and secondly, the identification of City assets that can be levered to support the rural economy. Such assets include human, economic, social, physical, natural, cultural, and institutional assets with entrepreneurship increasingly recognised as critical to rural economic development. The City will support the Gauteng provincial government agriculture strategy where the agricultural plan of Gauteng of 2008 identified agricultural hubs within the province. Thus, the City of Tshwane’s rural economies will leverage off of agricultural clusters and contribute to the objectives of the plan. In addition, Tshwane has identified the supporting cooperatives as one of the programmes to enhance conversion rate for SMME start-ups to sustainable enterprises as well as community empowerment. It is evident that the agriculture sector has significant promise for the growing the economic base of Tshwane.
To this end, a vibrant and expanded agricultural sector will be a critical component of a rural development and land reform programme for the City, as for every additional unit of capital invested, agriculture ultimately yields a larger number of job opportunities than all other sectors. In addition, the City’s agriculture focus will be oriented towards the provision of affordable food to meet the basic needs of the population and towards household food security.
give support to local communities and improve their nutritional status by supplying them with meat and vegetables. Five poultry houses have already been erected, 10 hydroponic vegetable tunnels constructed and three boreholes drilled and equipped. These resulted in the creation of more than 23 temporary jobs during the infrastructure development. The Rooiwal project is projected to create more jobs within the first four years of its establishment.
AGRI PROJECTS PROVE SUCCESSFUL
With the 2011 expansion of its borders to include the former Metsweding district municipality, the City suddenly had big tracts of land available to extract value from. Considering that land is a scarce commodity in the metro areas, with most being 80 percent urbanised, Tshwane is now 70 percent rural. Hence, the City has earmarked Region five (Cullinan, Kameeldrift and Rayton) and Region seven (Bronkhorstspruit) for agricultural development amongst other priorities.
The Akwande cooperative food garden project in Sokhulumi, outside Bronkhorstspruit, will soon be supplying fresh produce to Massmart, which is owned by American retail giant Walmart. The Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries signed an agreement with a non-governmental organisation, TechnoServe SA, and retailer Massmart, aimed at creating jobs and providing support for smallholder farmers, particularly women farmers, in poor communities. The City takes sustainable agriculture so seriously that it plans to roll out agri-villages throughout the municipality, especially in the north-west and northeast regions. The establishment of these agricultural villages will take its cue from three council-approved documents, namely the Integrated Agricultural Development and Support Strategy, the Integrated Food Security Strategy and the City Development Strategy. These villages will become agricultural hubs where entrepreneurs would be guided, mentored, and developed to become successful commercial farmers. The first of these villages, the Rooiwal project, is an agricultural hub of mixed farming enterprises in support of the City’s strategic objectives of fighting poverty and facilitating higher and shared economic growth. The economic objectives of the Rooiwal project are therefore to ensure the development of sustainable new entrepreneurs and cooperatives, create jobs, and increase the GDP of Tshwane. On the food security side, the project aims to promote biotechnology and the transferring of best agricultural practices, while on the nutrition side, the City aims to
In keeping with this, the City has deployed four tractors and equipment in the two regions to cultivate maize on 150 hectares. Seeds and fertilisers were also provided to the farmers through the Comprehensive Agricultural Support Programme. By the end of the second quarter of the 2011/12 financial year, the City had provided 1 454 agricultural starter packs to indigent households. SUPPORTING FARMERS The City’s Agriculture and Environmental Management Department has made a public commitment that it will increase its support to Tshwane farmers in order to strengthen the agricultural sector, propel the City’s economy to higher levels, and create a source of sustainable livelihood. The support programme would be implemented along with the observations made in the United Nations’ 2005 Halving Hunger report, which argued that agriculture could contribute to the first Millennium Development Goal in two ways; firstly, by stimulating food production and secondly, by kick-starting economic development.
The City has three categories of farmer support. The first category is targeted at household food production. In this category, support is through the expansion of the provision of agricultural starter packs and training and capacity programmes to households that have food gardens. The second category is the strengthening of community projects. This involves the provision of agricultural starter packs to community projects, training and capacity programmes, on-farm infrastructure development, access to the market and finance, as well as mechanisation schemes. An initial project in this regard is already up and running in Olievenhoutbosch where the Cityâ€™s Agriculture and Environmental Management Department is assisting the Olievenhoutbosch Centre for the Disabled to look after and expand its vegetable garden. The third category is support to emerging farmers. This group is being supported through training and capacity
building programmes, a mechanisation scheme, sustainable agricultural villages and comprehensive agricultural support in collaboration with the Gauteng provincial government. An example of support to the emerging farmers is the support provided to the Winterveld citrus farmers, where the City of Tshwane provides expert technical support and facilitates market entry. Factors that are being taken into account when assessing who will be assisted include the feasibility of the operation, the number of beneficiaries (the more, the better), the potential for positive socio-economic impact, the environmental impact, and the availability of water. The support is not provided only by the City of Tshwane. The City is collaborating with other stakeholders such as the Gauteng Department of Agriculture and Rural Development (GDARD), Agricultural Research Council (ARC), Tshwane
University of Technology (TUT), national Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (DAFF), and private companies. In this way, the City is drawing the maximum benefit from its position as host to national research institutions and universities, plus the national government. The programme has expanded and more demands have been placed on the department since the merging of the Metsweding District.
Automotive and components industry The automotive and components industry in South Africa is a major contributor to the economy and export earnings. Its representation in Gauteng is larger than that of Ireland, Malaysia or Israel, for example. The heart of the automotive industry in Gauteng province is located in Tshwane.The automotive and components industry in the City has a turnover of about R30 - billion in current prices. It generates about a quarter of the manufacturing sector’s value add and contributes about 3.3 percent to the City’s economy. It is represented by more than 200 companies employing almost 18 000 people. The Tshwane automotive industry hosts five of the major original equipment manufacturers in the country, namely Nissan, BMW, Tata, MAN and Ford. Other original equipment manufacturers such as Daimler, Mahindra and Volkswagen are also represented in Tshwane. In addition, the highest concentration of automotive and component manufacturers in the City, as well as in the country, is found in the Automotive Supplier Park (ASP) in Rosslyn located in the north-western corner of Tshwane. Moreover, 40 percent of all passenger vehicles manufactured in South Africa are produced in Tshwane. The location of the ASP is justified by the proximity to the two vehicle manufacturers – BMW and Nissan – as well as the excellent accessibility to transport infrastructure. ASP is a must-see facility for all foreign automotive visitors to the country. It offers state-of-the-art ICT infrastructure and services, a container terminal that handles all inbound and outbound container traffic of the park, the logistics centre that includes a 34 000m2 warehouse. The Automotive Industry Development Centre incorporates
the conference centre and the retail centre with medical facilities. The park also has immense support from both provincial and local government. A satellite supplier park also exists in Silverton, east of the Pretoria CBD, nearby the Ford manufacturing facility. Plans are underway to expand this facility to accommodate larger component manufacturers. The City will continue to strengthen its support and commitment to the automotive sector as reflected by its participation in the establishment of the Automotive Supplier Park (ASP), Automotive Industry Development Centre (AIDC), and City Improvement District (CID) in the Rosslyn area. Its participation is aimed at promoting the competitiveness of the automotive industry through targeted projects and programmes aimed at supply chain development. To this effect, the City is entering into a three-year partnership agreement with the AIDC with a view to enhancing support to the automotive sector due to its strategic importance towards the growth and development of the Tshwane economy. In the 2013/14 financial year, the following projects will be jointly implemented with AIDC emanating from our areas of collaboration: • T he Gauteng Automotive Academy aimed at the training of 120 youth in the City on automotive related skills. • T he development of a profile for the Tshwane automotive sector. • T he establishment and operation of the Tshwane automotive City aimed at conducting detailed planning and mobilising resources towards the implementation of the Tshwane Automotive City Project. • P articipation in the Executive Mayor’s sector panel of experts aimed at strategically analysing the sector in order to determine growth potential and possible constraints. • U ndertaking a comprehensive study to analyse the factors that hinder the competitiveness of the components and parts manufacturers. The City will continue to strengthen its commitment for the development of the automotive and components sector.
BMW - Equipment Manufacturers
BUSINESS PROCESS SERVICES Business process services (BPS) also known as business process outsourcing (BPO) is the provision of contact centres offering voice and social media customer service, enquiries, and contract renewals. It is seen as a critical sector for development because of the advantages the City has, such as academic institutions, research, and development facilities, a large talent pool (unskilled and skills population), world-class connectivity, infrastructure and the first science park in Africa. It is against the backdrop of the prevailing socioeconomic challenges that faces the City that it makes economic sense to pursue and fast track the development of this strategic sector of the economy. Based on potential and opportunities, the City is partnering with the Business Process Enabling South Africa (BPESA) with the intention of unlocking opportunities and enhancing growth and development with the BPS Sector. We are in the process of finalising an implementation plan with BPESA focusing on the priority projects for implementation within the 2013/14 financial year. The projects in this regard will include the implementation of the Hammanskraal BPS Park upon the completion of the Business Case by the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR). There can be no doubt that through collaboration with our strategic partners the City’s vision, conviction, and ability to support the priority economic sectors will be strengthened, thus leading to accelerated and shared economic growth, development, and job creation.
Tourism Tshwane is regarded as sleeping giant despite its abundant tourism products. It is estimated that about 710 000 foreign tourists visited the City in 2011, down from 834 000 in 2010, but slightly up from an estimated 709 000 in 2009. On the tourism sector, the City is partnering with the Tshwane Tourism Authority (TTA), which is a section 21 company, co-ordinated by the private sector to promote
tourism in the City. In the 2013/14 financial year, the following projects will be jointly implemented with TTA emanating from our areas of collaboration: • Implementation of the skills development programme in the tourism sector in partnership with Gauteng Tourism Authority, Tourism Enterprise Programme and the Culture, Art, Tourism, Hospitality and Sport Education and Training Authority (CATHSSETA), 100 businesses and 50 learners should benefit from the programme. • Identification and star grading of 160 establishments in partnership with Tourism Grading Council of South Africa to ensure quality in our products. • D evelopment and packaging of tourism routes to attract more visitors in the City. • P articipation in the executive mayors sector panel of experts aimed at strategically analysing the sector in order to determine growth potential and possible constraints. • T he identification of 13 accommodation owners to participate in the “Book a guesthouse” training and mentorship programme. The Department of Economic Development is finalising partnership agreements with Tourism Enterprise Programme (TEP), CATHSSETA and Tsogo Sun’s “Book a Guesthouse” Programme. During the 2013/14 financial year, over 100 SMMEs will benefit from the TEP partnership, 100 learnerships through the CATHSSETA and eight more establishments will be part of the “Book a Guesthouse” programme. Tourism will be a key sector that the City will seek to strengthen. It can improve the geographic spread of tourism activities to its poor areas; seasonality patterns; promote pro-poor transformation of tourism and increasing staying periods of tourists within the region by implementing targeted interventions. BUSINESS TOURISM In comparison with other cities, the City of Tshwane has not been performing very well in visitor arrivals. The International Conferences and Convention Association currently ranks it 245 with only nine international association meetings.
CSIR - International Convention Centre
There is significant potential that still is to be tapped to develop tourism as a strong economic sector for Tshwane. Going forward the tourism agenda for the City is premised on the concept of the reconstruction and development of the capital City with a view of addressing the distortions created by apartheid. In the process of restructuring, there is potential for the sector to create many green jobs. In addition, the promotion of the City of Tshwane’s tourism and enhancement of South Africa’s unique cultural and political heritage will be prioritised. It is critical that the City of Tshwane vigorously drives its tourism agenda targeting mainly the international tourism market; business travel market; conference, incentive, and leisure segments; all which will support Tshwane International Convention Centre and Visitors’ Bureau. The City’s tourism sector will be based on working with the City’s partners and facilitating access to financial and non-financial support for communities in the sector, particularly women, youth, and people with disabilities and broadening the participation by emerging entrepreneurs. In addition, Tshwane will continue to work with its partners to create a safe tourism sector. As part of product development, the City of Tshwane needs to ensure the development of products that offer good potential for development, for example cruise tourism, Afro-tourism, sports tourism, cultural forms of tourism, eco-tourism, conference and incentive travel, wildlife safaris, hunting, and others. Furthermore, the City will protect local cultures to avoid over-commercialisation or exploitation. Another important success factor in the development of the new tourism approach in the City will be placing emphasis on developing and improving the quality of the tourist experience. The infrastructure for tourism is important to support the sector’s development. Such infrastructure includes telecommunications, rail and road networks, signage, information centres and conference facilities, among others. While OR Tambo International Airport services the City with easy access through the Gautrain, Tshwane is fortunate to have its own
airport, Wonderboom as well as Waterkloof Airbase, which is used mainly for diplomatic dignitaries. While Wonderboom Airport is currently not servicing commercial airlines, the upgrading of Wonderboom Airport will be a huge investment for the City and broader GCR as it will not only improve the accessibility to the City, but will create potential economic development facilitation opportunities. DINOKENG The Dinokeng Project envisaged as an “Africa in one day” destination is aimed at stimulating job creation and investment through public-private partnerships. The Dinokeng Project is focused on the development of strategic economic infrastructure in order to leverage private sector investment in tourism business activity in the 240 000 hectar project area. The emphasis is on the sustainable utilisation and development of the Dinokeng area, as opposed to only protection and conservation. The project area is subject to a number of drivers of development that include: • D inokeng Game Reserve (DGR) as an eco-tourism destination. • T he existing N1 and N4 highways, providing good access to the larger Gauteng area, as well as the North West, Mpumalanga, and Limpopo Provinces. • T he Platinum Corridor and Zone of Choice development zone as a focus area for urban development. • T he historical and cultural precinct of Cullinan. • T he recreation and leisure tourism hub of Roodeplaat Dam. • C ultural historical resources and pristine natural environment stimulating the tourism industry, supported by demand for corporate functions and social events due to large urban population within a short distance. From a tourism point of view, Dinokeng Project offers a variety of experiences for both the international and local tourist, including adventure activities, cultural experiences, nature-based offerings, and business facilities all within an hour or so for other cities such as Johannesburg. In particular, it would stimulate the flow
of visitors along trans-provincial tourism corridors. Clearly, to achieve the above stated objectives of Tshwaneâ€™s tourism sector, a new approach must be adopted for the next four decades to ensure that it boosts other sectors of the economy and creates entrepreneurial opportunities for the previouslymarginalised communities; is kind to the environment; and brings peace, prosperity, and enjoyment for all the Cityâ€™s residents.
namely Tshwane University of Technology, University of Pretoria, University of South Africa, and the Medical University of South Africa. It also hosts the highest concentration of science councils in the country including the Council of Industrial and Scientific Research, Agricultural Research Council, South African Bureau of Standards, Water Research Commission, Human Science Research Council, with the first Science and Technology Park in Southern Africa is located in Tshwane.
OTHER OPPORTUNITIES Tshwane as a capital City has a competitive edge to lead the knowledge economy in the country as it hosts four of the seven public higher education institutions
Regionalisation and Intergration CHAPTER 4
Given the enormity of the developmental gap that must be addressed and the multitude of programmes and projects that must be implemented, with improved service delivery, the City has adopted a regionalisation strategy. According to this alternative service delivery model, the City is divided into seven regional administrative units that will monitor the implementation of the strategic goals. These regional units would also identify their own comparative advantages as the basis for attracting investment. The City has adopted a balanced approach in the development of these regions in at least two ways. First, it seeks to relieve pressure on the inner City and the southern parts of the City. The plan is to create economic opportunity in the north through a strategy focused on developing economic nodes and investment in public transport. Second, it seeks to balance the service delivery needs of the poor with the service expectations of the affluent southern part of the City. However, even in its provision of services to the poor, the City has adopted a differentiated approach by modulating service provision according to affordability. Regionalisation has led to the strengthening of the cluster approach system of the City through which better coordination and alignment of functions can be achieve. This will allow the City to organise itself better, bring government closer to the people, and to improve service delivery throughout the regions of the City. The adoption of the regionalisation model has resulted in health services, waste management, library, sports, culture and recreation, horticulture, customer care, and cemeteries being devolved to the regional service centres. The regionalisation concept was adopted to: • E nsure decentralised delivery of municipal services • Provide accountable government to communities • F acilitate a customer-centric service delivery orientation • Promote accelerated, prioritised, and targeted development • Promote service integration across functional lines • Facilitate councillor interaction with City of Tshwane administration • Provide effective governance • Bring local government closer to the people • Provide customers with greater accessibility • Address past shortcomings, such as uneven development prioritisation, with a focus on developed areas; racially segregated governance; centralisation – with resultant inaccessibility; and inefficiencies • Allow for the benefits of cross-subsidisation
Thus, the regions’ role has been conceived as being both administrative and functional in monitoring dayto-day operations related to service delivery. The approach is developmental in the sense that the regions coordinate and monitor the matching of interventions implemented through City departments with local needs. Going forward, the seven regions will be the main implementation anchor for Tshwane Vision 2055’s programme of action. The regional Spatial Development Frameworks (RSDFs) for the City’s seven regions will need to translate the Tshwane Vision 2055 at region level and link it to regional development strategies. This would entail regions identifying game changing interventions that would support the attainment of Tshwane Vision 2055 and leading the investment drive to ensure that it is achieved. The same will be expected of other municipal-owned entities. REGION 1 Region 1 consists of the north-western side of the City. This area is heavily affected by poverty and has very poor public transportation. It consists of former homeland townships such as Ga-Rankuwa, Mabopane, Soshanguve, and Winterveld. This region was also hit the hardest by recent power cuts, as approximately 42 000 households went without electricity. The City was declared a disaster management area requiring more than R100 - million to be invested in the repair of infrastructure. This may create an opportunity for the City to invest or upgrade infrastructure in this region. It comprises of three main zones. These include a southern zone (Akasia, Rosslyn and Pretoria North), a northern zone (Klipkruisfontein, Ga-Rankuwa, Mabopane, Winterveld and Soshanguve areas) and the rural zone in the west. There are 28 wards in this region. The region is home to the Tswaing Crater, which is a national heritage site and nature reserve. The northern part of the Region accommodates a third of the City’s population in low-income settlements that include subsidised housing and informal settlements. There is limited economic and employment opportunities with a low standard of public transport infrastructure. The southern part represents medium
to high income areas with the economy largely driven by the private sector. Single, low-density residential housing is dominant in the area with high levels of service provision. The automotive cluster in the Rosslyn area is situated within the central section of the Region and is an important employment node for the City. The dominant land use types in Region 1 are industrial, mixed use with about 80 percent of the City’s total land allocation for manufacturing found in Region 1. The Zone of Choice is a strategic investment focus area and a catalyst on the development within the northern areas of Tshwane. The identification of the Zone of Choice is related to its proximity to the capital core, existing infrastructure (such as the N4), and the momentum of existing developments, such as the industrial area of Rosslyn which provides employment opportunities for the majority of the City’s residents. The investment in infrastructure in the Zone of Choice, Mabopane and Ga-Rankuwa will support future development and growth of the automotive industry. The Rainbow Junction is the mixed-use economic node also located within the Zone of Choice.
Region 1 profile opulation: 811 575 P Number of households: 227 828 Number of formal dwellings: 187 447 Average household size: 3.6 Households with access to piped water (tap): 220 749 Households with access to electricity for lighting: 205 780 Average annual household income: R10 225 Households with no income: 37 611 Persons employed in formal sector: 175 284 Persons with no schooling: 37 909
REGION 2 Between the north-western and north-eastern parts of the City, including Hammanskraal, Region 2 is also a largely poor semi-rural neighbourhood with informal
settlements and subsidised housing. However, there is great need for housing in this area because of increasing job prospects for young people. It is an area known for its tourist areas, including the Dinokeng and Wonderboom Nature Reserves. It includes the Wonderboom airport and the Babelegi industrial areas. It has poor physical and social infrastructure but there is potential for further growth in the Region. The Regionâ€™s three main zones are the urban north zone, central and eastern agriculture and conservation zones, and the southern zone. There are 12 wards in Region 2. The Region, while urban in character, is not integrated with the larger urban environment of the City. The central and eastern parts of the region fall outside the urban edge and are rural in character with a low population density while the southern part of Region 2 is a low-density formally-developed suburban area, with well-developed nodes of economic activity. The Region is characterised by low-density settlements, with concentrations of subsidised housing and informal settlements, limited economic activities, poor network of social infrastructure, limited retail facilities, limited investment by the private sector, and major backlogs in infrastructure provision. The Region includes a few prominent land uses of strategic significance to Tshwane and even on an international level that include Onderstepoort Veterinary Research Institute, Zone of Choice, and the Dinokeng/Big Five Reserve. Currently, Region 2 does not have a strong economic base, and has limited economic activities, namely informal trade, community stokvels, a small industrial park, and a recently developed shopping centre. As such, it is considered an area of consolidation, which means Tshwane will lead in the investment of socioeconomic infrastructure in the Hammanskraal CBD to direct public and private sector investment.
Region two profile Population: 339 182 Number of households: 93 788 Number of formal dwellings: 74 864 Average household Size: 3.6 Households with access to piped water (tap): 85 558
Households with access to electricity for lighting: 87 983 Average annual household income: R124 763 Households with no income: 14 699 Persons employed in formal sector: 72 689 Persons with no schooling: 16 461
REGION 3 The hub of the City, Region 3 consists of national government buildings including the Union Buildings, foreign embassies, Loftus Versfeld Sports Stadium, Freedom Park, Voortrekker Monument, Human Sciences Research Council, University of Pretoria, Tshwane University of Technology, Unisa, Steve Biko Academic Hospital, Hatfield, and Brooklyn Metropolitan Cores. This Regionâ€™s problems are quite different from the previous two, in that the City has to worry about whether the well-developed infrastructure in this part of the City can keep up with the influx of people. This explains the Cityâ€™s attempts to curb internal migration by developing economic nodes in the different regions. It has 23 wards that include the CBD of the City, and the Brooklyn and Hatfield metropolitan nodes. The eastern two-thirds of the Region is mostly urbanised whereas the western third is mostly rural. The Region hosts national government offices and forms the administrative heart of government with two of the three Tshwane stations of the Gautrain located in the Region. It also includes other prominent land uses of strategic significance to the City that include the inner city, Marabastad, embassies, Church Square, Pretoria Industrial Township (including the Charlotte Maxeke Street and Soutter Street industrial areas), fresh produce market and the Capital Park container depot. The south-eastern area of the Region accommodates middle and higher income groups while most of the low income groups are located in the west, with highdensity residential developments to the east of the inner City in Sunnyside and Arcadia. The region contains some of the oldest townships in greater Tshwane. The modernisation and the regeneration of the inner capital core forms an integral part of the remaking of
the capital City. Catalytic projects such as the Mandela Development Corridor, Tshwane House, West Capital, pedestrianisation of Paul Kruger and Salvokop, as well as development around the Pretoria Gautrain station will play a major role in modernising the capital core. Phase one of the BRT system will link Hatfield with the CBD. The region is generally well supported by service infrastructure. With development rapidly moving closer to the provincially demarcated urban edge and towards the open space area to the west of the Region, development pressure in this area is the rate at which bulk infrastructure can be provided to accommodate expansion.
Region 3 profile Population: 585 159 Number of households: 195 126 Number of formal dwellings: 169 761 Average household Size: 3.0 Households with access to piped water (tap): 190 568 Households with access to electricity for lighting: 182 999 Average annual household income: R188 354 Households with no income: 32 516 Persons employed in formal sector: 183 940 Persons with no schooling: 13 323
REGION 4 Found on the south-western part of the City, region four includes the Centurion metropolitan core, Centurion Lake, the Samrand Development Node, several military bases, sports facilities, and technology and business hubs. This is therefore a relatively affluent part of the City. It acts as an important corridor linking Midrand and Centurion CBD and it is known as the high-tech belt due to the existence of Aerosat and the Centurion Aviation Village (CAV). The region falls within the economic core of the province. The Centurion CBD and the African Gateway project represent a significant
landmark mixed-use development in Tshwane. Further, the N1, N14, and M1 interchange provides a future prominent focal point for economic development and will enhance the identity of this region. It has 11 wards and borders on the area of jurisdiction of the City of Johannesburg Metropolitan Municipality, Ekurhuleni Metropolitan Municipality, as well as Mogale City to the west. The Region links Tshwane to the rest of Gauteng and the broader region. The Region consists of an urban area to the east and a rural area to the west both of which are currently under pressure for development. The current dominant sectors in Region 4 are finance and business services, general government services, manufacturing, and trade. The Region also forms part of an area of economic expansion to the north of Johannesburg where this sub-node is dominated by smart industries and business tourism. The Region falls within the economic core identified for Gauteng Province with the legs of the triangular core of the N1 highway on the western side and the R21 highway with its linkage to the Oliver Tambo International Airport on the eastern side. The Region includes land of strategic significance to Tshwane. These include Zwartkop and Waterkloof Military Airports, Thaba Tshwane Voortrekkerhoogte Military Base, Centurion Gautrain Station, SuperSport Park, Highveld Technopark, Highway Business Park, Route 21 Corporate Park, Sunderland Ridge Industrial Area, N1 Corridor, and Olievenhoutbos Absa Housing development. A larger percentage of high income earners reside in Region 4 with the result that many offices and retail functions have relocated to the region. It is generally well supported with service infrastructure. With development rapidly moving closer to the demarcated urban edge to the west of the region, development pressure in this area challenges the rate at which bulk infrastructure can be provided to accommodate expansion.
Region 4 profile Population: 379 347 Number of households: 131 736 Number of formal dwellings: 105 935 Average household Size: 2.9 Households with access to piped water (tap): 125 604 Households with access to electricity for lighting: 113 853 Average annual household income: R296 014 Households with no income: 14 026 Persons employed in formal sector: 127 086 Persons with no schooling: 9 389
REGION 5 An underdeveloped area, Region 5 consists of informal settlements and very little business going on in the area. Rayton, Cullinan, and Refilwe are urban centres in this otherwise rural region. The revitalisation and development of this Region will be anchored around these three areas. As part of this revival, Tshwane will lead the infill of high-density and mixed-use development in and around the Rayton CBD, as well invest in the upgrade of infrastructure to support future economic activity. It is bordered by the N1 to the west and the N4 freeway to the south, has rather weak spatial structure characterised by heavy through traffic, vast open spaces, small economic centres, and enormous development pressure from residential areas from Tshwane pushing further eastward. It is a rural area characterised by nature conservation (including the Dinokeng Blue IQ project of Gauteng), tourism, and mixed-agricultural land use. Mining, especially in Cullinan, provides work opportunities for communities in the area. Region 5 has large water and sanitation services backlogs. This ranges from a need to upgrade the current infrastructure and create new infrastructurein
the different municipal wards. The need is mainly reflected in the informal settlements that are spread out within the various wards. Informal settlements, though small and relatively contained, are spread throughout the area, forming low-income residential enclaves. The townships of Rayton, Cullinan, and Refilwe are currently the only areas that are serviced with sewerborne sanitation. The rural areas use groundwater and on-site sanitation, of which septic tanks with soakways and self-constructed pit toilets are the most common.
Region 5 profile Population: 90 900 Number of households: 27 603 Number of formal dwellings: 19 027 Average household Size: 3.3 Households with access to piped water (tap): 26 155 Households with access to electricity for lighting: 20 880 Average annual household income: R120 507 Households with no income: 3 759 Persons employed in formal sector: 23 566 Persons with no schooling: 3 895
REGION 6 Bordered by the N1 freeway to the west and Ekurhuleni local municipality to the south, Region 6 has 24 wards. It is the Region with the greatest development pressure. Almost all the developable land within the southern section of the Region has been developed and the uncontrolled development in the old Kungwini area places a burden on the existing saturated road infrastructure. It has two distinctly different economic profiles, a well-developed southern part that links with Johannesburg to the south, and a poor northern side with low incomes. The affluent part extends southwards towards Centurion and the N1 Commercial Development Corridor as well as the Samrand commercial and industrial node. It is known as
Ts w a i n g C r a t e r
the knowledge belt in Tshwane due to the high concentration of research and development institutions. The presence of some of the biggest financial services entities as well as the development around Menlyn makes this node one of the critical nodes for future development. The Cityâ€™s spatial development framework identified potential development along R21 towards OR Tambo International Airport. The growth of residential neighbourhoods on that stretch of land means that infrastructure provision cannot be left to one municipality alone. It is an economically vibrant region including the Menlyn metropolitan node, popular for the development of offices and affluent residential neighbourhoods. However, the northern part of Region 6, particularly when looked at in combination with Regions 1 and 3, poses serious development challenges for the City. Unsurprisingly this is where most of the Cityâ€™s black inhabitants are to be found. The City will deliberately drive the development of Mamelodi CBD and promote township tourism through the preservation of heritage. The south-eastern section of this region has the highest income per capita, but here is also a huge concentration of people in the north-east quadrant with no income. The northeastern section of the region accommodates mostly low-income communities and industrial land uses. The middle and south-western section of the region accommodates medium to highincome areas with large institutional uses. Although population densities in the south-eastern section of the region are relatively low, this part of the region has the highest percentage of group housing developments compared to any other region. Much development has taken place further to the east in the last decade and the road network development has not kept up with land development resulting in severe congestion during the peak hours. There is a lack of north-south link roads in the Region. Sufficient east-west roads exist due to the historic role and function of the CBD. The northern section of the Region
is well-served by commuter rail with an east-west commuter line and stations from Mamelodi in the east, through Hatfield to Pretoria Station. Bulk water supply is adequate throughout the Region except for the undeveloped parts of Nellmapius and Willow Park. The southern portion of the Region is generally well provided with engineering service infrastructure. The challenge in terms of service provision is to phase development in the adjacent Kungwini area through bulk services. The Region contains a number of strategic land uses including the CSIR, South African National Intelligence Service, Silverton, Waltloo, Koedoespoort industrial areas, and the Menlyn Park Retail Node, which has a metropolitan function in terms of facilities. The economic base for Region 6 is balanced between the retail, sector in the southern and western sections, with commercial, warehousing, wholesale, and industrial activities in the north of the region.
Region 6 profile Population: 605 556 Number of households: 203 907 Number of formal dwellings: 158 216 Average household Size: 3.0 Households with access to piped water (tap): 201 350 Households with access to electricity for lighting: 167 839 Average annual household income: R194 063 Households with no income: 28 736 Persons employed in formal sector: 194 428 Persons with no schooling: 18 859
REGION 7 An industrial area that possesses fertile agricultural land, Region 7 consists of largely rural areas including Bronkhorstspruit, Ekandustria and Ekangala. It has the second-largest geographical land area and has four wards. The area contains some of the best farming land in Gauteng with more than 80 percent
of land arable, but agriculture currently makes an insignificant contribution (less than five percent) to the Cityâ€™s economy. The most significant contributors to the Regionâ€™s economy are manufacturing, services, finance, and trade. The tourism sector is regarded as a small, but developing sector. The Region includes a few prominent land uses of strategic significance to Tshwane. These include the Bronkhorstspruit town area, Ekandustria industrial area, Bronkhorstspruit dam, and high-potential agricultural land in the Region. Non-motorised transport (bicycles and walking) are the most popular forms of mobility used by communities here. Services are concentrated in the established townships in the urban areas. A significant number of people in the area do not receive piped water, sanitation, and electricity services. The City of Tshwane will continue to invest in the further development of light industries in the areas of Ekandustria and Bronkhorstspruit in order to support the manufacturing sector and small businesses. It is also regarded as the main agricultural focal point in the region for developing an agro-processing hub and value-add products for the export market.
Region 7 Profile Population: 109 767 Number of households: 31 547 Number of formal dwellings: 23 896 Average household Size: 3.5 Households with access to piped water (tap): 30 455 Households with access to electricity for lighting: 27 846 Average annual household income: R83 172 Households with no income: 4 298 Persons employed in formal sector: 24 528 Persons with no schooling: 7 755
WORKING FOR IT’S PEOPLE
Housing the masses CHAPTER 5
In restoring dignity through the provision of housing, Tshwane is hard at work, creating sustainable livelihoods, and human settlements. Access to adequate housing and the associated basic services is a human right that restores the dignity of residents. The City has developed a number of interventions that are aimed at increasing access to state facilitated formal housing by its citizens. These projects range from the upgrade of hostels and development of low cost housing to providing homes for backyard settlers in the City. HOUSING DELIVERY AND HUMAN SETTLEMENT UPGRADING In the centenary year of the passage of the Native Land Act of 1913, Tshwane has begun its bold progressive programme to turn the tide against the shameful legacy that deposed black South Africans from the land of their forefathers. Tshwane will redress these issues by embracing the social contract it has with people by restoring their dignity and providing efficient rudimentary services. This is further in line with the City’s Growth and Development Strategy of transforming the unequal and segregated City’s landscape by building sustainable communities and providing quality services and infrastructure for all residents. Efforts have not been spared in ensuring that the City provides decent housing to its residents. The Housing Delivery and Human Settlement Upgrading Project has focused on creation of new housing stock and regularising informal settlement to ensure access to basic services. Currently, the City has more than 31 500 planned housing units to deliver on. On the other hand, the City is working towards providing accommodation for backyard dwellers. This process is a direct response to the recognition of the economic character and migration trends (internal, regional, and international) of the City. RE AGA TSHWANE In an unprecedented move to restore dignity to all who reside in Tshwane, the City has embarked on a major reconstruction programme by establishing a multi-disciplinary special task team to head the Re aga Tshwane (a Sepedi name meaning, “We are building Tshwane”).
The programme seeks to restore the dignity of all those who reside in the capital city particularly in the informal settlements scattered across the City’s seven Regions. Under Re aga Tshwane, the mandate is clear; to fast track the process of formalising informal settlements, proclaim unproclaimed townships, issue title deeds to Reconstruction and Development Programme (RDP) beneficiaries and relocate families who have settled illegally on stands and along servitude reserves to permanent serviced stands with street names. “Having an address is equivalent to having an identity document and will restore dignity to these families and further help to know who is who in the City,” emphasises the Executive Mayor, Kgosientso Ramokgopa. The immediate objective of the task team is to promote the security of tenure for all the beneficiaries in Tshwane. This will be done by relocating beneficiaries to pegged and serviced stands and formalising all 158 informal settlements promoting sustainable townships with all required amenities. SUSTAINABLE HUMAN SETTLEMENTS In order to embrace the aspirations stipulated in the Constitution and the strategic thrust of the National Development Plan, the Department of Human Settlements’ policy direction is to achieve the following four key objectives outlined in Outcome 8: 1. Increased number of households with access to quality accommodation, basic services, and secure tenure 2. Improved access to social services and economic opportunities within reasonable distance 3. Increased access to private finance for housing development 4. Efficient utilisation of land for human settlements development The challenge that confronts the entire country is having to tackle the unique question of residential deracialisation, a government strategy underpinned by the following elements: 1. Inner city housing – spearheaded by the Social Housing Regulatory Authority (SHRA), the
Department has been purchasing many high-rise buildings in the centres of major towns and cities. They are refurbished and transformed from office space to rented family units, some with an option to buy. This social housing is popular amongst young couples, students, and single mothers. 2. Inner city land – through the Housing Development Agency (HDA), the Department has acquired land parcels inside the cities from other government departments and state-owned enterprises. These strategic pieces of land have been used for settling families. 3. Outer city districts – these are within the immediate proximity of city boundaries and are acquired from other departments, or in partnership with the private sector, for housing construction. This is earmarked allow people living in the expanding outer city parameters to be within walking distance to vital amenities and facilities. Tshwane, as the capital city of South Africa has huge opportunities and demand for development especially in the inner city. City development strategies have all identified the inner city as a key strategic focus area in the City’s redevelopment vision. The City is currently implementing numerous programmes as part of first decade of game changing, through deliberate efforts to improve infrastructure services in the previously disadvantaged communities, road tarring, formalisation for informal settlements, and tenure upgrading. It aims to create economic nodes and bring people closer to the City by developing the necessary social and technical infrastructure to facilitate a sustainable social and economic urban space. Council approved the Metropolitan Spatial Development Framework (MSDF) for Tshwane in July 2012. It defines Metropolitan Activity Cores as; “Activity nodes of metropolitan significance aimed at providing economic, social, and residential opportunities in an integrated, vibrant, high-intensity, mixed-use, pedestrian friendly environment, which is linked to public transport facilities and the highest level of accessibility.”
These areas should be the focus of civic identity of the broader surrounding area and should be developed as the urban places of highest concentration of residential, commercial, social, cultural, and other general urban activities. These developments will certainly reorganise the City’s spatial outlook as both a high-density, but socially inclusive city, growing local economies, bringing our people closer to work, and enhancing their quality of life. WEST CAPITAL DEVELOPMENT (WCD) The WCD is a response to address the shortage of student accommodation the inner city and a practical project to address the spatial challenges of the City, which include urban sprawl. The project also takes into consideration access to public transportation opportunities and economic opportunities. The WCD was initially conceived as a student village concept, due to the close vicinity of the institutions of learning such as the University of Pretoria, University of South Africa, and Tshwane University of Technology to the central business district (CBD). It has the potential to promote sustainable land development in a well-coordinated manner to develop the land effectively on an integrated basis. In order to achieve the City’s vision of diversified land use, the project proposes a development catalyst that will stimulate the necessary activity to sustain viable community. It consists of four portions of land located o the west of the CBD that will become catalysts for stimulating the necessary activity to sustain viable community. The project is not a simple land-release and investment creation opportunity project, but an innovative service delivery and economic growth propeller, which will lay the foundation for repositioning and regenerating the west of the City. It is a project with mixed land use and consists of residential accommodation, which will also include a
student village, and retail and commercial components. The project includes inner city housing and health facilities with an estimated project total value of R6 - billion over a five to eight year development term. Phase one will commence with the Schubert Park residential complex (parcel D) that serves as a natural first phase that can be implemented over a relative short period. The provision of housing opportunities at this scale will validate the provision of mixed land uses such as retail and social amenities that are proposed in the adjoining phases. The development of land parcel B will be implemented six months after construction work has commenced and be completed simultaneously with land parcel D, at an estimated cost of R750 - million. In its efforts to address the rising demand and ensuring that housing provision is fast-tracked, the City in some cases has adopted a public-private partnership (PPP) approach and will be partnering with private developers. PROMOTING LIVEABILITY AND ACCESS TO BASIC SERVICES Tshwane’s programmes are aimed at promoting sustainable human settlements through interventions that range from the provision of infrastructure for waste management to street lighting, preservation of the spatial heritage, pedestrianisation, and improved police visibility. The aim of these projects is to improve the living experience within the settlement areas of the City. SOLAR-POWERED WATER GEYSERS, AND STREET LIGHTING In line with the City’s goal of improving access to basic services and improving liveability, it initiated the project to provide solar-powered geysers, and street lighting throughout the City. Since the beginning of the 2012/13 term, street lighting has been improved in various parts of the City through the installation of 3075 streetlights. Further, both the City and Eskom have installed more than 18 000 solar-powered water heaters.
Inner city regeneration: Pedestrianisation of Paul Kruger Street. The pedestrianisation of Paul Kruger Street between Pretoria Station passing through Church Square to the Pretoria Zoo is part of the Rekgabisa Tshwane project. The project is aimed at adapting, shaping, and improving the inner city to be more accommodating for non-motorised commuting. It is linked to the ongoing development of Tshwane Rapid Transport lines. SOLOMON MAHLANGU SQUARE The Solomon Mahlangu Square and Precinct Project is about the history and heritage of the City. The project will be integrated into the broader spatial and tourism planning and implementation of the City. SAFER CITY: WARD-BASED DEPLOYMENT OF METRO POLICE This project is aimed at turning around the Metro Police and improving police visibility as part of our agenda to fight crime and by-law enforcement through increasing the number of Metro Police officers from 1 600 to 3 500. In 2012/13, the City trained 500 student Metro Police officers. These officers will be deployed throughout the city with the long-term goal of deployment of 10 officers in each of the municipal wards.
in exchange for 85 litre bins are underway in various townships of the City with more than 15 000 bins being distributed in Atteridgeville. In the future financial years, the City will consolidate its efforts towards sustainable waste management and increasing access to waste services. HOSTEL UPGRADING The Hostel Upgrading Project is aimed at first restoring people’s dignity through the provision of decent residential units. Tshwane has identified two hostels in which the project is implemented, namely Mamelodi and Saulsville. In Saulsville, electrification of all the residential units has been completed with 52 residential units developed in Mamelodi. Other basic services are provided in these hostels in line with the City’s target of ensuring universal access to water, energy, and sanitation. STREET NAMES The Mayoral Committee Special Task Team (MSTT) allocated all street names in the names bank to the quick-win townships. The names bank is now depleted. It was on this basis that the MSTT has requested the Toponymy Section to work with Regional Executive Directors and ward councillors to get new street names for the street names bank.
PARKS DEVELOPMENT IN WARDS To pro-actively preserve and expand the City’s green assets, and adopting more environmentally-sustainable practices, the Parks per Ward Project was initiated. The aim of the project is to ensure that the residents have access to green infrastructure while the city promotes environmental justice. Approximately 75 parks have been planned with 25 of these prioritised for early development and implementation.
The process is underway and the ward councillors are currently consulting their communities on preferred names to be included in the street names bank. Each ward councillor is expected to give 50 street names to the street bank. This process should not delay the proclamation of townships identified in the other annexures, as a street code can be used until a street name has been approved for a specific street in a specific township.
ROLL OUT OF REFUSE BINS
TITLE DEEDS GIVE BACK DIGNITY
The roll out of refuse bins is a project aimed at ensuring equitable access to public goods and services related to waste management. The roll out of 240 litre bins
The immediate objective of the title deeds team is to promote security of tenure for all beneficiaries in the townships concerned. This will be done by relocating
the beneficiaries to pegged and serviced stands, proclaiming approximately 160 un-proclaimed townships and promoting sustainable townships with all the required amenities. A title deed is a legal document and must be kept in a safe place as proof of ownership and for future reference. Losing or misplacing this valuable document will result in enormous legal expenses to replace the original document. The registered owners must protect their properties against the events of fire, storms, and any natural disasters. This will save them from unnecessary financial expenditure and frustrations. Therefore, they must make protection arrangements with reliable, registered, and reputable insurance companies in the event of damage to their properties. Tshwane is also installing water meters in 17 040 stands at a cost of R12.5 - million, funded by the Service Infrastructure Department - water and sanitation divisions. MAMELODI FORGES AHEAD Mamelodi forms part of Region 6 which is characterised by a huge concentration of people in the north-eastern quadrant (Mamelodi and part of Eersterust), representing the low and no income groups. This area has the greatest developmental pressure with almost all the developable land within the southern section of the region already developed. The uncontrolled developments in the old Kungwini area place a huge burden on the existing saturated road infrastructure. The housing backlog is more on the north-eastern part of the Region (Mamelodi and part of Eersterust) however, in the recent years, and with the incorporation the erstwhile Metsweding District Municipality into the city of Tshwane, there is a trend of having informal settlements in the southern part of the Region. This is also attributed by the fact that the land becomes increasingly scarce in the north-eastern part due to mushrooming of informal settlements and illegal occupation of land.
Since the beginning of this political term, 20 249 houses have been transferred in Mamelodi, with 21 530 title deeds registered and 17 437 title deeds issued. However, a significant number of title deeds have not been issued to the beneficiaries due to the following reasons: • • • • •
nresolved estates U Illegal occupation of the house Informal sale and family substitution of the property Untraceable beneficiaries who illegally sold the house Ignorant or unconcerned attitude of a beneficiary
MAMELODI HOUSES AND BACKYARD RENTALS Since 2008, the Gauteng Department of Human Settlements started building 2 000 houses in Mamelodi Ext 8. Due to the unavailability of serviced stands, only 1794 houses were built. An additional 170 stands are currently being serviced to accommodate the shortfall. Since the beginning of 2011, the Gauteng Department of Human Settlements, working with the City, started the process of construction of 100 backyard rental units within the Mamelodi Proper area as well as 50 houses in Mamelodi Ext 8, 10, and 20 areas. PILOT RUN ON SOSHANGUVE ROADS Following the issuing of the confirmation letters by Roads and Stormwater, the MSTT resolved to identify the Soshanguve V Ext as the pilot township for upgrading of roads and storm water drainage. It has developed a plan to upgrade the roads in the 13-metre reserves that serve as local public transport routes and then to replicate the upgrading in all the other townships. The length of the proposed road in Soshanguve V Ext 1 is 2.93 km and it is five meters wide. It will cost R5 million per kilometre, totalling an estimated R15 - million. This will include the local storm water drainage, kerbs, edge protection, and ultra-thin concrete pavement. The surfacing of 25 intersections is at an estimated cost of R1 - million. The erection of street name signs at 48 intersections at an estimated cost of R1 500 per intersection will total R72 000. The erection of regulatory
signs at 30 intersections at an estimated R1 200 per intersection will cost R36 000 in total. The estimated cost for the total upgrading project is R17 - million. The proposal was discussed with the Housing and Sustainable Human Settlement Department and confirmed it will fund R17 - million towards this project. TITLE DEEDS IN SOSHANGUVE A total 1 505 title deeds will be issued to the residents of Soshanguve, as a township register opens for residents, with more in the pipeline. For Region 1, the following success were registered: • Subdivision and rezoning report for 13 School sites
• • •
have been approved by SLDT. The attorneys appointed to proceed with the registration of title deeds. Soshanguve V Extension 1 is proclaimed and the attorneys are finalising the transfer of title to beneficiaries - lodged with Registrar of Deeds. Soshanguve PP EXT 1 is proclaimed and the appointed attorneys are finalising the transfer of title to beneficiaries - lodged with Registrar of Deeds. Soshanguve South EXT 12 the documents to open the township register lodged with deeds office. Soshanguve South Extension 13: The township register opened and the transfer of title deeds. Soshanguve South EXT 11: portion of 54/R and portion 60 registered in the name of the RSA General Plan 8944/1998.
The City of Tshwane is engaging the Gauteng Human Settlements Department, National Department of Public Works and National Department of Rural Development. It proposed to all the affected departments that the City would enter into land availability agreements with any of above-mentioned departments to proceed with the opening of a township register and the facilitation of transfer of properties to individual beneficiaries. • Soshanguve PP3 - transfer of portion 19 and 20 of the farm Rietgat 611 JR, which is owned by the Administrator of Transvaal Provincial Government (Same as Soshanguve South Ext 11). • Soshanguve KK and KK Ext 1 - the City has appointed attorneys currently opening the township register for
Soshanguve KK and KK Ext 1. • Soshanguve North Projects - Block T, W, Y, and X started as an informal settlement that was later provided with services such as water and electricity. Houses were built through the Gauteng Department of Human Settlements, including the allocation of the houses to the qualifying beneficiaries. • Soshanguve – Block F, H, G, A, and K - These areas comprised mostly of old stock houses Tshwane has transferred to present occupants. Most of the properties have diverse problems that, inter alia, include disputes of ownership and incomplete transfers. The Dispute Resolution Committee of the Gauteng Department of Human Settlements is currently addressing this problem. • Soshanguve South - this area comprises of projects that started between 2000 and 2006. Ext 2, 3, 4, and 5 and are old projects. PRESIDENTIAL HANDOVER OF HOUSING TOUCHES RESIDENTS DEEPLY In 2008 and 2010, President Jacob Zuma visited the community of Danville, a multi-racial community that includes the community of Hermanstad (Bethlehem). He was touched by the living conditions of the poor people in the area and promised government intervention. President Zuma launched a new low cost settlement in Danville, Pretoria West, which is home to low-income black and white families, to mark International Mandela Day on 18 July 2013. Cabinet designated the theme of Mandela Day 2013 as “Take action; inspire change; make every day a Mandela Day”, with a focus on food security, shelter, and literacy. The housing project was signed off by the President as a presidential project. The Danville settlement houses families that used to reside at Bethlehem informal settlement in Pretoria West, which was occupied by poor white families as well as other families residing in Road Reserves in the Atteridgeville area and other areas in Pretoria Central and West. The Danville mixed housing project consists of 407 houses, spread over three phases. The first phase of 110 houses has been completed and is a step further in building cohesive communities. It will bring services closer to people and build human settlements nearer to economic opportunities.
The President’s revisit to the area was in honour of the memory of Nelson Mandela, ensuring that government responds to the needs of the poor and that a caring society was being built. Bridging the racial divide and bringing communities together by responding aggressively to their needs, six more families were officially handed homes during Zuma’s visit. Magta Croukamp, one of the recipients, became very emotional when asked how she felt to have a place to call home. Croukamp had travelled for 11 years around the country with her fiancé, Jacob Kroen, looking for a stable place to live. She moved into her two-bedroom house in the settlement in May 2013. She shares the home with her fiancé and her brother, Johan Croukamp. “We cannot thank the President enough for sticking to his word,” Croukamp said, “We have suffered for a long time. We were robbed 49 times while staying on the streets. At times, people tried to kill us for our luggage and clothing. I want to thank God and the President for sticking to his word. Mandela Day will always be special to us.”
Leone Heck, 51, said she knew that her house was on its way. “President Zuma is ... a good man who keeps his promises,” Heck said. “He visited our area before and promised houses and he is delivering. It is excellent that he is trying to help everyone just like Mandela did.” Crissie Nel, who did not have a house for 10 years, had told Zuma she wanted a house during one of his previous visits to the community. “When I told people around me that I asked the President for a house, everyone told me to forget about ever getting a house. I was so happy when I moved in. Thank you, President Zuma for keeping your promise,” said Nel, who lives with her husband in her new home. Zuma said he was touched by the way in which he was received in Danville. “This is what we want to see happening in the country. There is a genuine expression of satisfaction. We are giving houses to all the nation’s groups. South Africa belongs to all who live in it ... Even those still waiting for their houses will get their houses.”
THE FUTURE 2055
Vision of a new City of Tshwane CHAPTER 6
20 years ago, we won the right to determine our own destiny. The 2011 Statistical SA figures indicated that we as the City of Tshwane made huge progress in tackling socio-economic challenges that were inherited from the apartheid government. We have made these gains because we have triumphed over an evil system of discrimination and exclusion to continue leading this City from the depths of despair to the great heights of hope. We have made progress because of the belief that, as the capital city, we rise or fall together as one community.
On 31 August 2012 during the launch of our discussion document and consultation processes, we said: • O ur transformative agenda is premised on the principles of the Freedom Charter and South Africa’s Constitution, as such we recognise our communities as agents of change. • A s the local state, our responsibility of being a leader, facilitator, initiator, and enabler are all key in supporting our residents’ social, human, and economic transformation aspirations. • T he future sustainable development of the City of Tshwane requires a concerted effort from all who have a vested interest in it. • S ocial contracts and partnerships are critical to our relationships with residents, communities, businesses, and organised civil society.
We also committed ourselves, as South Africa’s capital, to lead the society towards the realisation of non-racial, non-sexist, and prosperous society. These principles were at the centre of our year-long collaborative process, which provided a platform for all Tshwane residents, and the people of South Africa, to exercise their power and rights by participating in the remaking of their capital city. Through this ground-breaking participatory process, we have collectively clarified and articulated our long-term aspirations on how we want to see the City in future in our Tshwane Vision 2055 – Remaking South Africa’s Capital city document. The City of Tshwane has anchored its collaborative strategy development process on the Freedom Charter clause, “The people shall govern”. This principle is at the centre of the vision to provide a platform for Tshwane residents and the people of South Africa to exercise their power and
rights by participating in the vision to remake South Africa’s capital city. The year 2055 will be a significant milestone for South Africa, as it will mark 100 years of the signing of the Freedom Charter that from as far back as 1955, described a different and better South Africa for all. Drawing lessons and inspirations from the Freedom Charter, the City’s view was that a partnership between all sectors of the society was the only effective way of addressing myriads of complex urbanisation challenges and infrastructure backlogs. Tshwane Vision 2055 is a combination of short-term strategic actions and long-term planning directives. It is a reflection of the broad discussions, negotiations, and compromises made during the visioning process. This is a wonderful work in progress and will be reviewed each decade for the next 40 years to assess, reassess, and adjust as the City develops. It will serve the following objectives: • To develop a framework to help us do a better job, to focus our energy, and to ensure that all stakeholders and role-players are working toward the same goals • To assess and adjust the organisation’s strategic direction in response to a changing environment • To open a public discourse on the key challenges
confronting the City and how together we can develop appropriate solutions The City of Tshwane wants to capture the imagination of its residents, visitors and stakeholders and hold each other accountable in its journey towards 2055, a voyage that will see the flowering of one of Africa’s greatest cities. Our vision is that in 2055, the City of Tshwane is liveable, resilient and inclusive; whose citizens enjoy a high quality of life, have access to social, economic, and enhanced political freedoms, where citizens are partners in the development of the African capital city of excellence. Let us unpack this vision and see what is meant by liveable, resilient and inclusive and see how every citizen of this vibrant City can add to and complete this vision. LIVEABILITY This is interpreted to encompass the City’s aspirations in terms of how citizens experience and access a high quality of living standard. For us, liveability refers to the social and cultural, economic, environmental development, and good living environment that supports the needs of residents to live, work, play, and invest in the City
RESILIENCE The capacities of the City to anticipate, respond, and adapt successfully to challenging conditions. It means the City has the capacity to withstand and recover from an external shock and the ability to adapt and transform to changing circumstances. A resilient economy is one that has the capacity to adapt to difficult economic situations while a resilient environmental system has the capacity to withstand environmental changes and disasters. A resilient social urban system is characterised by high levels of inclusivity within the City. Finally, a resilient governance system is where there is capacity and capability at City level to provide the leadership and institutions to support the developmental aspirations of the City’s citizens.
Inclusive governance is about the City promoting active citizenry based on the sound belief that citizens are the ultimate guarantors of their lives and interests, making them partners in the current and future development of the City. This is about wardbased planning and citizens participating in council processes where permissible. Inclusive governance facilitates greater ownership of City development processes and interventions, poverty reduction, and fosters greater social cohesion. FOCUS ON THE FUTURE Central to Tshwane Vision 2055 is the appreciation that young people are the future. Therefore, this vision provides a broad logic and platform for young people to accept their responsibility and ownership of the City’s problems and to work with all sectors of society in finding solutions.
INCLUSIVE The City promotes equitable growth based on sound governance and respect for human rights regardless of gender, age, race, ethniCity, religion, or economic status. This requires that the City meaningfully supports, enables, and empowers residents to participate fully in the collectively developed social, economic, and political opportunities that the City has to offer. An inclusive economy is about creating an enabling environment that fosters equitable access to economic opportunities for citizens through the City investing in economic infrastructure and provision of quality public transport. The City will support youth, women, people living with disabilities and ensure the integration of migrant entrepreneurship in particular. Being socially inclusive is the creation of a clean, healthy, and safe environment, inseparable from the dignity and integrity of our communities. The spatial reconfiguration of the City remains not only central to undermining the historical legacy of apartheid, but most importantly for creating sustainable livelihoods and human settlements.
We will need to plan how future communities will be developed, integrating transport, economic, and social amenities. To do this meaningfully, we will continue to strengthen our engagement and governance processes to ensure that our citizens are at the centre of what and how we plan. Through sound governance, underpinned by our commitment to igniting excellence, we will become a responsive, accountable, effective, and efficient metro. As a developmental local government, the City of Tshwane has to respond to the rights enshrined in the Constitution. It has found its expression of these rights in the development of the Tshwane Vision 2055 outcomes. Each outcome includes an articulation of the context and importance of the outcome, the goal, game changers for the next four decades of change, and how the City will measure its progress. The result of the year-long consultation process with various stakeholders was the agreement on six outcomes to frame development priorities and programmes that will lead to the attainment of Tshwane Vision 2055: • A resilient and resource efficient City
Spatial justice and transformation is central to ensuring social inclusivity. This is about the City providing access to all the necessary services one needs to be an equal citizen in the City.
• A growing economy that is inclusive, diversified and competitive
• A quality infrastructure development that supports liveable communities • Equitable City that supports happiness, social cohesion, safety and healthy citizens • An African capital City that promotes excellence and innovative governance solutions • A South African capital with citizens who aware of their rights and who are partners in tackling societal challenges CREATING OUTCOMES TOGETHER In order to become an environmentally sustainable City, it will adopt new cradle-to-cradle (C2C) principles. The combination of a sustainable spatial planning approach, supported by an efficient and attractive public transport system, will address many of the ills currently caused by urban sprawl. This includes water and waste management and increasing energy efficiency. Citizens can actively support the City’s environment and energy programmes by looking to reduce, reuse, and recycle in their home and workplace as well as use public transport systems as much as possible. To drive the economy, the City will continue to drive focused and coherent economic transformation programmes aimed at empowering historically disadvantaged black South Africans, particularly women and youth. It has identified tourism, agriculture, automotive, aerospace, ICT, biotechnology, manufacturing, culture and crafts, high value-adding services, minerals and metals beneficiation, and agro-processing. Citizens can assist by assessing their workforce and adding in mentoring and development, with training goals set for everyone. The economy welcomes and encourages new ideas and businesses, particularly those that capitalise on the City research and development skills across crucial sectors. The provision of water, sanitation, roads, waste management, electricity, housing, recreation, and health and safety are primarily the focus areas of service delivery infrastructure. The City’s investment will be in quality infrastructure to ensure spatial
transformation that supports smart mobility and smart living around identified economic nodes to lead to the attainment of a better quality of life for all within the City. Citizens can assist in waste management by supporting recycling. They can guard every blue drop of water and invest in water saving techniques and products. They can also identify and assist in utilising land prudently. The search for equality takes on board the various deep-seated challenges that stem from a divisive past characterised by a brutal inhumane political and socio-economic regime and boldly seeks to carve a future city that is inclusive, socially cohesive, safe, and where people are healthy. It will provide cultural facilities, healthy and safe living conditions, quality housing, and access to education facilities, including its cultural and natural heritage. Citizens can support educational facilities in their area. They can encourage family, friends and work colleagues to honour the City’s heritage and culture. They can support the City in its health drive by living wisely and utilising the clinic facilities set up by the City. Excellence is about smart governance and the human elements of smart people that require the City to be transparent, ensure participatory decision-making, and work with its partners to deliver quality services. It will attract the best and brightest students from its universities and other African countries with advanced degrees in different areas of local government to deliver a skilled workforce and professional administrators. Everyone can support local and foreign intellectual capital and encourage them to create a smart City. Everyone should support civil servants in reaching their goals of transparency and inclusivity. Societal growth is about creating an environment that strengthens activist citizenry to support development and deepen democracy. Our goal to create enduring partnerships is about capitalising on the City’s strengths and opportunities, including the active engagement of citizenry who will be empowered through enabling environments that allow for selfreliance and upward social mobility. The success of which depends on the cooperation of citizens, who should be active in building democracy and trust, participate in city issues and debates, and call for
action and elections. All citizens need to tackle societal ills constructively, not as a bystander. The City of Tshwaneâ€™s departments and entities are committed to the implementation of Tshwane Vision 2055. These will produce aligned business plans for their relevant areas of focus, informed by other strategic documents such as the Tshwane Metropolitan Spatial Development Framework and Integrated Development Plan among others. For the City of Tshwane, quality of life is a multidimensional concept that objectively and subjectively assesses the conditions of life for the people living, working, investing, and playing in the City. Through Tshwane Vision 2055, we plan to create this dream for its present and future citizens through new urbanism. New urbanism is about exploring ways for raising quality of life and the standard of living in a new modern era by creating better and more viable places to live. It is also about the creation and restoration of diverse, walkable, compact, vibrant, mixed-use communities in a more integrated fashion, and complete communities. C2C has a strong focus on eco-effectiveness, instead of the common practice around eco-efficiency. The C2C concept calls for a rethink in the way things are designed and developed. Becoming an African capital city of
excellence will ultimately be reflected in the enhancement of the quality of lives for the residents of the City, as well as sound city governance and administration. This is better operationalised through the City of Tshwane becoming a smart city. This is not just about ICT; it is about economics, people, infrastructure, and being technologically competitive. Smart cities can be identified along six main dimensions; economy, mobility, environment, people, living, and governance. Smart cities distinguish themselves from intelligent or digital cities by emphasising investments in human capital and marry that with the existing and developing physical infrastructure to support sustainable city development, high quality of life, and participatory governance. In conclusion, the City of Tshwane, as a capital city, should creatively utilise the different forms of capital that exist within it - both for its macro-political role as a capital city, home of the diplomats, and also as a city that is a home to its residents. The City of Tshwane will have to keep its windows open so that all the cultures of the world can blow through it, without having its identity as a liveable city blown away by such cultures.
Climate change In 2013, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) noted that 97 percent of scientists agree climate change is real and is being caused by human activity. Global climate change refers to the long-term changes in weather patterns. Although, the Earthâ€™s climate has changed throughout history and there have been several cycles of glacial advance and retreat over the last 650 000 years. Most of these changes have been attributed to small variations in the Earthâ€™s orbit, which changes the amount of solar energy the Earth receives (NASA, 2013). The current evidence of the warming of the Earth is however, attributed to human activity because it is unprecedented and closely linked to burning fossil fuels. This causes an overload of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Although climate change is a global phenomenon, the impacts of climate change will be felt differently amongst different societies and regions of the world. Some societies and regions are more vulnerable to climate change than others are. In very few instances, climate change may actually bring positive results for societies, such as more rain occurring in dry regions, increasing agricultural production. However, the climatic changes that most societies across the world will face will require careful planning to ensure that societies will be able to not only cope with the expected environmental changes, but also continue with their development in a fruitful manner. Unfortunately, as is being witnessed, climate change will most affect the people that already experience other development challenges such as poverty, unemployment, hunger, a high incidence of disease, and gender inequality. The reason behind this vulnerability is that these societies are the least likely to have the required resources and skills to cope with and adapt to climate change. When preparing for current and future climate change the resources that people can rely on are known as adaptive capacity. It is also therefore vital that the innate coping mechanisms of societies are harnessed to assist in their survival in a changing environment.
IMPACTS FOR SOUTH AFRICA AND TSHWANE Temperature rise in South Africa is projected to be more severe inland than on the coastal areas and will be mostly evident during the winter months. The impacts of temperature rise will include, but will not be limited to, heat stress in people (the young and elderly in particular), heat stress in livestock, an increase in pests and diseases, and a higher evaporation rate leading to water shortages. Future rainfall changes are less easy to predict because the historical rainfall upon which projections are based is more varied than temperature. Nonetheless, it is projected that there will be an increased drying in the western and north-east parts of the country and that there is a possibility for an increase in rainfall in the east of the country. There is much evidence to suggest however, that many parts of the country will be subject to more intense rainfall events. South Africa is already a water-stressed country and a change in the rainfall patterns is the most dangerous climate change threat for the country. A decrease in rainfall will lead to drought, food insecurity, human health problems, and economic losses. An increase in rainfall and an increase in extreme rainfall events will lead to flooding, the destruction of assets, agricultural losses, economic losses, and loss of human life. As the oceans absorb more carbon dioxide, waters are becoming more acidic, leading to losses in marine life and marine ecosystems, as well as the devastating impact for the fishing industry. Likewise, sea-level rise will threaten coastal infrastructure and coastal communities, alongside the dangerous impacts of storm surge (Department of Rural Development and Land Reform, 2013). The City of Tshwane is situated in the interior of the country and can therefore expect a sharper rise in temperature, especially during the winter months and an increase in violent storms. In fact, these changes are already being witnessed. The City is an urban area and it must develop innovative plans to build the resilience of its people and infrastructure.
Ts w a i n g C r a t e r
As the climate changes, the productivity of the land in the rural areas will be affected and more people will move to the City, placing more pressure on already scarce resources. City planning will have to take into account the increase in people that will be requiring services at a time when resources such as water may be in short supply. Further, the people who will be requiring resources may not have the economic means to pay for them because of the persistent challenges of unemployment and inequality. BUILDING TSHWANEâ€™S CLIMATE RESILIENCY CAPACITY Climate resilient development has been viewed along the lines of managing current and future risks associated with a changing climate and its variability. Climate resilient and low-carbon development specifically relate to climate change response, which can be seen as an aggravating, rather than a defining factor, in pursuit of sustainable development. The analysis of futures is scoped in the context of a changing climate and a carbon-constrained world, with an interpretation of plausible social and economic futures for Tshwane. If natural resources, defined to exclude mineral resources, are understood to be
influenced by the climate system, whereas energy production, which is predominantly fossil fuel-based, is understood to be central to economic development. The ability of such economies to be successful will be determined by the global and national consumption patterns and empowerment of its citizenry. The scientific consensus that human-driven emissions of greenhouse gasses, primarily from the burning of fossil fuels and deforestation are accelerating the natural energy balance of the earth system has been described as unequivocal. Carbon dioxide daily average concentration measurements at Mauna Loa Observatory in Hawaii for the first time in more than 800 000 years exceeded 400ppm on the 9 May 2013. The context of that level of concentration is that carbon dioxide concentrations in the atmosphere during the pre-industrial period of the mid 1800s, was at 280 ppm, which translates to a rate of increase of 0.74 ppm per annum however, the rate of increase in the last decade has been 2 ppm. TEMPERATURES The observed mission trends suggest that the world will reach the 450 ppm concentration, which is associated with the politically accepted 20C scenario
in 2038 rather than 2050, and this was an important time-based assumption in the inter-governmental panel on climate change (IPCC) scenarios. The IPCC scenario associated with business as usual, such as the A2 scenario, which is used in a number of climate projections, has therefore been surpassed in light of the 2013 observed carbon dioxide concentrations. The temperature implication of the observed concentration levels is that the world is off-track for a 66 percent chance of keeping global average temperatures below 20C from preindustrial levels. A number of projections from various global circulation models (GCM) as described in the IPCCâ€™s fourth assessment report project an above global average warming over the African continent, through all seasons, with some studies suggesting a global 20C warming translates to 4-60C over parts of Africa. The African subtropics, which include South Africa, are projected to have more warming than the moist tropics. In the case of South Africa, the six GCM ensembles consistently show a higher increase in average temperatures for the west, northern and central sections of the country. The ensemble shows a range of increase from 0.90 C and 1.80 C by 2050 over Tshwane. RAINFALL The different model projections show a high degree of variability in their 2050 rainfall futures and this can be attributed to their different treatment of cumulus convection. However, the ensemble shows a general drying of the western and southern parts of the country, translating to between 25 and 50 percent reductions in monthly average rainfall, which is significant for areas with a monthly average rainfall of 20 to 40mm.
The average monthly rainfall for the City of Tshwane is 80mm, with most models projecting a 10 to 20mm reduction by 2050, translating to between a 12.5 and 20 percent reduction. However, the important areas for the supply of water to Tshwane are the Vaal and Orange River catchment systems, which face a 10 percent reduction average monthly rainfall. The implication of these climate futures suggest an increasing water demand for the municipal area due to both the increase in temperature as well as the reduction in average rainfall. The increased water demand is further exacerbated by diminishing supplies as rainfall in the catchment areas of major supply to Tshwane is expected to decrease. WIND The changes in average wind speeds by 2050 across the country show around 10 percent change, with most suggesting no change for Gauteng, with only a single model suggesting a 10 percent reduction from average wind speed of 3ms-1 for the region. Thus, the futures of a changing climate as well an increasingly carbon-constrained world mean water and energy, which are the primary drivers of economic, and subsequently social development, are not only uncertain, but also set to change. These changes are not only felt at the local level in terms of those resources being drivers for change, but also the feedback loop from a global response. Over the next four decades of change, Tshwane will work with its partners to build its climate resilience capacity through a number of strategic actions presented in the following table:
DEC ADE OF CHA NG E
S TRATE G I C A CTI ONS
By 202 0 , w e a re c o ns ol i d a t i n g t h e g a i n s o f de mo cra c y a n d t a c k l i n g t he t r i p l e c h a l l e n g e s o f une mp l o y m e n t , p o v e rt y, a nd in e q u a l i t y
• C l i mat e change st rat egy and i mp l ement at i on plan developed i nf ormed b y cl i mat e ri sk areas i n t he C i t y i s mainstreamed t hroughout t he C i t y and muni ci p al ent i t i es • D evel op p ol i cy and regul at ory f ramework s t hat will guide sustainable energy use and b al ance t he need s of p romot i ng equitable economic d evel op ment • R ol l out of energy account i ng t hrough met eri n g • P rogramme t o i ncrease wi l l i ngness t o p ay f or electr icity • E x p l ore crad l e- t o- crad l e op p ort uni t i es • P l anni ng and earl y st age i mp l ement at i on of l ow-car bon infr astr ucture • R ef urb i shment of ex i st i ng p ower st at i on and photovoltaic (PV) power generat i on and sol ar wat er heat ers t o ab at e i n crementally growing d emand f rom a recoveri ng gl ob al economy an d r ising energy costs • E ncourage l ocal p rod uct i on of t he p hot ovol t aic and solar wat er heat i ng • P l anni ng and commencement wi t h a 400 MW combined cycle gas t urb i ne (C C GT) i mmed i at el y af t er 2020 shoul d for m the backbone i nf rast ruct ure i nvest ment f or f ut ure economi c growth. • I nvest ment i n sci ence, engi neeri ng t rai ni ng i n wind, energy stor age f or t hermal p ower generat i on and t ransp ort systems, as well as wind energy and aeronaut i cal cap ab i l i t i es, shoul d for m the prepar ator y economi c i nvest ment s
By 203 0 , w e a re m a n a g i n g s us t a i n a b l e u rb a n g ro w t h a nd de v e l o p m e n t
• S cal e up P V and b ui l d i ng st and ard s; recycl i ng of grey water reach 15 p ercent sup p l yi ng new p ower p l ant s • D i versi f i cat i on of t he C i t y’s energy sources • S t rengt hen cl i mat e change ad ap t at i on p rogrammes to safeguard the C i t y’s resi d ent s, i nf rast ruct ure, nat ural resources, including disaster p rep ared ness • I nvest ment i n l ow carb on t echnol ogy t o f uel Tshwane’s public t ransp ort usi ng renewab l e energy/b i of uel s • P ol i cy and regul at ory f ramework t o sup p ort car bon management /p ri ci ng • I nvest i n recycl i ng i nf rast ruct ure • I nt ensi f y wast e- t o- energy i ni t i at i ves t o sup p or t City of Tshwane’s z ero wast e energy and carb on management t argets
By 204 0 w e a re t r a ns i t i o n i n g t o w a rd s a s us t a i n a b l e u rb a n f o rm a n d e c o nom y
• R ecycl i ng of grey wat er reaches 40 p ercent su pplying new PVt hermal p ower • P ub l i c t ransp ort op erat es si gni f i cant l y on ren ewable or biofuels • M ai nt enance of energy i nf rast ruct ure
By 205 0 w e a re a l l l i v i n g a be t t e r p ro s p e ro u s l i f e
• N ew gai ns i n eff i ci ency b ased on new- urb ani sed human settlements t hat encourage mob i l i t y (wal k i ng, cycl i ng, et c. ) and where homes, b usi ness, school s, and ot her ameni t i es are close together and connect i on wi t h ot her nei ghb ourhood s i s through public t ransp ort at i on
Greening the City The Tshwane metro has taken a number of steps towards greening the City and these include implementing architecture that is both liveable and well-connected to public transport and internet services. Green building regulations have been finalised and integrated into spatial planning programmes. Guided by its vision 2055, the City of Tshwane is now constructing a resource efficient City built on an environmentally-sustainable economy, bound to transform it completely into a low carbon and resource efficient City in accordance with this vision. Urban mobility, better waste management and the use of renewable energy are among the three elements needed to transition the City towards a green economy. It is also considering implementing green retrofitting in selected municipal and other buildings. Green buildings Green buildings deliver a suite of financial and environmental benefits, which conventional buildings do not. It is an industry that is growing in leaps and bounds in South Africa. City of Tshwane has several in place already with more to come.The Department of Environmental Affairs (DEA) head office in Pretoria is the first government building in South Africa to achieve a six-Star Green Star SA rating, as well as being the first six-Star rated green building in the City of Tshwane.This is not just another good looking block of offices in town, but a performing green building with targets on energy efficiency, water efficiency, and an industry-first sophisticated energy consumption mechanism never implemented in any other project in the construction sector. Lakeside Office Park in Centurion is the first existing building in South Africa that has been redeveloped with the intention to obtain a GBCSA four-Star Green Star rating. The striking refurbishment gave new life to a tired building and creates a healthy, inspiring working environment with plentiful natural light, views, efficient floor plates, enhanced thermal efficiencies, and other quality features. CENTURION SYMBIO CITY The essence of this development is the conversion 10 hectares of land surrounding and including the manmade Centurion Lake into a vibrant mixed-use symbioCity. It will link the Centurion Gautrain Station with the existing Centurion Mall. This proposed development
will be in line with the Compact City Strategy model that is successfully being affected in the leading Asian cities. The aim is to provide both high-density and highquality urban open spaces to enhance liveability for the inhabitants. The compactness of the Centurion Symbio City will make optimal use of the public transport and a proposed monorail system moving away from car-based transport to lower carbon emissions. The generation of renewable energy from the natural resources and building waste products will achieve off the grid efficiency eventually. RAINBOW JUNCTION The implementation and delivery of a new 550 000m2 mixed-use economic node in the City of Tshwaneâ€™s Zone of Choice six kilometres from CBD on 140 hectare greenfield site. The approved mixed basket of integrated land uses of this unique address comprises office and corporate parks, 1 200 highdensity residential units, a spread of extensive retail development, including a high-street shopping precinct and a regional shopping-centre, hotels with conference facilities, clean energy industry aligned with the Cityâ€™s commitment to environmentally-sustainable development, community facilities such as a private hospital, and other bespoke commercial opportunities. An iconic tower-block building will rise out of the regional shopping centre and there is an opportunity for a significant cultural/art facility integrated with the surrounding land uses. MENLYN MAINE Envisioned to be the first green living precinct in South Africa, the Menlyn Maine precinct is the densification of an existing low-density residential suburb with an approximate size of 135 000m2. Land usage has been divided into 14 000m2 of office space, 35 000m 2 of retail and dining space, 85 000m2 residential and 15 000m2 luxury hotel space - all of which are overlooking 5 700m2 of scenic parks that run through the centre of the entire precinct. It will receive a five-Star Green Star SA rating. TSHWANE HOUSE The House will be built along recommended green building practices and it is hoped that it too will score a five or six-Star Green Star SA rating.
We welcome our readers, be they residents, fellow South Africans, visitors or investors to the City of Tshwane’s expression of joy at the ce...