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Dental News, Volume XX, Number IV, 2013


Dental News, Volume XX, Number IV, 2013


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ARTICLES 12.

Effect of irrigation solutions on adhesion of EndorezTM sealer to root canal dentin Dr. Chems Belkhir Dr. Saida Sahtout Dr. Latifa Berrezouga Dr. Mohammed Semir Belkhir

CONGRESSES 52.

BIDM 2013 September 25-28, 2013 School of Dentistry, Hadath, Lebanon

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National Guard Health Affairs September 29- October 1, 2013 King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh, KSA

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Lebanese Orthodontic Society October 31 - November 3, 2013 Movenpick Resort, Raouche, Lebanon

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Replacement of a Missing Maxillary Central Incisor Dr. Badry Meouchy, Dr. Fady Abillamaa, Dr. Elie Azar Maalouf, Dr. FatmĂŠ Mouchref Hamasny, Dr. Ramzi Abou Arraj

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Egyptian Dental Assosiation Novermber 5 - 8, 2013 Cairo City Stars International Hotel, EYGPT

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Dental Facial Cosmetic International Conference Novermber 8 - 9, 2013 Jumeirah Beach Hotel, DUBAI

ADVERTISING INDEX 38.

Dealing with Airway and Dentofacial Development In Children Dr. Derek Mahony Dr. George Meredith

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Dental News, Volume XX, Number IV, 2013


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11

w w w.d ent alnews .com Volume XX, Number IV, 2013 EDITORIAL TEAM Alfred Naaman, Nada Naaman, Jihad Fakhoury, Dona Raad, Antoine Saadé, Lina Chamseddine, Tarek Kotob, Mohammed Rifai, Bilal Koleilat, Mohammad H. Al-Jammaz COORDINATOR Suha Nader ART DEPARTMENT Ibrahim Mantoufeh SUBSCRIPTION Micheline Assaf, Nariman Nehmeh ADVERTISING Josiane Younes PHOTOGRAPHY Albert Saykali TRANSLATION Gisèle Wakim, Marielle Khoury DIRECTOR Tony Dib ISSN 1026-261X

DENTAL NEWS IS A QUARTERLY MAGAZINE DISTRIBUTED MAINLY IN THE MIDDLE EAST & NORTH AFRICA IN COLLABORATION WITH THE COUNCIL OF DENTAL SOCIETIES FOR THE GCC. Statements and opinions expressed in the articles and communications herein are those of the author(s) and not necessarily those of the Editor(s) or publisher. No part of this magazine may be reproduced in any form, either electronic or mechanical, without the express written permission of the publisher.

DENTAL NEWS – Sami Solh Ave., G. Younis Bldg. POB: 116-5515 Beirut, Lebanon. Tel: 961-3-30 30 48 Fax: 961-1-38 46 57 Email: info@dentalnews.com Website: www.dentalnews.com www.facebook.com/dentalnews1

International Calendar Saudi Orthodontic Society

January 28 - 29, 2014 Park Hyatt, Jeddah, KSA Website: www.sos.sa

AEEDC

February 4 – 6, 2014 at the state-of-the-art Dubai International Convention & Exhibition Centre, DUBAI Website: www.aeedc.com

The Tunisian Dental Association Congress

February 7 – 8, 2014 TUNIS kh.tanazefti@gmail.com

Stars Meeting

April 2 - 4, 2014 Alexandria, EYGPT Email:eheikal@jmoritamiddleeast.com

2nd International Scientific Conference Of The Jordan University Of Science And Technology In Irbid

May 7 - 8, 2014 The faculty of Dentistry at JUST, JORDAN Email: ziadd@just.edu.jo Website: www.just.edu.jo/jidc

CAD/CAM and Digital Dentistry

May 8 - 9, 2014 at the JW Marriott Marquis Hotel Dubai, UAE Email: info@cappmea.com Website: www.cappmea.com

May 28 - 30, 2014 at the Saint Joseph University Dental School, Beirut, LEBANON Registration: 00961 1 421282 Email: fmd.fc@usj.edu.lb

Journées Odontologiques

www.facebook.com/dentalnews1 twitter.com/dentalnews Dental News App on both Appstore & Google play

36Th Asia Pacific Dental Congress

FDI Annual World Dental Congress

BIDM 2014 The 18th Kuwait Dental Association Dental Conference

June 17 - 19, 2014 at the World Trade Center, Dubai, U.A.E Website: www.apdentalcongress.org

September 11 - 14, 2014 at the India Expo Mart, New Delhi, INDIA Website: www.fdi2014.org.in

September 18 - 20, 2014 in Beirut, LEBANON Website: www.bidm-lda.com November 20-22, 2014 KUWAIT Email: info@kda.org.kw Website: www.kda.org.kw

Dental News, Volume XX, Number IV, 2013


12 Endodontics Effect of irrigation solutions

Effect of irrigation solutions on adhesion of Endorez sealer to root canal dentin Abstract Introduction: The objective of this work is to study the influence of the different irrigation solution combinations: Sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), EDTA and chlorhexidine (CHX) on the sealing of the root canal obturation using Endorez® sealing cement. Dr. Chems Belkhir belkhir_chems@yahoo.fr Dr. Saida Sahtout

Dr. Latifa Berrezouga

Dr. Mohammed Semir Belkhir

Materials and methods 56 incisors were endodontically prepared with the Protaper® system and were irrigated with Sodium hypochlorite at 2.5%. These teeth were divided into four groups depending on the final irrigation used. Group 1: 17% EDTA and 2.5% NaOCL, Group 2: 17% EDTA and 0.2% CHX, Group 3: 17% EDTA, 2.5%NaOCI and 0.2% CHX and Group 4: Only 2.5% NaOCI. All the canals were obturated with Endorez® and a gutta percha cone. After coronal obturation with composite resin, infiltration with china ink and diaphanisation, each tooth was observed using a stereo microscope and the dye ascent was calculated. Statistical analysis was performed using Post Hoc Test. Results: The irrigation associating EDTA and CHX showed less infiltration than that associating EDTA and NaOCI; (P=0.024). The group irrigated using the association EDTA and CHX gave infiltration rates inferior to those observed in the group irrigated with NaOCI (P=O). The group irrigated using the association EDTA, NaOCI and CHX showed infiltration rates weaker than the group irrigated with only NaOCL (P=0.04). Non significant differences were observed between groups 1 and 3 (P=0.68), groups 1 and 4 (P=0.1) and groups 2 and 3 (P=0.06).

Conclusions The sealing of root canal obturation with Endorez® is sensitive to the last irrigation solution used. The best results were observed in the asDental News, Volume XX, Number IV, 2013

sociations EDTA/CHX and EDTA/NaOCI/CHX. Key words: Endorez, Sodium hypochlorite, EDTA, chlorhexidine, adhesion, root canal dentin

Introduction The success of root canal therapy depends on the quality of several factors, including the instrumentation, irrigation, disinfection, and 3-dimensional obturation of the root canal.1 The ability to bond to radicular dentin has been perceived as beneficial for establishing a durable, impervious seal to prevent colonization of microbial biofilms and reinfection of filled canal spaces2 There has been a continuous quest throughout the history of endodontics for sealing materials that bond to instrumented canal walls.3 Resin-based sealers have gained popularity with the recent growing interest in adhesive endodontics. However, several factors make adhesion to the root canal system a challenge, such as chemical substances used during the biomechanical preparation, volumetric changes that occur in resin-based sealers during polymerization, bonding of the sealer because of polymerization shrinkage stresses, and various geometric factors.4 The irrigation solutions could alter the physicochemical characteristics of dentin3 and may have an adverse effect on adhesion to root canal dentin5 Endorez® (Ultradent Products Inc, South Jordan, UT) is a dualcured radiopaque hydrophilic methacrylate sealer that might be used in the wet environment of the root canal system.6 Endorez® required removal of canal wall smear layers to facilitate resin tag formation by hydrophilic resins.2 According to the manufacture, Endorez® can be used either with conventional gutta percha or with specific Endorez® point. In this work, we opted for conventional gutta percha as it represents the reference material for canal obturation and it is the


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24 14 Endodontics Effect of irrigation solutions

Group 1 - Suction of sodium hypochlorite from the canal. - Irrigation with 17% EDTA7 for one minute and neutralization with 3cc sodium hypochlorite at 2.5% for one minute.

Group 2 - Suction of sodium hypochlorite from the canal. - Irrigation with 17% EDTA for one minute. - Neutralization with 3cc of distilled water for one minute. - Final rinsing with 3cc of chlorhexidine at 0.2% for one minute.

Group 3 - Suction of sodium hypochlorite from the canal. - Irrigation with 17% EDTA for one minute. - Neutralization with 3cc of sodium hypochlorite at 2.5% for one minute. - Rinsing with distilled water for one minute (in order to avoid the formation of precipitate rust) - Final rinsing with 3cc of chlorexidine at 0.2% for one minute.

Group 4 - Irrigation with sodium hypochlorite at 2.5% for one minute. Dental News, Volume XX, Number IV, 2013

most used by the majority of practitioners. The objective of this work was to study the influence of the varioust most used irrigation solution combinations (sodium hypochlorite, EDTA and chlorhexidine) on the sealing of canal obturation using Endorez®.

Materials and Methods Samples preparation Fifty-six extracted mature human incisors with single straight canals and patent apices were selected. These teeth were stored in KCL at 0.9% until the operative procedures. After performing access cavities, Canals preparation were performed by the ProTaper Universal Series Rotary System according to the manufacturer’s recommendations using a crown-down technique. Irrigation was performed with sodium hypochlorite at 2.5%7 before and after the passage of each instrument. These teeth were randomly divided into 5 groups, each comprising 14 teeth. Each group underwent a final rinsing according to the following protocol. After rinsing, the canals were dried with paper points. The obturations were performed with Endorez® (methacrylic resin-based sealing cement) and with one gutta-percha cone according to the protocol recommended by the manufacturer (mono cone obturation). The master-cone (non-standardized medium size VENTURA) of each canal was adjusted with visual and tactile tests. (Control of Tug Back). A coronal obturation with composite resin (SWISS TEC®) was performed in order to obtain a maximal airtight and to avoid any infiltration risk of the dye through the coronal cavity. Infiltration (leakage) with china ink: All the teeth were immersed in china ink. Each tooth was placed, apex downward, in a Pyrex test tube half-filled with china ink. Each test tube was placed in a water bath, all placed in an agitator for 10 minutes. The water bath temperature was maintained at 37°C. After immersion, the teeth were left to dry in the open air for 24h. The dye deposit to the root surface of each tooth was carefully eliminated with the help of a Soflex disc of fine granulometry.

maintaining only the roots in order not to rapidly exhaust the acid solution. Only the roots underwent the diaphanisation stage. The teeth were placed for 12 days in nitric acid at 5% under continuous agitation and room temperature. The acid solution was daily renewed. To carry out progressive and complete dehydration, the roots were placed in growing concentrations of ethanol solutions (75%, 85%, and 95%, pure) for 24 hours each. The teeth were made transparent through immersion in methyl salicylate for 24 hours. Observation with stereo-microscope The stereo microscope was used to directly evaluate the dye recovery. The different samples of the five groups were photographed with the stereo microscope in two views (sections): vestibular and proximal. The measurements of the dye recovery were taken under an enlargement of 0,75, through unity of microscopic scale. (Figures 1, 2, 3 and 4) The Post Hoc Test was used to conduct a multiple comparison between groups 1, 2, 3 and 4. The value p is considered as significant when it is inferior to 0.05.

Results Infiltration scores are shown in figure 5. The significant differences were observed between: - Groups 1 (17% EDTA and 2.5% NaOCL) and 2 (17% EDTA and 0.2% CHX) (P=0.024). The irrigation associating 17% EDTA and 0.2% CHX shows less infiltration than that associating 17% EDTA and 2.5% NaOCL. - Groups 2 (17% EDTA and 0.2% CHX) and 4 (2.5% NaOCL) (p=0). The group irrigated using the association 17% EDTA and 0.2% CHX shows infiltration values of china ink clearly inferior to those observed at the level of the group irrigated with 2.5% NaOCL. - Groups 3 (17% EDTA, 2.5% NaOCL and 0.2% CHX) and 4 (2.5% NaOCL) (p=0.04). The group irrigated with the association 17% EDTA, 2.5% NaOCL and 0.2% CHX gives infiltration values weaker than the group irrigated with only 2.5% NaOCL. No significant differences were observed between groups 1 and 3 (P=0.68), groups 1 and 4 (P=0.1) and groups 2 and 3 (P=0.06). (Fig.1)

Discussion Diaphanisation The crowns were sectioned and eliminated,

The methods used to evaluate the root canal leakage are numerous and the results are of-


16 Endodontics Effect of irrigation solutions

GROUP A

GROUP B

Figure 1 group 1 (EDTA and NaOCl) sample without infiltration

sample with infiltration

sample without infiltration

sample with infiltration

sample without infiltration

sample with infiltration

sample without infiltration

sample with infiltration

ten contradictory.7 Dye penetration study is frequently used as it presents a good correlation with the other techniques.8 Many researches on Endorez® cement have been interested in its adhesion to the dentine when comparing it to other sealing cements9,10 but few works have studied the effects of the irrigation solutions on the cement bonding. Endodontic irrigation can result in an alteration of the chemical and structural composition of the human dentin modifying its permeability and its solubility, and affecting adhesion of materials to dentin surfaces.11 According to Xiaoli study, the irrigation solutions act on the physicochemical properties of the dentin surface, mainly on its wetness and durability.1 Optimum adhesion requires intimate contact between the adhesive material and the substrate to facilitate molecular attraction and allow either chemical adhesion or penetration for micromechanical surface interlocking. Therefore, adhesion processes are mainly influenced by the relative surface energy (wetting ability) of the solid surface which, in turn, is affected by the

internal dentin wetness resulting from dentin permeability provided by water in the dentinal tubules. This wetness is a consequence of dentin permeability provided by water in the dentinal tubules.11 In this study, we tested the effect of the various most currently-used irrigation solution combinations (NaOCl, EDTA, CHX) on the leakage of Endorez® canal filling. We noticed that the final irrigation with only sodium hypochlorite gave the most significant infiltration values. Sodium hypochlorite is the base irrigation solution that allows canal disinfection and the elimination of the organic fraction from the smear layer.12 Sodium hypochlorite is a powerful oxidizing agent that allows the formation of an oxygen-enriched layer to the dentinal surface. According to Morris et al. NaOCL leads to the oxidation of certain components of the dentinal matrix.13 It also leads to the formation of protein free radicals that gets into competition with the vinyl free radicals generated by the photo activation of resin sealer. This leads to an incomplete polymerization that affects the obturation quality.14 Oxygen

Figure 2 group 2 (EDTA and CHX)

Figure 3 group 3 (EDTA NaOCl CHX)

Figure 4 group 4 (NaOCl)

Dental News, Volume XX, Number IV, 2013


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20 Prosthetic Dentistry Effect of irrigation solutions

is considered among the substances that inhibit the polymerization of resin-based sealers. 3, 15 According to Ari et al. the formation of oxygen bubbles in the resin dentin interface will interfere with resin infiltration at the level of the tubules.15 Irrigation with sodium hypochlorite also causes a reduction in the calcium and phosphorus rates of dentin surface14, 16, thus modifying certain mechanical properties of this tissue, such as elasticity, flexion and micro hardness. This contributes to the decrease of the micro mechanical interaction between the resin sealing cements and the dentin. All these points explain the bad results obtained in this study.14 The final irrigation associating EDTA and NaOCI did not give better results than the final irrigation with only hypochlorite. EDTA removes the mineral fraction from the smear layer exposing the dentinal tubules17 It is generally used in the final rinsing following the end of shaping.12 This irrigation sequence allows the total elimination of the smear layer (organic and mineral fractions) but it can be at the origin of certain problems for the exposed root dentin. EDTA can cause severe erosion to the dentin if it exposed for a long time or if EDTA is not neutralized. Calt and Serper suggest that EDTA should be used for less than a minute in the canal to avoid any risk of erosion.18 Dogan and Semra showed that the irrigation associating NaOCI and EDTA alter the mineral of the root dentin.17,18 Several other studies showed that the use of sodium hypochlorite in the final flush after EDTA increases dentinal erosion.19 NaOCI attack the collegen exposed.20 Although we had aspired NaOCI before using EDTA and we neutralized the latter with distilled water, the results were not better. This is explained by the oxidizing action of hypochlorite which was lastly used. Eldeniz study which used the final irrigation protocol (EDTA, NaOCl) showed a bad adhesion of Endorez® to the dentin compared to the other sealing cements.10 According to Doyle study, when EDTA is used in final rinsing following NaOCI, the adhesion of Endorez® to the dentin is not altered by the latter.21 The final irrigation associating EDTA and CHX showed better results with the weakest infiltration values. The absence of NaOCI ameliorates the quality of the canal filling (or of adhesion). In our study, we noticed that the neutralization of EDTA with CHX had ameliorated the obturaDental News, Volume XX, Number IV, 2013

tion leakage. Erdemir et al. noticed that CHX significantly increases the adhesion force of the resin sealers to the radicular dentin. This phenomenon could be explained by the adsorption of CHX to the dentin surface which is in favor of resin infiltration at the dentinal tubules.5 We noted that there are no significant differences between the irrigation associating EDTA and NaOCI and that associating EDTA, NaOCI and CHX. CHX managed to neutralize the effect of NaOCI. According to Santos et al, CHX used alone does not affect adhesion of the selfetching adhesives to the dentin as it is an antioxidizing agent. It is the same when CHX is associated with EDTA.14 It is worth noting that a white precipitate is formed when these two products are associated.15 When CHX is associated with sodium hypochlorite, a brown orange (parachloramine) is formed at the canal surface and it affects the canal obturation with the resin cements.4, 22 It is for these reasons that we performed rinsing with distilled water before the use of CHX.22 According to Wachlarowicz, the different irrigation solutions have little effect on the dentinal adhesion of epiphany-based sealers. The adhesion of epiphany to the dentin is comparable to other sealing cements. The negative effect of NaOCl on adhesion was not confirmed by Wachlarowichz study.24 Based on this study, the best leakage results were obtained with the following combinations “EDTA and CHX” and “EDTA, NaOCl and CHX”. The association EDTA, NaOCI and CHX allows a rigorous final disinfection thanks to the combined action of sodium hypochlorite and CHX without an alteration of Endorez sealer adhesion. This irrigation protocol could be indicated in case of infected canals.

References: 1. HU X, LING J, GAO Y. EFFECTS OF IRRIGATION SOLUTIONS ON DENTIN WETTABILITY AND ROUGHNESS. J ENDOD 2010; 36:1064-67. 2. MAI S, KIM YK, HIRAISHI N , LING J, PASHLEY DH, TAY FR. EVALUATION OF THE TRUE SELF-ETCHING POTENTIAL OF A FOURTH GENERATION SELF-ADHESIVE METHACRYLATE RESIN–BASED SEALER. J ENDOD 2009; 35:870-74. 3. SCHWARTZ RS. ADHESIVE DENTISTRY AND ENDODONTICS. PART 2: BONDING IN THE ROOT CANAL SYSTEM. THE PROMISE AND THE PROBLEMS: A REVIEW. J ENDOD 2006; 32:1125-34. 4. BELLI S, COBANKARA FK, OZCOPUR B, ELIGUZELOGLU E, ESKITASCIOGLU G . AN ALTERNATIVE ADHESIVE STRATEGY TO OPTIMIZE BONDING TO ROOT DENTIN. J ENDOD 2011; 37: 1427-32. 5. ERDEMIR A, ARI H, GÜNGÜNES H, BELLI S. EFFECT OF MEDICATIONS FOR ROOT CANAL TREATMENT ON BONDING TO ROOT CANAL DENTIN. J ENDOD 2004; 30: 113-16. 6. KIM YK, GRANDINI S, AMES JM, GU LS, KIM SK, PASHLEY DH, GUTMANN JL, TAY FR. CRITICAL REVIEW ON METHACRYLATE RESIN–BASED ROOT CANAL SEALERS.


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J ENDOD 2010; 36:383-99. 7. HERBERT J, BRUDER M, BRAUNSTEINER J, ALTENBURGER MJ, WRBAS KT. APICAL QUALITY AND ADAPTATION OF RESILON, ENDOREZ, AND GUTTAFLOW ROOT CANAL FILLINGS IN COMBINATION WITH A NONCOMPACTION TECHNIQUE. J ENDOD 2009; 35:26164. 8.ZMENER O, PAMEIJER CH, ALVAREZ SERRANO S, VIDUEIRA M, MACCHI RL. SIGNIFICANCE OF MOIST ROOT CANAL DENTIN WITH THE USE OF METHACRYLATE-BASED ENDODONTIC SEALERS: AN IN VITRO CORONAL DYE LEAKAGE STUDY. J ENDOD 2008; 34:76-79. 9. FISHER MA, BERZINS DW, BAHCALL JK. AN IN VITRO COMPARISON OF BOND STRENGTH OF VARIOUS OBTURATION MATERIALS TO ROOT CANAL DENTIN USING A PUSHOUT TEST DESIGN. J ENDOD 2007; 33:856-58. 10. UNVERDI ELDENIZ A, ERDEMIR A; BELLI S. SHEAR BOND STRENGTH OF THREE RESIN BASED SEALERS TO DENTIN WITH AND WITHOUT THE SMEAR LAYER. J ENDOD 2005; 31:293-96. 11. HASHEM AAR, GHONEIM AG, LUTFY RA, FOUDA MY. THE EFFECT OF DIFFERENT IRRIGATING SOLUTIONS ON BOND STRENGTH OF TWO ROOT CANAL–FILLING SYSTEMS. J ENDOD 2009; 35: 537-540. 12. ZEHNDER M. ROOT CANAL IRRIGANTS. J ENDOD 2006; 32: 389-98. 13. MORRIS MD, LEE KW, AGEE KA, BOUILLAGUET S, PASHLEY DH.EFFECTS OF SODIUM HYPOCHLORITE AND RC-PREP ON BOND STRENGTHS OF RESIN CEMENT TO ENDODONTIC SURFACES. J ENDOD 2001; 27:753-57. 14. SANTOS N J, ROCHA DE OLIVEIRA CARRILHO M, DE GOES MF, ZAIA AA, FIGUEIREDO DE ALMEIDA GOMES BP, DE SOUZA-FILHO FJ, RANDI FERRAZ CC. EFFECT OF CHEMICAL IRRIGANTS ON THE BOND STRENGTH OF A SELF-ETCHING ADHESIVE TO PULP CHAMBER DENTIN. J ENDOD 2006; 32: 1088-90. 15. ARI H, YASSAR E¸ BELLI S. EFFECTS OF NAOCL ON BOND STRENGTHS OF RESIN CEMENTS TO ROOT CANAL DENTIN. J ENDOD 2003; 29:248-51. 16. ARI H, ERDEMIR A. EFFECTS OF ENDODONTIC IRRIGATION SOLUTIONS ON MINERAL CONTENT OF ROOT CANAL DENTIN USING ICP-AES TECHNIQUE. J ENDOD 2005; 31: 187-189. 17. DOGAN H, CALT S. EFFECTS OF CHELATING AGENTS AND SODIUM HYPOCHLORITE ON MINERAL CONTENT OF ROOT DENTIN. J ENDOD 2001; 27:578-80. 18. ÇALT S, SERPER A. TIME-DEPENDENT EFFECTS OF EDTA ON DENTIN STRUCTURES. J ENDOD 2002; 28:17-19. 19. GRANDE NM, PLOTINO G, FALANGA A, POMPONI M, SOMMA F . INTERACTION BETWEEN EDTA AND SODIUM HYPOCHLORITE: A NUCLEAR MAGNETIC RESONANCE ANALYSIS. J ENDOD 2006; 32: 460-464. 20. QIAN W, SHEN Y, HAAPASALO M. QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE EFFECT OF IRRIGANT SOLUTION SEQUENCES ON DENTIN EROSION. J ENDOD 2011; 37: 1437-41. 21. DOYLE MD, LOUSHINE RJ, AGEE KA, GILLESPIE WT, WELLER RN, PASHLEY DH, TAY FR. IMPROVING THE PERFORMANCE OF ENDOREZ ROOT CANAL SEALER WITH A DUAL-CURED TWO-STEP SELF-ETCH ADHESIVE. I. ADHESIVE STRENGTH TO DENTIN. J ENDOD 2006; 32:766-770. 22. BUI TB, CRAIG BAUMGARTNER J, MITCHELL JC. EVALUATION OF THE INTERACTION BETWEEN SODIUM HYPOCHLORITE AND CHLORHEXIDINE GLUCONATE AND ITS EFFECT ON ROOT DENTIN. J ENDOD 2008; 34:181-85. 23. BASRANI BR, MANEK S, SODHI RNS, FILLERY E, MANZUR A. INTERACTION BETWEEN SODIUM HYPOCHLORITE AND CHLORHEXIDINE GLUCONATE. J ENDOD 2007; 33:96669. 24. WACHLAROWICZ AJ, JOYCE AP, STEVEN ROBERTS, PASHLEY DH. EFFECT OF ENDODONTIC IRRIGANTS ON THE SHEAR BOND STRENGTH OF EPIPHANY SEALER TO DENTIN. J ENDOD 2007; 33:152-55. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS THE AUTHORS THANK MISTER SAMIR BOUKOTTAYA FOR REVISION OF THE MANUSCRIPT.

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24 48 Implant Dentistry Case Report

Replacement of a Missing Maxillary Central Incisor Dr. Badry Meouchy drmeochy@hotmail.com

Dr. Fady Abillamaa

Dr. Elie Azar Maalouf

Dr. FatmĂŠ Mouchref Hamasny

Dr. Ramzi Abou Arraj

Abstract Background: An 18 year old female patient presented for implant placement at the site of a congenitally missing right maxillary central incisor. The clinical examination revealed an insufficient bucco-lingual width of the edentulous ridge, requiring a horizontal bone augmentation procedure prior to implant placement. Methods: An autogenous bone block graft was harvested from mandibular symphysis, fixed on buccal aspect of edentulous crest with titanium miniscrews, covered first by autogenous bone chips and xenograft particles, and second with a resorbable barrier membrane. Four months later, an Astra TechÂŽ implant was placed in the grafted site, surrounded by a thick buccal bony wall, demonstrating excellent primary stability and guaranteeing a better esthetic outcome. Impressions for prosthetic work were taken and final restoration cemented 3 months following implant placement.

Discussion Autogenous bone block grafting is regarded as a predictable procedure, especially in horizontal bone augmentation from intra-oral sites. Many requirements have to be respected however in order to achieve this purpose. In addition, timing of implant placement with autogenous block grafts is a subject of controversy. Finally, implant placement in anterior maxilla has to meet guidelines proposed in the literature to avoid esthetic shortcomings. Conclusion: This case report describes the successful replacement of an anterior missing tooth with an AstraÂŽ implant after a bucco-lingual augmentation of the edentulous ridge. Dental News, Volume XX, Number IV, 2013

Introduction The ability to successfully replace single or multiple missing teeth with osseointegrated dental implants has revolutionized dentistry over the past four decades. Consistent long-term results have been reported in the literature (Adell et al., 1990; Albrektsson et al., 1986; Lekholm et al., 1994). Nevertheless, dental implant therapy can be complicated by numerous local factors, namely the anatomy of the edentulous ridge. An inadequate bone volume, either in height or in width, renders the placement of implants rather difficult, especially in areas of high esthetic demands. Various bone augmentation techniques have been described in the literature in order to reconstruct deficient alveolar ridges such as particulate bone grafting, guided bone regeneration, autogenous bone block graft, ridge expansion, and alveolar distraction osteogenesis (McAllister and Haghighat, 2007; Chiapasco et al., 2006 & 2007; Esposito et al., 2006). The purpose of this clinical report is to describe a case of single implant placement in maxillary right central incisor region following horizontal bone augmentation using an autogenous block graft in a young female patient.

Case Report An 18 year old female patient was referred by the Department of Orthodontics to the Department of Periodontology (at the Lebanese University School of Dentistry) because of a missing maxillary right central incisor.


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26 Implant Dentistry Case Report

Fig 1 Fig. 1: Extra-oral examination showing smile line, symmetry and missing right central incisor.

The patient had just completed her orthodontic treatment and a removable maxillary retainer was fabricated to maintain the space as well as to temporarily replace the missing tooth (Fig. 2).

Fig. 2: Maxillary retainer in place.

Fig 2

Fig 4

In addition, the Department of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics approved the initiation of surgical procedures after examining a hand wrist radiograph in order to confirm the end of growth. The questionnaire and the patient’s file revealed that this central incisor was congenitally missing. An extra-oral examination was first carried out, demonstrating a low lip line, facial symmetry and a well aligned dental midline. Then, intra-oral examination of the edentulous space showed a well managed space to symmetrically replace the missing right central incisor according to the left central incisor, a narrow alveolar crest indicating a horizontal bone loss at the site of the missing tooth (Fig. 3). Fig. 3: InsufďŹ cient buccolingual width of the edentulous ridge.

Dental News, Volume XX, Number IV, 2013

A periodontal probe (Michigan probe, Hu-Friedy, IL, USA) was then used under local analgesia to assess bucco-lingual width of bone crest, after subtracting the thicknesses of buccal and lingual soft tissues from total bucco-lingual width of the ridge at top of the crest. These measurements displayed an approximate horizontal bone thickness of 3 mm. However, optimal implant placement required a buccal bone thickness of at least 1 mm to avoid esthetic shortcomings, i.e. gingival recession (Belser et al., 1998; Chiapasco et al., 1999; Buser et al., 2004). Therefore, it was decided to perform a horizontal bone augmentation procedure using an autogenous block graft prior to implant placement in a staged approach. Moreover, a peri-apical radiograph revealed a sufficient height of bone (Fig. 4).

Fig 3

Fig. 4: Peri-appical radiograph of the edentulous site.

Onlay Bone Block Grafting Patient was instructed to perform a mouthrinse with a 0.12% solution of chlorhexidine-digluconate for 1 minute with a 10 ml solution immediately prior to surgery. Local analgesia (2% lidocaine with 1:100000 epinephrine) was administered in the area of the maxillary edentulous crest as well as in the interforaminal region of anterior mandible. Full-thickness buccal and palatal mucoperiosteal flaps with 2 buccal vertical releasing incisions were first raised at the recipient site. The direct measurement using a periodontal probe (Michigan probe, Hu-Friedy, IL, USA) confirmed the pre-operative bucco-lingual width evaluation. Then, a template was used and adjusted at the recipient bed to assess the dimensions of the block graft to be harvested (Fig. 5). Subsequently, a horizontal incision was made at muco-gingival junction from cuspid to cuspid at mandibular symphysis region and a full-thick


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28 Implant Dentistry Case Report

ness (mucoperiosteal) flap was raised (Fig. 6). Fig. 5: Adjustment of a template of the graft at the recipient site.

Fig. 6: Incision and flap at mandibular donor site.

Fig 5

Fig 6

to minimize hematoma formation. Next, the flap was sutured back to its original position using an interlocked continuous suture technique. At the recipient site, the block graft was adjusted to achieve better adaptability and decrease micromovements. A round bur was used to perforate the buccal cortex of the recipient bed in order to promote bleeding and the block was fixed with 2 titanium miniscrews (Straumann®, Switzerland) after smoothening of its sharp edges. Fig 9

Fig. 9: Fixation of the block graft with 2 titanium miniscrews.

Right and left mental nerves were identified and protected and the adjusted template was used to outline the cortico-cancellous block with a fissure bur used on a straight handpiece, under copious irrigation with sterile saline (Fig. 7). Fig. 7: Use of the template to outline the block graft.

Cancellous bone chips collected from donor site were mixed with xenograft bone particles (BioOss®, Geistlich, Switzerland) and were used to fill the gap around the bone block (Fig. 10). Fig 10

Fig 7

Fig. 10: cancellous bone chips and Bio-Oss® particles filling the defects around the bone block.

Following ostectomy, a 14x6x5 mm bone block was removed with fine straight chisels while preserving the lingual cortex. Further cancellous bone chips were harvested with surgical curettes and the donor site filled with haemostatic material (Cutanplast®, Milan, Italy) (Fig. 8) Fig. 8: Cancellous bone chips after block harvesting.

Then, a resorbable membrane (Bio-Gide®, Geistlich, Switzerland) was placed in a double layer technique to cover both the block graft and bone particles (Fig. 11). Fig 11

Fig 8

Figure 11: (Note the prominent antegonial notch on the lower border of the mandible) Dental News, Volume XX, Number IV, 2013


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30 Implant Dentistry Case Report

Periosteal releasing incisions allowed a coronal displacement of the buccal flap enough to close the wound, using mattress and tension-free simple interrupted resorbable sutures (3/0 Vicryl速) (Fig. 12). Fig. 12: Horizontal mattress and simple interrupted sutures.

Fig 12

was asked to use a mouthrinse (Chlorhexidine digluconate 0.12%) for 3 minutes, and local analgesia (2% lidocaine with 1:100000 epinephrine) was administered in the grafted maxillary area. Similar to the previous procedure, crestal, intra-sulcular and vertical releasing incisions were made and full-thickness buccal and palatal mucoperiosteal flaps were raised. The grafted region demonstrated an adequate horizontal bone augmentation of approximately 7 mm with some resorption at coronal level with no considerable effect on the outcome of therapy (Fig. 15). Fig 15

Antibiotic (Augmentin速 625mg TID for one week) and anti-inflammatory (Brufen速 400mg TID in case of pain) drugs were administered following surgery. Mouthrinses with a 0.12% solution of chlorhexidine-digluconate were started again 24 hours after surgery and continued for 2 weeks. The maxillary removable retainer was adjusted to avoid pressure over the grafted site and sutures were removed 10 days post-operatively. Implant Placement Four months later, patient returned to the Department of Periodontology for implant placement (Figs. 13 & 14) Fig. 13: Recipient site 4 months after bone grafting (Note that 1 of the miniscrews is showing through the alveolar mucosa).

Fig 13

Fig. 14: Occlusal view of the edentulous crest 4 months after bone grafting.

Fig 14

Next, the 2 titanium miniscrews were removed, a 2mm twist drill was then used to the length of 13mm followed by verification with the direction indicator (Fig. 16). Fig 16

Fig. 16: Direction indicator in place to verify the ideal position.

Immediately prior to starting surgery, patient Dental News, Volume XX, Number IV, 2013

Fig. 15: Bone resorption at the level of the more coronal miniscrew.

Then, the 2.5 mm Tiger drill was used to the length of 13 mm, followed by the intermediate Pilot drill, and finally the 3.2 mm Tiger drill followed by the 3.5mm cortical drill. The Direction Indicator was used at all times to guide implant positioning both mesio-distally and bucco-lingually (Fig. 17).


32 Implant Dentistry Case Report

Fig. 17: Occlusal view of the Direction Indicator.

Fig 17

Fig 20

Fig. 20: Flap Closure.

The 3-dimensional implant placement was performed in respect to the guidelines proposed in the literature (Buser et al., 2004). Subsequently, a 3.5 x 13 mm Astra Tech速 implant was removed from its sterile container and delivered to the drilling site by first using the Delivery Cap and later the Torque Wrench until its rough surface was fully submerged in bone (Figs. 18 & 19). Fig. 18: Frontal view of the implant showing its coronoapical position.

Fig 18

Crown Placement Three months after implant placement, uncovering of the implant was performed and a healing screw replaced the cover screw. Three weeks later, abutment choice and impressions were made for prosthesis fabrication at the Lebanese University School of Dentistry Department of Prosthodontics. After another 3 weeks, the crown was cemented in place demonstrating an excellent immediate esthetic outcome and after a follow-up period of 1 month and 2 years (Figs 21, 22 & 23). Fig 21

Fig. 19: Occlusal view of the implant showing the presence of 2mm thickness.

Fig 19

Fig. 21: Final cemented restoration. Fig 22

The implant carrier was released using the Torque Wrench in a counterclockwise direction with the Combination Wrench and a 3.5 mm cover screw placed on top of the implant. Finally, the mucoperiosteal flaps were sutured in their original position (Fig. 20). Post-operative medications were prescribed similarly to previous surgery and sutures were removed 1 week after.

Dental News, Volume XX, Number IV, 2013

Fig. 22: Peri-apical radiograph of the implant/crown connection.

Discussion Insufficient width of alveolar crest has led to the application of different grafting techniques.


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34 Implant Dentistry Case Report

Fig. 23: Peri-apical radiograph (2 years follow-up).

Fig 23

Autogenous block grafting is a well documented procedure, either from intra-or extra-oral sites (McAllister and Haghighat 2007; Chiapasco et al., 2006). Horizontal bone augmentation, in particular, is considered a predictable approach with onlay bone grafts (Buser et al., 1996; Misch, 1997). Available intra-oral donor sites include mandibular symphysis, mandibular ramus and mandibular external oblique ridge (Proussaefs et al., 2002; Misch, 2000). Pre-requisites for the success of this therapy are the intimate contact and stabilization of the block graft to the recipient bed (de Carvalho et al., 2000; Urbani et al., 1998), and the cortical perforation with intra-marrow penetration of the defect site to increase the rate of re-vascularization and remodeling (Majzoub et al., 2000; de Carvalho, 2000). The amount of bone resorption of intraoral (chin and mandibular ramus) onlay block grafts has been reported to vary between 5 and 10% (Chiapasco et al., 1999; Raghoebar et al., 2000; Jemt and Lekholm, 2003). However, the use of barrier membranes in combination with block grafts seems to minimize the rate of bone resorption (McAllister and Haghighat, 2007; Chiapasco et al., 2006). The timing of implant placement in grafted sites has been a subject of controversy. Many authors24,25 advocated an immediate implant placement in conjunction with intra-oral onlay grafting procedure in order to reduce the risk of bone resorption that occurs, for the most part, shortly after graft fixation. Other authors22,23 recommended implant placement after a waiting period of 4 to 5 months of the grafting procedure to permit a better primary stability and integration of the implant in a re-vascularized bone and to avoid an implant loss due to exposure or infection of the block graft (Chiapasco et al., 2006). Therefore, in areas of esthetic concern, it would be wiser to place the implants in a delayed approach for more predictable results.

ly missing tooth using an Astra Tech® implant, 4 months following a ridge augmentation with an onlay block graft from mandibular symphysis. Authors declare that they do not have financial arrangement or interest in Astra Tech® implant system.

REFERENCES 1. ADELL R, ERIKSSON B, LEKHOLM U, BRANEMARK PI, JEMT T. A

LONG-TERM FOLLOW-UP STUDY OF

OSSEOINTEGRATED IMPLANTS IN THE TREATMENT OF TOTALLY EDENTULOUS JAWS. INT

2. ALBREKTSSON T, ZARB G, WORTHINGTON PMD, ERIKSSON AR. THE

LONG-TERM EFFICACY OF CUR-

RENTLY USED DENTAL IMPLANTS: A REVIEW AND PROPOSED CRITERIA OF SUCCESS. INT

Lateral bone augmentation of a narrow edentulous ridge, using autogenous block grafts, has shown to be a successful technique. Furthermore, if guidelines for implant placement in anterior maxilla are respected, excellent esthetic outcomes can be achieved. This case report demonstrated the ability to replace a congenitalDental News, Volume XX, Number IV, 2013

J ORAL MAXILLOFAC

IMPLANTS 1986;1:11-25. 3. BELSER UC, BUSER D, HESS D, SCHMID B, BERNARD JP, LANG NP. AESTHETIC TIONS IN PARTIALLY EDENTULOUS PATIENTS-A CRITICAL APPRAISAL.

4. BUSER D, DULA K, HIRT HP, SCHENK RK. LATERAL BARRIER MEMBRANES: A CLINICAL STUDY WITH

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PERIODONTOL 2000 1998;17:132-150.

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6. CHIAPASCO M, ABATI S, ROMEO E, VOGEL G. CLINICAL OUTCOME OF AUTOGENOUS BLOCK GRAFTS OR GUIDED BONE REGENERATION WITH E-PTFE MEMBRANES FOR THE RECONSTRUCTION OF NARROW EDENTULOUS RIDGES.

CLIN ORAL IMPL RES 1999;10:278-288.

7. CHIAPASCO M, ZANIBONI M, BOISCO M. AUGMENTATION DEFICIENT EDENTULOUS RIDGES WITH ORAL IMPLANTS.

PROCEDURES FOR THE REHABILITATION OF

CLIN ORAL IMPL RES 2006;17(SUPPL. 2):136-159.

8. CHIAPASCO M, ZANIBONI M, RIMONDINI L. AUTOGENOUS ONLAY BONE GRAFTS VS. ALVEOLAR DISTRACTION OSTEOGENESIS FOR THE CORRECTION OF VERTICALLY DEFICIENT RIDGES: A ON HUMANS.

2-4-YEAR

PROSPECTIVE STUDY

CLIN ORAL IMPL RES 2007;18:432-

9. DE CARVALHO PS, VASCONCELLOS LW, PI J. INFLUENCE OF BED PREPARATION ON THE INCORPORATION OF AUTOGENOUS BONE GRAFTS:

A STUDY IN DOGS. INT J ORAL MAXILLOFAC IMPLANTS 2000;15:565-570.

10. ESPOSITO M, GRUSOVIN MG, COULTHARD P, WORTHINGTON HV. THE AUGMENTATION PROCEDURES FOR DENTAL IMPLANTS: CONTROLLED CLINICAL TRIALS. INT

A COCHRANE

EFFICACY OF VARIOUS BONE

SYSTEMATIC REVIEW OF RANDOMIZED

J ORAL MAXILLOFAC IMPLANTS 2006;21:696-710.

11. JEMT T, LEKHOLM U. MEASUREMENTS

OF BUCCAL TISSUE VOLUMES AT SINGLE-IMPLANT RESTORATIONS

AFTER LOCAL BONE GRAFTING IN MAXILLAE: A

3-YEAR

CLINICAL PROSPECTIVE STUDY CASE SERIES.

CLINICAL

IMPLANT DENTISTRY RELATED RESEARCH 2003;5:63-70. 12. LEKHOLM U,

VAN

STEENBERGHE D, HERMANN I, BOLENDER C, FOLMER T, GUNNE J, HENRY P,

HIGUCHI K, LANEY WR. OSSEOINTEGRATED IMPLANTS IN THE TREATMENT OF PARTIALLY EDENTULOUS JAWS; A PROSPECTIVE

5-YEAR MULTICENTER STUDY. INT J ORAL MAXILLOFAC IMPLANTS 1994;9:627-635.

13. MAJZOUB Z, BERENGO M, GIARDINO R, ALDINI NN, CORDIOLI G. ROLE OF INTRAMARROW PENETRATION IN OSSEOUS REPAIR:

A PILOT STUDY IN THE RABBIT CALVARIA. J PERIODONTOL 1999;70:1501-1510.

14. MCALLISTER BS, HAGHIGHAT K. BONE AUGMENTATION TECHNIQUES. J PERIODONTOL 2007;78:377396. 15. MISCH CM. COMPARISON OF INTRAORAL DONOR SITES FOR ONLAY GRAFTING PRIOR TO IMPLANT PLACEMENT. INT

J ORAL MAXILLOFAC IMPLANTS 1997;12:767-776.

16. MISCH CM. USE

OF MANDIBULAR RAMUS AS A DONOR SITE FOR ONLAY BONE GRAFTING. JOURNAL OF

ORAL IMPLANTOLOGY; VOL.XXVI/NO. ONE/2000. 17. PROUSSAEFS P, LOZADA J, KLEINMAN A, ROHRER MD. THE

USE OF RAMUS AUTOGENOUS BLOCK

GRAFTS FOR VERTICAL ALVEOLAR RIDGE AUGMENTATION AND IMPLANT PLACEMENT:

A PILOT STUDY. INT J ORAL

MAXILLOFAC IMPLANTS 2002;17:238-248. 18. RAGHOEBAR GM, BATENBURG RHK, MEIJER HJA, VISSINK A. HORIZONTAL OSTEOTOMY FOR RECONSTRUCTION OF THE NARROW EDENTULOUS MANDIBLE.

CLIN ORAL IMPL RES 2000;11:76-82.

19. SCHWARTZ-ARAD D, LEVIN L, SIGAL L. SURGICAL SUCCESS OF INTRAORAL AUTOGENOUS BLOCK ONLAY BONE GRAFTING FOR ALVEOLAR RIDGE AUGMENTATION. IMPLANT

DENT. 2005 JUN;14(2):131-8.

20. URBANI G, LOMBARDO G, SANTI E, TARNOW D. LOCALIZED RIDGE AUGMENTATION WITH CHIN GRAFTS AND RESORBABLE PINS:

CASE REPORTS. INT J PERIODONTICS RESTORATIVE DENT 1998;18:363-375.

21. VON ARX T, BUSER D. HORIZONTAL RIDGE AUGMENTATION USING BLOCK GRAFTS AND THE GUIDED BONE REGENERATION TECHNIQUE WITH COLLAGEN MEMBRANES: A CLINICAL STUDY WITH

Conclusion

J ORAL MAXILLOFAC

IMPLANTS 1990;5:347-359.

42

PATIENTS.

CLIN ORAL

IMPLANTS RES. 2006 AUG;17(4):359-66. 22. JEMT T, LECKHOLM U. MEASUREMENTS OF BUCCAL TISSUE VOLUMES AT SINGLE-IMPLANT RESTORATIONS AFTER LOCAL BONE GRAFTING IN MAXILLAE: A

3-YEAR

CLINICAL PROSPECTIVE STUDY CASES SERIES.

CLINICAL

IMPLANT DENT REL RES. 2003;5:63-70. 23. BECKTOR JP, ECKERT SE, ISAKSSON S, KELLER EE. THE IMPLANT FAILURES IN BONE-GRAFTED EDENTULOUS MAXILLAE. INT

INFLUENCE OF MANDIBULAR DENTITION ON

J ORAL MAXFAC IMPL. 2002;17:69-77.

24. NYSTRÔM E, AHLQVIST J, GUNNE J, KAHNBERG KE. 10-YEAR FOLLOW-UP OF ONLAY BONE GRAFTS AND IMPLANTS IN SEVERELY RESORBED MAXILLAE. INT

J ORAL MAXFAC IMPL. 2004;33:258-262.

25. VAN DER MEJJ EH, BLANKESTIJN J, BERMS RM, BUN RJ, JOVANOVIC A

ET AL.

THE COMBINATION OF

TWO ENDOSTEAL IMPLANTS AND ILIAC CREST ONLAY GRAFTS IN THE SEVERELY ATROPHIC MANDIBLE BY A MODIFIED SURGICAL APPROACH. INT

J ORAL MAXFAC SURG. 2005;34:152-157.


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Dental News, Volume XX, Number IV, 2013

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38 Orthodontics

Airway and Dentofacial Development In Children Part7one Dr. Derek Mahony derek.mahony @fullfaceorthodontics.com.au

Dr. George Meredith

Like so many things in life, timing is everything. Parents, family physicians, pediatricians, family dentists, pediatric dentists, ear nose and throat surgeons, friends, family and, especially orthodontists find themselves, in a unique situation where they can change a child’s quality of life, literally for the rest of that child’s life. Mouth breathing, snoring, excessive daytime sleepiness, obstructive sleep apnea, esthetically unpleasing facial features, narrow dental arches, need for future jaw surgery, recurring nasal and sinus infections, sinus pressure headaches, dry raw pharynx, post nasal drip and life long nasal obstruction are some of the quality of life issues that a child or teenager, with a developing long face syndrome, will have to deal with for the rest of his adult life. Especially if the developing long face syndrome is not intercepted.

brarian, can rectify this. Then the clinician needs to find knowledgeable practitioners who can implement the same, and your paediatric patients will thank you for the rest of their life. Fig 1

Figure 1: Lateral cephalometric radiograph of a high angle patient) Fig 2

The child, who has a developing long face syndrome, can have that pathological process intercepted through the use of some unusually simple procedures. Tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy, partial resection of the inferior turbinates, maxillary expansion, upper lateral cartilage lateral (alar) rotation and use of a Vertical Chin Cup are some of the simple procedures that can, when done in a timely manner, be utilised to intercept the developing long face syndrome. And at the same time we can greatly improve that child’s quality of life. Unfortunately current internet websites, as well as the government run pubmed.com, offer little in depth information re: the diagnosis of the developing long face syndrome, and virtually nothing regarding interceptive treatment of the developing long face syndrome. However, the research is definitely out there. A few days spent in a good medical school, or dental school library, under the direction of an experienced liDental News, Volume XX, Number IV, 2013

Figure 2; (Note the prominent antegonial notch on the lower border of the mandible)


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40 Orthodontics Dentofacial Development

Effects of Nasal Airway Obstruction on Facial Growth In 1872, CV Tomes1 described the dentofacial changes associated with nasal airway blockage. He used the term “adenoid facies” because he believed enlarged adenoids were the principle cause of the obstruction. Over one hundred years later, numerous reports concerning this observation have appeared in the dental and medical literature, but the issue still remains controversial. In 1982, O’Ryan et al.2 critically reviewed the possible relationship between nasorespiratory function and dentofacial morphology, and concluded that they were unable to demonstrate a consistent relationship between obstructed nasorespiratory function, and the adenoid facies in a “long-face” syndrome. We have attempted to review the available evidence on both sides of this question and propose an aetiologic rationale for the findings. We will also describe a cooperative protocol between primary care physicians and dentists, allergists, oral myologists, otorhinolaryngologists (ENT doctors), and orthodontists for the management of young patients with increased nasal airway resistance.

Literature Review The initial views of Tomes were later supported by many leading orthodontists, in the 1930s, including Todd et al.3 and Balyeat and Bowen.4 Angle5 included airway obstruction as an important aetiologic agent in malocclusion and Ketcham6 indicated that patients were not receiving the full benefits of medical and dental therapy unless they were fully evaluated by both a rhinologist and an orthodontist. McCoy7 regarded nasopharyngeal obstruction as an important cause of malocclusion, noting an increase in Class III malocclusion, in his sample with an open mouth posture, and large tonsils. Moss8, in developing a “functional matrix” theory (originally proposed by van der Klaauw9), presented a logical rationale for the findings seen in nasally obstructive patients. His view held that bone responded to the influences of function, and adjoining soft tissue. This explained the narrow palate, and long face, seen in some chronic mouth-breathers. In contrast, Hawkins10, Howard11, and Leech12 found no relationship between malocclusion and mouth Dental News, Volume XX, Number IV, 2013

breathing. However, a serious flaw in their studies was the use of Angle’s horizontal classification system, to incorrectly assess vertical dentofacial dysplasias. In the 1950s, Subtelny13 and Ricketts14 examined the effect of nasal airway on facial growth, and concluded that airway obstruction had an important influence on facial form. In recent years, reports by Linder-Aronson and Woodside,15 Quinn,16, Rubin,17 McNamara,18 Bushey,19 and Harvold21 concluded that objective measurements have, in fact, substantiated the finding of chronic mouth-breathing as a casual factor in orthodontic anomalies. In 1968, Ricketts22 used the term respiratory obstructive syndrome to describe a constellation of findings, seen in chronic mouth breathers. Subtelny23, in 1974, also indicated that adenotonsillar hypertrophy (marked enlargement of the tonsils and adenoids) could influence facial growth. Marks24 studied the role of allergy in orofacial deformities and concluded that nasal obstruction was a significant cause of altered facial growth. Similar findings were reported by Shapiro and Shapiro.25 Quinn16 has cited nasal airway obstruction as the major cause of mandibular prognathism (forward projecting lower jaw), facial asymmetries, and vertical dysplasias. Linder-Aronson26 also was able to show that a group of post adenoidectomy patients, who became nasal breathers, had significant craniofacial changes, toward normal. Conversely, persistent mouth-breathers, and the un-operated controls, showed no changes. Harvold20 has shown skeletal changes in primates, secondary to experimentally produced nasal blockage. After removal of the obstruction, changes toward normality became apparent. Hannuksela27 compared 39 Finnish children, with moderate or severe allergic disease, with a control group. She found significantly steeper mandibular (lower jaw) plane angles in the allergic group. This group included children with allergic dermatitis, bronchial asthma, and allergic rhinitis. Hannuksela noted that children with documented adenoidal hypertrophies (on lateral headplates), had steeper mandibular plane angles. Recently, Long and McNamara28 reported 17 cases that devel-


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42 Tooth Orthodontics Bleaching Dentofacial Development

eral cephalometric x-ray, of the head, provides an excellent view of any adenoid tissue in the epipharynx. Fig 3

Fig 6

Figure 3: 60% adenoid obstruction Figure 6: Bonded hyrax Fig 4

Objective improvement, in the cross-sectional area of the nasal vault, can be documented by pre- and post-expansion PA tomograms or CAT scans. Fig 7

Figure 4: 80% adenoid obstruction

Septal surgery is rarely indicated in the child, but should be considered in the presence of a marked nasal septal deflection with impaction. Cottle 35, Jennes36, and Farrior and Connolly37 have demonstrated that conservative septal surgery, in growing patients, will not have an adverse effect on growth of the boney and cartilaginous nasal vault. Rapid or semi-rapid maxillary expansion (RME), an orthodontic procedure38, is effective in improving the airway by widening the nasal vault.

Figure 7: (PA tomogram) Fig 8

Fig 5

Figure 8: (CT scan)

Figure 5: Banded hyrax Dental News, Volume XX, Number IV, 2013

Rhinometric data has supported the efficiency of maxillary expansion in treating nasal obstruction in a child, with a narrow maxilla. In our experience, nonsurgical expansion can be performed between the ages of 3 and 19 years. The rate of expansion is reduced in the older individual/patient.


44 Orthodontics Dentofacial Development

Figure 9: (Lateral movement of the inferior turbinates)

Fig 9

Fig 11

Fig 12

The inferior turbinates move laterally, as the maxillary expansion device expands the maxilla, over a period of 3 weeks. Accordingly, the cross sectional area of the nasal vault is significantly improved. Figure 10: (Improvement in septal deviation post maxillary expansion therapy)

Fig 10

The septum straightens and the cross sectional area of the nasal vault increases, over a three week period of time, as the maxilla is expanded by the maxillary expansion device. The conditions of patients with vasomotor rhinitis can be improved with cryosurgery or electrosurgery.39 Chronically enlarged inferior turbinates can be reduced by electrocoagulation,40-41 or by partial resection.42-46

Figure 11,12: Partial resection of enlarged inferior turbinates

When the cause of nasal obstruction is allergic rhinitis (with associated hypertrophied tonsils, adenoids and inferior turbinates), a systematic programme of treatment is indicated. In these patients, adenoidectomy is frequently considered; however, removal of the adenoidal pad alone, in cases of untreated nasal allergy, will yield disappointing results because the anterior nasal vault will remain obstructed from inferior turbinate hypertrophy. Long-standing nasal airway obstruction can lead to a “disuse� atrophy of the lateral crus of the lower lateral cartilage.30 The result is a slit-like external nares associated with a narrow nasal vault and a constricted upper dental arch. Figures 13:

Photo of High Palate Narrow nares and a high palatal vault Dental News, Volume XX, Number IV, 2013


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46 Orthodontics Dentofacial Development

oped increased lower facial height following palatopharyngoplasty (flap at the back end of the soft palate used to correct hypernasal voice ). They concluded that the pharyngeal flap procedure increased nasal airway resistance. Disagreeing with this etiologic contention, Vig29 stated that, in the absence of documented total nasal obstruction, surgical or other treatment to “improve” nasal respiration remains purely empirical, and difficult to justify from an orthodontic viewpoint. O’Ryan et al.2 reviewed the available literature and found no support for the contention that mouth breathing is a major aetiologic factor in the development of the long-face syndrome (LFS). Although the primate experiments performed by Harvold obviously cannot be performed on human subjects, technologic advances have permitted the development of sophisticated devices to simultaneously measure nasal and oral resistances. Prospective studies, as performed by Linder-Aronson,25 are still necessary for a more objective analysis of mode of respiration, and its influences on facial growth. Establishing a cause-and-effect relationship, between nasorespiratory function, and dentofacial development, is not simple. A dolichocephalic (long narrow face) pattern may be conducive to mouth-breathing, rather than mouth-breathing causing a dolichocephalic appearance. The studies by Shapiro and Shapiro,26 and Hanuksela,27 on patients with (nasal) allergy avoid this enigma.

Normal Nasal Respiration The nose filters, warms, and humidifies the air in preparation for entry into the bronchi and lungs. The functioning nasal airway may also create a certain degree of nasal resistance to facilitate the movements of the diaphragm, and intercostal muscles, in creating negative intrathoracic pressure that, in turn, promotes airflow into the alveoli.30 (final branchings of the respiratory tree…the primary gas exchange units of the lungs). Appropriate nasal resistance is 2 to 3.5 cm H2O/L/sec and produces high tracheobronchial airflow, which improves the oxygenation of the most peripheral pulmonary alveoli. Mouth breathing results in a lower velocity of incoming air, and also eliminates nasal resistance. Suboptimal pulmonary compliance (the ability of the lungs to stretch in a change in volume relative Dental News, Volume XX, Number IV, 2013

to an applied change in pressure) is the result. Blood gas studies have revealed that advanced mouth-breathers have 20 percent higher partial pressures of carbon dioxide, and 20 percent lower partial pressures of oxygen in the blood, associated with their lower pulmonary compliance and reduced velocity.31 Obstructive sleep apnea is regarded as a complication of nasal and oropharyngeal obstruction. Another less common complication of upper airway compromise is functional pectus excavatum. Upper airway compromise can also cause cor pulmonale as the result of pulmonary hypertension with associated right ventricular hypertrophy.32

History and Physical Examination The patient should be observed, as he enters the examining room, and sits in the chair. The facial posture should be noted to see if the lips are closed during respiration. Allergic “salutes” and “shiners” are seen commonly in patients experiencing allergic rhinitis. The patient may also give a history of frequent “colds” or “sinus.” A family history for allergy is likewise important. If either parent or a sibling has an allergic history, there is a 40 percent chance that the patient is allergic.33 One parent may have eczema alone and then transmit the allergic tendency in the form of allergic rhinitis. Any history consistent with obstructive sleep apnea or loud snoring should be explored, in detail, and parents should be asked about the sleep patterns of their children. An open mouth posture, while sleeping, may be a supporting sign. The child should be asked to seal his lips. It should be noted if the child has difficulty breathing through the nose. One nostril can be occluded and the response noted. The same procedure is followed for the other nostril. The one-to-four hour nasal cycle results in the inferior turbinate on one side being engorged for a time, followed by engorgement of the other side. This produces increased nasal resistance in one side of the nasal vault at a time.34 Patients with septal deviations may be totally obstructed when the nasal cycle occludes the contralateral side.

Treatment of Nasal Obstruction Adenoidectomy, with or without tonsillectomy, is indicated if enlarged adenoids (and tonsils) are the cause of upper airway obstruction. The lat-


48 Orthodontics Dentofacial Development

After the airway obstruction is corrected, and a normal nasal airway is established, certain patients may still experience nasal collapse on inspiration. These patients could benefit from reconstructive surgery and/or alar dilators.

Fig 19

Note: Excising an ellipse of skin, and subcutaneous tissue, in the nasofacial fold, in these cases, can open the nasal valve by rotating the upper lateral cartilage laterally. The nasofacial fold is highly vascular. It is recommended that infiltration of ½ % Xylocaine with epinephrine 1:200,000 is placed both superficially, as well as down onto the periosetium, of the nasal bone, and ascending process of the maxilla. Then wait a full 7 minutes (while doing some other part of the operative sequence). Return to the nasaofacial fold, excise a long ellipse of skin, subcutaneous tissue and fascia. Then immediately place a Weck Cell Sponge soaked in 2% Xylocaine with epinephrine 1:5,000 for topical anesthesia and hemostasis, color coded with methylene blue to prevent inadvertent injection, in the wound. And replace the same, several times, as the sponge becomes saturated with blood. Next apply suction to the Weck Cell Sponge and then lightly electrofulgurate specific bleeding points (fourth photograph). Finally do a two layered closure, and apply an ice pack. Fig 15

Fig 14

Figure 14: Infiltration injection

Figure 15: Excise skin, subcutaneous tissue and fascia

Dental News, Volume XX, Number IV, 2013

Fig 16

Figure 16: Placement of a Weck Cell Sponge

Figure 19: Variation for advanced alar collapse … employing a laterally based nasofacial fold interposition flap…lower right

References 1. TOMES CS: ON THE DEVELOPMENTAL ORIGIN OF THE V-SHAPED CONTRACTED MAXILLA. MONTHLY REVUE OF DENTAL SURGERY 1872:1.2-5. 2. O’RYAN FS, GALLAGHER DM, LABLANC JP, ET AL: THE RELATION BETWEEN NASORESPIRATORY FUNCTION AND DENTOFACIAL MORPHOLOGY: A REVIEW. AM J ORTHOD 1982; 82:403-410. 3. TODD TW, COHEN MD, BROADBENT BH: THE ROLE OF ALLERGY IN THE ETIOLOGY OF ORTHODONTIC DEFORMITY. J ALLERGY 1939;10:246-249. 4. BALYEAT RM. BOWEN R: FACIAL AND DENTAL DEFORMITIES DUE TO PERENNIAL NASAL ALLERGY IN CHILDHOOD. INT J ORTHOD. 1934;20:445-449. 5. ANGLE EH: TREATMENT OF MALOCCLUSION OF THE TEETH, ED 7. PHILADELPHIA, SS WHITE DENTAL MANUFACTURING CO, 1907. 6. KETCHAM AH: TREATMENT BY THE ORTHODONTIST SUPPLEMENTING THAT BY THE RHINOLOGIST. LARYNGOSCOPE 1912;22:1286-1299. 7. MCCOY JD: APPLIED ORTHODONTICS. PHILADELPHIA, LEA AND FEBIGER, 1935. 8. MOSS ML: THE FUNCTIONAL MATRIX: FUNCTIONAL CRANIAL COMPONENTS IN KRAUS BS, REIDEL R, (EDS): VISTAS IN ORTHODONTICS. PHILADELPHIA, LEA AND FEBIGER, 1962, PP 85-90. 9. VAN DER KLAAUW CJ: SIZE AND POSITION OF THE FUNCTIONAL COMPONENTS OF THE SKULL. ARCH NEERL ZOOL, 1948;9:1-559. 10. HAWKINS AC: MOUTH-BREATHING AS THE CAUSE OF MALOCCLUSION AND OTHER

Fig 17

Figure 17: Two layered closure

Figure 18: Apply ice pack


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50 Orthodontics Dentofacial Development FACIAL ABNORMALITIES.

TEXAS DENTAL JOURNAL 1965; 83:10-15. 11. HOWARD C: INHERENT GROWTH AND ITS INFLUENCE ON MALOCCLUSION. J. AM DENT. ASSOC 1932;19;642651. 12. LEECH HI: A CLINICAL ANALYSIS OF OROFACIAL MORPHOLOGY AND BEHAVIOR OF 500 PATIENTS ATTENDING AN UPPER RESPIRATORY RESEARCH CLINIC. DENTAL PRACTITIONER 1958;9:57-91. 13. SUBTELNY JD: THE SIGNIFICANCE OF ADENOID TISSUE IN ORTHODONTIA. ANGLE ORTHOD 1954;24:59-69. 14. RICKETTS RM: RESPIRATORY OBSTRUCTIONS AND THEIR RELATION TO TONGUE POSTURE. CLEFT PALATE BULL, 1958;8:3-6. 15. LINDER-ARONSON S, WOODSIDE D: THE CHANNELIZATION OF UPPER AND LOWER ANTERIOR FACE HEIGHTS COMPARED TO POPULATION STANDARDS IN MALES BETWEEN AGES 6 TO 20 YEARS. EUR J ORTHOD, 1979;1:25-40. 16. QUINN GW: AIRWAY INTERFERENCE AND ITS EFFECT UPON THE GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE FACE, JAWS, DENTITION, AND ASSOCIATED PARTS. NORTH CAROLINA DENTAL JOURNAL 1978;60:28-31. 17. RUBIN RM: MODE OF RESPIRATION AND FACIAL GROWTH. AM J ORTHOD 1980;78-504-510. 18. MCNAMARA JA, JR.: INFLUENCE OF RESPIRATORY PATTERN ON CRANIOFACIAL GROWTH. ANGLE ORTHOD 1981;51:269-299. 19. BUSHEY RS: ALTERATIONS IN CERTAIN ANATOMICAL RELATIONS ACCOMPANYING THE CHANGE FROM ORAL TO NASAL BREATHING, THESIS. UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS, CHICAGO, 1965. 20. HARVOLD EP, CHIERCI G, VARGERVIK K: EXPERIMENTS ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF DENTAL MALOCCLUSIONS. AM J ORTHOD 1972;61:38-44. 21. HOROWITZ SL, HIXON EH: THE NATURE OF ORTHODONTIC DIAGNOSIS. ST. LOUIS, CV MOSBY, 1966. 22. RICKETTS RM: RESPIRATORY OBSTRUCTION SYNDROME (IN FORUM ON THE TONSIL AND ADENOID PROBLEMS IN ORTHODONTICS). AM J ORTHOD 1968;54:495-514. 23. SUBTELNY JD: WORKSHOP ON TONSILLECTOMY AND ADENOIDECTOMY. ANN OTOL RHINOL LARYNGOL 1974;84:250-254. 24. MARKS MB: ALLERGY IN RELATIONS TO OROFACIAL DENTAL DEFORMITIES IN CHILDREN: A REVIEW. J ALLERGY 1965;36:293-302. 25. SHAPIRO GC, SHAPIRO PA: NASAL AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION AND FACIAL DEVELOPMENT. CLIN REV ALLERGY 1984;2:225-235. 26. LINDER-ARONSON S: EFFECTS OF ADENOIDECTOMY ON THE DENTITION AND FACIAL SKELETON OVER A PERIOD OF FIVE YEARS, IN COOK JT (ED): TRANSACTIONS OF THE THIRD INTERNATIONAL ORTHODONTIC CONGRESS. ST. LOUIS, CV MOSBY, 1975, PP. 85-100. 27. HANNUKSELA A: THE EFFECT OF MODERATE AND SEVERE ATOPY ON THE FACIAL SKELETON. EUR J ORTHOD 1981;3:187-193. 28. LONG RE, MCNAMARA JA: FACIAL GROWTH FOLLOWING PHARYNGEAL FLAP SURGERY: SKELETAL ASSESSMENT ON SERIAL LATERAL CEPHALOMETRIC RADIOGRAPHS. AM J ORTHOD 1985;87:187-196. 29. VIG PS, SARVER DM, HALL DJ, ET AL: QUANTITATIVE EVALUATION OF NASAL AIRFLOW IN RELATION TO FACE MORPHOLOGY. AM J ORTHOD 1981;79:263-272. 30. ADAMS GL, BOIES LR, JR., PAPARELLA MM: BOIES’ FUNDAMENTALS OF OTOLARYNGOLOGY. PHILADELPHIA, WB SAUNDERS, 1978. 31. OGURA JH: PHYSIOLOGIC RELATIONSHIPS OF THE UPPER AND LOWER AIRWAYS. ANN OTOL RHINOL LARYNGOL 1970;79:495-501. 32. MENASHE WD, FARRHEI C, MILLER M: HYPERVENTILATION AND COR PULMONOLAE DUE TO CHRONIC UPPER AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION. J PEDIATR 1965;67:198-203. 33. NELSON WE, VAUGHAN VC, MCKAY RJ: TEXTBOOK OF PEDIATRICS PHILADELPHIA, WB SAUNDERS, 1969, PP 23-42. 34. PRINCIPATO JJ, OZENBERBER JM: CYCLICAL CHANGES IN NASAL RESISTANCE. ARCH OTHOLARYNGOL 1970;91:71-77. 35. COTTLE MH: NASAL SURGERY IN CHILDREN. EYE, EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT MONTHLY 1951;30:32-38. 36. JENNES MI: CORRECTIVE NASAL SURGERY IN CHILDREN: LONG TERM RESULTS. ARCH OTOLARYNGOL 1964; 79:145-151. 37. FARRIOR RT, CONNOLLY ME. SEPTORHINOPLASTY IN CHILDREN. OTOLARYNGOL CLIN NORTH AM 1970;3:345-364. 38. GRAY LP, BROGAN WF: SEPTAL DEFORMITY MALOCCLUSIONS AND RAPID MAXILLARY EXPANSION. ORTHODONTIST 1972;4:1-13. 39. PRINCIPATO JJ: CHRONIC VASOMOTOR RHINITIS: CRYOGENIC AND OTHER SURGICAL MODES OF TREATMENT. LARYNGOSCOPE 1979;89:619-638. 40. DEVGAN BK: SUBMUCOSAL DIATHERMY OF INFERIOR TURBINATES. EYE, EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT MONTHLY 1976;55:19. 41. BECK JC: PATHOLOGY OF INTRAMURAL ELECTROCAOGULATION OF THE INFERIOR TURBINATE. ANN OTOL RHINOL LARYNGOL 1930;39:349. 42. FRY HJH: JUDICIOUS TURBINECTOMY FOR NASAL OBSTRUCTION. AUST NZ J SURG 1973;42-291. 43. SHEEN JH: AESTHETIC RHINOPLASTY. ST. LOUIS, CV MOSBY, 1978, PP 184-194. 44. SPECTOR M: PARTIAL RESECTION OF THE INFERIOR TURBINATES. EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT J 1982;61:28-32. 45. POLLOCK MD: INFERIOR TURBINATE SURGERY. PLAST RECONSTR SURG 1984;74:227. 46. COURTISS EH: RESECTION OF OBSTRUCTING INFERIOR NASAL TURBINATES. PLAST RECONSTR SURG 1978;62:249. 47. ALEXANDER C: THE EFFECTS OF TOOTH POSITION AND MAXILLOFACIAL VERTICAL GROWTH DURING SCOLIOSIS TREATMENT WITH THE MILWAUKEE BRACE: AN INITIAL STUDY. AM J ORTHOD 1966;52:161-189. 48. MOLLER E: THE ACTIVITY OF THE MUSCLES OF MASTICATION AS RELATED TO THE MORPHOLOGY OF THE FACIAL SKELETON. ACTA PHYSIOL SCAND 1966;69:280-284. 49. SASSOUNI V, FORREST EJ: ORTHODONTICS IN DENTAL PRACTICE, ST. LOUIS, CV MOSBY, 1971. 50. HARVOLD E: NEUROMUSCULAR AND MORPHOLOGICAL ADAPTATIONS IN EXPERIMENTALLY INDUCED ORAL RESPIRATION IN MCNAMARA JA, JR. (ED): NASO-RESPIRATORY FUNCTION AND CRANIOFACIAL GROWTH, CRANIOFACIAL GROWTH SERIES NO. 9 ANN ARBOR, THE UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN, 1979. 51. BELL WH: CORRECTION OF SKELETAL TYPE ANTERIOR OPEN BITE. J ORAL SURG 1971;29:706-714. 52. BERMAN C: PREFACE. JOURNAL OF PREVENTIVE DENTISTRY 1978;5:8.

Dental News, Volume XX, Number IV, 2013

GC EQUIA a new dimension in restorative dentistry - Highly viscous EQUIA Fil glass ionomer material covered by the nano-filled EQUIA Coat light-curing. - Reliable for years in numerous practices and clinical studies. - User-friendly as the material is applicable in bulk. - Offers a significant time advantage: a complete filling can be put in place in 3 minutes and 25 seconds. - Excellent chemical adhesion to the natural dental substance


This is where

ďŹ ts in


BIDM 2013

52

September 25-28, 2013 Lebanese University, Hadath, Lebanon

PR. ELIE MAALOUF, PRESIDENT OF THE LDA AND PRESIDENT OF ARAB DENTAL FEDERATION

DR. ZIAD NOUJEIM EDITOR IN CHIEF JLDA

More Pictures Available On www.facebook.com/dentalnews1

The 23rd Beirut International Dental Meeting (BIDM 2013), taking place 25-28 September 2013 in Lebanese University Rafic Hariri Campus, Hadat, will be an exciting event that promises great communications and enjoyable scientific debates. On behalf of the Lebanese Dental Association (LDA), it is my great pleasure to invite you to join us at this occasion. Through the theme “Sharing Solutions” you will hear cutting-edge dental presentations. The organizers of this meeting have prepared a three-day program that will feature leading experts and world-renowned speakers who will share the most up-to date developments in dentistry and related disciplines. Participants will enjoy the learning opportunities in various plenary, symposia, panel discussion sessions that will be put in place. I also strongly encourage you to take advantage of the presence of over 90 exhibiting companies to keep up to date with evolving technologies of equipment and the latest dental materials. I hope that you find this meeting beneficial to your career, where you can take advantage of the innumerable learning and networking opportunities this meeting will provide. I’m looking forward to meeting with you all. Sincerely, Prof Elie Azar Maalouf

TROPHY DISTRIBUTION:

DR. WALID KHATTAR GENERAL SECRETARY OF THE LDA

DR. MOHAMED BINHAFEED PAST PRESIDENT OF THE ADF

DR. HABIH NADER, PRESIDENT OF THE SCIENTIFIC COMMITTEE

TO

DR. KESHTBAN

TO

DR. DACCACHE

TO

DR. REHAYEL

TO

DR. ARAMOUNY

TO

PR. CHEMALY

TO

DR. KATAYA


PICTURES FROM THE

EXHIBITION FLOOR


PICTURES FROM DENTAL NEWS BOOTH


‫‪INTERVIEW‬‬

‫‪Pr. Elie Azar Maalouf‬‬

‫‪President of the Lebanese Dental Association‬‬ ‫‪President of the Arab Dental Federation‬‬

‫‪Pr. Elie Maalouf graduated with honors in Dentistry at Saint Joseph University of Beirut, in 1985 and‬‬ ‫‪was awarded a “Certificat d’études supérieures de biologie de la bouche” (CES) at Paris V in 1987‬‬ ‫‪France, and a CES in Periodontology in 1988, in addition to a CES in Fixed Prosthesis in 1988, and a‬‬ ‫‪Doctorate (DSO) in Periodontology from the Lebanese University in 2009.‬‬ ‫‪His professional achievements:‬‬ ‫ ‪s0RESIDENTOFTHE!RAB$ENTAL&EDERATIONSINCE3EPTEMBER‬‬ ‫ ‪s0RESIDENTOFTHE,EBANESE$ENTAL!SSOCIATIONSINCE$ECEMBER‬‬ ‫  ‪s&ORMER#HAIRMANOFTHEDEPARTMENTOF0ERIODONTOLOGYATTHE,EBANESE5NIVERSITY‬‬ ‫‪s&OUNDINGMEMBERANDFORMERPRESIDENTOFTHE,EBANESE3OCIETYOF0ERIODONTOLOGY‬‬ ‫‪s,ECTURERIN#ONTINUING%DUCATIONIN)MPLANTOLOGYATTHE,EBANESE5NIVERSITY FROMTILLNOW‬‬ ‫‪s,ECTURERIN#ONTINUING%DUCATIONIN:IMMER)NSTITUTEIN)MPLANTOLOGYFROMTILL 3WITZERLAND‬‬

‫ﻳﺘﺤﺪث ﰲ ﻫﺬه اﳌﻘﺎﺑﻠﺔ اﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ ﻣﻊ ﻣﺠﻠﺔ ‪ ،Dental News‬اﻟﺪﻛﺘﻮر و اﻟﱪوﻓﻴﺴﻮر إﻳﲇ ﻣﻌﻠﻮف‪ ،‬ﻧﻘﻴﺐ أﻃﺒﺎء اﻷﺳﻨﺎن ﰲ ﻟﺒﻨﺎن و‬ ‫رﺋﻴﺲ إﺗﺤﺎد أﻃﺒﺎء اﻷﺳﻨﺎن اﻟﻌﺮب‪ ،‬ﻋﻦ أﺳﺒﺎب ﻧﺠﺎح ﻣﺆمتﺮ ﺑريوت اﻟﺪوﱄ اﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ و اﻟﻌﴩﻳﻦ ﻟﻄﺐ اﻷﺳﻨﺎن ﻟﻌﺎم ‪،BIDM ٢٠١٣‬‬ ‫و ﻋﻦ أﻫﻤﻴﺔ اﻟﻨﺘﺎﺋﺞ اﻟﺘﻲ ﺻﺪرت ﻋﻨﻪ‪ .‬و ﺑﺎﳌﻨﺎﺳﺒﺔ ﺷﺎرﻛﻨﺎ أﻳﻀﺎً مبﺸﺎرﻳﻌﻪ و ﻣﻮاﻗﻔﻪ اﳌﺴﺘﻘﺒﻠﻴﺔ ﻟﺘﺤﺪﻳﺚ ﻫﺬه اﳌﻬﻨﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫΃‪ik`ʓik4ʜDYjNy/9e{oe‬‬ ‫ﻟﺜﻼث ﺳﻨﻮات ﻣﻘﺒﻠﺔ؟ و اﻟﺴﺒﻞ اﳌﻨﻮي إﻋﺘامدﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﻄﻮﻳﺮ اﳌﻬﻨﺔ؟‬ ‫ﻧﺴﻌﻰ إﱃ ﺗﻮﻓري اﻟﻔﺮص ﻟﺠﻤﻴﻊ أﻃﺒﺎء اﻷﺳﻨﺎن ﰲ‬ ‫ﻟﺒﻨﺎن ﺑﻬﺪف رﻓﻊ ﻣﺴﺘﻮى ﻣﻬﺎراﺗﻬﻢ ﻋﱪ ﺑﺮاﻣﺞ‬ ‫ﺗﻨﻄﻮي ﻋﲆ ﺟﻤﻴﻊ اﳌﺒﺎدئ اﻟﻨﻈﺮﻳﺔ و ورش‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻞ‪ ،‬ﰲ ﻣﺮاﻛﺰﻧﺎ ﰲ اﻟﺴﻮدﻳﻜﻮ‪ ،‬و ﺑﻌﻠﺒﻚ‪ ،‬و زﺣﻠﺔ‪،‬‬ ‫و ﺻﻮر‪ ،‬و ﺻﻴﺪا‪ ،‬و اﻟﺸﻮف‪ .‬ﰲ اﻟﻨﻬﺎﻳﺔ‪ ،‬متﻨﺢ‬ ‫ﺷﻬﺎدات اﻟﺠﺪارة ﻷﻃﺒﺎء اﻷﺳﻨﺎن اﳌﺸﱰﻛني ﰲ ﻫﺬه‬ ‫اﻟﺪورات‪ ،‬ﻛام ﺗﻌﻄﻰ ﻧﻘﺎط اﻹﻋﺘامد إﱃ اﻟﺬﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﺗﺎﺑﻌﻮا اﳌﺆمتﺮات و اﳌﺤﺎﴐات اﻟﻄﺒﻴﺔ و اﻟﻌﻠﻤﻴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻫﺬا ﻣﻦ ﻧﺎﺣﻴﺔ‪ ،‬أﻣﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻧﺎﺣﻴﺔ أﺧﺮى ﻓﺈ ّن ﻣﻬﻤﺘﻨﺎ‬ ‫اﳌﺤﺎﻓﻈﺔ أﻳﻀﺎً ﻋﲆ آداب ﻃﺒﺎﺑﺔ اﻷﺳﻨﺎن و ﻛﺮاﻣﺘﻬﺎ‪،‬‬ ‫و ﻋﲆ ﻣﺼﺎﻟﺢ أﻃﺒﺎء اﻷﺳﻨﺎن اﳌﻌﻨﻮﻳﺔ و اﳌﺎدﻳﺔ‬ ‫وﺻﻮﻻً إﱃ أﻓﻀﻞ اﻟﺨﺪﻣﺎت ﻟﻠﻤﺮﴇ‪ .‬ﻛام ﻫﻨﺎﻟﻚ‬ ‫ﻣﴩوع أﺳﺎﳼ‪ ،‬و ﻫﻮ ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺚ اﻟﱪﻧﺎﻣﺞ اﻹﻟﻜﱰوين‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﻮﻗﻊ اﻟﺮﺳﻤﻲ اﻟﻌﺎﺋﺪ ﻷﻃﺒﺎء اﻷﺳﻨﺎن ﰲ ﻟﺒﻨﺎن‪ .‬و‬ ‫ﻫﺬا ﺳﻴﺴﻤﺢ ﻟﻸﻋﻀﺎء اﻹﺳﺘﻔﺎدة ﻣﻦ ﺑﺮﻳﺪ إﻟﻜﱰوين‬ ‫ﺧﺎص ﺑﻬﻢ‪ .‬إﱃ ﺟﺎﻧﺐ ﻣﻨﺘﺪى ﻳﻔﺴﺢ ﻟﻬﻢ ﺑﺘﺒﺎدل‬ ‫اﻷﻓﻜﺎر و ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻒ اﻟﺤﺎﻻت ﻋﲆ اﳌﺴﺘﻮى اﳌﻬﻨﻲ‪،‬‬ ‫إﺿﺎﻓ ًﺔ إﱃ ﺧﺪﻣﺎت و ﻣﺰاﻳﺎ أﺧﺮى‪ .‬ﻳﺠﺮي ﻃﺒﻌﺎً‬ ‫ﺗﺪرﻳﺐ اﳌﻮﻇﻔني ﳌﺠﺎراة ﻫﺬا اﻟﺘﺤﺪﻳﺚ‪.‬‬ ‫΃‪͉ik4ʜDe,(ypjKrʁe˼=ee‬‬ ‫ﻳﺠﺮي اﻟﻌﻤﻞ ﻋﲆ ﺗﺤﺴني ﻗﻴﻤﺔ اﻟﺮاﺗﺐ اﻟﺘﻘﺎﻋﺪي‬ ‫و ﺗﻘﺪميﺎت ﺻﻨﺪوق اﻟﺘﻌﺎﺿﺪي ﺑﺈﴍاف ﻫﻴﺌﺔ‬

‫إدارﻳﺔ ﻣﺨﺘﺼﺔ‪ .‬ﺳﻨﻘﻮم أﻳﻀﺎً ﺑﺘﻨﻔﻴﺬ ﻣﴩوع ﻗﺮوض‬ ‫ﻣﴫﻓﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺮﴇ‪ ،‬و ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ ﻣﺘﻜﺎﻣﻞ ﻟﺘﻐﻄﻴﺔ ﺗﺄﻣني‬ ‫اﻷﺳﻨﺎن‪.‬‬

‫اﻟﺬﻳﻦ ﻃﺎﻟﺒﻮا ﺑﺘﻮﺳﻴﻌﻬﺎ ﻟﻠﺴﻨﺔ اﳌﻘﺒﻠﺔ ﻟﺘﻀﻢ ﻋﺪد‬ ‫أوﻓﺮ ﻣﻦ اﻟﺴﻨﺔ اﻟﺤﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪.‬‬

‫΃‪͉g]1!j 0(lL-e‬‬ ‫ﺗﻢ اﻟﺘﻮﻗﻴﻊ ﻋﲆ إﺗﻔﺎق ﴍاﻛﺔ ﺣﴫﻳﺔ ﻣﻊ ‪Dental‬‬ ‫‪ Online College‬اﻷﳌﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻋﲆ اﻟﺘﻮاﺻﻞ اﳌﺴﺘﻤﺮ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻟﻴﺘﻤﻜﻦ ﺟﻤﻴﻊ أﻃﺒﺎء اﻷﺳﻨﺎن ﰲ ﻟﺒﻨﺎن ﻣﻦ ﻣﺸﺎﻫﺪة‬ ‫ﻣﺠﺎﻧﺎً ﻓﻴﺪﻳﻮﻫﺎت ﺗﻌﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ ﺧﻼل اﻟﻌﺎﻣني اﳌﻘﺒﻠني‪.‬‬

‫΃‪˾aY˯˾eMa`^$sfDr^T,o{oe‬‬ ‫ﺑﺼﻔﺘﻚ رﺋﻴﺴﺎً ﻟﻺﺗﺤﺎد اﻟﻌﺮيب ﻟﻄﺐ اﻷﺳﻨﺎن؟‬ ‫ﻟﺪﻳﻨﺎ ﺟﺪول أﻋامل ﻣﻬﻢ ﻳﺘﻀﻤﻦ إﺣﻴﺎء اﳌﺠﻠﺔ و‬ ‫ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻢ ﺑﺮاﻣﺞ ﻟﻠﺘﻌﻠﻴﻢ اﳌﺴﺘﻤﺮ ﺑني اﻟﺒﻠﺪان ﻟﻜﺎﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺠﺎﻻت ﻃﺐ اﻷﺳﻨﺎن‪ ،‬و ﺗﻮﺣﻴﺪ ﻣﺼﻄﻠﺤﺎت ﻃﺐ‬ ‫اﻷﺳﻨﺎن ﰲ اﻟﺪول اﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ‪.‬‬

‫΃\‪r``˲r,`r˼0ɱegzɇ YVz‬‬ ‫اﻟﻌﴩﻳﻦ‪ ٢٠١٣ BIDM‬ﻟﻄﺐ اﻷﺳﻨﺎن ؟‬ ‫ﻣﻦ اﻟﻼﻓﺖ أن ﻣﺆمتﺮ ﺑريوت اﻟﺪوﱄ اﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ و‬ ‫اﻟﻌﴩﻳﻦ ﻟﻄﺐ اﻷﺳﻨﺎن ﻟﻬﺬا اﻟﻌﺎم ﺣﻘﻖ ﻧﺠﺎﺣﺎً‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻫﺮا ً رﻏﻢ اﻷوﺿﺎع اﻷﻣﻨﻴﺔ اﻟﺤﺬرة ﰲ اﳌﻨﻄﻘﺔ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺑﺤﻀﻮر ﻣﺎ ﻳﺰﻳﺪ ﻋﲆ اﻷﻟﻔﻲ ﻣﺸﱰك و ‪ ٧٧‬ﻋﺎرض‬ ‫ﻣﺜﻠﻮا أﻛﱪ اﻟﴩﻛﺎت اﻹﻗﻠﻴﻤﻴﺔ‪ ،‬إﺿﺎﻓ ًﺔ إﱃ ‪ ٧٠٠‬زاﺋﺮ‬ ‫ﺗﻮاﻓﺪوا إﱃ اﻟﺨﻴﻤﺔ اﻟﺘﻲ أﻗﻴﻤﺖ ﺧﺼﻴﺼﺎً ﻟﻬﺬا‬ ‫اﳌﻌﺮض و اﻟﺘﻲ ﺑﻠﻐﺖ ﻣﺴﺎﺣﺘﻬﺎ ‪ ٢٠٠٠‬ﻣﱰ ﻣﺮﺑﻊ‪.‬‬ ‫أﻣﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺒﻴﻌﺎت‪ ،‬ﻓﻮﺻﻞ ﺣﺠﻤﻬﺎ ﺛﻼﺛﺔ‬ ‫أﺿﻌﺎف ﻋﻦ اﻟﺴﻨﺔ اﳌﺎﺿﻴﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫΃‪ʓgo4x.`goʜʇkM`soeͅ^y0‬‬ ‫إﻧﺠﺎح ﻫﺬا اﳌﺆمتﺮ؟‬ ‫ﻻﻗﺖ اﻟﺨﻴﻤﺔ إﺳﺘﺤﺴﺎﻧﺎً واﺳﻌﺎً ﻛﻮﻧﻬﺎ ﺷﻤﻠﺖ ﻷول‬ ‫ﻣﺮة ﰲ ﻧﻔﺲ اﳌﺴﺎﺣﺔ ﺟﻤﻴﻊ اﳌﺸﺎرﻛني و اﻟﻌﺎرﺿني‬

‫΃\‪͉ik`ʓik4ʜDkpebY5et0Vz‬‬ ‫ﻟﻘﺪ ﺗﺠﺎوز ﻋﺪد اﳌﺘﺨﺮﺟني ﻣﻦ ﻛﻠﻴﺎت ﻃﺐ اﻷﺳﻨﺎن‬ ‫ﰲ ﻟﺒﻨﺎن اﻟﺤﺪ اﳌﻄﻠﻮب‪ ،‬و ﻗﺪ ﻋﺰﻣﻨﺎ ﻋﲆ إﻗﺎﻣﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺤﺎﴐات ﺗﻮﺟﻴﻬﻴﺔ ﰲ اﳌﺪارس ﻟﺘﻮﻋﻴﺔ اﻟﻄﻼب‬ ‫إﱃ ﺻﻌﻮﺑﺔ اﳌﻬﻨﺔ ﻛﻮﻧﻬﺎ ﻻ ﺗﻘﻒ ﻓﻘﻂ ﻋﲆ اﳌﺒﺎدئ‬ ‫اﻟﻨﻈﺮﻳﺔ ﺑﻞ إﻧﻬﺎ ﺗﺘﻄﻠﺐ أﻳﻀﺎً ﻣﻬﺎرات ﻳﺪوﻳﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻣﻊ ذﻟﻚ‪ ،‬إ ّن اﻟﻌﺪﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ أﻃﺒﺎء اﻷﺳﻨﺎن اﻟﻠﺒﻨﺎﻧﻴني‬ ‫ﻫﻢ ﻣﻦ اﳌﻬﺮة‪ ،‬و ﰲ ﻃﻠﻴﻌﺔ اﳌﺘﻔﻮﻗني ﰲ ﻟﺒﻨﺎن و‬ ‫اﻟﺨﺎرج‪.‬‬

‫ﺗﺎﻻ ﻓﺎﺧﻮري‬


58

National Guard Health Affairs September 29- October 1, 2013 King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University, for Health Sciences, Riyadh, KSA

DR. ALI AL EHAIDEB DEAN COLLEGE OF DENTISTRY

More Pictures Available On www.facebook.com/dentalnews1

I would like to welcome you all on the 4th New Dental Era International conference. The three years of implementation of this conference were all successful and hopefully will still continue to be organized by our very active continuing education committee members. This year conference is hosting the 4th International College of Dentists meeting for district 2 of Middle East section, our continuing collaboration with them is another mark of excellency to our program. This conference will feature different presentation series highlighting the progress and challenges in all dental care specialties, e.g. bone graft and dental implant, Botox, treatment of dentofacial deformities, all-on-4 concept that allows for the rehabilitation of fully edentulous patients in just a few hours with no need for bone grafting technique, etc. There is no question that science will lead to new technologies for diagnosing, preventing and treating oral and craniofacial diseases and disorders. However, given the complexities of our health care delivery system and the economic and cultural differences in our society, practitioners, policymakers and dental educators must make a substantive and concerted effort to apply these new discoveries in ways that improve the oral health of all. It is in this light that we are very happy that experts in this field are attending here. Our institute is pleased to hold this 4th international conference. We hope that this conference will lead to more studies and contribute to further methodological developments in dentistry. DR. ALI AL EHAIDEB DEAN COLLEGE OF DENTISTRY TROPHY DISTRIBUTION TO:

DR. ABDULRHMAN AL FAYEZ ORGANIZING COMMITTEE CHAIRMAN

DR. RIAD BACHO FOR HIS LECTURE ON PULP

PROF RALPH SMEETS LECTURING ON AUTOGENOUS BONE GRAFTS

PROF IBRAHIM NASSEH FOR HIS LECTURE ON CBCT IN ORAL HEALTHCARE

REGENERATION

ICD INDUCTION

DR. NADIM ABOUJAOUDEH FOR HIS LECTURE ON SMILE ENHANCEMENT

DR. JEREMY MAO FOR HIS LECTURE ON

STEM CELLS


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PICTURES FROM THE

EXHIBITION FLOOR


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4TH INTERNATIONAL COLLEGE OF DENTISTS MEETING FOR DISTRICT 2 OF MIDDLE EAST SECTION DR. ALI AL EHAIDEB

ICD INDUCTION CEREMONY

DENTAL STUDENTS SURROUNDING THEIR DEAN DR. ALI AL EHAIDEB

Dental News, Volume XX, Number IV, 2013

FOR

DR. MOHAMAD AL DARWISH, DR. AZIZA AL JOHAR, DR. ABEER AL SUBAIT


We go further to deliver complete waterproof durability

Over 30 years ago, we redeďŹ ned dental intraoral radiography with the invention of the RVG sensor. Since then, every sensor we make is even stronger than the last. Our years of testing and continuous development assure you of a level of durability and image quality that is simply second to none. . Instant, high-quality image output with an unsurpassed true resolution of up to >20 lp/mm . Waterproof and fully submersible sensor head for optimal disinfection and increased durability . Flexible and robust cable, designed and tested to withstand strong bends and pulls . Shock-resistant casing and silicon padding offer extra protection from falls, bites and other damage

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64

Arab Orthodontic Meeting & Lebanese Orthodontic Society October 31 - November 3, 2013 Movenpick Resort, Raouche, Lebanon

DR. FADI GHAITH PRESIDENT OF THE ARAB ORTHODONTIC SOCIETY PRESIDENT OF THE LEBANESE ORTHODONTIC SOCIETY

More Pictures Available On www.facebook.com/dentalnews1

Dear friends and colleagues, It’s my pleasure to welcome you to the 11th Arab Orthodontic Congress held jointly with the 12th Lebanese Orthodontic Congress in Beirut, Lebanon. I would like to express my deep satisfaction of sharing together this important moment for the development of our specialty of Orthodontics. This congress is one of the largest and most prestigious event in our area and has been devoted to the theme “New perspectives in Orthodontics: clinical expertise or evidence based?” Your presence confirms that these issues are ones of our utmost importance in today’s world. The valuable scientific contribution of our eminent speakers, as well as, the motivation of our delegates and all participants coming from all over the world has enabled us to uphold our meeting even though the delicate situation that our country is going thru. I am greatly honored to receive you in the capital of Lebanon, Beirut, the intersection of the East and West and to have you here with us. Enjoy your presence in Lebanon, the country of Alphabet’s origin and let’s advance together towards excellence in Orthodontics… Dr. Fadi Ghaith President of the Arab Orthodontic Society President of the Lebanese Orthodontic Society

DR. SAMI SAMAWI. GENERAL SECRETARY OF ARAB ORTHODONTIC SOCIETY

TROPHY DISTRIBUTION TO:

DR. MAHFOUZ FARAJ AL-ATY, DELEGATE OF THE LIBYAN ORTHODONTIC SOCIETY

DR. STATHIS EFSTATHIOU, PRESIDENT OF CYPRUS ORTHODONTIC SOCIETY

DR. FATMA SAIDI. PRESIDENT OF THE TUNISIAN ORTHODONTIC SOCIETY

DR. NAWAL BOUYAHYAOUI, DELEGATE OF MOROCCAN ORTHODONTIC SOCIETY

DR. ABBAS ZAHER. PRESIDENT OF EGYPTIAN ORTHODONTIC SOCIETY WITH THE EGYPYION DELIGATION

DR. AKRAM AL-HUWAIZI, GENERAL SECRETARY OF IRAQI ORTHODONTIC SOCIETY

DR. AYMAN SADIK TAHA, DELEGATE OF THE SUDANESE ORTHODONTIC SOCIETY

DR. HALA HALLAK, DELEGATE OF PALESTINIAN ORTHODONTIC SOCIETY

DR. FAWAZ AL ROSAIES, DELEGATE OF SAUDI ORTHODONTIC SOCIETY


Speak and prevent

Ask every patient about their gum health to identify the early stage of gingivitis and the need for appropriate action and/or treatment Increasing their knowledge Don’t let your patients ignore the ‘red alert’ of bleeding and inflammation Tell patients about long-term implications of gingivitis, which could lead to irreversible gum disease and tooth loss

Supporting your recommendation parodontax® campaign prompts patients to ask you about gum disease and its prevention Patients may ask you for a toothpaste recommendation

References 1. Data on file, GSK, June 2012. 2. Global Segmentation Study. Europe – Learnings from Research, Oct 2007. 3. NHS Adult Dental Health Survey 2009. http://www.ic.nhs.uk/ webfiles/publications/007_Primary_Care/Dentistry/dentalsurvey09/AdultDentalHealthSurvey_2009_Theme2_Diseaseandrelateddisorders.pdf. Accessed April 2012. 4. Data on file, GSK TN06-003, April 2006. 5. Data on file, GSK Armstrong J, March 2003. 6. Data on file, GSK E5931015, January 2011. 7. Data on file, GSK E5930966, January 2011. 8. Yankell SL et al. J Clin Dent 1993; 4(1):26-30. 9. Saxer U et al. J Clin Dent 1994; 5(2): 63-64. 10. Arweiler NB et al. J Clin Periodent 2002; 29: 615-621. 11. Data on file, GSK. Russian market research, June 2007. 12. Data on file, GSK. French market research, November 2011. 13. FDA U.S. Food & Drug Administration. Health Claim Notification for Fluoridated Water and Reduced Risk of Dental Caries. http://www.fda.gov/Food/LabelingNutrition/LabelClaims/FDAModernizationActFDAMAClaims/ucm073602.htm. Accessed April 2012. 14. ten Cate IM. Euro J Oral Sciences 1997; 105(5): 461-465. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1600-0722.1997.tb00231.x/abstract. Accessed April 2012. 15. Willershausen B et al. J Clin Dent 1991; 2(3): 75-78.

Date of preparation: June 2012


RIBBON CUTTING FROM THE OPENING CEREMONY

DR. AND MRS. ZUHAIR SKAFF

DR. FADI GHAITH AND DR. ADEL BEN AMOR

DR. AND MRS. JOSEPH BOUSERHAL

DR. AND MRS. EDMOND CHAPTINI

DR. FATEN BEN AMOR AND MRS. GHAITH AND

DR. KHALIL GHOSSOUB AND DR. MONA SAYEGH GHOSSOUB

DR. FADI DAHBOUL AND DR. ALAIN TAWK

PICTURES FROM THE CLOSING CEREMONY

DR. AND MRS. ANTOINE DARAZI

LEFT TO RIGHT: DR. ZUHAIR SKAFF, DR. ROY SABRI, PROF. RAVINDRA NANDA FROM CONNECTICUT, USA


Assistina 3x3: Clean inside, clean outside

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68

Egyptian Dental Association November 5 - 8, 2013 Cairo City Stars International Hotel, EGYPT

More Pictures Available On www.facebook.com/dentalnews1

EGYPTIAN DENTAL ASSOCIATION BOARD MEMBERS

LEFT TO RIGHT: PR. NOUR HABIB AND PR. SALAH H SHERIF

DR. MAALOUF, PRESIDENT OF THE LDA RECEIVING THE TROPHY FROM PR. HABIB

DR. RAHEEL PRESIDENT OF THE LDA - TRIPOLI, BETWEEN MEMBERS OF THE EDA

On behalf of myself and all EDA board members, I extend a very welcoming hand to all our colleagues, our participants and our visitors. We are all very proud and happy to have you with us here in Cairo. Our last meeting was a very successful one, both scientifically and socially, and we promise you at least an equally successful, or an even more enterprising meeting. The quality of the scientific papers to be presented in this conference is extremely high, and we promise you that the social program accompanying and following the congress will appeal to you all. The EDA board and members are very happy to have you all with us, and we wish you a very pleasant stay and hope to see you all in Cairo in the next EDA meetings. Professor Salah H. Sherif, General Secretary of the EDA, Dean of Faculty of Dentistry MIU

DELEGATES FROM SUDAN, KUWAIT AND LEBANON

LEBANESE DELEGATES WITH PR. MOUSHIRA SALAHUDDIN

PR. BEIALY, PR. ABBAS AND PR. KATAMESH


M

O ES FRION R U T T PIC EXHIBI THE FLOOR


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Dental Facial Cosmetic International Conference

72

Novermber 8 - 9, 2013 Jumeirah Beach Hotel, DUBAI

DR. MUNIR SILWADI

More Pictures Available On www.facebook.com/dentalnews1

It is my honor and pleasure to welcome you all to our 5th Dental - Facial Cosmetic International Conference. Our specialized conferences are evolving into land marks in the field of Continuous Dental Education. We offer a unique blend of Science, Clinical Knowledge, and Cutting Edge Technology in the field of Dentistry and beyond. All of us, organizers, speakers, and sponsors spare no time or effort to put bring to you the most up to date developments in various fields of Dentistry. This 5th edition of our DFCIC features a joint meeting with the American Academy of Implant Dentistry. During this session, the AAID will share with us their vast knowledge and experience as well as the latest in the field of Implant Dentistry. I am sure that this conference will be of the greatest help to develop our knowledge and sharpen our skills in pursuing the goal that we all share, to provide our patients with the best possible solutions for their esthetic needs. Dr. Munir Silwadi Conference Chairman

DR. DIB, DEAN HAMED, DR. NAHASS

M FRO

S UREIBITION T C I P EXH R THE FLOO


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YOU WOULDN’T PROTECT YOURSELF HALFWAY.

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WHAT BRUSHING STARTS

70 LISTERINE FINISHES LISTERINE provides 21% greater gingivitis reduction than brushing and flossing alone. 21% ADVANCED 3

RINSE WITH 20ML OF LISTERINE® FOR 30 SECONDS TWICE A DAY FOR 24 HOUR GERM PROTECTION REFERENCES 1. Data on file A, McNEIL-PPC.Inc. 2. Sharma C. Naresh et al. superiority of an essential oil mouthrinse when compared with a 0.05% cetylpyridinium chloride containing mouthrinse: a six month study. International Dental Surgeon, 2010;175-180. 3. N. Sharma et al. Adjunctive benefit of an essential oil–containing mouthrinse in reducing plaque and gingivitis in patients who brush and floss regularly A six-month study. J Am Dent Assoc, 2004;135:496-504.

For further information, please contact Johnson & Johnson (Middle East) FZ-LLC. Level 2, Al Zahrawi Building 34, Dubai Healthcare City, PO Box 505080 Dubai, United Arab Emirates, Tel +971.4.429.7377 Fax +971.4.429.7300 Email comment@jnjae.jnj.com www.jnj.com


GROUP PICTURE WITH DR. NABEEL OFFERING THE TROPHY TO DR. MAALOUF, PRESIDENT OF THE LEBANESE DENTAL ASSOCIATION

PRIZE DISTRIBUTION (SPONSORED BY P&G) TO THE WINNERS OF THE POSTER PRESENTATION

LEFT TO RIGHT;

DRS KAZI, BANDAY, SHAMMERY, DIB, SHAKER AND ABOUJAOUDEH


TUNIS


The first fluoride toothpaste to harness advanced NovaMin® calcium and phosphate bone regeneration technology1 to help relieve the pain of your patients’ dentine hypersensitivity. Repairs exposed dentine: Building a hydroxyapatite-like layer over exposed dentine and within dentine tubules2–6 Protects patients from the pain of future sensitivity: The robust layer firmly binds to dentine6,7 and is resistant to daily oral challenges3,8,9,10

Think beyond pain relief and recommend Sensodyne Repair & Protect References: 1. Greenspan DC. J Clin Dent 2010; 21(Spec Iss): 61–65. 2. LaTorre G, Greenspan DC. J Clin Dent 2010; 21(3): 72-76. 3. Burwell A et al. J Clin Dent 2010; 21(Spec Iss): 66–71. 4. West NX et al. J Clin Dent 2011; 22(Spec Iss): 82-89. 5. Earl J et al. J Clin Dent 2011; 22(Spec Iss): 62-67. 6. Efflandt SE et al. J Mater Sci Mater Med 2002; 26(6): 557-565. 7. Zhong JP et al. The kinetics of bioactive ceramics part VII: Binding of collagen to hydroxyapatite and bioactive glass. In Bioceramics 7, (eds) OH Andersson, R-P Happonen, A Yli-Urpo, Butterworth-Heinemann, London, pp61–66. 8. Parkinson C et al. J Clin Dent 2011; 22(Spec Issue): 74-81. 9. Earl J et al. J Clin Dent 2011; 22(Spec Iss): 68-73. 10. Wang Z et al. J Dent 2010; 38: 400−410. Prepared December 2011, Z-11-516. OH/CA/01/13/001


#78

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Dental News, Volume XX, Number IV, 2013


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Qatar – Shine Technology Co. medical@qatar.net.qa

Saudi Arabia – Abdulrehman Algosaibi GTC Dental dental@aralgosaibico.com

United Arab Emirates – Gulf & World Traders LLC gwtdental@gwtuae.com

* Images courtesy of Dr. Clark Colville. © 2013 Ortho Organizers, Inc. All rights reserved.


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