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Dr. Alfred Tomatis. France, 1920-2001


Follow-up study on the effects of Tomatis method in communication, linguistic, cognitive and emmotional skills in children aged 6 - 7 Silvia Lozano Consultora Tomatis Certificada R.C.T.C. Mar铆a Fernanda Lara, Ingrid Ar茅valo Departamento de la Comunicaci贸n Humana y sus Des贸rdenes Universidad Nacional de Colombia


1. Introduction 2. Method and Instruments 3. Results 4. Discussion 5. Conclusions


1. Introduction


• Previous study: descriptive of effects of Tomatis Method , on Communicative, linguistic , cognitive and emmotional skills, on 5-6 children. • Reported Results


Cognition WPPSI. Medición 1 a 4

Diferencias promedio

6 5 4

1

3

2

2

3

1 0 Cuadrados

Dibujos

Figuras Escalas

• • •

Better performance Quicklier performance Less mistakes

Laberintos


Language

Diferencias promedio

PLS-3 5 4

1

3

2

2

Differencies between structured and unstructured tests

Highest narrative levels .

3

1 0 1- 3

1- 4

1- 3

Comprensión Auditiva

1- 4

Comunicación expresiva

Escalas y Mediciones

Narrative levels/ Initial. Measurement 4 100

%

80 1

60

2

40

3

20 0 1 Groups


Phonological Awareness (Memory and Naming) Phonological Memory.Measurement 1 to 4

Average differences

6

Automatic skills

Bases of literacy.

Correlations with better vocabulary .

5 4

1

3

2

2

3

1 0 1 Groups

Phonological naming. Measurement 1 to 4

Average differences

250 200 150

1

100

2

50

3

0 -50

1 Groups


Phonological Awareness

• • • •

Better metalinguistic skills Bases of literacy Important in L2 acquisition . Best in Phonemic: dependant on the instruction.


Problem Statement

•

Phonological Processing and Language skills: Main predictors of sucessfull literacy:


Research questions

• •

Would the results be maintained after 8 and 12 months after last measurement? Would Tomatis Method enhance literacy?

Would the social, family and school adaptation be promoted with Tomatis Method after 10 and 14 month of having finished stimulation?


Research questions

•

Would new abilities emerge after 10 and 14 month of having finished stimulation?

•

Would academic performance improve in specific areas related to the skills evaluated in the earlier research study (mathematics, language, and second language learning)?


Objectives

•

To study long term effects of Tomatis Method and musical stimulation in language, phonological processing (phonological awareness, phonological memory and phonological ,naming), cognition and communication in 6 -7 year -old children.


Objectives

• To register the effects of Tomatis Method and the musical stimulation in literacy and academic performance. • To determine whether the results would be maintained 10 and 14 months later the end of listening training stimulation


2. Method


• Participants • Procedures

• Data Recollection and Analysis


Time Line


Participants

T1

T2

T3

T4

T5

T6

Tomatis

25

25

25

24

21

21

Music

25

25

25

24

21

22

Control

26

26

25

26

26

26


Procedures

Materials and design:

•

Evaluators

•

Assessment Protocol


Assessement Protocol


Data Analisys

•

A database was built for the analysis through the program SPSS 8.0 and STATA 9.0. Due to the explorative character of the study and the statistical power of the sample size , descriptive statistics were reckoned in the majority of cases.

•

In each stage of evaluation, it was followed a register of the means and standard deviations for each group.


Data Analisys

The difference between each couple of measurements at group level (differences of means).

Non parametrical statistical tests : – Kruskall-Wallis Statistics Test – Wilcoxon signed rank test


3. Results


• Most relevant results group 1 tomatis • Language -narrative • Phonological processing

1. 2. 3.

Phonological awareness Phonological memory Phonological naming

• Reading

•Volver a


Narrative 90 80

•

Percentage

70 60

50 40 30 20 10 0 1

2

3

4

5

Measurements

Grupo 1 Tomatis Grupo 3 Control

Grupo 2 Mozart

6

The results show that Group 1 Tomatis has the best development in the second, fourth and fifth measu rements; Group 2 Mozart in the sixth measuring and Group 3 Control at the first, third, and fifth ones.


Narrative levels


Phonological Processing PHONOLOGICAL AWARENESS 1. SYLLABIC LEVEL: concience words can be divided on syllabls: ta-ble 2. INTRASYLLABIC LEVEL: Rymes :Humpty Dumpty; Oddy Task: task, mask,fast 3. PHONEMIC LEVEL: the most abstract


Scores on Percentages

Phonological Processing

100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0

Syllabic Level Group 1Tomatis:

• 1

2

3

4

5

Measurements

Grupo 1 Tomatis

Grupo 2 Mozart

Grupo 3 Control

6

Greatest variability and overtakes other groupsbetter scores on 4th and 6th


Score on Percentages

Phonological Awareness

Intrasyllabic Level

80 70 60 50

Group 1 Tomatis:

40 30 20 10

•

0 1

2

3

4

5

Measurements

Grupo 1 Tomatis

Grupo 2 Mozart

Grupo 3 Control

6

In second position during 1-5 assessements, but overtakes the others on 6th.


Scores on Percentages

Phonological Awareness

80

Phonemic level

70 60

Group 1 Tomatis:

50 40 30

•

20 10

0 1

2

3

4

5

Measurements

Grupo 1 Tomatis

Grupo 2 Mozart

Grupo 3 Control

6

Better scores in assessments 3-6


Direct scores

Phonological Processing

Phonological Memory

45 40 35 30

Group 1 Tomatis:

25 20

15

•

10 5 0 1

3

4

5

Measurements

Grupo 1 Tomatis

Grupo 2 Mozart

Grupo 3 Control

6

Better scores in assessments 4-6 and less variability in assessments 5-6.


Time of answering in ms

Phonological Processing

1800

Phonological Naming

1600 1400

Group 1 Tomatis :

1200 1000

•

800 600 400 200 0 1

4

5 Measurements

Grupo 1 Tomatis Grupo 3 Control

Grupo 2 Mozart

6

Better scores on 4 and 6 assessements and greater change between 1-6; statistically relevant 5-6


Reading

Reading Fluency

Name and sound of letters

Word reading

Non-word reading

Sentence comprehension


Reading

Reading Comprehension -Narrative texts and literal questions

Reading Comprehension - Narrative texts with inferential questions

Reading Comprehension -Expositive texts with literal questions

Reading Comprehension -Expositive texts and inferential questions


Time reading f-Fluency

Reading

2,5

Reading Fluency

2

1,5

•

1

0,5

0 5

6

Measurements

Grupo 1 Tomatis

Grupo 2 Mozart

Grupo 3 Control

The results show that Group 1 Tomatis obtained better reading –time.


Name and Sound of letters

Reading

19

Name and sound of letters

18,5 18 17,5

•

17 16,5 16 15,5 15 5

6

Measurements

Grupo 1 Tomatis

Grupo 2 Mozart

Grupo 3 Control

Group 3 Control has better scores in both assessments as shown in Graphic , followed by Group 2 Mozart and Group 1 Tomatis.


Reading

Word Reading

Word reading •

30 25 20 15 10 5 0 5

6 Measurements

Grupo 1 Tomatis

Grupo 2 Mozart

Grupo 3 Control

As to Word Reading in Measurement 5, Group 3 Control presents better results and in Measure 6, Group 1 Tomatis overtakes both groups


Reading

Non-Word Reading

28

Non-word reading

27 26

•

25 24 23 22 5

6

Measurements

Grupo 1 Tomatis

Grupo 2 Mozart

Grupo 3 Control

Scores on NonWords Reading are higher for Group 1 Tomatis


Sentence Cmprehension

Reading

12

Sentence comprehension

10 8

•

6 4 2 0 5

6

Measurements

Grupo 1 Tomatis

Grupo 2 Mozart

Grupo 3 Control

As to Sentence Comprehension, Group 1Tomatis , shows better performances


Reading comprehension narrative text

•

Charles wanted to go to the movies to watch his favorite film but his parents didn’t g allow him to go. Very upset he went to his room and opened his hopper. For a moment he thought to get down throught the window but he realized it was too high. So he laid down on his bed for a while and at the end he went down to watch television with his parents.


Litteral Questions

• •

Where did Charles want to go? Why did he open his hopper?


Comprehension of Narrative texts -literal questions

Reading 3,5 3

Reading Comprehension -Narrative texts and literal questions

2,5 2 1,5

•

1 0,5 0 5

6 Measurements

Grupo 1 Tomatis

Grupo 2 Mozart

Grupo 3 Control

Group1Tomatis obtained the best results in both measurements


Inferencial questions

• •

Why did he consider to get down through the window ? Where did he finally go ?


Comprehension of Narrative texts inferential questions

Reading 3

Reading Comprehension - Narrative texts with inferential questions

2,5 2 1,5

•

1

0,5 0

5

6 Measurements

Grupo 1 Tomatis

Grupo 2 Mozart

Grupo 3 Control

Group3 Control has better scores in Measurement 5 , but in Measurement 6 Group 1 Tomatis overtook the other groups.


Expositive text

•

The brown bear is a very kind animal who lives in the northern forest of Spain. Even if it seems very clumsy it moves very easily and fast. It eats dried fruits that it picks-up on the trees and honey that it steals to the bees. It is very lazy as it spends all day long sleeping on winter time.


Comprehension of Expositive Texts-Lliteral Questions

Reading 3

Reading Comprehension -Expositive texts with literal questions

2,5 2 1,5

•

1 0,5 0 5

6 Measurements

Grupo 1 Tomatis

Grupo 2 Mozart

Grupo 3 Control

Group3 Control has better scores in Measurement 5 , but in Measurement 6 Group 1 Tomatis overtook the other groups.


Literal Questions

•

Where does the brown bear live?

•

How are his movements?


Comprehension of Expositive TextsInferential Questions

Reading 3

2,5

Reading Comprehension -Expositive texts and inferential questions

2

1,5

•

1

0,5 0 5

6 Measurements

Grupo 1 Tomatis Grupo 3 Control

Grupo 2 Mozart

Group3 Control has better scores in Measurement 5 , but in Measurement 6 Group 1 Tomatis overtook the other groups.


Inferencial Questions

What is he fed with?

Why is he called lazzy?


Other Tests Results

COGNITION SOCIAL-SCHOLAR ADJUSTMENT SCHOLAR PERFORMANCE LISTENING TEST


4. Discussion


• General terms: no statistical significance differences in groups performances • But: the objective of a macro study is to explore and describe the most sensitive variables to changes after being exposed to Tomatis Method stimulation • Follow-up of each of those skills through time and to observe its behavior in each group


Skill Analysis • Narrative • Phonological Processing • Reading


SKILLS ANALYSIS

Narrative In first Measurement : G 1 T , was in lower favorable conditions

 the greater number of children on the descriptive level (the most primitive). • improvement in narrative levels • homogenization of the group, by contrast to those observed in Group 2 and 3


SKILLS ANALYSIS

Narrative


SKILLS ANALYSIS Phonological Awarness •

• •

Phonological Awareness – Syllabic level, – Intra-syllabic, and – Phonemical, Phonological Memory Phonological Naming

Homogenization of the group

better results in general , tendence to improve skills in all levels •

These results may explainG1T good scores in reading.


SKILLS ANALYSIS Phonological Awarness •

General terms : Group 1 Tomatis homogenizes itself through time, and increases its scores in Phonological Awareness: Awareness, Memory and Naming, and Narrative.


SKILLS ANALYSIS Phonological Awarness


SKILLS ANALYSIS Reading level G1T:

Reading

•

far better than two other groups Decoding and comprehensive skills (in spite of starting conditions) differences in decoding processes(dependant on automatic and meta processes linguistic aspects) as in comprehension (dependant on oral language comprehension and reading fluency)

•

Remark.

•

Correlation with language (narrative) and Phonological Awareness, Memory and Naming


SKILLS ANALYSIS The fall of certain results

> end of stimulation (Measurement 3): G1T > better performances in Manipulative Cognitive Test, Narrative and Phonological Awareness.

> Only Phonological Awareness and Narrative were maintained through time.

This fact could be interpreted as the need of reinforcing stimulation with more hours of listening training in order to achieve long term transference .


5. Conclusions


Most of the achievements obtained through Tomatis Method intervention are maintained in the long term.

Reading and writing acquisition processes are enhanced with Tomatis Method exposure,as well as in decoding components as in comprehensive.

It is not possible to conclude whether or not social and family adjustments are enhanced in the long term due to difficulties in those variable evaluations.

Ten and fourteen months later new skills emerge especially related to Reading skills.

Scholar performance was not a sensible variable to change.


Limits of Study •

School

Teachers

Parents

Children

Tomatis Method

Instruments


Limits of Study

School: a complex universe – Rythms and locations, >conditioning the stimulation and assessment (noise, examinations, tireness) >great variety of circumstances(interferences with stimulation and assessment)


Limits of Study

Children – >Phisiological interferencies (allergies,illness) – >Family circumstances


Limits of Study

Teachers - >resistance to intrusion - >apreciation of children


Limits of Study

•

Parents


Limits of Study Tomatis Method: – Objectives – Programmation:

• Groupal vs. Differenciated according to LT • Actives sessions • Limitated intensity vs. Boosters – Different attitude of Consultant – Tomatis Centers


Limits of Study

Instruments of measure

Way of looking at the Method


Recomendations

Further studies , starting from this exploratory: – Refining variables – Experimental type – Analisys of task


Toda averiguaci贸n requiere tiempo, paciencia y proporci贸n. Jos茅 Celestino Mutis


ยกGRACIAS!


silviahlozanob@gmail.com

Follow up study on the effects of tomatis method in communication, linguistic, cognitive and emmotio