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The tools of life.

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Academy of Art University, San Francisco, CA. Printed at

Eco-Copy, San Francisco, USA. Bound at Eco Copy, San

INTERPRET

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Book design copyright © 2011 by Tanya Mendiola

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COME TO

Francisco, USA. All rights reserved.

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Typography 3, taught online by Lian Ng in Spring, 2011 at

CONCERN

RELATE

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HINT

REFER

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Published by Tanya Mendiola for course number GR.330,

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May you rest in peace.

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IMA

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CARE

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MOVE

THE AFFECT OF A SCENT

DISCOVER

VIE

TAKE IN

RELISH

A CHANGE OF TONE

68

VER

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SS

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INHALE

THE SEVEN PRIMARY ODORS

DEVOUR

INTERPRETATION MANAGE

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SENSE

THE COMMUNICATION

SNIFFLE

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WHIFF

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SEE

TRY

HEAR

OBJECT DECIBELS II

RIVET

THE TASTE BUDS

STRIKE

FLAVORS OF LIFE

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REEK

INTERPRET

ANATOMY OF THE EAR

DIS

COM

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63

HANDLE

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ION

YOUR BUDS

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ANATOMY OF THE TONGUE

MOVE

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THE QUALITIES OF TASTE PERCEIVE

STIR

PERCEIVE

PERCEIVE

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AROMA

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EHEND

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ANATOMY OF THE NOSE

SCENT

CENTER

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INHALE

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FOCUS

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CLICKS

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PERCEIVE

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EVOKE

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IMAGINE

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SAVOR

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THE PROCESS OF BREATHING

SENSE

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INTERPRET

26

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25

IMAGINE

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REALIZE

24

RELISH

REEK

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PERCEIVE

COLOGNE

20

SENSE

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EVOKE

LISTENING

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COVER

INCLUDE

16

INTERPRET

THE QUALITY OF TOUCH ALLUDE

VISUALIZE

CONCERN

RELATE

COMPLEXITIES OF VISION

BASK

SENSITIVE SPOTS

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DEPLETE

NOTICE

AN EYE DEFICIENCY

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AFFECT

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ANATOMY OF THE EYE

7

CT

THE TUNING FORK

LISTENING

LISTEN COVER

TOUCH

COME TO

VISIONING THE WORLD

PERCEIVE

EATEN

ATE

INGEST

INTERSECTION

VISUALIZE

DELICATE NERVES

INCLUDE

COLOGNE

PERFUME

NEATEN

SIGHT

VIEW

IDENTIFY

EAT

SEEING

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VISUAL PIGMENT

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CONCERN

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REVERSE

PERCEPTION

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EXPERIENCES

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PERTAIN

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OBSERVE

AFFECT

HINT

REFER

FEEL

MODIFY

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SIGHT

VIEW

SEEING

SEE

LAYERS OF THE RETINA

VISION

COVER

EATEN

ATE

ORIGIN

PERCEIVE

COLOGNE

INGEST

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TRY

COLOR

INCLUDE

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FEEL

INTRODUCTION

105


ND

E

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COVER

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COME TO

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TRY

UNDERSTAND

REALIZE

VISUALIZE

NOTICE

OBSERVE

WATCHING

WATCH

SIGHT

VIEW

SEEING

SEE

SUGGEST

ADVERT

ALLUDE

COME TO

CONCERN

RELATE

PERTAIN

AFFECT

HINT

REFER

FEEL

LISTENING

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INCLUDE

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SAVVY

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TRY

UNDERSTAND

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OBSERVE

WATCHING

WATCH

SIGHT

VIEW

SEEING

SEE

Introductory of the Senses

G

OBEY

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INTRO EVOKE

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UNDE

REALI

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OBSER

WATC

WATC

SIGHT

VIEW

SEEIN

SEE


The senses are given in order that they may instruct the soul, as also our rational mind.

The sensation itself evidently first takes place in the

The senses are the explorers of things in ultimates in

intended to communicate the fact of an excitement of

order that the soul may ascertain them by the means.

the nerve from the terminations of the nerves to their

Touch, sight, hearing, smell, and taste are inconceivable

centre in the brain-the sensorium. This irritation of the

without the presence of a nervous system, even if the

nerve is by no means similar to the first irritation. It is

sensory organs were in their present full development.

neither light nor sound, nor is it pressure nor warmth,

Every sensory organ may be shown to be connected

nor a current of liquid which can be tasted, nor of a gas

with the nervous system by means of nerve-trunks and

which can be smelt. It is rather a process of a peculiar

nerve-fibres.

kind, about which we may conclude that in all the nerves

Such an eye may have all the appearance of a sound one, it may receive the rays of light and form an image of objects on its background, and nevertheless no

brain. The sensation of light, a process to anyone most obscure, begins rather in the brain. It is clear that these ideas must be extended to the other sensory organs of taste, smell, and touch. All sensory nerves are only

of the body the irritation is one and the same, since, in the muscular as well as in the sensory nerves, it exhibits the same phenomena and obeys the same laws.

sensation can be produced, for the connection with the

All sensations perform certain offices. They indicate to

brain, the centre of the nervous system, is wanting. The

the soul the quality of the things which touch the sensory.

case is the same with the deaf ear, and with the arm

The soul is affected according to the disclosures of

devoid of feeling. The sensory organs are, therefore,

touch, if good, joyously, if evil, sadly, whence is affection

only instruments of the mind, which has its seat in

which is natural; for all the senses have own affections,

the brain, and by means of nerves makes use of these

according to the quality of the forms which touch them,

instruments to obtain information of external objects.

according as these agree or disagree with the state of

The forces which operate in the outer world-namely,

the soul, where fore as they agree or disagree with the

light, heat, sound, motion, and chemical affinity-produce

order of the universe and in their own universe. These

in the sensory organs an irritation of the sensory nerves

little sensory are fashioned for every kind of approaching

connected with them, and these convey the irritation

objects. Any external sensory, whether it be the tongue

which is there received throughout their entire length

or the nostrils or the ear or the eye, is a kind of common

to the brain. Each organ of sense has its own specific

sensory, consisting of infinite smallest things, which

irritation by which it is excited. The terminations of the

taken together constitute the sensory.

optic nerve in the eye can only be excited by light-waves, not by sound-waves, and the latter- can only excite the terminations of the auditory nerve in the ear. For the tactile nerves of the skin mechanical pressure and heat are specific excitements; for the nerves of taste and smell some chemical substance is necessary.


INTERPRET

HEAR

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ALLUDE

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SUGGEST

STIR

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STAND

NE

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ION

COMPREHEND

ADJOIN

SNIFF

EHEND

PERCEIVE

STRIKE

COMPREHEND

SENSE

REEK

EVOKE

SUGGEST

PERCEIVE

COLOGNE

PERFUME

NEATEN

GROOM

WIND

NOSE

SMELLING

SMELL

VER

UNDERSTAND

LISTENING

COVER

INCLUDE

COMPASS

GRASP

CONCERN

DIG

TOUCH

VE

APPREHEND

AFFECT

HEARING

SAVVY

HINT

RELATE

GROK

REFER

OBEY

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CONSUME

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TRY

ENVISAGE

DISCOVER

PROJECT

CHECK

VERIFY

WITNESS

ENVISION

COMPREHEND

DISCOVER

FIND

PERCEIVE

IMAGINE

UNDERSTAND

REALIZE

VISUALIZE

NOTICE

OBSERVE

WATCHING

WATCH

SIGHT

VIEW

SEEING

SEE

DEAL

CARE

HANDLE

ALTER

IMPACT

CONTACT

MEET

ADJOIN

STRIKE

MOVE

MANAGE

STIR

SUGGEST

ADVERT

ALLUDE

COME TO

CONCERN

RELATE

PERTAIN

AFFECT

HINT

REFER

FEEL

SNIFFLE

BREATHE

INHALE

WHIFF

SNIFF

COMPREHEND

SENSE

REEK

EVOKE

SUGGEST

PERCEIVE

COLOGNE

PERFUME

NEATEN

GROOM

WIND

NOSE

SMELLING

SMELL

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SMELL

SUSPIRE

RESPIRE

CONCENTRATE SMOKE

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PERCEIVE

HEAR

INTERPRET

UNDERSTAND

LISTENING

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INCLUDE

COMPASS

GRASP

HEARING

DIG

APPREHEND

SAVVY

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ENVISAGE

DISCOVER

PROJECT

CHECK

VERIFY

WITNESS

ENVISION

COMPREHEND

DISCOVER

FIND

PERCEIVE

IMAGINE

UNDERSTAND

REALIZE

VISUALIZE

NOTICE

OBSERVE

WATCHING

WATCH

SIGHT

VIEW

SEEING

SEE

DEAL

CARE

HANDLE

ALTER

IMPACT

CONTACT

MEET

ADJOIN

STRIKE

MOVE

MANAGE

STIR

SUGGEST

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COME TO

CONCERN

RELATE

PERTAIN

AFFECT

HINT

REFER

FEEL

SNIFFLE

BREATHE

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WHIFF

SNIFF

COMPREHEND

SENSE

REEK

EVOKE

SUGGEST

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COLOGNE

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NEATEN

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UNDERSTAND

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INCLUDE

COMPASS

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SUGGEST

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VISION

WITNESS

ENVISION

COMPREHEND

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FIND

PERCEIVE

IMAGINE

UNDERSTAND

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NOTICE

OBSERVE

WATCHING

WATCH

SIGHT

VIEW

SEEING

SEE

HANDLE

ALTER

IMPACT

CONTACT

MEET

ADJOIN

STRIKE

MOVE

MANAGE

STIR

SUGGEST

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COMPREHEND

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PERFUME

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INCLUDE

COMPASS

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APPREHEND

SAVVY

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WATCH

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SEEING

SEE

AFFECT

HINT

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HEARING

DIG

APPREHEND

SAVVY

GROK

HAVE

TAKE IN

IDENTIFY

EAT

NOSE

WIND

GROOM

NEATEN

DISCOVER

PROJECT

CHECK

VERIFY

WITNESS

ENVISION

COMPREHEND

DISCOVER

FIND

PERCEIVE

IMAGINE

UNDERSTAND

REALIZE

VISUALIZE

NOTICE

OBSERVE

WATCHING

HANDLE

ALTER

IMPACT

CONTACT

MEET

ADJOIN

STRIKE

MOVE

MANAGE

STIR

SUGGEST

ADVERT

ALLUDE

COME TO

CONCERN

RELATE

PERTAIN

SNIFFLE

BREATHE

INHALE

WHIFF

SNIFF

COMPREHEND

SENSE

REEK

EVOKE

SUGGEST

PERCEIVE

COLOGNE

PERFUME

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UNDERSTAND

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ALL SENSES ARE CONNECTED TO THE BRAIN

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VISION SEE

SEEING

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SIGHT

WATCH

WATCHING 16

OBSERVE

OBSERVATION

NOTICE

VISUALIZE

REALIZE

UNDERSTAND

IMAGINE

PERCEIVE

FIND

DISCOVER

COMPREHEND

The ability to see is a sense that humans are

ENVISION

WITNESS

most dependent on. VERIFY

CHECK

PROJECT

SENSING SURVIVAL

DISCOVER


of the iris of the eye, varying in size to

an adjustable circular opening in the

regulate the amount of light reaching

center.

the retina.

The faculty or state of being able to see; the ability to think or plan the future with wisdom or imagination.

RETINA

The dark circular opening in the center

VISION

behind the cornea of the eye, with

PUPIL

IRIS

A flat, colored, ring-shaped membrane

The layer at the back of the eyeball containing cells that are sensitive to light and that trigger nerve impulses that pass via nerve to the brain.

17

The Sense of


SIGHT Surviving with Vision

SEEING

VIEW

SIGHT

WATCH

WATCHING

OBSERVE

OBSERVATION

NOTICE

VISUALIZE

REALIZE

UNDERSTAND

IMAGINE

PERCEIVE

FIND

DISCOVER


Vision is a complicated process that requires components of the eye and brain to work together.

In some well-known phenomena, it may be observed that

The initial step of this fascinating and powerful sense is carried

with their form. To the extent that particulars differ from the

out in the retina of the eye. Specifically, the photoreceptor

general to that extent they appear distinct. There are at one

neurons (called photoreceptors) in the retina collect the light

time differences of parts of a general, which produce forms of

and send signals to a network of neurons that then generate

images. So there are at another time differences of light and

electrical impulses that go to the brain. The brain then tells

shade as in the understanding there are the differences between

those impulses and gives information about what we are seeing.

good and evil, truth and falsity.

We will discover how the photoreceptors work, and specifically examine at the photoreceptor proteins to learn how light energy is converted into electrical energy. We will examine some of the current studies that are helping to further our understanding of the proteins involved in the vision process.

the impression of light lasts for an appreciable time after the light is withdrawn. It's known that color does not appear at all without light; neither do the differences of sight. There must be differences of light in order that images may appear

Differences of light and shade enable one to recognize the figure itself of an object: whether it is round or angular. These differences are not apparent except proximately. So also it is with contiguous and proximate things. Distance obliterates figure itself, and wipes out the angles, and makes them round;

Sight or vision is the ability of the eyes to focus and detect

for the shade is confused. Without intermediates quantity

images of visible light on photoreceptors in the retina of each

perishes, and the smallest is believed to be the and vice versa.

eye that generates electrical nerve impulses for varying colors,

What is intermediate enables one to recognize size or quantity;

hues, and brightness. Neuroanatomists generally regard it as

for everything appears as if present in the eye; hence distance

two senses, given that different receptors are responsible for

is measured by intermediates.

the perception of color and brightness. There are two types of photoreceptors: rods and cones. Rods are very sensitive to light, but do not distinguish colors. Cones distinguish colors, but are less sensitive to dim light. There is some disagreement as to whether this constitutes one, two or three senses. Some argue[citation needed] that stereopsis, the perception of depth using both eyes, also constitutes a sense, but it is generally regarded as a function of the visual cortex of the brain where patterns and objects in images are recognized and interpreted based on previously learned information.

Something worth seeing.


The refraction of the rays of light in the eye is much more complicated than in a simple convex lens; for, in the eye, the ray of light passes through several substances, and is refracted at the surface of each substance. The common result, however, produced by all these refracting media of the eye is exactly the eye in a somewhat slanting direction with the side of the nose, pierces the sclerotic coat and choroid, and then spreads out on all sides, so as to form, by means of the peculiar terminations with which it is provided, a kind of nerve-carpet, which is the most delicate sensory organ created by nature. The retina, towards the front of the eye, touches with the outer 20

circumference of the iris, and lies quite open to the transparent interior of the eye, so that the rays of light fall directly upon it, and create in it an impression of light. Before, however, the rays of light reach the retina, they pass through a number of transparent organizations which are situated in the circular hollow of the eye, and are here ingeniously fitted together like the parts of a microscope or telescope, with this difference only, that they are packed tightly together, so as to allow no trace of air between them. The outer covering of this transparent body is the cornea, mentioned above; then, towards the interior, follows first the aqueous humour, secondly the crystallize lens, L; and thirdly, the vitreous The aqueous humour fills, as we have seen, the space between the cornea, the iris and the lens. Directly behind the iris lies the crystalline lens, so well known, and resembling a very thick burning-glass. It is more convex upon its posterior than upon its anterior surface; in a living eye it is as clear-as crystal, and consists of a somewhat soft substance, which becomes harder towards the back of the lens. It has been discovered that this substance is not the same throughout, but that it consists of small vessels which are arranged in intricate lines, thus giving a sex-radiated structure to the lens.

SENSING SURVIVAL

NOTICE

OB S ERVATION

OB S ERVE

WATCHING

WATCH

S IG HT

VIEW

S EEING

S EE

ENVIS AG E

D IS COVER

P ROJECT

CHECK

LOOK

U ND ERS TA ND

VIS UA LIZE

REA LIZE

ANATOMY OF THE EYE


VISI 21

There are four straight and two oblique

eye. All the motions take place around the

muscles: the straight superior or elevator;

centre of the eye. Tendons are implanted

straight inferior or small depressor; the

in the circumference and by adherence

straight internal adductor towards the nose;

continued even to the cornea, and they form

the straight external abductor towards the

the aluminous tunic or white of the eye. The

temple: the oblique inferior or small muscle:

optic nerve follows every rotation of the eye,

the oblique great or trochee is so called

wherefore it is surrounded with fat; it also

because it passes through the cartilaginous

has a curvature towards the insertion of the

ring. These two oblique muscles turn the

globe, whence it can be extended. The pupil in natural site is directly in front. The lids themselves accommodate themselves entirely and naturally to the state of the motion or gyration of the bulb, so that the tarsus of the upper lid may always hold the pupil under itself. The pupil is dilated and contracted according to the quantities of light.

The Sense of Vision


LAYER

22

LAYERS OF THE RETINA The rod and cone layer gives us the starting point for conjectures upon the action of vision. The light which enters the eye must undoubtedly pass through all the given layers of the retina, and ultimately reach the rod and cone layer which is covered in externally by the black pigment of the choroid. Light can penetrate no further, since it is here absorbed by the black pigment.

SENSING SURVIVAL


23

a. In the interior, there is a fine limitary

d. Then the granular layer, which

g. Then follows the outer granular layer,

membrane, which is the boundary between

consists of a grey indistinct mass of

which is exactly like the inner one and

the retina and the vitreous body, formed

fine granules and is made up of closely

detects the light; h. And ultimately after

by astrocytes and the end feet of M端ller

packed cells, of which there are three

a second fine membrane is the layer of

cells. It is separated from the vitreous

varieties, bipolar cells, horizontal cells,

small rods and cones, both with a very

humor by a basal lamina.; b. Then towards

and amacrine cells; e. Next comes the

peculiar structure.

the exterior follows the layer of nerve

inner granular layer, consisting of little

fibres; c. Then comes layer of nerve-cells,

round grains; f. Then the intermediate

which consists of cells similar to the cells

granular layer, consisting of a fine

of the brain;

granular with small fibres which is a layer of neuronal synapses in the retina of the eye. It consists of a dense network of synapses between dendrites of horizontal cells;

The Sense of Vision


COMPLEXITIES OF VISION The eye is a complex biological device. The functioning of a camera is often compared with the

There are many types of eye problems

workings of the eye, mostly since both focus light from external objects in the field of view onto a

and visual disturbances. These include

light-sensitive medium. In the case of the camera, this medium is film or an electronic sensor; in the case of the eye, it is an array of visual receptors. With this simple geometrical similarity, based on the laws of optics, the eye functions as a transducer, as does a CCD camera. Light entering the

blurred vision, halos, blind spots, floaters, and other symptoms. Blurred vision is the loss of sharpness of vision and the inability to see small details.

eye is refracted as it passes through the cornea. It then passes through the pupil (controlled by the iris) and is further refracted by the lens. The cornea and lens act together as a compound lens to project an inverted image onto the retina.

F

N

24

L

a

SEE

S E E I NG

a

b

a

VI E W

a

S I GH T

WAT CH

WAT CH I NG

O BS E R VE

O BS E R VAT I O N

NO T I CE

VI S UAL I ZE

R E AL I Z E

UNDE R S TAND

I MAGI NE

PE R CE I VE

FI ND

DI S CO VE R

CO MPR E H E ND

SENSING SURVIVAL E NVI S I O N


SIG REVERSE « Image to the brain It is true that the images formed on your retina are upsidedown. It is also true that most people have two eyes, and therefore two retinas. Why, then, don’t you see two distinct images? For the same reason that you don’t see everything upside-down. One of our most remarkable tools – the brain – is hard at work for us at this task.

25

Processing visual information is a complex task – it takes up a relatively large portion of the brain compared to other senses. This is because your brain performs several tasks to make images ‘easier’ to see. One, of course, is combining the two images, which is helped by the corpus callosum, the tiny part of your brain which joins the two big hemispheres. The other part is handled in the optic part of your brain itself, and part of its job is to make images right-side-up. It does this because your brain is so USED to seeing things upside-down that it eventually adjusts to it. After all, it’s a lot easier to flip the image over than it is to try and coordinate your hands and legs with an upside-down world! As a result, though, it is believed that for the first few days, babies see everything upside-down. This is because they have not become used to vision. The process of being able to see is more complicated than you might imagine.

The Sense of Vision


PERCEPTION ÂŤ Getting focused All this external apparatus serves these uses: They serve to change external states according to the state of light in general; according to the state of objects; according to the state of the brain, as, to the state of the affections of its animus; then also according to the state of the affections and operations of its mind; to the state of the motion of the eye itself, actuated by means of its muscles; being so actuated, to avert all dangerous and hurtful accidents from the eye; to preserve the bulb itself of the eye by a perpetual dampening or instillation of humor or suitable ointment; to pour this humor about the eye in suitable quantity; finally also to produce the same, so that there may always be a sufficient supply present.

We know from experience that we are able to see distinctly objects at different distances from our eye. But on careful observation we shall find that we cannot form simultaneously a perfect picture of objects at different distances from us. Thus the eye is adjusted for objects at different distances, and this property of the eye is called adjustment. When our eyes are wandering over objects at very different distances from us, this

The optic nerve follows every rotation of the eye, wherefore it is surrounded with fat; it also has a curvature towards the insertion of the globe, whence it can be extended. The pupil in natural site is directly in front. The lids themselves accommodate themselves entirely and naturally to the state of the motion or gyration of the bulb, so that the tarsus of the upper lid may always hold the pupil under itself. The pupil is dilated and contracted according to the quantities of tight, according to the qualities of objects wherefore to the qualities of light, to distances, to opposed magnitudes, to the state of wakefulness or sleep, according to shadows, so and naturally, that nothing may hinder.

SENSING SURVIVAL

adjustment is constantly at work, though we are quite unconscious of it ourselves.

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27

The Sense of Vision

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28

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ABOUT 8% OF MALES ARE COLOR BLIND. 29

AN EYE DEFICIENCY

COLOR BLINDNESS ÂŤ A different colored world Color blindness or color vision deficiency is the decreased ability to perceive differences between some of the colors that others can distinguish. It is most often of genetic nature, but may also occur because of some eye, nerve, or brain damage, or exposure to certain chemicals. While 8% of males are mainly effected, only .5% of females are color blind in one way or another. Color blindness is usually classed as a mild disability, but in certain situations, color blind individuals

LEFT The diagram is called an Ishihara color test. The test usually consists of a series of pictures of colored spots. The test most often used to diagnose red–green color deficiencies. A figure is embedded in the picture as a number of spots in a slightly different color, and

have an advantage over those with normal color vision. Based on clinical appearance, color

can be seen with normal color vision,

blindness may be described as total or partial.

but not with a particular color defect.

The Sense of Vision


COLOR ÂŤ Waves of the full spectrum The light which we perceive in nature is by no means of the

The colors in the spectrum are not sharply separated, but

same kind, but we distinguish a number of kinds of light which

pass gradually into each other. We can distinguish as quite

we term colors. All objects possess a certain color, due either

pure colors, red, yellow, green, blue, violet, each of which

to the light which they reflect, or which they transmit. We

produces a sensation entirely different to the others. The

speak, therefore, ordinarily of colored light, although physics

nearer, however, two colors are situated in the spectrum the

tells us that color cannot be separated from light, as if it were

greater relation they seem to bear to one another. Thus the

like a color which an artist lays on a picture. The kind of light

red seems to be more nearly related to the yellow than to the

which we call white, can be decomposed, by the prism, into a

green or blue; and the impression which yellow and green

number of colors, which comprise all the simple colors, and

produce is more similar than that produced by yellow and

which, when combined, produce all the colors which occur in

blue, or violet. A direct change however gradual, from red to

nature. If a sunbeam is allowed to fall upon a prism, the beam is

green, would seem to us unnatural, whilst the intervening

decomposed into a number of colors, which is called a spectrum.

yellow offers a natural connection between the two colors.

A ray falls through the opening, upon the prism. If the ray continued without interruption, a bright circle, would fall upon 30

the opposite wall. By refraction, however, the ray is turned, and since the colored rays which it contains possess different degrees of refrangibility, a colored stripe—a spectrum—is formed, in which the red, the least refrangible, is found. The spectrum also contains dark stripes, which are peculiar to sunlight, and are caused by the absorption of light by the gases present in the outer layer of the sun. The spectrum commences with red, which gradually changes to orange; then follows a smaller stripe of pure yellow at the line, and then green. The blue, which follows is of considerable extent, and we, therefore, distinguish blue at the line, and then indigo. The spectrum finally terminates with violet.

SENSING SURVIVAL

Physics teach us that the rays of a spectrum consist of light vibrations with different kinds of wave-lengths.


LEFT The eye, as is well known, is only to a

GAMMA RAYS

certain extent sensitive to light-vibrations. Physicists conclude that all the rays in the spectrum, visible as well as invisible, situated beyond the red and violet, consist

X-RAYS

of vibrations of the ether, which differ only in their wave-lengths, and are otherwise quite similar in form; of their vibrations, only those of intermediate length act upon the retina, while it is either of greater of less wave-lengths.

ULTR AVIOLET RAYS

31 INFRARED RAYS

RA DAR FM

TV

SHORTWAVE

AM

The Sense of Vision


32

VISUAL PIGMENT During the 1800’s the visual pigments were discovered in the retina. Scientists, working by candlelight, dissected the retinas from frog eyes. When the retinas were exposed to day light

In the photo-excitation process, the rhodopsin absorbs light and is excited to a higher electronic state. Numerous

they changed color. These scientists had discovered that the retina is photosensitive. They

studies have been carried out to try

realized that the color they were observing was due to presence of a visual pigment, which

to understand what happens after the

was given the name rhodopsin. Later studies showed that rhodopsin is a protein that is found

rhodopsin absorbs light. The retinal then dissociates from the opsin. The

in the disks of the rod cell membrane. Pigments are also found in cone cells. There are three

change in geometry initiates a series of

types of cone cells, each of which contains a visual pigment. These pigments are called the

events that eventually cause electrical

red, blue or green visual pigment. The cone cells detect the primary colors, and the brain mixes these colors in seemingly infinitely variable proportions so that we can perceive a wide range of colors. Prolonged exposure to colors, for example when staring at a particular object, can cause fatigue in cone cells. This results in a change in the way that you perceive the color of the object that you are viewing. There are many fewer cone cells than rod cells in the retina. Also many animals do not have cone cells and hence do not see in color.

SENSING SURVIVAL

impulses to be sent to the brain along the optic nerve.


INTERSECTION ÂŤ Field of vision The field of view (also field of vision, abbreviated FOV) is the

e

(angular or linear or areal) extent of the observable world

c

that is seen at any given moment. Humans have an almost

d

180-degree forward-facing horizontal field of view, while some birds have a complete or nearly-complete 360-degree field of view. In addition, the vertical range of the field of view in humans is typically around 100 degrees. The range of visual abilities is not uniform across a field of view, and varies from animal to animal. For example, binocular vision, which is important for depth perception, only covers 120 degrees (horizontally) of the field of vision in humans; the remaining peripheral 60 degrees have no binocular vision.

33

c

b c

FIELD OF VISION a. Normal optical axis, standing person b. Normal optical axis, sitting person c. Limits of field of vision d. Normal angle of vision e. Mox, angle of vision

The Sense of Vision


a. Approximately 30% of America is

NEAR-SIGHTED

b. Approximately 60% of America is

FAR-SIGHTED

c. Approximately 75% of America use

VISION CORRECTION

34

VISIONING THE WORLD The brain receives a sharply focused picture when light rays entering the pupils of the eye converge (come together) at a single point on the retina. However, if the eyeball is at all misshapen, the light rays will converge at a point in front of the retina (nearsightedness), or behind the retina (farsightedness). Both situations result in blurry vision. Convex lenses are prescribed to correct farsightedness and concave lenses are prescribed to correct nearsightedness.

SENSING SURVIVAL


OF THE 75% VISION CORRECTION PRODUCTS: 64% GLASSES

c.

11% LENSES

OF THE 64% THAT WEAR GLASSES: 58% WOMEN

d.

42% MEN

PEOPLE THAT USE BOTH GLASSES AND LENSES:

62% USE LENSES MORE

e.

STATI

c.

35

1.3 MILLION AMERICANS LEGALLY BLIND

a. About 30 percent of Americans are

c. 75% of adults use some sort of

e. About 1.3 million Americans are

nearsighted, to some degree, and about

vision correction. About 64% of them

legally blind. An estimated 47,000

60 percent are farsighted. Nearsighted

wear eyeglasses, and about 11% wear

people, one person every 11 minutes,

people have trouble focusing on an

contact lenses, either exclusively, or

become blind each year due to a number

image in the distance while farsighted

with glasses. Over half of all women

of leading causes such as glaucoma,

people have trouble focusing on an

and about 42% of men wear glasses.

macular degeneration, senile cataract,

image close up. b. Approximately 30% of

Similarly, more women than men, 18%

optic nerve atrophy, diabetic retinopathy,

the American population is near-sighted,

and 14% respectively, wear contacts.

and retinitis pigmentosa. These causes

and must use glasses for activities such

d. Of those who use both contacts

account for 51% of blind people.

as driving and schoolwork.

and eyeglasses, 62% wear contact lenses more often. About 34 million, as reported in a March 2008 wear contact lenses in the United States. About 125 million people world wide use lenses.

The Sense of Vision


HANDLE

CARE

DEAL

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SUGGEST

With the aid of the skin, we could learn much more about the

STIR

MANAGE

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ADJOIN

MEET

CONTACT

IMPACT SENSING SURVIVAL

ALTER

nature of objects than just their form alone.


skin, containing blood capillaries,

part or organ of the body, such as the protuberance on the skin.

The outer layer of living tissue, in the particular outer cellular layer of a hair.

GLAND

A small rounded protuberance on a

CUTICLE

the epidermis that forms the true

PAPILLA

DERMIS

The thick layer of living tissue below

An organ in the body that secretes particular chemical substances for use in the body or for discharge.

nerve endings, sweat glands, hair follicles, and other structures.

37

The Sense of


FEEL Surviving with Touch

FEEL

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We know from experience that every part of our skin possesses a certain sensibility.

By handling a body we could learn its shape and form just as

This sensibility varies in different parts. This property is given

touch, as soon as we can compare it with the size of our hands

to the skin by a number of nerves which originate in the brain

and our body; and our judgment is fully capable of determining

and spinal chord, and extend in a tree-like form over the body.

the nature of its surface, whether it is smooth or rough, even

The sensibility of any part of the body is due to these nerves

or uneven. In short, the idea of the nature of bodies, in as far

alone, for as soon as such a nerve is lost or diseased, the part

as they differ in form, which we could obtain by the use of the

of the body supplied by it becomes devoid of sensation. We

sense of touch alone, would be sufficient to give our life an

must therefore consider the skin as a sensory organ which

incitement to activity. Our intelligence could even form matter

encloses our entire body, and is adapted to render every part

for abstract thought, from these perceptions alone, and by this

of the surface of our body sensible of external impressions,

means arrive at the conception of a line, an angle, a triangle,

and, indeed, of impressions of manifold kinds, which arouse

from which it would follow that mathematics is a science

in us peculiar sensations, and are inseparably connected with

independent of the observations of sight, although in reality its

mental processes. There can be no doubt that if we had neither

origin has been derived from this source. It is remarkable how

eyes nor ears, this organ of sense alone would be sufficient to

various the perceptions are which we can form by the aid of

enable us to construct an external world, which, however would

the skin alone.

thoroughly as by the eye, especially when we remember that the attention of the mind would be concentrated in a greater degree upon the sensation of touch, as is really the case of the blind. We learn the size and dimensions of a body which we can

of course be limited in compass. For we could only include in our knowledge the objects which we could immediately reach, which we could only bring into direct contact with our body, and which would betray their properties and nature by some kind of impression upon their skin, whilst a great part of the objects and occurrences in nature remain a secret to us. We learn the size and dimensions of a body which we can touch, as soon as we can compare it with the size of our hands and our body; and our judgment is fully capable of determining the nature of its surface, whether it is smooth or rough, even or uneven.

It's more than a feeling.


Meanwhile the sense of touch is

does not go further, nor does it slip

everywhere, it excites its organ to act

through the cuticles, for nature does not

according to its structure and nature;

suffer the loss of its spirit. Wherefore it

that is to say, it excites the cuticle, the

is only an outlet and turning point, that

muscles, the regions of the abdomen and

is, an exit from the papilla, in order that

chest, in one way; the lips, the cavity of

the spirituous humor may circulate. This

the palate, wherein it excites appetite,

filament must be of very great fineness.

in yet another. It even erects the penis

This filament returning from the papilla

itself, and the corresponding members of

furnishes a kind of new thrum, which,

the other sex, by touch, to the extreme

united to others of that first congeries,

point of desire; even by the touch of the

must certainly form a kind of little

neighboring parts; to say nothing of the

canal. Wherefore that papilla is a new

effect of taste and smell. If they are

beginning of some nervous thread, which

the extremities of the nerves fanned

must be called a nervous fiber.

organically for receiving sensation, it follows that the nerve does not end there. For there is everywhere a circle and a continuous path. The beginning is where the end is. The spirit, which is conveyed thither through the nerves,

SENSING SURVIVAL

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40


COMPOUNDS ÂŤ Knowing the touch The sense is very gross and is a sense only of greater

The uses of the sense of touch are, that they may

compounds and of the ultimate effects, for they are in the

announce to the soul what flows to and touches from

ultimates of the kingdom, where it touches the complex

the contiguous outer world; then also what flows to and

world. Wherefore only a congeries of the parts sensate;

touches from remaining objects, that is to say, what

the organ which serrates parts is that of taste, and the

infests that whole kingdom, whether it be from the world

organ, which sensate of parts is that of smell. Things,

or from allied subjects, or from itself, in case of sickness.

which are similar, coincide with these things in the organs,

In order that the soul may learn the affections of the

but they differ in compounds, for while a composition is

aerial atmosphere and perhaps also of the ethereal, and

touched, it is a composition of parts, which is sensated,

in order that it may be changed as to state according to

when a smaller part or the part itself is touched, there are

those affections; in order that the cutis and the whole

too few. In order that there may be a general sensation,

surface may undergo changes of state, according to all

the scales of the epidermis confer; the larger, coarser,

the affections of the body, of its blood, of the animus

less elastic, and the more of them, that are touched at the

and its spirit, of the mind and the soul; and may thus

same time, the grosser is the sense. Because the senses

arrange communications, especially of the parts which

of taste and smell are simulated; the papillary are similar

are insinuated from the air, or are expired into the air,

and can be sharpened according to mode of culture, and

according to every need, state and necessity, which are

according to need, as, for instance, if they be laid bare, the

the necessary media for the conservation and restitution

scales grow tender, they may be more distinctly disposed;

of the microcosm: and which are hidden within. They are

the papillae themselves are rendered sparser, and ordered

qualified for these uses.

41

in a more suitable form; for they are arranged in a more suitable form. That one papillae may be conscious of the touch and mode of another, and all together, from a particular form and the general effect of many things, they have this, that in whatever place sense exists, they. Sensate more exquisitely and distinctly.

The Sense of Touch

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THE SENSORY CIRCLES


TOU 42

The property of determining the point

the mucous layer, which consists of a great

touched is called the skin's sense of locality,

number of small microscopic cells completely

which is a factor of the tactile sense. The

filling the depressions between the papilla

perception of contact is not sufficient to

of the dermis. Lastly, the outer layer is the

explain this phenomenon. This power is an

cuticle or epidermis, which forms a compact

important psychical action, which evidently

firm skin. The blood-vessels and nerves extend

takes place in the brain, and can only be

only as far as the surface of the dermis, and

explained by the supposition, that in our

to its papillar; the mucous layer and the

imagination a picture, as it were, of our skin's

epidermis are completely free from blood.

surface exists. The brain, in which the faculty is situated, is sufficiently answered by the physiology of the nerves. The skin itself consists of three layers. Upon the cellular tissue under the skin, which sometimes is very rich in fat, lies the first skin, the dermis, which is of a tolerably compact texture, and by tanning is converted into leather. Its surface consists of a greater or less number of cylindrical or conical protuberances, which are called papilla. Upon the dermis lies

SENSING SURVIVAL


If they are the extremities of the nerves fanned organically for receiving sensation, it follows that the nerve does not end there. For there is everywhere a circle and a continuous path. The beginning is where the end is. The spirit, which is conveyed thither through the nerves, does not go further, nor does it slip through the cuticles, for nature does not suffer the loss of its spirit. Wherefore it is only an outlet and turning point, that is, an exit from the papilla, in order that the spirituous humor may circulate. This filament must be of very great fineness. This filament returning from the papilla furnishes a kind of new

1. You have more pain nerve endings than any other type. 2. The least sensitive part of your body is the middle of your back. 3. The most sensitive areas of your body are your hands, lips, face, neck, tongue, fingertips and feet. 4. Shivering is a way your body has of trying to get warmer. 5. There are about 100 touch receptors on your fingertips.

thrum, which, united to others of that first congeries, must certainly form a kind of little canal. Wherefore that papilla is a new beginning of some nervous thread, which must be called a nervous fiber.

43

For emissaries, both those, which select food from the atmosphere, and those, which send forth effluvia and sweats, flow through that substance. Little canals are in woven in it, and are comprehended by it. Wherefore all changes of state from the papillary congeries return into it; these it either closes or opens, or otherwise arranges. For every change of state begins from sensation, as does life from sense; life is in sense. The affection of the papillary substance and its change must precede, thence the effect returns into the single things, especially into those that are contiguous. Thence come the phenomena of perspirations, of sweats, of absorptions, and of many other things; for the microcosm is like the world which now draws down and absorbs rain and the effluvia of the earth, now indeed sends back and repels them, and dears itself of disorderly things and calms itself. A similar state is put on by the glands and excretory organs, as in the little sensory themselves, and is propagated into all of them.

The Sense of Touch

CONTACT

MEET

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DELICATE NERVES


44

We’re all born with a great need for touch. To thrive, newborns must be fed touch as much as food.

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The nerve endings in your skin can tell you if something is hot or cold. They can also feel if something is hurting you. Your body has about twenty differnt types of nerve endings that all send messages to your brain. However, the most common receptors are heat, cold, pain, and pressure or touch receptors. Pain receptors are probably the most important for your safety because they can protect you by warning your brain that your body is hurt. Some areas of the body are more sensitive than others because they have more nerve endings.

While your other four senses are located in specific parts of the body, the sense of touch is found all over. This is because your sense of touch originates in the bottom layer of your skin called the dermis. The dermis is filled with many tiny nerve endings which give you information about the things with which your body comes in contact. They do this

Have you ever bitten your tongue and wondered why it hurt so much? It is because the sides

by carrying the information to the spinal

of your tongue have a lot of nerve endings that are very sensitive to pain. However, your tongue

cord, which sends messages to the brain

is not as good at sensing hot or cold. That is why it is easy to burn your mouth when you eat

where the feeling is registered.

something really hot. Your fingertips are also very sensitive. For example, people who are blind use their fingertips to read Braille by feeling the patterns of raised dots on their paper. Different kinds of nerve endings are in charge of picking up different kinds of stimuli. The Krause’s end picks up feelings of cold while the Ruffini endings are in charge of heat. Pacinian corpuscles are encapsulated nerve endings which pick up senses of pressure while the Meissner’s corpuscles picks up light and touch. Baroreceptors are special tactile receptors what detect changes in the blood pressure within the blood vessel.

The Sense of Touch

ENVIS ION

COMP REHEND

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45

INTERACTION « Sensitive to the touch


100°

90°

70°

a. Each of your fingertips contains over

b. The human body has many amazing

c.There are many different parts of

one hundred distinct touch sensors,

systems that help keep us running

the body that are more sensitive than

making in one of the most densely

smoothly through various conditions.

others. Starting at the top of the human

packed areas in your body. Your lips,

Our body has homeostatic functions

body, there are pressure/nerve centers

face, hands and tongue are also filled

that automatically monitor, adjust

or groups of muscles There is the nerve

with many sensors. Interestingly,

and regulate our important systems

center behind the ears, under the nose,

the lower part of your middle back

without our even knowing it. Shivering

at the base of the skull, the temple

contains the least number of receptors -

is just one of these homeostatic

region, and lips. This is just the head

something that isn’t obvious if you are a

functions our body employs to regulate

area and there are many more.

fan of a good back massage.

our body temperature. Also called thermoregulatory shivering, we shiver in an effort to keep ourselves warm. Our body attempts to maintain our core temperature of 98.6 degrees Fahrenheit (37 degrees C).

SENSING SURVIVAL

80°

50°

60°

40°

20°

30°

10°

-20°

46

-10°

THE MOST SENSITIVE PARTS OF THE BODY:

-30°

c.

-50°

SHIVERING IS A WAY YOUR BODY HAS OF TRYING TO GET WARMER. -40°

b.


RECEPTORS IN EACH FINGERTIP:

100 PER FINGERTIP

SPOT

a.

47

Sensitive Spots Your fingertips have a very high number of sensory receptors relative to other parts of your body. This makes sense as your hands are the only part of your body specifically adapted to grasping and picking up objects. The four types of sensory receptors in your fingers are; pressure (of which there are numerous sub-types), pain, cold and heat.

The Sense of Touch


THE QUALITY OF TOUCH How important to you is the human touch? Well, studies show

There have also been studies conducted on sick babies in

that it is very important. Believe it or not, it helps boost one’s

hospitals and people in institutionalized setttings. Results of

immune system and is also a major aid in the healing process.

these studies showed that those who were given personal care

When under distress, just a loving hand can calm that person

and affection had a more speedy recovery that those who were

down. When ill, that person will recover or if the illness is

just given basic care and left alone in icilation with nobody else

terminal, the quality of life will be better for them because you

to visit them otherwise. Those who were not given the helping

showed them love and support. Who knows, you may extend

hand or affectionate human touch either stayed ill for a much

their length of days. If anyone needs the human touch, it’s one

longer period: or, they died faster.

who is ill or vulnerable.

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SENSING SURVIVAL


CONTA

49

EXPERIENCES « A rewarding sense Human touch shows numerous benefits to infants and adults alike. In addition to controlling levels of stress and increasing the health of the body, regular touch can form important social bonds between individuals.

When you see a look of panic cross a loved one’s face, offer something that will have an immediate impact: your hand. Perhaps it’s instinct to do that anyway. In a recent study, the touch of

1. Regular touch therapy like massage has a number of health benefits. Regular

massage helps to improve the circulation of the blood, improve the flow of the lymph, lower

a loved one had real power in times of a crisis or distress.

blood pressure, boost the immune system, stress and improve the health and flexibility of muscles.

2. Massage and touch therapies play a role in decreasing anxiety in clients. Massage

can also improve sleep patterns, improve concentration, and increase the level of relaxation.

3, The positive benefits that can come from human touch are evident from birth. The

Vanderbilt Medical Center uses touch therapy in its neonatal intensive care unit. The light brushing and range of motion techniques that they use on the infants help reduce the levels of stress and insure that the babies will get a deep and long sleep.

The Sense of Touch


50

SENSING SURVIVAL


When you pick up an object, you might

Weight is linked to importance, so that

think that you are manipulating it, but

people carrying heavy objects deem

in a sense, it is also manipulating you.

interview candidates as more serious

Through a series of six psychological

and social problems as more pressing.

experiments, scientist have shown that

Texture is linked to difficulty and

the properties that we feel through

harshness. Touching rough sandpaper

touch, texture, hardness, weight, can

makes social interactions seem more

all influence the way we think.

adversarial, while smooth wood makes them seem friendlier. Finally, hardness is associated with rigidity and stability. When sitting on a hard chair, negotiators take tougher stances but if they sit on a soft one instead, they become more flexible with people.

The Sense of Touch

MODIFY

ALTER

IMPACT

CONTACT

MEET

ADJOIN

STRIKE

MOVE

MANAGE

STIR

SUGGEST

ADVERT

ALLUDE

COME TO

CONCERN

RELATE

PERTAIN

AFFECT

HINT

REFER

FEEL

EFFECT

51


HEAR

With the aid of the skin, we could learn

PERCEIVE

COMPREHEND

much more about the nature of objects than just their form alone.

FOCUS

CENTER

RIVET

CONCENTRATE

PORE 52

HEED

LISTEN OBEY

UNDERSTAND

GROK

SAVVY

APPREHEND

DIG

HEARING

GRASP

COMPASS

INCLUDE

COVER

LISTENING

UNDERSTANDING SENSING SURVIVAL

INTERPRET


auricle.

containing the organ of Corti, which produces nerve impulses in response

A small anvil-shaped bone in the middle ear, transmitting vibrations between the malleus and stapes.

EARWAX

The spiral cavity of the inner ear

INCUS

humans and other mammals; the

COCHLEA

PINNA

The external part of the ear in

The protective yellow waxy substance secreted in the passage way of the outer ear.

to sound vibrations.

53

The Sense of


HEAR Surviving with Sound

HEAR

PERCEIVE

COMPREHEND

FOCUS

CENTER

RIVET

CONCENTRATE

PORE

HEED

OBEY

UNDERSTAND

GROK

SAVVY

APPREHEND

DIG

COVER


Hearing is the ability to perceive sound by detecting vibrations. The organ of hearing is not so fully exposed to our view as the eye. The latter exposes nearly the half of its surface to the light the former, on the contrary, conceals its most important parts deep in the solid structure of the head, and only exposes to view a very subordinate part, the Pinna or External Ear,

Sensations can never be explored without the exploration of the auras; for the one refers most exactly to the other. This is evident from hearing and the aerial atmosphere, from sight and the ethereal atmosphere, and from a still superior sense, which corresponds to a certain superior or celestial atmosphere. The sensory organs themselves are constructed altogether according to the nature of the modification of those things. Thus one respects the other as a principal.

which, on this account, in ordinary language, has received the

Natural harmony is the cause of affections and affections

unmerited title of the ear. The barbarous punishment of cutting

are the causes of the changes of state. As has been observed

off the ear, which was customary in olden times, and among

in other senses. The form will be such that quality thence

uncivilized nations, has clearly proved that the external ear

results. The quality is judged according to the harmony in

is not essential to the power of hearing. Moreover, most birds

which the ear, and especially the brain, is. The ear does not

have no external ear, and yet they have a very good, and partly

judge or sensate concerning harmonics, but the brain does

musical sense of hearing.

so, where lies the soul in its own organism of sensation.

The relation of the organization of the ear to that of the eye is the same as the nature of the range of vision to the range of hearing. Our range of vision is limited by an opaque body; in a transparent medium, however, it extends to the infinite distance of the stars, when the ray of light penetrates the

The ear indeed according to its state brings to the brain a harmony agreeable to its own form. Thus an injured ear brings a false harmony. But I am here speaking of a wellconstituted ear, which corresponds to the organism of the brain. Similar things may be added in regard to other senses.

eye in an almost straight line to its posterior surface. The extent of our perception of sound, even in our atmosphere, is very limited, but sound can penetrate the thickest walls and travel by the most circuitous paths, so that in the deepest mines where no light can penetrate, the ear gives us certain information of the existence of an exterior world. Thus, the inner parts of the ear are hidden in a deep cavity in the skull, which is provided with many wonderful labyrinthlike passages. Sound does not penetrate these passages in a straight line, but passes along a very complicated path, composed of tubes, membranes, and the ear-bones.

Did you hear that?


ORIGIN  The travel of a sound Although we can form no conception of sound, as such, except through the excitement of our auditory organs, nevertheless its origin and propagation in nature were recognized by physicists long before anything was known’s of its physiological action. In this respect physical acoustics were, to a certain extent, just as independent of physiological knowledge, as was the case with optics; since, in the latter, the adulatory theory was developed, without any definite knowledge of the constitution of the retina, and of the excitement of the nerves situated in it. It must be granted that the exclusively objective physical study of sound and light must necessarily have made some progress to enable us to consider the functions of the sensory organs physiologically; and it has been shown, that many of the inventions which have been laboriously made by the ingenuity of man during the last century, are to be found in the greatest perfection already existing in the Sensory Organs. Among the sensations of sound, there is one kind of sensation different from all others, and which has a definite character of its own. This is the sensation of musical sound, which is distinguished by the terms tone and note. All other impressions of sound which do not possess this character may be included under the term noise.

SENSING SURVIVAL

P ERCEIVE

HEA R

INTERP RET

U ND ERS TA ND ING

LIS TENING

COVER

INCLU D E

COMPA S S

G RA S P

HEA RING

D IG

A P P REHEND

S AVVY

G ROK

U ND ERS TA ND

OB EY

HEED

P ORE

CONCENTRATE

RIVET

CENTER

FOCU S

P ERCEIVE

HEA R

COMP REHEND

56


INTERP RET

U ND ERS TA ND ING

LIS TENING

COVER

INCLU D E

COMPA S S

G RA S P

HEA RING

D IG

A P P REHEND

S AVVY

G ROK

U ND ERS TA ND

OB EY

HEED

P ORE

CONCENTRATE

RIVET

FOCU S

COMP REHEND

CENTER

THE TUNING FORK The vibrations of the air consist of condensations and expansions, which follow each other with

A tone is produced as soon as any

great rapidity, and a tone is always produced if the vibrations follow each other with periodical

elastic body is set in rapid vibration. If,

regularity. A tone can therefore be produced if a continuous current of air is interrupted with great rapidity and regularity. An instrument invented is called a Siren, and in its simplest form is shows. It consists of a disc, perforated with holes arranged in circles, and which can be set in rapid

for instance, a thin piece of metal, or a knitting-needle, is fixed firmly at one end and its free end struck. The tone of a tuning-fork is produced in precisely the same manner. Imagine the tuning-

rotation. Air is blown through the tube against the holes. The more numerous the holes, and the

fork, in vibration. The branches of the

more rapidly the disc is made to revolve, the higher will be the tone produced. Each puff of air then

fork at each vibration approach first

produces a vibration of the air. The sire affords the means of determining the number of vibrations

each other and then recede, an action which is not apparent to the eye, in the

for any particular tone. If the disc is provided with a four series of holes, the number of which,

tuning-forks used for musical purposes,

counting from within outwards, is respective. If we blow upon them in this succession, we hear

since the vibrations are too small and

the recognized chord, which starting from the note, may be distinguished. The quality remains the same for every rate of revolution, provided the rate is constant, only the ‘ absolute pitch and character of the tones change with the rapidity. If we had a disc which was provided with rows of

follow each other too rapidly. On one

57

branch a pencil is fixed, which makes a mark upon a plate drawn rapidly before it. An undulating line is produced which gives the number of vibrations.

holes, corresponding to an entire scale, we could then produce perfect melodies upon it.

The Sense of Hearing


DECIB

HERTZ LEVEL

1,000

5,000

10,000

15,000

20,000

25,000

YOUNG ADULT

ELDERLY GUINEA PIG

MOUSE

WHALE

DECIBLES

170

160 150

140 130

58

120

110 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10

JACKHAMMER

CAR TRAFFIC

WHISPER

LAWN MOWER

OBJECT DECIBELS The decibel (dB) is a logarithmic unit that indicates the ratio of a physical quantity (usually power or intensity) relative to a specified or implied reference level. A ratio in decibels is ten times the logarithm to base 10 of the ratio of two power quantities. A decibel is one tenth of a bel, a seldom-used unit. The decibel is used for a wide variety of measurements in science and engineering, most prominently in acoustics, electronics, and control theory. In electronics, the gain of amplifiers, attenuation of signals, and signal-to-noise ratios are often expressed in decibels.

SENSING SURVIVAL

GUN SHOT

30,000


35,000

40,000

45,000

50,000

55,000

FREQUENCY

60,000

90,000

100,000

150,000

EQ FLAT

170 160 150 140 130

59

120 110 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10

HAMMERING

ALARM CLOCK

JET ENGINE

NORMAL TALKING

ROCK CONCERT

ORCHESTRA

The decibel’s logarithmic nature means

It’s commonly used in acoustics to

that a very large range of ratios can be

quantify sound levels relative to a 0

represented by a convenient number, in

dB reference which has been defined

a similar manner to scientific notation.

as a sound pressure level of .0002

This allows one to clearly visualize huge

microbar. The reference level is set at

changes of some quantity.

the typical threshold of perception of an average human and there are common comparisons used to illustrate different levels of sound pressure. As with other decibel figures, normally the ratio is a power ratio rather than a pressure.

The Sense of Hearing


COMPA S S

G RA S P

HEA RING

D IG

A P P REHEND

S AVVY

G ROK

U ND ERS TA ND

OB EY

HEED

P ORE

CONCENTRATE

RIVET

CENTER

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COMP REHEND

60

REFLECTION ÂŤ How sound bounces When sound reflects off a special curved surface called a parabola, it will bounce out in a straight line no matter where it originally hits. Many stages are designed as parabolas so the sound will go directly into the audience, instead of bouncing around on stage. If the parabola is closed off by another curved surface, it is called an ellipse. Sound will travel from one focus to the other, no matter where it strikes the wall. A whispering gallery is designed as an ellipse. If

One example of air absorbing sound waves happens during a thunderstorm. When you are very close to a storm, you hear thunder as a sharp crack. When the storm is farther away, you hear a low rumble instead. This is because air absorbs high frequencies more easily

your friend stands at one focus and you stand at the other, his whisper will be heard clearly by

than low. By the time the thunder has

you. No one in the rest of the room will hear anything.

reached you, all the high pitches are lost

Reflection is responsible for many interesting phenomena. Echoes are the sound of your own

best absorptive material is full of holes

voice reflecting back to your ears. The sound you hear ringing in an auditorium after the band has stopped playing is caused by reflection off the walls and other objects. A sound wave will continue to bounce around a room, or reverberate, until it has lost all its energy. A wave has some of its energy absorbed by the objects it hits. The rest is lost as heat energy. Everything, even air, absorbs sound.

SENSING SURVIVAL

and only the low ones can be heard. The that sound waves can bounce around in and lose energy. The energy lost as heat is too small to be felt, though, it can be detected by scientific instruments.vv


61

The Sense of Hearing


AIR VIBRATIONS The proper sensation of hearing commences at the expansion of the auditory nerve in the labyrinth, whilst, the only action has been the conveyance of the sound-waves. The first

The next question is, whether the external ear renders us any assistance in recognizing the direction of sound. Doubtless we are

process in hearing is, therefore, the conveyance of the sound to the fluid of the labyrinth,

able to recognize the direction of sound, but

the waves of which have the power of exciting the expanded nerves. The sound is generally

we also learn from experience that in this

conveyed from the surrounding air to the labyrinth through the auditory canal, the tympanic

recognition we are liable to many errors of judgment. We recognize the origin of the

cavity, and the ear-bones. For, every body which vibrated in the air, throws the air which

sound-waves by the fact that the sound is

surrounds it into similar vibrations, which extend outwards from their point of origin, in the

heard most distinctly when the auditory canal

form of a circle, while their intensity decreased with the square of the distance. The vibrations consist of condensations and expansions of the air, which follow one another, like circles of waves upon the surface of water. Sound, however, can pass through solid bodies also, without

is in the same straight line with the direction of the sound-waves. For this purpose we turn the head in different directions until the sound appears to us to be loudest. In this case only a single ear acts, and the sound

the intervention of the air, and reach the labyrinth in this manner. If we strike a tuning-fork

must have sufficient duration to enable us to

gently, and hold it before the open mouth, we hear nothing, but as soon as it touches the teeth

determine its direction.

we hear its tone quite clearly.

62

SENSING SURVIVAL


CLICKS « Seeing without vision The Law of vibration might not be as well known as the Law of Attraction. However - the Law of Vibration serves as the foundation for the Law of Attraction. To understand this it is important to know that everything is energy. Science, through Quantum Physics, is showing us that everything in our universe is energy. When we go down on a sub-atomic level we do not find matter, but pure energy. Some called this the unified field or the matrix. Others talk about pure potentiality all being energy This Universal Law states that everything in the Universe moves and vibrates - everything is vibrating at one speed or another. Nothing rests. Everything you see around you is vibrating at one frequency or another and so are you. However your frequency is different from other things in the universe - hence it seems like you are separated from what you see around you - people, animals, plants, trees and so on. But you are not separated - you are in fact living in an ocean of energy - we all are. We are all connected at the lowest level - a level professor John Hagelin calls the unified field.

Sounds are created from vibrations, whether it’s a tuning fork, the reed of a musical instrument, or sound coming from someone’s voice box. The vibrations make the air molecules move backwards and forwards, creating something called a compression wave. The first set of air molecules pushes against the next set of air molecules, and the next, and the

63

next, carrying the sound. Slower vibrations produce lower notes and faster vibrations produce higher notes. The speed of the vibrations is called the frequency, and the highness or lowness of the note is called the pitch.

Everything has its own vibrational frequency, the table, the car, the picture frame , the rock, even our thoughts and feelings. It is all governed by The Law of Vibration. A table may look solid and still, but within the table are millions of millions of subatomic particles “running around” and “popping” with energy. The table is pure energy and movement. Everything in this universe has its own vibrational frequency. It is The Law of Vibration in action. However we can’t see it so it appears separate and solid to us. It is actually an illusion. The Law of Vibration is real. Even if you can’t see it it does not mean that it is not true.

The Sense of Hearing


BOU CO MPAS S

GR AS P

H E AR I NG

DI G

APPR E H E N D

S AVVY

GR O K

UNDE R S TA N D

O BE Y

PO R E

HEED

64

Direct sound issues from the source

furniture, are sound deadening. As

itself, such as those frequencies coming

furniture is moved into a empty room,

from an actors mouth. When a person is

the acoustics became “dead”. Close

close to us, we hear essentially direct

perspective sound contains a high ratio

sound including low-frequency chest

of direct sound to reflected sound.

tones. As the person moves farther away,

Distant perspective sound contains a

we hear more of the reflected sound.

high ratio of reflected to direct sound.

Reflected sound is produced by the direct sound bouncing off the walls, floor etc. Reflected sound s much more complex in character than direct sound because the surfaces are at different distances from the source and have widely varying reflective properties. Interiors that contains a lot of hard surfaces like glass, stone, metal, etc, are said to be “live” because their high reflectivity. Soft or porous materials, like carpeting, draperies and upholstered

SENSING SURVIVAL


65

The Sense of Hearing


H EAR

P ER C EIVE

C OM PREHEN D

H E AR

F OC US

PE R CE I VE

C ENTER

CO MPR E H E ND HEA R

R I VET

FO CUS PER CE I V E

C ONC EN T RAT E

CE NT E R CO M PR EHEN D

PORE

HEAR

R I VE T

P E RC E IV E

CO NCE NT R AT E

HEAR

C OM P RE H E N D

PO R E

P ERCE

FO CU S H EED CEN TER O BEY R I V ET UND ERSTAN D

F OC U S

H E AR

HEED

COMP R

CENTER

PE R CE I VE

O BE Y

FOCU S

RIV E T

CO MPR E H E ND

UNDE R S TAND

CENTE

C ON C E N T RAT E

FO CUS

H E AR

GR O K

RIVET

P ORE

CE NT E R

PE R CE I VE

S AVVY

CONCE

CO N CE N TR ATE GR OK PO R E S AV V Y HEED AP P R E HEN D O BE Y DI G U N DE R STA N D H EAR IN G

HEED

HEAR

R I VE T

CO MPR E H E ND

APPR E H E ND

P ORE

OB E Y

P E RC E IV E

CO NCE NT R AT E

FO CUS

DI G

HEED

U N D E RS TA N D

C OM P RE H E N D

PO R E

CE NT E R

H E AR I NG

OB EY

G ROK

F OC U S

HEED

R I VE T

GR AS P

U ND ER

S AV V Y

CENTER

O BE Y

CO NCE NT R AT E

CO MPAS S

G ROK

A P P RE H E N D

RIV E T

UNDE R S TAND

PO R E

I NCL UDE

SAVVY

D IG

C ON C E N T RAT E

HEAR

GR O K

HEED

CO VE R

AP P RE

H E A RIN G

P ORE

P E RC E IVE

S AVVY

O BE Y

H E AR

L I S T E NI NG

D IG

G RA S P

HEED

C OM P RE H E ND

APPR E H E ND

UNDE R S TAND

PE R CE I VE

UNDE R S TANDI NG

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C OM PA S S

OB E Y

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DI G

GR O K

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G RASP

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CENTER

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S AVVY

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C OV E R

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L IS T E N IN G

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A P P RE H E N D

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GR O K GR AS P SAV V Y C OM PASS A PPR E HE N D I NC LUDE DI G C OVER HEA R I N G LI S TEN IN G GR A SP UND ERSTAN DIN G CO M PA SS I NTERPRET I N CLU DE H EAR CO V E R P ER C EIVE L I STE N I N G C OM PREHEN D U N DE R STA N DI N G F OC US I N TE R PR E T C ENTER HEA R R I VET PER CE I V E C ONC EN T RAT E CO M PR EHEN D PORE FO CU S H EED CEN TER O BEY R I V ET


H E AR

PE R CEIVE

CO MPREHEND

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PERCEIVE

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COMPA S S

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ANATOMY OF THE EAR

68

The external ear is a kind of plane raised up for receiving the

The external ear, together with the auditory canal, certainly

modifications of the air, that is to say, sounds; into this plane

forms a funnel-shaped ear-trumpet, which, in horses for instance,

the modifications inflow everywhere, for it is not to be believed

we find in a form which answers this purpose, as a true funnel

that it flows into it from one point to another, but into that

with tolerably smooth walls. The marked strengthening of the

whole hollowed out area, indeed, directly into the ear itself.

sound produced by a funnel-shaped ear-trumpet, which can easily

The concha of the ear is so formed, and at the same time the

be imitated by placing a roll of paper in the ear, is especially

auditory tube, that not air, but a modification of the air appears

remarkable if we close the other ear and then listen to the

to flow both in and out. The external ear is so made that the

general rustle in the air; or, still better, if we endeavor to hear the

modified air strikes it everywhere; it either flows following

ticking of a watch placed upon the table at a slight distance, with

the walls into a spire, or is reflected, where the outwardly

and without the tube. The sound waves which fall upon the wide

inclined lamella, although covered, receive it; these lamella

opening are reflected inwards by the sides of the tube, and this

receive alia repel. The vibration thus dashing in, where strikes

causes a continual increase in the intensity of the sound-waves

the organ, which is constructed, for the propagation of sound to the beginnings in the brain, there operates according to the

Nevertheless, the external ear has some influence on the hearing,

organism of that part.

for a marked difference is produced by an artificial increase

It is otherwise in brutes, the ears of which are otherwise

general practice with deaf persons when they wish to hear more

formed; for they do not seize upon articulate sounds, but only

distinctly. The endeavous has also been made to discover whether

sounds which signify affections. The brutes are only for the

the angle which the surface of the ear maker with the side of

signifying of their affections to the ear in a general way, as in

the head may not have some effect on the acuteness of hearing,

love, in anger, in hunger, etc. Otherwise such ears are without

and it had been supposed that an angle of 40 degrees is the most

use. Therefore the uses of the external auditory duct are: To

suitable for this purpose. Still, most persons might well object,

collect and concentrate every sonorous modification, that it may

on resthetic grounds, to such a large angle, especially when the

be strong; to that modification upon the membranes, cartilages

change of the position of the ear with regard to the head makes

and bones.

scarcely any perceptible difference to the hearing. It has also

in the size of the external ear by means of the han, which is a

been supposed that, in consequence of its being composed of elastic cartilage, it has the power of receiving the sound-waves from the air, and conveying them through its mass to the auditory canal and tympanic membrane, and that its surface is increased for this purpose by such a number of folds. But such an action can only be very unimportant; or if the ears are entirely closed With wax, we are rendered quite deaf to all sound which is conveyed by the air, and the external ear renders us no perceptible assistance. Nor do we hear the ticking of a watch, if it is placed on the cartilage of the ear when the auditory canal is dosed, while it may be heard very distinctly if placed on the bone behind the ear. We must, therefore, consider cartilage as a bad conductor of sound.

SENSING SURVIVAL


LIST 69

The essential parts of the organ of hearing are represented, in their natural size. We see the Auditory Canal, D, which terminates within with the Tympanic Membrane, C. This membrane is circular and stretched obliquely, and is followed within by a hollow, filled with air, B, the Tympanic Cavity whose walls are formed of bone. In it are situated the Ear-bones, three in number, called the Hammer (Malleus), the Anvil (Incus), and the Stirrup (Stapes). The hollow opens inwards and leads to a canal, the Eustachian Tube, which is extended in a trumpet-like form and opens into the Pharynx. On the inner wall of the tympanic cavity there are two opening closed with membranes, an oval aperture, Fenestra Ovalis, on which the base of the stirrup rests, and a circular aperture, Fenestra Rotunda, the membrane of which is free.

The Sense of Hearing


200 190 180

NOIS

210

170 160 150 140 130 120 110 100 090 080 70

070 060 050 040 030 020 010

OBJECT DECIBELS II The decibel confers a number of advantages, such as the ability to conveniently represent very large or small numbers, and the ability to carry out multiplication of ratios by simple addition and subtraction. The decibel symbol is often qualified with a suffix, that indicates which reference quantity or frequency weighting function has been used. For example, dBm indicates that the reference quantity is one milliwatt, while dBu is referenced to 0.775 volts RMS.

SENSING SURVIVAL


71

A decibel (dB) is one tenth of a bel (B),

A field quantity is a quantity such

When referring to measurements

i.e. 1B = 10dB. The bel is the logarithm

as voltage, current, sound pressure,

of power or intensity, a ratio can be

of the ratio of two power quantities

electric field strength, velocity and

expressed in decibels by evaluating

of 10:1, and for two field quantities in

charge density, the square of which

ten times the base-10 logarithm of the

the ratio.

in linear systems is proportional to

ratio of the measured quantity to the

power. A power quantity is a power or a

reference level.

quantity directly proportional to power, e.g. energy density, acoustic intensity and luminous intensity. The calculation of the ratio in decibels varies depending on whether the quantity being measured is a power quantity or a field quantity.

The Sense of Hearing


In all musical instruments the tones are produced by some such action as this. A stretched string, which produces the tone in pianos and stringed instruments, vibrates in the manner, by springing first to one side and then to the other. A glass plate or a bell sounds when it is struck, in consequence of the vibrations, which its particles make at right angles to its surface. Such vibrations, which are made in a direction perpendicular to the length of the body, or better, same to the direction of the propagation of the vibrations, are called transverse vibrations. Longitudinal vibrations, however, can also produce tones; for instance, metallic rods when struck upon their terminal surfaces, or wooden rods when rubbed in the direction of their length.

72

A tone is caused by the vibrations of a

which can be used hi the organ, or as a

solid elastic body. A tone, however, can

flute. Air streams up from below into the

be produced directly by vibrations of air,

chamber K from bellows, and is directed

when, for instance, we blow across the

by the triangular piece of wood, through

mouth of a hollow ball, of a bottle, or of

a small cleft, against the lip, by which

a hollow cylinder. An instrument which

it is made to blow against the column

rests on this principle is the mouth-pipe,

of the air contained in the cylinder, and throws it into vibration. In this action the air is compressed by the first shock, then expands, comes again in contact with the current of air, and is thus made to vibrate periodically, which vibrations consist of condensations.

SENSING SURVIVAL

G RA S P

HEA RING

D IG

A P P REHEND

S AVVY

G ROK

U ND ERS TA ND

OB EY

HEED

P ORE

CONCENTRATE

RIVET

CENTER

FOCU S

COMP REHEND

P ERCEIVE

HEA R

A CHANGE OF TONE


DEE

DAAH

DO

DOO

RECEPTION « The pleasure of hearing

73

We use our senses to learn what is going on in the world around

vibrates when it is hit by sound waves. When the eardrum vibrates,

us. In ancient times, a person’s survival depended upon being

it causes three small bones to vibrate. These are called the malleus,

able to hear and see dangers in the environment. The other

or hammer, the incus, or anvil, and the stapes, or stirrup. (Look at a

senses of taste, touch, and smell also helped people survive.

picture of the parts of the ear, and you will see that these tiny bones

Many people think that sight is the most important sense. Early

are named for their shapes.) From there, the sound passes into the

humans would have run right into danger without their sense

inner part of the ear, where the vibration is carried through fluid in

of sight. Even today, it is hard for most of us to imagine living

parts called the cochlea, which is curled up like a snail, and the three

without our sense of sight. However, today’s survival skills

semicircular canals. The fluids in these parts shift as we change

are different than the survival skills that the cave man used.

position, and so they are also involved in helping us keep our sense

Today, communication is one of man’s most important skills, and

of balance. Finally the sound arrives at the auditory nerve, which

communication depends on the sense of hearing. Even when we

carries the message to the brain.

communicate by visual means, such as typing, we are still using the language that most of us first learned by listening. Hearing is a complicated process, as you can see by all of the tiny parts of the ear that are involved. The outer part of the ear, the part that we usually see, is called the pinna. The pinna is the curved outside part of the ear that collects sound waves which travel to our ear through the air. The sound waves next travel into the middle part of the ear through a tube called the auditory canal. Our eardrum is at the end of the auditory canal. It is stretched tight, like the head of a music drum, and it

The Sense of Hearing

COMPA S S

G RA S P

HEA RING

D IG

A P P REHEND

S AVVY

G ROK

U ND ERS TA ND

OB EY

HEED

P ORE

CONCENTRATE

RIVET

CENTER

FOCU S

COMP REHEND

P ERCEIVE

HEA R

INTERP RET

U ND ERS TA ND ING

LIS TENING

INCLU D E

COMPA S S

COVER

DE


TON 74

The pitch or tone of a sound wave is

The detection of distance is more difficult

determined by its frequency, which is the

and often relates to loudness and quality

wavelength divided by the speed of sound.

of the sound heard. Your ear senses sounds

The sound you hear consists of different

which consist of pitch and loudness. Animals

frequencies or wavelengths, which determine

and humans can hear sounds in a limited

their pitch. Humans and animals can only hear

range. You can also determine direction and

within a limited range of pitch or frequencies,

sometimes distance through your hearing.

depending on the species. This limitation affects their perception of the world around you, since there are sounds that you or animals can’t hear that others can. The amplitude of a sound wave determines its loudness. There is a minimum amplitude required for you to hear a sound. This varies with the species of animal. Sounds that are too loud can injure your ear and result in loss of hearing. You can detect the direction a sound is coming from and, in some cases, its distance. The detection of direction is determined by comparing the sound heard by each ear.

SENSING SURVIVAL


THE COMMUNICATION The communication of sound through bone is of no value to man under ordinary circumstances, since we do not generally bring the head into close contact with the sounding body. In fishes, however, it plays a very important part, for they possess external ear, but only a labyrinth, which is entirely closed by walls of bone, or is only covered with membrane on its outer surface. The sound-waves of the water, therefore,

H E AR

are transferred directly to the fluid of the labyrinth through bone. This is possible because the sound-waves of water,

PE R CE I VE

which is well known to be incompressible, are similar to those of a solid body, and do not, like those of the air, consist of

CO MPR E H E ND

expansions and condensations. Sound-waves of the air, on the contrary, are transferred to solid bodies and to liquids with

FO CUS

great difficulty; and to effect this, ingenious contrivances are required. In case of illness the communication of sound

75 CE NT E R

through the bones can be of considerable importance to us. If the apparatus for the communication of sound diseased, and

R I VE T

can no longer perform its duties, in spite of deafness, sound can still be communicated by means of bone, which then gives

CO NCE NT R AT E

physicians a very important diagnostic sign that the labyrinth and the auditory nerve are in an sound condition. The regular action with which we have to do is the conveyance

PO R E

HEED

of sound through the air, beginning with the reception of the sound-waves by the external ear and the auditory canal, and

O BE Y

ending with the transfer of the same to the labyrinthine fluid. In this path there are many ingenious contrivances, which are

UNDE R S TAND

deeply interesting. Although there is much in this action which is not yet explained with sufficient certainty, still, since the

GR O K

investigations. Many discoveries have been made which have opened the way for new enquiries. Of course enigmas still

S AVVY

occur, as is generally the case of nature. APPR E H E ND

DI G

H E AR I NG

GR AS P

CO MPAS S

I NCL UDE

CO VE R

L I S T E NI NG

UNDE R S TANDI NG

The Sense of Hearing I NT E R PR E T


76

WHEN A SOUND WAVE MEETS AN OBSTACLE, A PORTION OF THE WAVE IS REFLECTED FROM THE OBSTACLE.

SENSING SURVIVAL G RA S P

HEA RING

D IG

A P P REHEND

S AVVY

G ROK

U ND ERS TAND

OB EY

HEED

P ORE

CONCENTRATE

RIVET

CENTER

FOCU S

COMP REHEND

P ERCEIVE

HEA R


sides, but rather from above, below or immediately in front of the face, there is no time lag between the ears. In situations such as this, the outer ear is important as it helps determine the tone of the sound. Experience has taught us that the tone can help determine the source of the sound. People riding a motorbike wearing a helmet, for example, often find it difficult to hear where an ambulance is coming from, as the helmet reduces the outer ear’s ability to determine the sound.

77

INTERPRETATION ÂŤ False direction of sound Time lag, wave length and tone - all these factors play important parts for the brain when determining the direction of sound. In the following description, they are treated under separate headings, but when a person registers a sound, all three factors interact, helping to determine the direction from where it originates. Time lag is of particular importance when determining so-called impulse sounds like a click or a bang. If a sound comes in at an angle to the right of the face, the sound waves will not reach both ears at the same time. The time lag is due to the fact that the distance from the sound source to the left ear is a little longer than it is to the right ear. Therefore, the sound waves must travel a little longer before reaching the left ear which is farthest away. The brain registers the time lag and informs us that the sound originates from a place a little to the right of the face.

The Sense of Hearing

COMPA S S

G RA S P

HEA RING

D IG

A P P REHEND

S AVVY

G ROK

U ND ERS TAND

OB EY

HEED

P ORE

CONCENTRATE

RIVET

CENTER

FOCU S

COMP REHEND

P ERCEIVE

HEA R

INTERP RET

U ND ERS TAND ING

LIS TENING

INCLU D E

COMPA S S

COVER

If a sound does not come from the


ODORIZE

ODOURISE

SMELL

SMELLING

NOSE

WIND

GROOM

NEATEN

PERFUME 78

With the aid of the skin, we could learn much more about the nature of objects than

COLOGNE

PERCEIVE

SUGGEST

just their form alone. EVOKE

REEK

SENSE

COMPREHEND

SCENT SNIFF

WHIFF

INHALE

BREATHE

SNIFFLE

SMOKE

RESPIRE SENSING SURVIVAL

SUSPIRE


and respiratory tract, in structures such as the external ear, and in the

the left and right nasal cavities in humans and most other vertebrates.

A slimy substance, typically not miscible with water, secreted by mucous membranes and glands for lubrication, protection, etc.

NOSTRIL

The small thin bone separating

MUCUS

found in various forms in the larynx

VOMER

CARTILAGE

Whitish, flexible connective tissue

Either of two external openings of the nasal cavity in vertebrates that admit air to the lungs and smells to the olfactory nerves.

articulating surfaces of joints.

79

The Sense of


SMELL Surviving with Scent

SNIFF

WHIFF

INHALE

BREATHE

SNIFFLE

SMOKE

RESPIRE

SUSPIRE

ODORIZE

ODOURISE

SMELL

SMELLING

NOSE

WIND

GROOM


This nasal sense very greatly exercises the brain, and restores the body, sometimes in an instant.

Smell in order that the mucus may be drawn off from the

The uses of smell are as follows. Smell exists in order that the

is excited, a glandule is also excited; thus also the ducts,

soul may take cognizance of what slips into the lungs, for the

membranes and arteries, are conjoined; for the sense is the

sake of the blood, which takes thence atmospheric elements,

cause of the action of all these things, for it is their life.

organs. From the ear. From the eye. From the brain. From the blood. Whence it is the duct from all [the organs of the head]. Wherefore it is intermediate to all, and as it were the central place, whither all the units flow together. When a papilla

and is thereby turned into arterial blood. In order that the brain may be exhilarated, and perchance that its spirit may take in ethereal and, as it were, celestial elements by this way. The aliments, which smell sensate, more than taste, are the purer citing. Of the blood. But because aliments and elements of both kinds [that is of smell and of taste] contribute to the nutrition and refreshment of the blood, hence there is 80 great an affinity between them; each sense fully instructs the soul, as may appear in brutes. The lungs sensate at the same time, wherefore animals draw the animations of their respiration deeply. The use of these things, which the sense of smell offers, is the circle; the use is for the soul, for the spirit, for the blood, and from the blood it returns into the spirit; thus all things are clarified and exalted into gladness. The first movement of this sensation is the reception of those things which touch; the second, thence arising, is sensation; the third, flowing forth from sensation, is affection; the fourth, is change of state; the fifth, is the effect.

Breath right through.


When you take a breath, oxygen is

In the process of using the oxygen,

moved in through the nose and into

the body’s cells create carbon dioxide,

the trachea, or windpipe. The trachea

which the body cannot use. The carbon

splits into two tubes, or bronchi,

dioxide is moved by the blood inside

which connect to the lungs, then

the veins back to the lungs, where it

branches out into smaller bronchioles.

is exchanged in the alveoli. When you

As the lungs expand and take in air,

exhale, the carbon dioxide is moved

the diaphragm -- a muscle beneath the

from the lungs, up through the trachea

ribs -- contracts, reducing pressure in

and out of the nose and mouth.

the chest cavity and creating suction. Once inside the lungs, oxygen travels from the bronchioles to millions of tiny capsules, or sacs, called alveoli. Inside the alveoli, oxygen is exchanged for carbon dioxide. The new oxygen is transported by red blood cells in the arteries throughout the body, where tissues use the oxygen for energy.

SENSING SURVIVAL

S U G G ES T

P ERCEIVE

COLOG NE

P ERFU ME

NEATEN

G ROOM

WIND

NOS E

S MELLING

S MELL

OD OU RIS E

OD ORIZE

82


PASSAGEWAYS « The path of air The breathing process begins when you breathe in air through

When you breathe, you inhale air and pass it through your

your nose, and into your lungs. When this happens your lungs

nasal passages where the air is filtered, heated, moistened

expand and cause the muscle called the diaphragm to contract

and enters the back of the throat. The esophagus (food tube)

and go down. When this causes pressure to build up in your

is located at the back of the throat and the trachea (windpipe)

chest and the oxygen that you breathe in passes through the

for air is located at the front of the throat. When you eat,

lungs and into the arteries and the red blood cells carry the

a tiny flap called the “epiglottis” closes down to cover the

oxygen all over your body. The tissue in your body uses the

windpipe so food won’t go down the wrong pipe. Air flows

oxygen for heat and energy and then burns it like a fuel. After

down through the windpipe, past the vocal cords (voice box),

the tissue uses the fuel it then turns into carbon dioxide and is

to where the lowest ribs meet the center of your chest. This

carried back to the lungs by the veins. When the carbon dioxide

is where your windpipe divides into two tubes which lead to

reaches the lungs and the lungs are as full of air as they can

each of the two lungs that fill most of your ribcage. Each lung

hold you begin to exhale or breathe out. The carbon dioxide is

feels just like a sponge. Inside each of your sponge-like lungs,

blown back out of the lungs through the nose and mouth.

there are tubes called bronchi which branch into even smaller

You have to breathe because all of the cells in your body require

tubes just like the branches of a tree. At the end of these

oxygen. Without oxygen, your body wouldn’t move. It would be like a parked car without no battery. The car might have gas, but without a battery, forget it. So you might have blood in your body, but without oxygen, forget it. You receive oxygen from

83

tubes are millions of itty bitty bubbles or sacs called alveoli. If you were to spread out flat all of the air sacs in the lungs of an adult, the tissue would cover an area about the third of the size of a tennis court.

breathing in air and then the oxygen goes to your blood which is then circulated throughout your entire body. Outside of your body, the air pressure is greater and you suck in air when you inhale. The air then expands your lungs like two balloons being blown up. When your diaphragm relaxes, it moves up and the cavity inside your body gets smaller. Your muscles will then squeeze your rib cage and your lungs begin to collapse as the air is pushed up and out your body when you exhale. About 18 20 times a minute, you breathe in. When a doctor puts hisor her hand on your shoulder or back and looks at the clock, they are keeping track of how many times you breathe within one minute. This is how one of your vital signs is measured.

The Sense of Smell

S U G G ES T

P ERCEIVE

COLOG NE

P ERFU ME

NEATEN

G ROOM

WIND

NOS E

S MELLING

S MELL

OD OU RIS E

OD ORIZE

S U S P IRE

RES P IRE

S MOK E

S NIFFLE

B REATHE

INHALE

WHIFF

S NIFF

COMP REHEND

REEK

EVOK E

S ENS E

THE PROCESS OF BREATHING


SME How the sense of smell penetrates the common sensory. It takes place especially through the fibers of the olfactory nerves. Wherefore those fibers tend by the armillary processes 84

through the pores of the cribriform plate even to those little organs. Those fibers are therefore multiplied and are thin; for the thinner they are the more suitable they are for the sense; furthermore, they are almost fluid, according to the description, —all these things being arguments of exquisite sensation. These fibers are annexed to all the fibers of the medulla of the brain; for they arise between the corpora striate and the thalami of the optic nerves.

SENSING SURVIVAL


THE AFFECT OF A SCENT How this nasal sense very greatly exercises the brain, and restores the body, sometimes in an instant. This may appear from certain medicines, which with stupendous swiftness induce changes; [such a medicine] relieves headaches, removes pains, heals deafness itself, and blindness arising from causes in the brain. This is because the nose is the very ultimate centre of the skull. Of the brain, of its meanings. Of the fibers, of the cortex, of the convolutions, in order that from that focus it may

its parts; and indeed extends to beginnings and arises from beginnings, therefore it is not a palliative cure.

85

The first movement, or reception, is of the body or of the nostrils, which admit the air fecund with effluvia. The second, or sensation, is of the soul herself; for she sensate the minutest division of touch. The third, or affection, is of our mind and at the same time of the soul; for the mind does not receive the minutest divisions, but only the affection thence redounding, and its varieties; thence it is evident how obscure our sensation is, for one affection consists of infinite things; wherefore it is evident how fallacious it is. The fourth, or change of state, is of the mind and at the same time of the organ or sensory; appetite indeed intercedes and a certain affection of the animus. The fifth, or the effect, is of the organ itself and at the same time of the whole body to which application is made. and to which use it yields; for all things in the whole body dispose themselves for receiving, and for serving the common use. Not only is the organ itself changed as to its state according to causes of appetite, but also all those things are changed which conspire, as the trachea and the lungs. The veins themselves, which draw in aerial aliment, take upon themselves similar states; they. Open or close, thus they seek or turn away from a thing; in the same manner as the brain so does the fiber, for a like affection returns into the fiber. A similar change of state sometimes occupies the cuticles, which excite a similar cause and snatch up atmospheric foods.

The Sense of Smell

CO L O GNE

PE R FUME

NE AT E N

GR O O M

W I ND

NO S E

S ME L L I NG

and modification, which traverse the whole superior region and

S ME L L

From both is brought about the effect of contraction. Expansion

O DO R I ZE

but double; smell is conjoined with a subtle sensation of touch.

O DO UR I S E

run through every part. For the sense of smell is not simple,


Nose, the prominent structure between the eyes that serves as the entrance to the respiratory tract and contains the olfactory organ. It provides air for respiration, serves the sense of smell, conditions the air by filtering, warming, and moistening it, and cleans itself of foreign debris extracted from inhalations. The nose has two cavities, separated from one another by a wall of cartilage called the septum. The external openings are known as nares or nostrils. The roof of the mouth and the floor of the nose are formed by the palatine bone, the mouth part of which is commonly called the hard palate; a flap of 86

tissue, the soft palate, extends back into the nasopharynx, the nasal portion of the throat, and during swallowing is pressed upward, thus closing off the nasopharynx so that food is not lodged in the back of the nose. The shape of the nasal cavity is complex. The forward section, within and above each nostril, is called the vestibule. Behind the vestibule and along each outer wall are three elevations, running generally from front to rear. Each elevation, called a nasal concha or turbinate, hangs over an air passage. Beside and above the uppermost concha is the olfactory region of the nasal cavity. The rest of the cavity is the respiratory portion. The respiratory area is lined with a moist mucous membrane with fine hairlike projections known as cilia, which serve to collect debris. Mucus from cells in the membrane wall also helps to trap particles of dust, carbon, soot, and bacteria. Sinus cavities are located in the bony skull on both sides of the nose. In the olfactory (smelling) portion of the nose, most of the lining is mucous membrane. A small segment of the lining contains the nerve cells that are the actual sensory organs. Fibres, called dendrites, which project from the nerve cells into the nasal cavity, are covered only by a thin layer of moisture. The moisture dissolves microscopic particles that the air has carried into the nose from odour-emitting substances, and the particles dissolved in the fluid stimulate the olfactory nerve cells chemically.

SENSING SURVIVAL

WHIFF

S NIFF

COMP REHEND

S ENS E

REEK

EVOK E

S U G G ES T

P ERCEIVE

COLOG NE

P ERFU ME

NEATEN

G ROOM

WIND

NOS E

S MELLING

S MELL

OD ORIZE

OD OU RIS E

ANATOMY OF THE NOSE


NOS 87

They present their broad end to the surface,

evidently act upon the terminal apparatus

but become attenuated when traced inwards

of the olfactory nerve, are not, however,

towards the underlying network. Between

directly received by the nerve-fibers, but by

them we find long rod-like filaments which in

the olfactory cells, the fibers themselves very

their lower part swell out into a nut-shaped

probably not being excited in the slightest

expansion, and then are prolonged into a fine

degree by the greater number of odorous

fiber towards the interior. Now, as this fiber

substances, certainly not by those in the

has a great resemblance to the finest nerve-

gaseous form. We remember that neither are

fibers, and loses itself near the terminations

the optic nerve-fibers affected by the waves of

of the finest fibers of the olfactory nerve, it

sound and shall here find ourselves justified in

very probably has some connection with the

coming to a similar conclusion.

olfactory nerve. There formations have been termed by the olfactory cells. Very small fine fairs have been observed upon the ends of the small rods in some animals, when the specimens have been perfectly fresh. The odorous substances, which, together with the air inhaled, are brought into contact with the olfactory mucous membrane, and thus

The Sense of Smell


ETHERAL

CAMPHORIC

PEPPERMINTY

LAUNDRY DETERGENT

MOTHBALLS

TOOTHPASTE

FLORAL

PUNGENT

PUTRID

MUSKY

FLOWERS

VINEGAR

ROTTEN EGGS

PERFUME

88

THE SEVEN PRIMARY ODORS There are 7 primary odors that have their own receptor sites. The primary 7 odors, according to the theory, are camphor, musk, floral, peppermint, ether, pungent and putrid. These 7 primary odours were proposed to have different shaped receptors corresponding to the shape of the molecules. Another theory suggests that the olfactory molecule diffuse across the surface of the receptor cell that creates an ion pore.

SENSING SURVIVAL


THE EXPERIENCE OF TASTE IS: 75% SMELL

b.

25% TASTE

NUMBER OF OLFACTORY RECEPTOR CELLS: DOG 1 BILLION

RABBIT 100 MILLION

HUMAN 40 MILLION

STATI

a.

89

a. A nose that’s in less than tip-top

b. The olfactory system is often

c. Dogs can distinguish non-identical

condition can affect taste buds too.

described as the most “primitive”

twins by smell, but not identical ones.

Researchers say 70-80 percent of the

sensory system because of its early

Dogs have 1 million smell cells per

flavors we taste come from what we

phylogenetic development and its

nostril and their smell cells are 100

smell, which is why foods become

connections to older, subconscious

times larger than humans.

flavorless when we’re plugged up.

portions of the brain. From the olfactory bulbs, odor messages go to several brain structures that make up the “olfactory cortex,” an area that evolved before the cortical areas that give us consciousness. Thus, odor messages go to primitive brain areas where they influence emotions and memories, and to “higher” areas where they modify conscious thought.

The Sense of Smell


90

In all the other sensory organs we have been

first place belongs to all those substances

able to divide the sensations into distinct kinds.

which are formed during the decomposition

But in the organ of smell these sensations are

of animal matter. It is due to a remarkable

so numerous, that it is almost impossible to

harmony in our organization that nearly

classify them. As a general rule we call those

all substances with a bad smell have an

odors which are pleasant to us, agreeable

injurious effect upon the body. The gases

consideration a general excitement of

smells, and those which are bad smells. Smells

with a bad smell, such as sulphuretted

the entire nasal mucous membrane,

are particularly characteristic of some kinds

hydrogen and others, are indeed, powerful

of ethers and essential oils which are found

poisons, which in large quantities have a

in many plants, and are, therefore, used in

fatal effect. Meat, also, which is in a state

the preparation of such essences as cologne.

of decomposition, is repugnant not only to

Each of these pleasant smelling substances,

our smell, but to our taste, and, if eaten,

moreover, possesses a perfectly distinct smell.

may be the cause of dangerous illness.

When strongly concentrated they sometimes

The organ of smell is a very important

become pungent or overpowering.

protection to the entire organism, and

In direct opposition to these substances are those which have a bad smell, to which some gases and vapors of simple composition belong. Some of the representatives of this group are sulphuretted hydrogen, phosphuretted hydrogen, arseniuretted hydrogen, bisulphide of carbon, and number of volatile hydrocarbons. A great number of compound organic bodies also possess a distinct bad smell. In this group the

SENSING SURVIVAL

prevents the entrance of many injurious bodies. It is not every injurious substance, however, that is betrayed by the sense of smell, as, for instance, carbon protoxide, a pernicious gas without smell.

Many injurious substances cannot be said to have a bad smell, but still, when present in large quantities, their odor is unpleasant, as, for instance, chlorine, bromine, iodine, and ammonia. But, besides the influence exerted upon the sense of smell, we have to take into

which is richly provided with delicate nerve-fibers of the trifacial nerve. For instance, the sharp stinging sensation caused by ammonia, is not due to an excitement of the olfactory nerve.

OD ORIZE

S U S P IRE

RES P IRE

S MOK E

S NIFFLE

B REATHE

INHA LE

WHIFF

S NIFF

COMP REHEND

S ENS E

REEK

EVOK E

S U G G ES T

P ERCEIVE

COLOG NE

P ERFU ME

NEATEN

G ROOM

WIND

NOS E

S MELLING

OD OU RIS E

S MELL

AROMA ÂŤ Development of a scent


91

The Sense of Smell

S NIFF

COMP REHEND

S ENS E

REEK

EVOK E

S U G G ES T

P ERCEIVE

COLOG NE

P ERFU ME

NEATEN

G ROOM

WIND

NOS E

S MELLING

S MELL

OD OU RIS E


TRY

HAVE

TAKE IN

INDENTIFY

COMPREHEND

EAT

With the aid of the skin, we could learn

INGEST

ATE

EATEN

EXPEND

DEPLETE

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92

RELISH

SAVOUR

PERCEIVE

SAMPLE

DEVOUR

EXHAUST

NIBBLE

BITE

CHOMP

SAVOR

CONSUME

EATING

TASTE SENSING SURVIVAL

much more about the nature of objects than just their form alone.


mouth in vertebrates.

part or organ of the body.

A fold or ridge of tissue that supports or checks the motion of the part to which

U VULA

A small rounded protuberance on a

FRENUM

the cavities of the nose and the

PAPILLAE

PALATE

The roof of the mouth, separating

Fleshy extension at the back of the soft palate that hangs above the

it is attached, in particular a fold of skin

throat. A similar fleshy hanging

beneath the tongue, or between the lip

structure in any organ of the body, particularly one at the opening of the

93

The Sense of


TASTE Surviving with Taste

SAMPLE

DEVOUR

EXHAUST

NIBBLE

BITE

CHOMP

SAVOR

CONSUME

EATING

TRY

HAVE

TAKE IN

INDENTIFY

COMPREHEND

EAT

INGEST

ATE

EXPEND

DEPLETE


The tongue possesses both the sense of taste and the sense of touch; thus there is a further dimension, which is the affection of touch.

On this account the result of the experiments upon the

Although the sense of taste is most necessary to the

observed by other careful experimenters that all sensation is

enjoyment and welfare of man, science as yet knows but little

wanting when an substance is applied with a pencil upon an

of its nature with certainty. Even the extent of its diffusion

isolated point, and every movement of the root of the tongue

in the cavity of the mouth has not yet been satisfactorily

is carefully avoided. It is possible that this may be caused

determined. It is, indeed, certain, that the tongue is the

by individual peculiarities, and that the sensitiveness is more

principal seat of the organ of taste, and that the sensation of

strongly developed in some persons than in others. It seems,

taste is most intense at the back or root of the tongue. The

in short, only a confirmation of the old saying, ‘There is no

tip of the tongue also possesses a sense of taste, which every

accounting for taste.

delicacy of the power of taste possessed by the palate is still mere doubtful, although it is commonly considered to have an extremely delicate sensation of taste. Many observers assert that the whole of the soft palate and the pillars of the faucets possess a sensation of taste. Many observers assert that the whole of the soft palate and the pillars of the faucets possess a sensation of taste, and yet it has been

one must know from experience. The opinions of the different experiments are greatly at variance as to the properties of the remaining portions of the surface of the tongue. According to the greater number, the under surface of the tongue possesses no power of taste, or a very dull one, though in most cases the edges of the tongue possess this power. Observations are, however, very difficult to make, and uncertain in their result, because substances placed upon a certain spot of the tongue, will not readily remain isolate, but spread very rapidly, and since the slightest trace is sufficient to be recognized, we are exceedingly liable to deception. The organ is affected according to the state of each brain. If the brain is sick; if its animus is affected. If the mind persuades itself that this would be suitable for blood, it therefore appetizes it and loves that which hurts. Hence is the appetite for unsuitable things, for medicines, for pains themselves; for the mind has respect to the health of the body and the restitution of the blood; thence it is evident that a similar harmony occurs when nature indicates foods suitable for the body.

The taste of victory.


chemical properties is shown by the acids and alkalis. There are certain compounds in chemistry, which are distinguished by a sour taste, and are therefore termed acids. They have also the property of altering certain coloring matters. In opposition to these acids stand bases, and the soluble bases, or alkalis, which are caustic like the acids, and turn reddened litmus blue again. In the combination of acids and bases to form salts, both lose their characteristic peculiarities, and even their peculiar taste, and then have a different one, either a saline taste, as in chloride of sodium, or a bitter taste, as in sulphate

96

of magnesia, or even a sweet one, as in acetate of lead.

ZOOM-IN ÂŤ Microscopic investigation The anatomical and microscopic investigations of the organ of taste afford a much safer standpoint. The entire surface of the tongue is covered with little elevations called gustative papillae, which are invisible to the naked eye. Some of them terminated in a bundle of fibers, and others are broad and bushy on their surface. At the root of the tongue a semicircle is formed by a larger papillae, each of which is surrounded by a circular mound. Small depression have been observed surrounding these circumvallated papillae. The papillae stand in the depressions formed by the mounds, and are filled internally with oblong cells, which are connected by prolongations with nerve-fibers. Similar organs have been observed upon the other papillae of the mucous membrane of the tongue, and it is probable that in them we must look for the true instruments of taste.

SENSING SURVIVAL

D EVOU R

S A MP LE

P ERCEIVE

S AVOU R

RELIS H

BASK

D EP LETE

EXP END

EATEN

AT E

ING ES T

E AT

COMP REHEND

IND ENTIFY

TA K E IN

HAVE

TRY

A better agreement between taste and


It is not so easy to decide whether there be a special nerve of

The sweet taste is the opposite to the bitter and sour taste, in

taste as was the case with the other senses. There is certainly

as much as we were able to mitigate the unpleasantness of the

a nerve, the glosso-pharyngeal nerve, which must, without

two latter by the former, when for instance, we mix sugar with

doubt, be regarded as the most important nerve of taste, but its

food which has a bitter or sour taste. Since we thus, as it were,

gustative fibers are connected with innumerable motor nerves

correct the taste without allowing the sugar to react chemically

of the lower part of the head, whilst the optic, auditory, and

upon the bitter and sour substances, it seems to us that some

olfactory nerves are entirely free from any foreign admixture.

kind of interference with the sensations must take place for

When this nerve has been severed it has been observed that

which we can find no explanation. It is also possible for the

animals after this operation will devour food, even when mixed

sweet taste to be combined with the sour and bitter tastes, and

with the bitterest substances, which an animal in a normal

produce a pleasant one. But it is well known, on the other hand,

condition would refuse to touch. Besides the nerve named

that a saline taste is not mitigated by the addition of sugar, and

above, another sensory nerve is found in the tongue, the

that they never combine so as to produce a pleasant sensation.

97

lingual nerve, which provides it with the sense of touch and with sensitiveness. It is still uncertain whether it possesses gustative fibers, besides the ordinary sensory fibers. At any rate, it can certainly be excited by sapid substances, when they are of a sharp caustic nature, such as strong acids, alkali, strong roots, etc. One of the qualities of the sensation of taste is, that sweet and bitter substances seem to produce a distinct sensory impression, apart from any other irritation of the sensory nerves. No concentration, however strong, of these sensations will ever amount to the pain, whilst a sour taste will produce a contractive and painfully burning feeling. They stand in direct opposition to each other, for the sweet taste appears to us the pleasant, and the bitter taste the unpleasant sensory impression. It is the sweetness of the milk which has such a charm for the infant, and which, when it is hungry, conduces to its reception of nourishment. The bitter and sour taste which we allow to a certain extent in our food, would be distinctly refused, by the much more sensitive gustatory organs of the infant, as an unpleasant sensation.

The Sense of Taste

D EVOU R

S A MP LE

P ERCEIVE

S AVOU R

RELIS H

BASK

D EP LETE

EXP END

EATEN

AT E

ING ES T

E AT

COMP REHEND

IND ENTIFY

TA K E IN

HAVE

TRY

EATING

CONS U ME

S AVOR

CHOMP

NIB B LE

EXHAU S T

B ITE

THE QUALITIES OF TASTE


The contrast between these sweet and bitter

explanation of the fact, for many substances

tastes is shown by the following phenomena.

of an entirely different composition, have the

After having tasted any bitter or saline

same taste. Besides sugar, which is composed

substance, pure water, if taken immediately

of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen, acetate of

afterwards, will appear to be sweet; and

lead has a sweet taste also. Again, many

sometimes a sour taste will remain in the

substances have a bitter taste, such a quinine,

mouth even after we have eaten a large

sulphate of magnesia, and others, which differ

amount of sugar. We cannot help thinking

entirely in their composition, and have nothing

of the great similarity between these

in common in their chemical characteristics.

phenomena and that of the contrast of colors, but we have as yet no stand-point upon 98

which to follow out such as a comparison. We ought first to enquire what is the cause of the difference in the sensations produced by different gustative irritations, but unfortunately no positive information can be given upon this point. We might, indeed, very well assume the existence of several kinds of nerves with different terminal organs, one producing a sweet, another a bitter, and a third a sour taste. But science has not yet been able to give sufficient information upon this question by any experiments or observations. Still less are we able to say why one substance should taste sweet, and another bitter. At least the chemical composition of substances can give no explanation of the fact, for many substances can give no

SENSING SURVIVAL

A better agreement between taste and chemical properties is shown by the acids and alkalis. There are certain compounds in chemistry, which are distinguished by a sour taste, and are therefore termed acids. They have also the property of altering certain coloring matters.

S AVOR

CHOMP

B ITE

NIB B LE

EXHAU S T

D EVOU R

S A MP LE

P ERCEIVE

S AVOU R

RELIS H

BASK

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EXP END

EATEN

AT E

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IND ENTIFY

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HAVE

FLAVORS OF LIFE


TAST

99

THE TASTE BUDS Taste buds contain the receptors for taste. They are located around the small structures on the upper surface of the tongue, soft palate, upper esophagus and epiglottis, which are called papillae. These structures are involved in detecting the five (known) elements of taste perception: salty, sour, bitter, sweet, and umami. Via small openings in the tongue epithelium, called taste pores, parts of the food dissolved in saliva come into contact with taste receptors. These are located on top of the taste receptor cells that constitute the taste buds. The taste receptor cells send information detected by clusters of various receptors and ion channels to the gustatory areas of the brain via the seventh, ninth and tenth cranial nerves.

The Sense of Taste


100

SENSING SURVIVAL

TASTE IS THE WEAKEST SENSE.

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PALATE ÂŤ A peculiar sensation Wherefore the uses are: That the sense may perceive what lies hidden in the foods which are taken, whether they are suitable for the blood, whether they ought to be turned into chyle, whether they ought to be committed to the stomach, and the chyle and blood-making viscera; wherefore, that it may perceive what will serve the corporeal life, and be homogeneous with it; wherefore, the tongue is prefixed to the abdominal viscera, and that sense is for the nutrition of the corporeal life. That

Now as to the first use, that the senses may perceive what lies hidden in the foods, which are taken, whether they are suitable for the chyle, the blood and the viscera, or whether those things are homogeneous which touch this barrier and gate, these things are to be

sense may affect the animus and the body itself, and thus excite the appetite, and continue the desire

observed. Wherefore, we must consider

for food, or even that it may affect in a contrary manner, that it may reject things taken, and may

the objects of taste themselves, and the

extinguish the appetite; wherefore, that it may desire a thing if it be good, may turn aside and reject it if it be evil; whether a thing be truly good or truly evil for the body, is not given man to know by nature, but by art, although there are indications in the appetite itself for what is taken, which precede in man;

media and aids. The tongue possesses both the sense of taste and the sense of touch; thus there is a further dimension, which is the affection of touch.

it is otherwise in brutes. The sensation of taste is only an affection, for we do not feel how [an article of food] pricks, hurts, how many are the spicules, what things are flat, what spherical, how they are joined; for to sensate that, is sensation itself; but only how the organ is affected, pleasantly or unpleasantly, sweetly or bitterly, hot or cold; for it is every little sensory which does the carrying to the common sensory, that is, to the cortical substance. This is the reason why the ideas of the modes of taste and smell cannot be impressed upon the memory in the same manner as can the modes of sight and hearing, wherefore neither can they be similarly reproduced.

The Sense of Taste

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AT E

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IND ENTIFY

TA K E IN

HAVE

TRY

EATING

CONS U ME

S AVOR

CHOMP

NIB B LE

EXHAU S T

B ITE

101


The tongue is able to move in nearly every direction, expand, compress and display a fine degree of articulation. Such muscular control allows us to manipulate our food and speak. The organ’s ability to transform into a variety of shapes comes from its composition of skeletal muscle interspersed with fat. The tongue and its muscles are laterally symmetrical: a median septum divides the organ into two halves. The tongue is made up of two types of muscles: extrinsic and intrinsic. Extrinsic muscles originate from elsewhere in the body and attach to the tongue. They connect with surrounding bones and help the organ move up and down, from side to side and in and out. The tongue’s extrinsic muscles all end in “glossus,” which, unsurprisingly, means “tongue.” The genioglossus depresses the tongue and thrusts it out. The styloglossus raises and 102

withdraws the tongue. The palatoglossus raises its back. And, the hyoglossus lowers the tongue’s sides. Despite the tongue’s fine degree of articulation, the extrinsic muscles also keep it firmly lashed in place. The muscles connect to the mandible, or jawbone, the hyoid bone, a U-shaped structure that supports the tongue, and the styloid processes of the temporal lobes. The styloid processes suspend the hyoid bone with muscles and ligaments, making it the only bone that doesn’t come into contact with another. Unlike extrinsic muscles, intrinsic muscles originate within the tongue. They allow it to expand and contract, altering its shape and size. The tongue’s intrinsic muscles, which include the longitudinalis superior, longitudinalis inferior, transversus linguae and verticalis linguae, are especially important for speech and deglutition, or swallowing food. Mucous membrane covers the tongue’s mass of muscles and fat. The double-layered membrane helps block microbes and pathogens from entering the digestive system and other body cavities that come into contact with the outside. The epithelial layer of the mucous membrane secretes mucus that helps moisten the mouth and food.

SENSING SURVIVAL

CONS U ME

S AVOR

CHOMP

B ITE

NIB B LE

EXHAU S T

D EVOU R

S A MP LE

P ERCEIVE

S AVOU R

RELIS H

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EXP END

EATEN

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TA K E IN

ANATOMY OF THE TONGUE


The tongue is a muscular organ in the mouth.

The four common tastes are sweet, sour, bitter,

The tongue is covered with moist, pink tissue

and salty. A fifth taste, called umami, results

called mucosa. Tiny bumps called papillae give

from tasting glutamate (present in MSG). The

the tongue its rough texture. Thousands of taste

tongue has many nerves that help detect and

buds cover the surfaces of the papillae. Taste

transmit taste signals to the brain. Because of

buds are collections of nerve-like cells that

this, all parts of the tongue can detect these

connect to nerves running into the brain.

four common tastes; the commonly described

The tongue is anchored to the mouth by webs

103

“taste map� of the tongue doesn’t really exist.

of tough tissue and mucosa. The tether holding down the front of the tongue is called the frenum. In the back of the mouth, the tongue is anchored into the hyoid bone. The tongue is vital for chewing and swallowing food, as well as for speech.

The Sense of Taste


FLAVO

a. Approximate number of taste buds

10,000 taste buds

b. Approximate height of taste bud

5-100 microns

a. The four basic tastes

Sweet, salty, sour, bitter

104

a. Taste buds contain the receptors for

b. A micrometre is one-millionth of

c. Girls have a better sense of taste

taste. They are located around the small

a metre (1/1000 of a millimetre, or

than boys. Every third child of school

structures on the upper surface of the

0.001mm). Its unit symbol in the

age prefers soft drinks which are not

tongue, soft palate, which are called

International System of Units (SI).

sweet. Children and young people love

papillae. hese structures are involved

The use of the term micron also helps

fish and do not think of themselves as

in detecting the five elements of taste

differentiate the unit from measuring

being fussy eaters. Boys have a sweeter

perception: salty, sour, bitter, and sweet.

device of the same name.

tooth than girls. Teenagers taste

Small openings in the tongue epithelium,

differently. And finally, schoolchildren

called taste pores, parts of the food

in northern Denmark have the best

dissolved in saliva come into contact

taste buds.

with taste receptors.

SENSING SURVIVAL

c. Girls have more taste buds than boys


It takes 24 hours for taste buds to cleanse themselves after being exposed to these substances.

SMOKING ALCOHOL CAFFEINE SPICY HOT FOODS ONION GARLIC

105

Your Buds Taste buds can be dulled or even damaged if they are irritated by extreme heat or cold, infections, a dry mouth, smoking, spicy foods, extremely sour foods, and some medications. Some people are sensitive to a particular food, such as walnuts, which may cause soreness in their mouth. Cigarette smoking not only causes cancer and cardiovascular disease, it also dulls taste, making food less palatable, a new study suggests.

The Sense of Taste


INDEX


A

F

AIR 20, 40, 56, 68, 78, 82

FEEL 12, 36, 38, 40, 42, 96

PLEASURE 72

TOUCH 12, 36-42

ANATOMY 20, 68, 86, 102

FLAVOR 88, 98, 104

PUPIL 16, 30, 36

TUNING 56

B

FOCUS 18, 36, 52, 54, 68, 84

Q

V

QUALITIES 36, 96

VIBRATION 52-76

QUALITY 12, 54, 68

VISION 16-34

R

VISUAL 15, 18, 36

BLIND 24, 28, 38, 44

BORN 44

BOUNCE 60

BRAIN 12, 16, 28, 38, 54, 80

FORK 52

FRENUM 92, 102

FREQUENCY 62, 64, 70

RECEPTION 72, 80, 84, 86

W

REFLECTION 60

WAVE 12, 30, 60, 68. 80

I

BREATH 78, 80, 82, 86 INCUS 52, 68, 72

RETINA 16-30

BUDS 88, 98, 102, 104 INTERACTION 44, 50

C

REVERSE 24 INTERPRETATION 76

CARTILAGE 68, 78 IRIS 16, 20, 24 CLICKS 62

COCHLEA 52, 72

S SCENT 78, 80, 84

N

SEE 16, 18, 28

NERVE 12, 18, 28, 48. 50 COLOR 16, 18, 28, 50, 98

SENSE 10-104 NOISE 55, 58, 70

COMMUNICATION 40, 72, 74

SENSITIVE 16, 94 NOSE 78, 82, 84, 86

CUTICLE 36, 40, 42

D DECIBELS 58, 70

SENSORY 12, 38, 42, 68 NOSTRIL 82, 84, 86

O ORGANS 12, 40, 54, 80

DERMIS 36, 40, 42 ORIGIN 38, 56 DIRECTION 32, 66, 74

E EAR 52, 54, 58, 62

EARWAX 52

EFFECTS 40, 50

EXPERIENCE 48, 62

SIGHT 16-36

SKIN 34, 36, 38, 52

SMELL 12, 78, 80-100

P

SOUND 12, 52-76

PALATE 40, 82, 90

SURVIVING 18, 38, 54, 80

PAPILLA 36, 40

T TASTE 94, 98

PAPILLAE 32, 36, 40 TONE 56, 74, 82 PERCEPTION 13, 28, 32, 54 TONGUE 12, 82, 94, 96 PINNA 54, 52, 72


GROK

SAVVY

REFER

HINT

OBEY

INTERPRET

HEAR

ALLUDE

ADVERT

SUGGEST

STIR

MANAGE

MOVE

STRIKE

E

LIZE

E

STAND

NE

IVE

DEAL

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AGE

HANDLE

VER

CONCENTRATE SMOKE

ALTER

CARE

RIVET

IMPACT

SS

CT

CENTER

CONTACT

OBEY

HEED

PORE

FOCUS

SMELL

SUSPIRE

RESPIRE

SNIFFLE

BREATHE

INHALE

WHIFF

ION

COMPREHEND

MEET

SNIFF

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PERCEIVE

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COMPREHEND

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REEK

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SUGGEST

PERCEIVE

VER

UNDERSTAND

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COVER

INCLUDE

COLOGNE

PERFUME

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CONSUME

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PERCEIVE

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DEPLETE

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EATEN

ATE

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IDENTIFY

ENVISAGE

DISCOVER

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CHECK

VERIFY

WITNESS

ENVISION

COMPREHEND

DISCOVER

FIND

PERCEIVE

IMAGINE

UNDERSTAND

REALIZE

VISUALIZE

NOTICE

OBSERVE

WATCHING

WATCH

SIGHT

VIEW

TAKE IN

NOSE

SEEING

HAVE

SMELLING

SEE

TRY

SMELL

California on May 6th, 2011.

COMPASS

GRASP

COME TO

VE

HEARING

CONCERN

DIG

Flama Book and is set at 5pt with 8pt leading.

RELATE

with 11pt leading. The mouse type of this book uses

APPREHEND

The main body copy uses Flama Book and is set at 7pt

AFFECT

The typeface for the title of the book is Flama Light.

ING

G

FEEL

This book was printed and bound in San Francisco, DEAL

CARE

HANDLE

ALTER

IMPACT

CONTACT

MEET

ADJOIN

STRIKE

MOVE

MANAGE

STIR

SUGGEST

ADVERT

ALLUDE

COME TO

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REFER

FEEL

SNIFFLE

BREATHE

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WHIFF

SNIFF

COMPREHEND

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REEK

EVOKE

SUGGEST

PERCEIVE

COLOGNE

PERFUME

NEATEN

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WIND

NOSE

SMELLING

SMELL

OBEY

HEED

PORE

SMELL

SUSPIRE

RESPIRE

CONCENTRATE SMOKE

RIVET

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FOCUS

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PERCEIVE

HEAR

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INCLUDE

COMPASS

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TRY

ENVISAGE

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VERIFY

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ENVISION

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FIND

PERCEIVE

IMAGINE

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REALIZE

VISUALIZE

NOTICE

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WATCHING

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MEET

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SUGGEST

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GROK

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Survival of the Senses