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No. 0001

January-March 2021

ISSN: 2773 - 6555



Mentorship, Value Addition & Marketing.

A centre of excellence for promoting a sustainable software industry that contributes to the development of the industrial economy in Tanzania

CONTACT US ICT Commission P.O. Box 70479, 14 Jamhuri Street, Dar es Salaam Tanzania E-mail: dg@ictc.go.tz Phone: +255 (0) 736 848444


Message from the Director-General


steemed Readers.

It is my great pleasure to welcome you all to this first edition of TEHAMA® Magazine: the Tanzania ICT news updates medium. This is a quarterly ICT magazine that will be a source of relevant and authoritative information on ICT in Tanzania, opportunities and successes. It will inform industry players on the investment climate related to ICT in Tanzania. Two decades of implementing Tanzania’s ICT policy have witnessed reasonable growth in terms of legal and institutional frameworks, investment, innovation, human capital and infrastructure development. Tanzania has specifically witnessed digital transformation in all sectors of economy such as health, agriculture, governance, education, communication, and other productive sectors. There is also a rise in digital innovation and the prevalence of new digital skills that require alignment with legal, policy and regulatory frameworks. As Tanzania marks this new and historic era in the ICT sector, the industry has witnessed the establishment of the Tanzania ICT Commission which came into being five years ago -in 2015- and a fully-fledged Ministry of Communication and Information Technology in November 2020. These measures are in line with other ongoing ICT programmes that the Government has introduced; such as infrastructure development, institutional frameworks, development of human capital, promotion of digital reforms and innovation, and attraction of private and public investment in the sector. TEHAMA® Magazine will be a source of reliable and credible information relevant for investment, research, policy making, curricula development and decision making. The Magazine will progressively report on the implementation of all national policy issues. Through the publication the ICT Commission will promote ICT and investment in the sector. This first edition covers the political direction in the next five years and potential areas for investment, digital skills and innovations, professional development, and e-commerce initiatives in Tanzania. Specifically, it also includes views on the Fourth Industrial Revolution, policy focus on the digital economy and Presidential contextualization of social media platforms as a strategy for citizens’ digital inclusion. Growth of the ICT sector and its contribution to the national economy have led the Government of the United Republic of Tanzania to take measures to foster ICT investments. Some of the government’s measures include investment in the national broadband backbone that connects all administrative regional headquarters, private sector participation through investments in telecommunication, institutional reforms in the sector as well as legal and regulatory frameworks. These efforts have brought down price of ICT services, making Internet access in Tanzania the cheapest in the region. According to ICT Research Africa, the cost per MB in Tanzania is estimated at USD 8.5, Rwanda (USD 8.6), Kenya (USD 9.6), Uganda (USD 10.76) and Burundi (USD 11.9) as of September, 2019 (ICT Research Africa, 2020). The Government’s plans in the next five years is to raise Internet and broadband penetration rate from 43% and 45% respectively to 80%. TEHAMA® Magazine provides industry players and stakeholders with reliable and credible information about the sector, ICT developments and possible strategies for investment in the sector. It will promote local ICT industries, investments, skills, networking, areas market linkage, research and exposure of local ICT products abroad; monitor and measure ICT investments successes and opportunities and the attainment sector policy objectives. It will raise awareness on ICT in Tanzania to communities in and outside the country; attract investment and business ventures developments into Tanzania; and facilitate mobilization of resources for ICT development. Samson John Mwela DIRECTOR GENERAL, ICTC


EDITORIAL BOARD Editor in Chief/Chairman Samson John Mwela Editor/Secretary Isaac Mruma Magazine Director/Coordinator Tumaini J Magila Review Editors Jasson Ndaguzi Stephen Mokiwa ICT Advisor: Nkundwe Moses Mwasaga Creative Team Allen Ugulumo Mwamengele Contributors Samson John Mwela Ndimbuni Msogole Tumaini Magila Isaac Mruma Nkundwe Moses Mwasaga /tehama /tehama /tehama /tehama all rights reserved @ tehama 2021

www.ictc.go.tz SUBSCRIBE to receive quately ICT news update Physical/mailing address: ICT Commission, P.O. Box 70479,14 Jamhuri Street,11104 Dar es Salaam – Tanzania ISSN: 2773 - 6555 (PRINTED) Phone: +255736848444. E-mail: dg@ictc.go.tz

TEHAMA January - March 2021



MAGUFULI EYES INDUSTRY 4.0 for Inclusive Growth




DIGITAL INNOVATION PROCESS IN TANZANIA: Challenges and Opportunities Per University Perspective.




UNDERSTANDING TANZANIA’S DIGITAL LANDSCAPE AND DIGITAL SKILLS ECOSYSTEM In the Context of the 4th Industrial Revolution (4IR): Ict Professionals Perspective


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for Mobile Industry in Tanzania’s Economy




Nkundwe Moses Mwasaga Digital Skills Developer High-Performance Computing(HPC)


is Excellency Dr. John Pombe Joseph Magufuli, the President of the United Republic of Tanzania stated in Parliament in his inauguration speech in Dodoma on 13th November2020 that Tanzania would promote research and innovations in ICT. The world is currently in the

2020 broadband internet


45 % 43 %

4th Industrial Revolution (4IR), controlled by ICTs and we should move with that speed of ICT growth, he said. The President unveiled plans to extend the National ICT Broadband Backbone to more areas in the country, especially up to district level, and raise broadband and internet penetration rate in the next five years.


80 % 80 %

Broadband penetration would be raised from the current 45 percent and internet penetration from 43 percent to 80 percent for both. Mobile telecommunication coverage will reach the whole country, he said, adding that Tanzania’s ICT processionals would be recognized and registered.

Now therefore, we should move with that speed of ICT growth

To attain the President’s vision and goals of Tanzania Development Vision (TDV) 2025, investment priorities in Tanzania in the next five years will be on broadband infrastructure, universal mobile telecommunication access, accelerated broadband penetration, research, and innovation for the sustainable ICT industry and structured ICT workforce recognized by the market. TDV acknowledges that ICTs are central to competitive social and economic transformation and that the new opportunities opened up by

ICTs can be harnessed to meet its goals. The Fourth Industrial Revolution (or Industry 4.0) is the ongoing automation of traditional manufacturing and industrial practices using modern smart technology. According to McKinsey and the World Economic Forum, the shift towards the digital economy is accelerated by these 4IR technologies: Artificial Intelligence, Big Data Analytics, Internet of Things (IoT), 3D Printing (Additive Technology),

and Block-chain Technology. Others are Machine Learning, High-Performance Computing, Mobile Internet, Cloud Computing, Robotics, Virtual Reality, Quantum Computing, and 5G Mobile broadband. In terms of digital skills, these technologies bring the interplay between technical skills, professional knowledge, and digital knowledge.

4IR TECHNOLOGIES Artificial Intelligence

Big Data Analytics

Internet of Things (IoT)

3D Printing (Additive Technology)

Blockchain Technology

Machine Learning

High-Performance Computing

Mobile Internet

Cloud Computing


Virtual Reality

Quantum Computing

5G Mobile broadband

“every 10% broadband penetration increases 1.38% in the Gross Domestic Product (GDP)”

TEHAMA January - March 2021


Broadband Infrastructure The Tanzania National Telecommunications Policy targeted to connect all villages with telecommunications coverage by 2020 to accelerate the country’s economic growth. In 2008/2009 the Government started to build the National ICT Broadband Backbone (NICTBB) which is a superhighway of communications, connecting all regional headquarters and some districts. It is managed and operated by the Tanzania Telecommunications Corporation (TTC) which is fully owned by the Government of the United Republic of Tanzania. In 2018 the Tanzania Communications Regulatory Authority (TCRA) auctioned spectrum in the 700MHz band which is a ‘honey band’ for mobile broadband. The President’s commitment to extend broadband infrastructure to all villages requires the full participation of the private and public sectors to digitally connect society with broadband communications. Research and innovation for a sustainable ICT industry The support is in line with the UN Sustainable Development Goals agenda that stipulates, among other things, the need to accelerate

investment in research and development; and innovation (Goal 9).

Tanzania is about to finish the provision of universal access to the internet, which is a powerful tool for economic inclusion and empowerment.

Most research activities are in universities and a few in some transnational corporations (TNCs). In the past five years, Tanzania has witnessed an increase in innovation-related activities, especially in higher learning institutions and a few private companies.

There were 30,586,806 mobile money accounts in September 2020; with 11.6 trillion tshs in the value of mobile money transactions. In 2017, the mobile money solution transferred 47% of the GDP of Tanzania. According to GSMA, the total value added generated by the mobile operators in 2016 was equivalent to 5.2 percent of the GDP of Tanzania, approximately 2.5 billion USD.

Broadband penetration. The International Telecommunication Union (ITU) reports that every 10% broadband penetration leads to a 1.38% in the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) share (ITU, 2012). According to GSMA (2015), the increase in mobile penetration would add 27,000 new jobs, increase the productivity of economic activity by 0.9%, and contribute an additional 549 million USD to the GDP by 2020.

The combination of the number of mobile money accounts and the average of 10 transactions per subscriber per month speaks volumes about the achievement in terms of financial inclusion, which stood at 86% in 2017. In 2008, when the first mobile payment solution was launched, the financial inclusion was 16%.

In September 2020, TCRA (2020) statistics showed that voice telecom (fixed and mobile) penetration was 49,215,857 (88%) and the estimate of internet users was 27,900,069 (approximately 1 internet user in every two people). According to the UN, fewer than 1 in 5 people used the internet in the least developed countries in 2019.

The expansion of mobile financial services has enabled and empowered people, who previously were unbanked, to perform financial transactions and manage their finances.

Mutukula Sirali Bukoba



Namanga Mwanza Moshi



Singida Uvinza





Dodoma Iringa



Babati O FC











Mbeya Makambako MZUNGUKO WA KUSINI Tunduma Kasumulo

Huduma inapatikana hapa Mkongo wa mawasilino






TEHAMA January - March 2021

“increase in mobile penetration would add 27,000 new jobs, increase the productivity of economic activity by 0.9%, and contribute an additional 549 million USD to GDP by 2020�

These have created business opportunities for participation in entrepreneurial activities in the form of e-commerce that links SMEs to the market and fosters digital economy development and trade. Tanzania understands that to finish the transition to the digital economy, the consumption of 4IR technologies should aim at stimulating the growth of labour efficiency and increase the global competitiveness of its economy. In this vein, it is important to know what drives changes in the digital landscape to understand the growth of labour efficiency for 4IR.

Structured ICT workforce Globally, the forces that drive the demand for digital skills are globalization and emerging markets, environmental and energy concerns, changing demographics and consumptions trend, and the advancement of science and technology. The development of an equitable and competitive digital economy of any country needs to be informed by a more comprehensive National Digital Policy that focuses not only on 4IR technologies but also builds synergies with other skills and national policies.

TEHAMA January - March 2021

Being inputs to other sectors within Tanzania, the other policies that deal with skills can be categorized into three groups: those focusing on ICT, on particular sectors, and national development plans. The policies and plans that deal with skills are the Education and Skills for Productive Jobs Program (ESPJ); Skills and Development Levy (SDL); National ICT Policy of 2016 - Implementation Strategy; Vocational Education Training Act; National Labour Profile and the Tanzania Development Vision 2025. Others are the National Strategy for Growth and Reduction of Poverty (NSGRP); the Technical Education Training Policy; National Skills Development Strategy (NSDS) 2016 - 2026; National Education and Training Policy; the National Research and Development Policy of 2010; the National Science and Technology Policy 1996; and the National Employment Policy of 2008. The entire digital skills ecosystem needs to be addressed by the integrated National Digital policy. In recognition of changes in work conditions and labour markets brought by 4IR, we adopted a self-sustaining skills ecosystem based on Finegold (1999) as the

framework to understand the conditions and context of digital skills demand, supply, deployment, and development within our digital economy. Based on Buchanan (2017), the framework stipulates four interdependencies that are mutually reinforcing dynamics that are: ever generating ongoing knowledge adaptation, growth, and creation to changing labour market and work conditions. In the context of the 4IR revolution, we describe the digital skills ecosystem of Tanzania to take account of the complexity created by economic, educational, and political contexts that can impact digital skills in terms of development, supply, demand, and deployment. In addressing the skill base for a digital economy using the framework, we define Deployment as how digital skills are effectively practiced and utilized within the context. According to Anderson (2012), the Ecosystem benefits when the expertise, skills, and knowledge of the workforce are utilized well. The utilization of the skills can be about changing occupation (job roles and structure) to facilitate demand for multi-skilling in the 4IR.


Estimates of the size of the digital economy range from 4.5 to 15.5 percent of world GDP. In terms of the value-added in the ICT sector, the United States and China together account for almost 40 percent of the world total. As a share of GDP, however, the sector is the largest in Taiwan Province of China, Ireland, and Malaysia.

NDUGULILE ENVISIONS A COMPETITIVE DIGITAL ECONOMY Tumaini Magila Communication and Information Technology Expert


the next five years of the Presidency of H.E Dr. John Pombe Joseph Magufuli (2020- 2025), the Government has declared to focus on leveraging the digital economy to strengthen the country’s economic competitiveness to achieve high middle-income economy status.

Global employment in the ICT sector increased from 34 million in 2010 to 39 million in 2015, with computer services accounting for the largest share (38 percent). The share of the ICT sector in total employment rose over the same period, from 1.8 percent to 2 percent.



he digital economy has eventually become a national agenda in Tanzania following a recent statement on the 4th Industrial Revolution (4IR) by H.E Dr. John Pombe Joseph Magufuli, the President of the United Republic Tanzania at the inauguration of Parliament in Dodoma in November 2020.

The new vision will significantly increase the contribution of the Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) sector to the country’s gross domestic product (GDP), create more jobs, improve service efficiency delivery, revenue generation, and enhance productivity and Tanzania’s competitiveness globally. This vision was recently unveiled by the President when inaugurating Parliament and during the swearing-in of the newly appointed Minister for Communication and Information Technology, Hon. Dr. Faustin Ndugulile (MP) in Dodoma. “My priority as Minister of this new Ministry is the digital economy”, said Hon. Dr. Ndugulile. World data flows Global Internet Protocol (IP) traffic, a proxy for data flows, grew from about 100 gigabytes (GB) per day in 1992 to more than 45,000 GB per second in 2017; and yet the world is only in the early days of the data-driven economy. By 2022, global IP traffic is projected to reach 150,700 GB per second, fuelled by more and more people coming online for the first time and by the expansion of the Internet of Things (IoT). 10

TEHAMA January - March 2021

Following the high penetration of telephony subscriptions in Tanzania, currently standing at 88% of the population, the country is now focusing on increasing the penetration of broadband and internet from 45% and 43% in 2020 respectively to 80% in 2025. According to the Tanzania Communications Regulatory Authority (TCRA) statistics, the above penetration rate is equivalent to 48 million registered active Subscriber Identity Module (SIM) cards. While the country records many successes in telecommunications penetration, there are still inequalities and a digital divide due to the challenge of unaffordability of most broadband access technologies, particularly smartphones. Anecdotal evidence shows that the handsets used by a large group of population in Tanzania are feature phones which, according to TCRA, offer only 2.8 different uses compared to 8.7 uses on smartphones. (The Regulator, 2020). Most feature phone users are low-income citizens who cannot afford expensive smartphones. This new country direction on ICT has led to the establishment of the new Ministry of Communications and Information Technology (MCIT) and the appointment, by the President, of Hon. Dr. Faustine Engelbert Ndugulile (MP) and Hon. Eng. Kundo Andrea Mathew (MP) as Minister and Deputy Minister

TEHAMA January - March 2021

respectively. The International Telecommunication Union estimates that for every 10% increase in broadband penetration, the gross domestic product grows by 1.38%. In the next five years, Tanzania’s target is to increase broadband by almost 40% (from 45% to 80%). To achieve this ambitious target, almost 80% of the population must be connected to and enabled to access broadband services for participation in the digital economy that Tanzania is building in the next five years. This, therefore, requires the expansion of broadband infrastructure and the availability of affordable smartphones.

services delivery, foreign currency earnings, digital inclusion, and contributing to the realization of Tanzania Development Vision (TDV) and UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). In an address to the Tanzania Annual ICT Conference (TAIC) on 7th October 2020, TCRA Director General, Eng. James M. Kilaba, underlined the need for investors to focus on producing smartphones in Tanzania.

There are many economic benefits of producing smartphones in Tanzania. They include jobs, export business, education, revenues, social


CALLS FOR STRATEGIC INVESTMENT IN LOCAL SOCIAL MEDIA PLATFORMS Eng. Andrea Mathew Kundo (MP) Deputy Minister for Communication and InformationTechnology


The world has witnessed unprecedented growth in the use of social media platforms. Worldwide statistics show that there are 4.14 billion active social media users, 53% social media penetration, 12.3% annual growth rate, and 99% of social media users accessing the service via mobile devices (Datareportal, 2020). Tanzania is part of this global society, with most citizens not participating because of many obstacles, including foreign language domination and unaffordable costs of digital gadgets. Hon. Eng. Andrea Mathew Kundo (MP), the newly appointed Deputy Minister for Communications and Information Technology, called on industry players to invest in local social media platforms. Tanzania as a country must and should have homemade social media platforms in a language understood by the majority. Engineer Kundo wishes that all citizens could be connected and enabled to participate in the digital world, but the available socials platforms limit their effective digital participation. This visionary statement presents investment opportunities for digital innovators in Tanzania and sets a clear direction for realizing the Tanzania Development Vision 2025 goals. The Tanzania Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) policy prioritizes local content and hosting.




billion active social media users


53% social media




annual growth rate

The development of local content is also an action line of the Tunis World Summit on Information Society (WSIS) of 2005. Therefore, local digital platforms and technologies have a big and critical role in turning the goal of this Vision into reality. Many successes have been recorded in telephony and Internet penetration following the conducive investment environment that Tanzania has built over nearly two decades of implementing an ICT policy. Official statistics show that 94% of the population has been covered by telecommunications services. Telephone and internet penetrations have reached 88% and 43% respectively. A challenge remains on internet platform languages that prevent many ordinary citizens from benefitting from digital opportunities. This challenge should be addressed. Digital platforms and content in Kiswahili will bring more into the digital world. Innovations should include promoting social media platforms and apps that are readily accessible by most Tanzanians.



of social media users access via mobile devices Below /04 Data portal accessed on 23 December 2020 TEHAMA January - March 2021


Adviser-Digital Finance,FSDT


The 2020 global pandemic has shown the world just how suddenly our way of life can be disrupted and why it is necessary for the world to be able to adapt to such rapid, unprecedented events. Despite the challenges that the pandemic brought, there has never been a better time in history for technology and digitization to be at the centre of discussions, being a common thread in reshaping the new ‘normal’.

financial sector, the time is apt to spark discussions on the digital economy.

We witnessed the extent to which digital financial services spiked in popularity during ‘social distancing’ times, helping citizens to adapt to life in unprecedented circumstances. This was even more evident in Rwanda as it was reported by the Rwanda Utilities Regulation Authority that mobile money transactions grew by 450% between January and April 2020.

Prominent use cases that advocate for usage of digital services, appropriate digitalsolutions that will enhance the digital experience for the users, and improve their wellbeing;

The businesses that were able to promptly exploit digital products and services and effectively offer these solutions to consumers were able to thrive, while those which were slow to adapt faced bigger losses. In the TEHAMA January - March 2021

A digital economy is one that efficiently capitalizes on technology to drive economic activities. For this to be a reality for Tanzania, the following key pillars need to be established: i.


Right infrastructure in terms of digital systems that will allow for digital services to operateefficiently;

An enabled population that can iii. utilize the digital products and services which willultimately help to reduce the digital gap; iv. A common vision that everyone is aligned to.


Setting the Infrastructure for the digital economy FSDT has been working with the Government of Tanzania to set up enabling infrastructure for the digital economy to thrive. Some of the notable initiatives include: Working with the National ID Authority (NIDA) to set up and implement a Digital ID infrastructure: Another enabler of the digital economy infrastructure is a unique national identification number that enables access to key public services, with financial services being among these services i.e. mobile money, banking services, health care through the National Health Insurance Fund (NHIF). Through convening and facilitating meetings and consultations, FSDT was able to ensure that a nationwide biometric campaign was implementedby the mobile network operators (MNOs), in cooperation with TCRA and NIDA. The campaign materialized after the government required all Tanzanians to register their mobile numbers using national identification numbers and biometrics.

Working with the Bank of Tanzania to develop the Tanzania Instant Payment System(TIPS): The Bank of Tanzania has been at the forefront in setting the key enablers and infrastructure for the digital economy to take shape in the country. As part of the National Payment Strategy (NPS) that prioritizes technology and infrastructure readiness to support mobile money services, instant payment, and development of efficient payment systems, the Bank of Tanzania is developing an interoperable digital payment system known as Tanzania Instant Payment System (TIPS). It will allow the transfer of payments between different digital financial service providers (both banks and non-banks). TIPS will build on interoperability through its inclusive model and bring about affordable transactions that will reduce costs for many Tanzanians.

The mandatory registration push by the regulator and the biometric registration campaign led by MNOs, led to a drive for more use cases of the national ID and ‘Know Your Customer’ (KYC) requirements for more individuals and businesses to access credit for growth. This initiative enabled all MNO’s to do biometric KYC for SIM card registrations to almost 28 million adult Tanzanians. Working with the Dar es Salaam Stock Exchange (DSE) to design, develop, and scale theMobile Trading Platform (MTP): The MTP platform is designed to create an affordable and convenient way for mobile phone users to participate in Initial Public Offering (IPO) and subsequent secondary market trading at the DSE hence enabling investment for all and accessing capital particularly for MSME’s. The platform is expected to be launched by the end of 2020 bringing ease of accessibility through mobile on USSD, App, and Website, meaning that access to finance through investment will be brought closer to the people. Partnering with The Bank of Tanzania, in collaboration with the Tanzania CooperativeDevelopment Commission (TCDC), the Tanzania Insurance Regulatory Authority (TIRA), the Capital Markets and Securities Authority (CMSA) to develop and launch the FinancialServices Registry (FSR): Identification is not only key for individuals, but also financial service providers and their service outlets. FSR is a sustainable system capturing financial outlets and their respective services in the country. Through its dynamic nature, the FSR will go beyond simple measurement to provide the backbone for a range of analysis and analytic tools that can support the development of new and better solutions in the market. Besides, the registry will help Tanzania’s financial institutions to identify underserved markets and increase the availability, as well as usage of the best possible range of products and services. Click here to learn more about the Financial Services Registry: https://youtu.be/2_WRrYRwt_o. 14

TEHAMA January - March 2021

Digital solutions setting the tone for the digital economy:

outside of the branches, and reach out to rural customers.

Seeing the potential that digitization has in improving income generation, jobs, and wellbeing for Tanzanians, financial sector players are also in line with efforts of their own to encourage more Tanzanians into this digital economy. Through FSDT technical assistance and support, market players have taken advantage of this opportunity to introduce digital innovations into the market.

The system would link to the national identity system (NIDA), enabling officers to fulfill KYC requirements and open accounts quickly with no inconvenience to applicants. This tool enables bank officers to open new accounts, start loan application processes, credit score clients, and disburse loans anywhere and anytime.

FINCA Microfinance Bank is among the players who have seized this opportunity to bring financial services to the rural areas through digital field automation (DFA). The latter is an automated account opening and loan application system, which has increased access to financial services for individuals and small business owners living in rural areas. The DFA was developed by FINCA Microfinance Bank Tanzania Limited in partnership with FSDT. A digital system was developed that would allow bank officers to be mobile, travel

To learn more about DFA, click here: https://tinyurl.com/digitalfieldautomati on Observing that many low-income individuals and small businesses are thriving in informal savings groups, a partnership between the Aga Khan Foundation, Selcom Tanzania, and FSDT made an effort towards developing a digital product that would channel group members’ savings and loans on a secure, transparent and efficient mobile platform, and report transaction activities back to the group. The project enables the transforma-

FSDT has also supported FinTechs in MNOs were finally able to agree to ensure developing and testing innovative solutions person-to-person (P2P) transactions are in themarket; these include: available between all MNOs. Tanzania is now seen as a pioneer in innovation in the School Management System- a telecommunications industry for achieving system developed to drive innovation interoperability in such an efficient and and usage of digital means for school i. effective manner. Digital Economy fees payments, loans, and potentially discussions: This dialogue began through trigger adaptions of digital usage. the 4th Tanzania Annual ICT Conference 2020 (TAIC-2020), organized by the ICT Vicoba- A management platform with Commission (ICTC), held in October 2020. ii. ii. a defined hierarchy developed to help formalize the management of The conference brought together a wide Vicoba Endelevu groups array of stakeholders including practitioners in the ICT industry, academia, researchers, development partners, the Beacon Finance- An investment business community, and youth in digital adviser with a web and mobile iii. platform that enables users to learn innovation spaces to deliberate on career and acquire financial information and path development, digital economy development, and the sector’s contribution trade financial securities to the national economy. Driving a common Vision and Understanding As a market facilitator, FSDT supported the ICTC to be in the right position to get a So far, all these solutions have been feel of the market and the stakeholders as operating in silos, hence the need for a well as excite them to gain more insight digital economy vision that will enable into the existing constraints and these solutions to synchronize to best opportunities towards a digital Tanzania. serve the end user-being women, youth, Among the key things discussed were the farmers, and SMEs, as well as to coordinate need for: the resources to ensure the objectives of the digital economy are met. Several market dialogues have been coordinated by The Government to create more job FSDT to spark this coordinated thinking opportunities for the youth through and action. the National ICT Programme, which is i. dedicated to training local youth on Interoperability dialogue: various ICT related expertise to enable The idea of interoperability for digital them to not only gain knowledge, but financial services in Tanzania, where also have hands-on experience in the consumers can transfer funds between field, network providers, had been widely discussed for many years. FSDT facilitated this dialogue by providing regulatory, The Government to promote access to technical, and financial expertise to MNOs good smart-phones through incentives to overcome concerns about the technical such as removal of tax on smartphones possibility, competition, and potential loss so that industry players are encouraged ii. of their share of the voice and mobile to give out free smartphones through money markets. their programs, given that digitization is heavily dependent on smartphones.

tion of savings groups from traditional savings and accounting methods to digital techniques, which bring about transparency and accountability. This is the first step towards formalization, helping residents to take up formal financial services via their digital savings groups. For more informa-tion on this journey of digitizing savings groups click here https://www.fsdt.or.tz/wp-content/uploads/2018/05/Beyond-Sin-gle-Source-Solutions-Focus-Note-1. pdf. In collaboration with Pesapal, FSDT saw the need for a tool that addresses digitization of small merchant business, recording of business transactions and analyzing them to assess their creditworthiness and improve business efficiency through digitization of their businesses. To read more on this, click: https://www.fsdt.or.tz/wp-content/uploads/2019/06/Fin-Sights_Lab_Merchant_Report_2018.pd f

The Private sector to be heavily involved in development of the iii. country’s digitization and innovation policies to voice the challenges they experience in the market and collectively strategize on how to overcome them; Data on consumer transaction iv. behaviour to be accessible and shareable among industryplayers; and v.

To ensure deliberate efforts are made so that technology and digitization include everyone and don’t entrench existing inequalities.

FSDT shed light on our new strategy during these discussions, and opened a discussion on how inclusive finance can be used to achieve a positive impact in job creation, income growth, and promoting wellbeing for women, youth, farmers and SMEs, through the digital economy vision. The digital economy vision, which is still in development, intends to provide a common blueprint for the country towards the application of digital technologies in our economy, providing associated benefits and addressing the challenges hindering optimization of the benefits. For more information on TAIC, click here: http://taic2020.co.tz/. Digitization is increasingly shaping the world, and Tanzania cannot be left behind. It is up to the public and private sector players to trek this journey together to ensure that the digital economy effectively serves Tanzanians, provides real impact in terms of increased incomes, delivers job opportunities, and improves wellbeing. The stage is being set, the future looks bright, and FSDT is excited to facilitate this digital economy vision into reality to serve women, youth, farmers, and SMEs in our country. 15

DIGITAL INNOVATION PROCESS IN TANZANIA Challenges And Opportunities Per University Perspective Justin Alipoki Mwakatobe Eng. M.Sc. Head, Department of Innovation and Incubation - DII–Mbeya University of Science and Technology (MUST).


The emerging of the fourth industrial revolution disrupts the technology we use which has led to new opportunities and challenges to the


manufacturing sectors, government operations, and education sectors. This article aims at providing an understanding of digital innovation, the role of Higher

Learning Institutions (HLI’s) toward digitalization, digital skills, industry 4.0, and its influence on business start-ups (figures 1 and 3).

TEHAMA January - March 2021


Risk Capital


Figure 1: MIT-Stakeholder Framework for Innovation Ecosystems -


Digitization and Digital Transformation (DT) restructure global economies, institutions, businesses, and society on all levels. Embracing digitalization through combining different technologies (e.g. cloud technologies, electronic

Development Partners Regional and International Organisations with interest in Digital Sector

sensors, big data, droned, VR, AR, AI, Mobile Internet, cryptocurrency, IoT, genomics, energy storage, automation, crowdsourcing, and 3D printing) open unforeseen possibilities and offers the potential to create new products and services.



Academic & Research Institutions involved in the Digital Sector


CSOs/NGOs & Youth Networks CSOs, NGOs & Youth Networks Working with Communities

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At the same time, this digitalization has put pressure on corporates, governments, and educational institutions to reflect on their current strategy and explore new digital opportunities at early stages (figure 2).

Academic Institutions

Startups & Service Providers Innovation Hubs & Labs Working with Innovators, Tech Enthusiasts & Entrepreneurs

https://innovation.mit.edu/a ssets/MIT-Stakeholder-Fram ework_Innovation-Ecosyste ms.pdf


Private Sector Private Companies, Investment Firms, Telcos, Banks, ISPs etc in the Digital Sector

Public Institutions Policymakers and Regulators involved in the Digital sector

Figure 2: Digitalization Ecosystem: Rethinking African Universities Towards the Fourth Industrial Revolution @SAHARA venture 2019


Digitalization complements Business Model Innovation (DMI) as its exploits technological opportunities, resulting in innovation space (e.g. accelerator, hubs, entrepreneurship centres, and ICT Centre) that has been established in HLI, government agencies, and in the private sectors such as Silicon Dar. HLIs play a major role in transforming toward digitalization as they foster digital innovation entrepreneurship, collaboration

with the private sectors, and quick curriculum adaptation. They also promote innovation diversity and inclusion of nexus technology to society. Not all ICT based digital innovation solutions come from HLIs. These include M-Paper, NalaMoney, SomaApp, Queue Management System, MagilaTech-VSOMO, SheriaKiganjani, HalaApp, TANZICT, TANZIS, Tanzania ICT Technology Park, Dar Teknohama Business Incubator – DTBi, Silicondar, MITz Innovation,


Mtabe App, Agrobotz, Worknasi, FundiSmart, DukaDirect, FundiApp, FundiBora, SmartClass, Mjiwangu, Ubongokids, Apple, Microsoft, Intel, Cisco, Facebook, Samsung, Oracle, Qualcomm, Google, Amazon, Hewlett-Packard Company, Tencent, IBM, and Alibaba. According to a recent study from “McKinsey Global Institute” digital technologies will drive major economic and societal transformations in the next several years with a potential economic impact of between $14













Figure 3: HDIF / COSTECH-Stakeholder Framework for Innovation Ecosystems in Tanzania Catalyzing and Scaling Innovation in Tanzania report @HDIF 2020

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trillion and $33 trillion a year in 2025. The value of these emerging technologies could constitute one-third of the global GDP. Digital innovation allows the overcoming of social, technical, geographical, and organizational barriers. They also pose serious managerial and organizational challenges to the manufacturing sectors, government operations, and education sectors. The new role of HLI as a key stakeholder and agent in digital innovation and regional development, especially growing digitalization, new societal demand, and economic challenges. Digital innovation in the era of industry 4.0 requires a new set of skills, thus HLIs needs to evaluate their mechanism of

producing graduates who support the unique properties of digital technologies to set up dynamic innovation scholars. As technology advances and the job market becomes more competitive, the meaning of “receiving a good education” is changing rapidly. Universities have to quickly adapt to the changes and should prepare students for the jobs of tomorrow. The key question is: Where are HLIs in Tanzania/Africa in terms of the numbers of invention disclosure, technologies licenses, and patents, IPR, and start-ups launched (university spin-offs)?

developed or the number of graduates produced but rather on the number of technology transfer, IPR produced, Patented tech, University spin-offs, Student spin-off, Clusters, Science Parks, Economic Growth (Microeconomics evidence) and locally developed solutions that have been supported by HLI’s.

In conclusion, we need to redefine the new role of HLIs excellence; and it should not be based on the number of curricula

About the author Mr. Justin Alipoki Mwakatobe is a holder of a Master's degree in Computer Science, specializing in computer systems and networks from Wroclaw University of Science and Technology in Poland. He is currently an assistant lecturer and Head of the Department of Innovation and Incubation (DII) at Mbeya University of Science

and Technology (MUST). He has been working in the Innovation Ecosystem for the past four years as an Innovator, Mentor, and event organizer. As a junior researcher, his research focuses on computer networks (cyber-security), ICT solutions, and innovations (hardware and software) that can be used to improve the education sectors

and society. He is also a grant recipient of COSTECH/HDIF on Innovations (Drone, 3D Printer, and City Directory Mobile App).

His contacts Mbeya University of Science and Technology (MUST). P.O. Box 131 Mbeya Mobile: 0742396895 www.must.ac.tz E-Mail: jmwakatobe@mustnet.ac.tz.

CALL FOR CONTRIBUTIONS The Editor in Chief invites contributions in the form of articles and photographs on ICT and related fields. Articles should be original, with references where sources are quoted. A maximum of six A4 pages, in New Roman font 12. Photographs should be in JPEG format. The TEHAMA editorial offices are on No. 14 Jamhuri Street, Dar es Salaam. Mailing address: P.O. Box 70479, Postcode 11104. Phone: +255736848444. E-mail: dg@ictc.go.tz.

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TANZANIA RESTRUCTURES ITS DIGITAL SKILLS ECOSYSTEM To Attain The Vision 2025 Nkundwe Moses Mwasaga Digital Skills Developer High-Performance Computing(HPC)


recognition of changes in work conditions and labour markets brought by the Fourth Industrial Revolution (4IR), the Tanzania ICT Commission adopts a self-sustaining skills ecosystem based on Finegold (1999) as the framework to understand the conditions and context of digital skills demand, supply, deployment, and development within our digital economy. Based on Buchanan (2017), the


framework stipulates four interdependencies that are mutually reinforcing dynamics that are ever generating ongoing knowledge adaptation, growth, and creation to changing labour market and work conditions. In the context of 4IR, we describe the digital skills ecosystem of Tanzania to take account of the complexity created by economic, educational, and political contexts that can impact digital skills in terms of development, supply, demand, and deployment.

In addressing the skill base for a digital economy using the framework, the Commission defines Deployment as how digital skills are effectively practiced and utilized within a particular context. According to Anderson (2012), the Ecosystem benefits when the expertise, skills, and knowledge of the workforce are utilized well. The utilization of the skills can be about changing occupation (job roles and structure) to facilitate demand for multi-skilling in 4IR.

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According to a study conducted by the Commission in 2020 on Tanzania Digital Skills Development and Occupational Framework, the results showed that:


2. 3. 4.

Amongst employers, almost 87.7% of the respondents indicated that during the recruitment process the preference is given towards university degree graduates,

48.4% towards those with professional vendor-specifi c certificates

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46.3% with Diploma & Technical certificate s, and

19.5% with Vocational certificates as shown in figure 1 below;


Professional Vendor Specific Certificate


Vocational Certificate


Diploma & Technical Certificate


University Degree Certificate

88% 0%






Figure 1: The preference of employers towards various ICT certificates

The results prove the utilization of expertise, skills, and knowledge of the workforce employed in the digital skills ecosystem. Demand concerns with recognizing what current digital skills are needed in the ecosystem and what may be needed in the future to address the changing context brought by

specializations or skills that are difficult to be filled by employers are Cybersecurity, Artificial Intelligence, Big Data Analytics, Computer Forensics, Computer Security and Cryptography, Cloud Computing, Blockchain Technology, Robotics, Software Development, and ICT Project Management as shown below:

4IR. Oftentimes as stated by Finegold (1999), recruitment measures are recognized not to meet the skills demand of the ecosystem. In the case of the digital economy, the missing skills can be specialized, transferable, and generic to fulfill the demands of 4IR. The study also found that the current demands of digital



Artificial Intelligence


Big Data Analytics


Computer Forensics


Computer security & Cryptography


Cloud Computing


Blockchain Technology




Software Development


ICT Project Management


Information Systems Audit




Network Administration


Electronics Systems Design & Repair


Fibre Optic Network Design


Digital Art & Animation


Mobile Application Development


Datacentre Management


Web Development


Data Science


Radio Frequency Communication 0%

12% 10%






Figure 2: The Current Demands of Digital Specializations or Skills


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Analytics, Cybersecurity, Computer Security and Cryptography, Cloud Computing, Blockchain Technology, Computer Forensics, Software Development, Mobile Application Development, Robotics, and ICT Project Management.

Project Management, and Robotics.

The results in figure 2 are consistent with the results of employees, where the majority indicated that the skills gap was in Artificial Intelligence, Big Data Analytics, Blockchain Technology, Cloud Computing, Computer Forensics, Computer Security and Cryptography, Cybersecurity, ICT

Furthermore, when employers were asked about the future demand in digital specializations or skills, the study found, among others, the demand to be in Artificial Intelligence, Big Data


Artificial Intelligence Big Data Analytics

73% 63%

Cybersecurity Computer security & Cryptography


Cloud Computing

59% 59%

Blockchain Technology


Computer Forensics 44%

Software Development Mobile Application Development

42% 37%

Robotics 32%

ICT Project Management Information Systems Audit


Data Science


Network Administration

24% 22%

Database Development Skills


Web Development


Fibre Optic Network Design


Datacentre Management


Digital Art & Animation Electronics Systems Design & Repair


Radio Frequency Communication

17% 0%










Figure 3: The Future Demands of Digital Specializations or Skills

The results in figure 3 are consistent with the results of employees, where the majority indicated that the future digital specializations or skills demand are in Artificial Intelligence, Big Data Analytics, Cloud Computing, Computer Forensics, Computer Security and Cryptography, Cybersecurity, and Robotics. The current and future demands of digital specializations or skills as indicated by employees and employers are in line with the demands of digital skills brought by the digitally-enabled 4IR revolution. Supply concerns about how the ecosystem is nourished by the constant flow of skills, as

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indicated by Finegold (1999): Supply is about recruitment strategies that focus on retention and career development pathways. In recruitment measures, the emphasis is on extending expertise, skills, and knowledge through the new staff. The incentive of an attractive salary is normally used to attract those with the demanded qualification, skills, knowledge, and expertise. In 2019, the total number of graduates from the supply-side of our digital skills ecosystem with demanded qualifications, skills, knowledge, and expertise in ICT from the vocational system were 530; the technical system for all levels were 3230, and the university system were 1819.

These are encouraging numbers. However, according to the IMF, sub-Saharan Africa has been able to add to the job market an average of 9 million jobs per year since 2000. Most of these jobs are in the private sector and sectors with low productivity, such as low-value-added services and agriculture. The adoption of 4IR technologies in the private sector to improve their productivity will therefore create a demand for digital skills required in the 4IR. The supply side should thus keep pace with the demand for digital skills required in the digital economy.


According to a study by the Tanzania Digital Skills Development and Occupational Framework, the attributes that employers value more from ICT graduates clearly show that the majority of employers prefer both hard skills and soft skills; even though almost two-thirds of the employers prefer hard skills. Hence the possession of these skills will increase the probability of employees being retained and for the employers to consider career development pathways. The majority of employees cited the skills gap from most ICT professionals in the ICT Industry to be technical know-how skills in ICT, general ICT user skills,

written communication skills, managerial skills, and oral communication skills. The technical know-how skills in ICT scored the highest, followed by managerial skills. Development focuses on how expertise, skills, and competencies are nurtured within a context and go beyond training interventions. Formal learning, in-house training, on-the-job training, and informal learning can constitute skills development. In the digital economy, the workforce should be supported and encouraged in their use of technology so that digital skills can be developed, as indicated by Windsor (2008).

Do not provide on job ICT Professional Training

According to the Tanzania Digital Skills Development and Occupational Framework study, 81% of employers indicated that ICT professional employees meet the minimum job requirements needed to perform their daily tasks, but due to the undoubtedly dynamic nature of the ICT sector, 90% of the employers indicated that they need to provide on-the-job ICT professional training to their staff to keep them up to date with the current ICT trends as shown in figure 4.


Provide on job ICT Professional Training

Do not meet job requirements



Meet job requirements

81% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Figure 4: Percentage of ICT employees meeting job requirements and organizations providing on-job ICT Professional training.

However, despite the efforts of the majority of employers to upskill and reskill their ICT professions, a majority of the employer respondents indicated that they encountered challenges in conducting/providing such training, citing the high costs/fees associated with the ICT professional training as the major one, and an insufficient


number of training centres. Also cited were irrelevant courses offered and delivered by incompetent trainers. On ICT on-the-job training, the majority of employees indicated that this type of training focused on reskilling and up-skilling. However, they also said that ICT training exclusively focuses on

reskilling. This is consistent with the measures required by demands in digital skills brought by the digitally-enabled 4IR revolution.

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To sum-up, Tanzania will completely transit to the digital economy by 2025. According to the universal algorithm of economic system's transition to the digital economy by Shulus (2019), the first stage (the development of the sphere of ICT) in Tanzania) was passed in 2016 when the total value generated by the mobile operators alone was equivalent to 5.2 percent of Tanzania’s GDP. The second stage is characterized by the wide accessibility of the internet. In Tanzania, 82% of mobile phone users go online and access the internet via phones. The third stage is defined by a mass usage of the internet, which currently stands at 46%. The final stage is defined by the mass distribution of breakthrough digital technologies, for example, 4IR technologies.

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Nkundwe Moses Mwasaga Digital Skills Developer High-Performance Computing(HPC)

In the Context of the 4th Industrial Revolution (4ir): ICT Professionals Perspective


anzania is increasingly integrated into the global economy and transitioning to a digital economy at a very fast pace. To complement that, H.E President Dr. John Pombe Magufuli (2020), recognized the global changes brought by digitally-enabled 4IR when he delivered his inauguration speech to the 12th Parliament of the United Republic of Tanzania in Dodoma. To put this in perspective, the changes brought by 4IR create potential efficiencies and new opportunities in the formal and informal sectors. The measures articulated in his speech aim at ensuring that the consumption of 4IR technologies in the wider economy alleviates poverty. In taming the new wave of innovation driven by the 4IR the President reiterated that the Government


would promote research and innovation in ICT. This is in line with the UN Sustainable Development Goals agenda that stipulates, among others, the need to accelerate investment in research and development; and innovation (Goal 9). To address the most intractable policy challenge facing many governments, that as more people provided are access to advanced technologies, inequality increases, the President stressed that the Government would deploy the last-mile national ICT broadband backbone connectivity to districts; extend the broadband and internet penetration to 80%; and increase the mobile network penetration to 100% by 2025. According to GSMA (2015), the increase in mobile penetration would add 27,000 new jobs, increase the productivity of economic activity by 0.9%, and contribute an additional 549 million USD to GDP by 2020.

Comparatively, this is in line with the targets in the G20 Leaders’ Declaration in Hamburg, Germany (2017) that aims at ensuring that all their citizens, inclusively, are digitally connected by 2025. The President emphasized the need for the expansion of the national addresses and postcode system to cover more areas. The system is one of the foundations of e-commerce since a large part of e-commerce depends on logistics. To ensure investment in human development and digital skills for 4IR, he stressed the Government’s commitment to registering all ICT professionals in Tanzania. This will facilitate the planning and management of human resources that can work with advanced and emerging digital technologies in 4IR.

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STRATEGIC INVESTMENT IN DIGITAL INNOVATION For Mobile Industry In Tanzania’s Economy Nkundwe Moses Mwasaga Digital Skills Developer High-Performance Computing(HPC)


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igital technologies contribute significantly to productivity and economic growth in multiple ways. Being pervasive, increased use of ICT, and investment in general-purpose ICT increases overall productivity and efficiency in all sectors of Tanzania’s economy and regions. Sectoral productivity is the key to higher earnings and a more stable livelihood. In many aspects, ICT is the most innovative and growing sector in our economy. Globally, the ICT sector has contributed in a major way by facilitating innovative breakthroughs that boost productivity and economic growth in many countries. Being in the club of middle-income economies, Tanzania prioritizes investment in ICT research and innovation to stimulate local innovation and economic growth fuelled by the ICT sector and catch up with the world’s advanced ICT-driven innovations. By prioritizing ICT research and innovation activities in the ICT sector, Tanzania guarantees innovative breakthroughs that create jobs and contribute to economic growth. This is possible because of the inherent characteristic of very short development life-cycles of ICT solutions.


In line with this, the ICT sector recruits employees with higher education much higher than most other sectors, especially in the ICT service industry, which is dominated by software and services. In comparison to the ICT hardware manufacturing industry, the ICT service industry has the potential to create formal employment for youth who are characteristically tech-savvy. The focusing support to ICT research and innovation in the mobile industry, which has over 747 million SIM card connections in recent years, will produce a multiplier effect in youth employment as the industry is the significant job creator in sub-Saharan Africa. According to an association of mobile network operators worldwide (GSMA), in 2018, the whole of the sub-Saharan Africa mobile industry directly employed 1.2 million youth, and the projection is 1.5 million youth by 2025. The projected growth is going to be

s of September 2020, TCRA indicated that the voice telecom (fixed and mobile) penetration is 49,215,857 (88%) and the estimate of internet users is 27,900,069 (approximately one user of the internet in every two people). With these statistics, investment in research and innovation in mobile technology will continue to improve trade and facilitate new innovations for inclusive growth in rural areas. Not surprisingly, Tanzania, having achieved higher mobile access (penetration of fixed and mobile network) and a higher concentration of mobile users, has managed to cross to the club of middle-income economies much earlier.

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driven by smartphone penetration, increased network coverage, and mobile services innovation. These growth forces are collectively expected to create jobs by increasing demand for new and current mobile services.

“in 2018, the whole of the sub-Saharan Africa mobile industry directly employed 1.2 million youth, and the projection is 1.5 million youth by 2025”

PENETRATION 49,215,857 (88%)

voice telecom (fixed and mobile)

INTERNET USERS 27,900,069 one user of the internet in every two people



IN THE DIGITAL SPACE Ndimbumi Msongole Digital Marketing Consultan



TEHAMA January - March 2021


Author: Ndimbumi Msongole, Digital Marketing Consultant There are 27

million internet users in Tanzania. For a population of close to 60 million, this translates to a 49 percent penetration. This number is growing at a rapid rate of about 3% every year, meaning all businesses/ brands need to establish a digital presence or perish with the analogue world. But how exactly does a brand step in the vast world of digital space and stand out against the competition? The good news is that many Tanzanian businesses have not fully embraced digital marketing, making it an open battlefield where anyone can win and thrive. Here is a quick guide to establishing your brand online.

Set your goals There have to be reasons why you want to take your busines s online. The most common reasons are to generate more leads for your business, create brand awareness, and provide customer services. Set your goals according to the most pressing issues in your business. If you are short on leads then your primary goal should be on developing content that will attract more customers to your business. Put plans into place on how and when this content is going to be distributed to reach relevant people.

If you are completely new here this is what you should know about social media and how to use them


Is friendly, shares stories, articles and videos. Good for B2C

Be where your customers are. The most common mistake many businesses make when establishing brands online is to want to be in all places at all times. Your clients have preferences, find out where they spend their time online, and establish your presence there. You may be in all places digitalsay Facebook, Twitter, Website, Instagram, Linked In, etc. but always focus your energy onthat one space where your clients love to visit. Research your target audience and your competitors to gain valuable insights.


Is more visual, share your product in fun engaging ways. Good for B2C


Share news, opinions and quick responses. Good for B2B


Search Engine Optimization (SEO) Optimization is the act of making the best or most effective use of a situation or resource. By optimizing your online pages and websites you put yourself in the position of being found. If you are selling shoes in Dar es Salaam, optimizing your page will mak e your business come up when someone in the city is looking for shoes online. A quick start to SEO is to select keywords that your customers use while searching for a product such as yours and then create and publish as much content as possible using those same keywords. Customers will find you.

The social Media for Professionals, share powerful insights. Good for B2B

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Create a content calendar Brand yourself appropriately From the colours you use in every piece of content you publish, to the type of language and tone you need to give your brand a memorable personality and stick with it. All your digital spaces should carry your brand r colours, logo on the bio and you true posts should reflect the values of the business. Hire professionals to set up your online pages and create a guide for your team on how to run the page. This will not only set you aside from your competitors; it will also attract the right kinds of people into your pages.

Build you Digital Marketing Strategy World-wide the only businesses thriving on digital marketing are . those with an actual battle plan r you ut abo are you The clearer goals, where your clients are, and how they like to be approached the better are your chances of survival in the digital era. Do your research, set goals, decide on the metrics, and plan all your online actions. There are a lot of digital marketing strategists in Tanzania now, set up an appointment with one and get to work. This will save you both time and money as you do not want to go blindly into the unknown.


Consistency is the key to growing your brand online. Create a content calendar with at least seven posts a week. Share images with engaging captions, share short videos, and r blog about things related to you brand. The more often you post the more your potential clients will . see you, trust, and buy from you Your calendar should balance the content to include clients’ stories, useful information, national holidays, and final product promotion. You must find a professional digital marketing professional to help you build an effective calendar.

Track and Measure Your Growth When you have a , well-established online presence Look lts. resu the see to e it is tim back on your goals and decide on the kind of growth you want to see. For websites, one of the best tools you can use is Google Analytics and third-party platforms such as HootSuite to track your social media pages. According to Business.com, if your goal is brand awareness, then the metrics you should keep an eye on are Website Traffic, Search Volume, Reviews, and Social mentions. Whereas if you wanted to gain leads, your h metrics will include click-throug and l nne cha per s lead s, rate costs per lead.

Your Next Steps If you are ready to take on the online market and claim your share here is what you can do today. • Do small research on your clients and understand their online habits. • Create an online marketing strategy for the next year. • Create content and follow up on the insights. • Open your pages and set up your websites, there are many affordable ways to do so simply find the right professionals for the job. • Enjoy the process and be flexible to change as the online space changes every day.

About the Author Ndimbumi Msongole is a Digital Marketing Consultant with nine years’ experience building strategies and managing social media accounts for small and medium-sized enterprises. Her contacts: Email: mbumita@gmail.com Phone: +255 752 769 976.

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1 2 0 UM 2


Digital security aspects in the 4th Industrial Revolution LOCATION :

Morogoro Thursday - Friday

18th-19th February, 2021 Visit :www.ictc.go.tz ICT_commission



Ministry of Communication and Information Technology

Caroline Maumba Co-Founder and CEO of Carvy Crafts



arvy Crafts is an Internet of Things company that works on bringing affordable, home-grown automation solutions in Tanzania with a keen interest in the agriculture sector, contributing to efforts to steer the country towards the 4th Industrial Revolution. Recent scientific advancement in connectivity chips, and the local favourable communications infrastructure and wide internet penetration that has increased significantly during the 5th Phase


Government have made it easier to build and deploy internet of things solutions in the country. Our current efforts are mainly on building the Mucci Box, a plug and play, non-intrusive, irrigation automation that is in its third iteration, and almost production-ready. Our device is currently solar-powered and uses cellular and internet technology to connect to a companion app that helps users to set irrigation schedules and monitor their farms without the need for a physical presence on their farms.

With irrigation playing a significant role in controlling crop quality, by automating the process we aim at eliminating negative consequences attributed to human error and freeing up resources in the farm. According to Steve Wiggins of SciDevNet, since 2006, Tanzania has aimed at expanding the acreage under irrigation to one million hectares by 2020, a target reaffirmed by the Minister for Water and Irrigation in 2016. There is an opportunity to develop solutions that help to monitor and manage the rapid expansion of irrigation infrastructure.

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Ministry of Communication and Information Technology

INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGIES COMMISSION Samson Mwela Ministry of Communication and Information technology.

The Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) Commission (ICTC) is the Government’s ICT promotion body in the institutional framework of the Communication sector under the aegis of the Ministry of Communication and Information Technology. It was created by the Presidential Decree Government Notice (GN) No. 532 and became operational in July 2016. The establishment intention of the Commission, which is the Ministry’s implementation and monitoring arm of the National ICT Policy, is fourfold: 1. Strengthen coordination capacity of ICT activities in Tanzania, 2. Facilitate a smooth implementation of the National ICT Policy, 3. promote use of ICT and participation of the private sector, and 4. Participate in strategic ICT investment.

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Vision :

To be a dynamic world class digital model in promoting an ICT-enabled knowledge society.

Mission: To lead inclusive Knowledge and Information Society and contribute to national economic growth in Tanzania by providing technical and policy advice in cutting edge issues for sector development and strategic investment, promoting secure ICT deployment and profession recognition.

14 Jamhuri Street, Dar es Salaam. P.O Box P.O. Box 70479. Postcode 11104. Phone: +255736848444. E-mail: dg@ictc.go.tz. Website: www.ictc.go.tz.

Functions of the Commission fall into four broad categories namely investment, profession and standards, research and infrastructure and innovation in ICT. Nine key results areas of the Commission are: ● Facilitate effective and secure deployment of ICT application; ● Coordinate implementation of national ICT development projects and programs; ● Establish e-waste management mechanism for Tanzania; ● Promote information society security in Tanzania; ● Facilitate ICT entrepreneurship, research, software development and ICT parks; ● Facilitate development, registration and regulation of ICT professionals; ● Promote ICT investment opportunities; ● Create enabling infrastructure for e-transaction, e-commerce and other related transaction; and ● Enhance synergies in national ICT related projects and programs.


1. In short, the Commission’s mandate is mapped into the following areas.

ICT Legislation

Contributes to the development of legislation that can help technology to be adopted more easily in the market, while protecting consumer’s rights, data privacy and cybersecurity attacks

ICT profession Recognition

Ensure ICT professionals are recognized in the workplace, contributing to the development of the required standards and the set-up of professional categories within the ICT sector

Efficient Investments

Participates in strategic investments by promoting and attracting efficient investments in infrastructures in collaboration with MDAs and private sector

Universal Access to information Society Knowledge

Ensures that all citizens can access to the ICT Commission website and knowledge portal where ICT related themes will be provided under different means (news, reports, studies, newsletters, virtual training)

Technical Support to the Government

Provides direct information and support to the government in the field of ICT participating in the ICT national policy definition and coordinating activities in the field of e-learning, e-health, e-commerce, broadband, LoT, cybersecurity, Big Data, Cloud Computing, in collaboration with the private sector. Figure 1: Role of ICTC in different areas

Operations of the Commission, which are guided by the Strategic Plan, are made up of the ICT market development, ICT infrastructure and security, ICTcertification and standards and ICT human capital development. 1.1 ICT Market development The ICT Market Development is geared towards supporting ICT development and modernization in Tanzania, as well as contributing to the development of the information and knowledge society, and promoting the development of an eco-system where both consumers and businesses will benefit. This pillar therefore focuses on the way ICTC will support ICT market development and modernization, contributing to improve innovation and entrepreneurship in the industry, to attract and manage ICT project investment and assume the leading role of coordinating the ICT sector in Tanzania. This pillar presents three strategic objectives: ●Contribute to improve innovation and entrepreneurship in the ICT industry. It includes research activities and innovation in ICT; Foster development and promotion of local content in ICT products and services through incubation programmes and Promote business process outsourcing (BPO) and IT enabled services ● Attract and manage ICT project investment. It includes to improve ICT sector information availability to local and international investors and increase the speed of process and contact with investors for ICT sector ● Assume the leading role of coordinating the ICT sector in Tanzania. it includes to reinforce ICTC reputation in the market and citizens awareness and interaction; to facilitate the liaison between Government and private sector for ICT agenda and to provide advice on project selection and support the implementation and evaluation to improve cost efficiency and project management


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1.2 ICT infrastructure and security

1.3 ICT certification and standards

1.4 ICT Human Capital

This pillar is geared towards supporting infrastructure and security development and modernization, as well as contributing to a secure environment that builds confidence and trust in the use of ICT products and services. This pillar therefore focuses on the way ICTC supports ICT infrastructure and security, creating an ICT infrastructure friendly environment and protecting national ICT systems with a leading-edge cybersecurity strategy. This pillar presents two strategic objectives, namely: create an ICT infrastructure friendly environment and protect national ICT systems with a leading edge cybersecurity strategy.

This pillar is geared towards supporting ICT professional certification and ICT standards development in the country. The use of existing standards and the development of new ones as well as standardized approaches to achieve interoperability should be supported by standards development organizations, with the active participation of the ICT industry. Priority areas that need ICT standardization include, but are not limited to: interoperability of technologies and systems; control of electronic gadgets; harmonization of institutional mandates; quality of ICT related service; and hardware and software standards. This pillar presents two strategic objectives, namely: create an ICT profession recognized by the market and use standard and compatible ICT systems and solutions.

The ICTC needs to strengthen its core competencies by attracting and retaining the best professionals available. To be successful, the ICTC needs to be aligned with the key factors of success. In some cases, internal resources may not be sufficient to meet requirements, leading the ICTC to outsource some activities to external partners, for example through service level agreements (SLAs). This pillar focuses on the need for ICTC to build internal practices, based on a robust organizational model to allow the gradual creation of a strong human resources culture and transform ICTC into an ICT body of knowledge and centre of excellence, developing ICT skills and leadership capacity, and cooperation and collaboration with the various stakeholders. This pillar presents three strategic objectives, namely: adopt best practices in organization management; transform the ICTC into an ICT body of knowledge and a centre of excellence and develop ICT skills and leadership capacity in the sector.

This pillar includes the following flagship initiatives: ● National e-waste management plan and project. ● ICT infrastructure in buildings and allotments. ● Smart cities. ● Information security standards body of knowledge.

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It includes the following flagship initiatives: ● ICT Profession Accreditation Programme ● ICT Repairers Empowerment Programme ● ICT capacity building programme ● ICT standards forum

It includes the following initiatives: ● Project management office, ● Information systems strategic plan, ● ICT observatory and knowledge centre, ● Industry digital talent programme, ● Digital school programme.


ICT PROFESSION OFFICIALLY RECOGNIZED IN TANZANIA Tumaini Magila Communication and Information Technology Expert


Tanzania has eventually recognized the Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) profession after a long waited and historic launch of registration and recognition of the ICT profession on 7th October 2020 in Dar es Salaam by Honorable Engineer Isack Aloyce Kamwelwe, the then Minister for Works, Transport and Communication. Currently there are four registration categories namely ICT Consultant, ICT Professional, ICT Graduate and ICT Technician. The Ministry of Communication and Information Technology defines an ICT Professional as a person with proven relevant skills who is registered by the Commission to perform specialized professional activities related to computer and communication systems, hardware, software, ICT management, data communication and management, signal processing, security, electronics, analytics, Internet, ICT Infrastructure and e-services".


Education statistics in Tanzania show that since year 2016 universities have produced 5,633 graduates in ICT related programmes (source: TCU,2020); technical institutions have produced 9,149 graduates (source: NACTE, 2020) and vocational training centers (VET) have produced 1,440 graduates (source: VETA, 2020) who enter the job market and require professional recognition. There is also another group joining the ICT profession through certification and practice who need recognition as well. All these will be registered and recognized in various categories of the ICT profession. The community of ICT profession in Tanzania is therefore urged to visit https://iprs.ictc.go.tz to apply for registration. Registration journey begun in November 2015 when the ICT Commission was established by presidential decree with a mandate to register, regulate and promote the ICT profession in

Tanzania. This formal recognition of the profession is a fulfilment of the National ICT Policy objective on ICT human capital development. In the speech he delivered during the inauguration of Parliament in Dodoma in November 2020, His Excellency Dr. John Pombe Joseph Magufuli, the President of the United Republic of Tanzania assured the community of ICT profession that in next five years the Government will recognize and register ICT Professionals as a measure for the country to benefit with the 4th industrial revolution (4IR). This is a high level Government intervention and commitment to prepare the country to benefit with 4IR potentials and specifically digital economy that require professional competence in such new skills as artificial intelligence, blockchain, cloud computing, and many others.

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The primary objective of professional registration is to improve the ICT profession by ensuring professionals practice and adhere to highest standards. Specifically, the registration will enhance the quality of ICT human resources and professional services; raise the profile of the ICT profession; provide a common methodology in assessing/reviewing ICT capabilities; attract more young people to join the profession; facilitate professional career development; and advance Tanzania’s position as a leading knowledge based society. Registration brings the following benefits to the community:


Public recognition for professional excellence, competence and knowledge . Registration demonstrates commitment to standards, and to developing and enhancing competence. Greater status, influence and self-esteem . This brings a great sense of achievement, credibility with colleagues and the public, respect from the wider industry and, for many individuals, boosts self-esteem and confidence.


Evidence of skills . Show employers, peers and the public that you have spent a number of years developing your skills, confidence, knowledge and understanding within your field and have clearly demonstrated your competence and commitment to developing yourself professionally.


4. 5. 6. 7.

Demonstrate ethical credentials . Tell others that you are committed to working to high ethical standards and gives them trust and confidence in you as a professional. Improve chances of career prospects and employability . The registration title offers an element of prestige, which improves CV and may lead to wider employment options, career progression and promotion. Greater influence within own organization and industry . The post-nominal designations are well respected and demonstrate your level of skill, knowledge and understanding within the profession.

Access life-long learning resources and confirms commitment to CPD . Continuing Professional Development (CPD) enables you to take responsibility for enhancing your knowledge, skills and competence throughout your career. CPD is the bridge between where you are now and where you want to be.

8. 9.

Higher earning potential . Being a professionally-registered technician, you are more likely to enjoy higher earnings across your working life. This is because employing registrants brings benefits to your employer, such as increased customer confidence; this could help them to win more contracts, in turn improving their bottom line.

Become a leader within a field. Being professionally registered is a mark of excellence, which reflects the stages in your career, encouraging you to work towards and achieve the highest standards of professionalism.


Being part of a national community of cross-disciplinary specialists . The registrar works with national organizations to promote recognition of their standards and titles. This helps to facilitate the national mobility of professionally registered individuals.

The Commission registers professionals based on their areas of specializations such as system developers, network management, signal processing, computer security, etc. Specializations are important because as the country is moving towards industrialization within the information age and for Tanzania to maintain its middle income economy position, exploitation of digital technologies and high – tech systems is required. These digital technologies are changing based on the pace of technological advancements hence need for the national to have experts in various ICT fields. A strong and progressive Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) sector requires competent, ethical and trustable workforce. As economic activities in Tanzania continues to rely on ICT platforms and infrastructure, the ICT profession was yet recognized. Interested individuals and prospective applicants are hereby urged to contact the ICT Commission and the Ministry of Communication and Information Technology for assistance and registration facilitation. Official recognition of the ICT profession is the beginning of economic transformation towards digital economy.

TEHAMA January - March 2021



Alipofungua rasmi Bunge la 12 la Jamhuri ya Muungano wa Tanzania, Dodoma 13 Novemba 2020, Rais wa Jamhuri ya Muungano wa Tanzania, Mhe. Dkt. John Pombe Joseph Magufuli, alitaja vipaumbele katika kuendeleza sekta ya mawasiliano na teknolojia ya habari miaka mitano ijayo (2020 – 2025). Hii ni sehemu ya hotuba yake.

Dunia hivi sasa ipo kwenye Mapinduzi ya Nne ya Viwanda (yaani the Fourth Industrial Revolution) ambayo yanaongozwa na sekta ya mawasiliano (ICT). Shughuli nyingi duniani, kwa sasa, zinafanyika kwa kutumia TEHAMA. Hivyo basi, sisi nasi hatuna budi kwendana na kasi hiyo ya kukua kwa sekta ya mawasiliano. Kwa msingi huo, tumepanga, kwenye miaka mitano ijayo, pamoja na 40

masuala mengine, kufikisha miundombinu ya Mkongo wa Taifa kwenye maeneo mengi ya nchi yetu, hususan Wilayani, tutaongeza wigo wa matumizi ya mawasiliano ya kasi (yaani broadband) kutoka asilimia 45 ya sasa hadi asilimia 80 mwaka 2025. Aidha,tumepanga kuongeza watumiaji wa intaneti kutoka asilimia 43 ya sasa hadi asimilia 80 mwaka 2025 na pia kuboresha matumizi ya simu za mkononi ili kupatikana nchi nzima.

Zaidi ya hapo, tutatoa kipaumbele kwenye masuala ya utafiti na ubunifu kwenye TEHAMA; tutawatambua na kuwasajili wataalam wote wa TEHAMA; na tunakusudia kuweka anuani za makazi (postikodi) maeneo mbalimbali nchini. Tutaimarisha pia usalama kwenye masuala ya Mawasiliano.

TEHAMA January - March 2021

Kuelekea Mapinduzi ya Kidijitali Tanzania Ilani ya Uchaguzi ya Chama Cha Mapinduzi (2020-2025) imesheheni mipango ya kuimarisha ubora wa mawasiliano nchini na kuhakikisha wigo wa mawasiliano unaongezeka na kuwafikia wananchi wote. Hii ni sehemu ya Ilani hiyo kama inavyogusia masuala ya teknolojia ya habari na mawasiliano na mifumo ya kidijitali. Katika kufikia lengo hilo, Chama Cha Mapinduzi kitahakikisha Serikali yake inaongeza faragha na usiri wa taarifa za wananchi katika mawasiliano kwa kukamilisha kutunga sheria ya kuimarisha ulinzi wa taarifa na takwimu. Maeneo mengine ni kuimarisha mfumo wa TEHAMA wa kudhibiti usalama na mapato katika mawasiliano, kuongeza mchango wa sekta ya mawasiliano kwenye Pato la Taifa kwa kuongeza matumizi ya TEHAMA na kubuni na kutekeleza mikakati ya kuweka mazingira bora ya ushindani na udhibiti katika sekta ya mawasiliano ili wananchi wengi zaidi wamudu gharama za mawasiliano. Mipango mingine ni kuongeza,ifikapo 2025 wigo na matumizi ya mawasiliano ya kasi (broadband) kutoka asilimia 45 hadi asilimia 80, kuongeza watumiaji wa intaneti kutoka asilimia 43 ya Watanzania hadi asilimia 80 na kuanzisha huduma za mawasiliano za intaneti ya kasi (broadband) maeneo ya umma (public places) ikiwamo maeneo ya hospitali,taasisi za elimu na vituo vya usafiri hadi kufikia asilimia 40. Vilevile inalengwa kuunganisha taasisi  za Serikali na miundombinu ya mtandao wa

TEHAMA January - March 2021

kasi (broadband infrastructure) kufikia asilimia 70, kuboresha huduma za mawasiliano ya simu za viganjani ili kupatikana maeneo yote na kuweka mazingira wezeshi ya kuanzisha viwanda vya uzalishaji wa vifaa vya TEHAMA vyenye uwezo wa kutoa ajira kwa wananchi walio wengi na kuzalisha vifaa vinavyotumika ndani na nje ya nchi, na kujenga kiwanda cha kuchakata taka za kielektoniki ili kudhibiti uharibifu wa mazingira. Matumizi ya mifumo ya TEHAMA yatahamasishwa katika utoaji huduma, biashara na uzalishaji ili kuongeza uwazi, ufanisi, na kuboresha maisha ya wananchi kichumii na kijamii. Aidha ibara 102 (d) na (l), na 103 (a hadi e) zinaainisha mikakati ya kuendeleza sayansi na teknolojia katika kipindi cha miaka mitano ijayo. Ibara 102 (d) inaelezea vipaumbele vitakavyowekwa katika kujenga na kuendeleza uwezo wa Tanzania na kuimarisha matumizi salama ya sayansi, teknolojia na ubunifu katika maeneo ya kimkakati ikiwemo matumizi salama ya teknolojia ya nyuklia na maendeleo ya teknolojia ya kidijitali, yaani digital technology. Uimarishaji na uhamasishaji wa matumizi ya sayansi, teknolojia na ubunifu katika uchumi wa kidijitali, yaani digital economy vimejadiliwa katika ibara 102 (l). Msisitizo uko kwenye utoaji na usimamizi wa huduma za Serikali mtandao, miundombinu ya TEHAMA katika nyanja zote za uchumi na ulinzi wa mitandao.

ya 103 ambapo CCM inasisitiza kwamba inatambua umuhimu wa mifumi ya kidijitali katika kuleta maendeleo kwa kuongeza ufanisi katika uzalishaji na utekelezaji wa shughuli mbalimbali na kutoa fursa za kuongeza vipato vya wananchi na Taifa kwa ujumla. “Uchumi huo umeonekana kuwa eneo muhimu katika kuchangia kukuza uchumi nchini kama ilivyofanyika katika nchi nyingine za kipato cha kati. Aidha, uchumi wa kidijitali unarandana na mapinduzi ya nne ya viwanda yanayokuja na ambayo hayaepukiki. Hivyo basi, CCM itaendelea kusimamia Serikali kuhakikisha kuwa teknolojia mpya za kidijitali zinatumika kuongeza ufanisi katika sekta za uzalishaji na kuepuka madhara yanayoweza kutokea�, Ilani hiyo inaeleza. Katika kipindi cha 2020-2025 CCM itaelekeza Serikali kuandaa na kutekeleza mikakati ya kuendeleza na kuongeza uwezo wa kitaalam na matumizi ya teknolojia mpya za kidijitali; kudhibiti athari hasi zinazoweza kutokea kutokana na matumizi ya teknolojia mpya za kidijitali na kurahisisha utoaji wa huduma mbalimbali za Serikali kwa umma kwa kuanzisha Vituo vya Huduma Pamoja (One Stop Centre) ili kuongeza ufanisi na kurahisisha upatikanaji wa huduma za Serikali. Uimarishaji wa kituo cha utafiti, ubunifu na uendelezaji wa TEHAMA ikiwemo kujenga uwezo na kuongeza matumizi ya teknolojia mpya za kidijitali pia vimeainishwa kama vipaumbele.

Umuhimu wa uchumi wa kidigitali unajadiliwa katika ibara





Huduma hii inaletwa kwako na kampuni ya Broad Security Technologies KUNUNUA 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.


Ingia kwenye anuani ya tovuti https://broadsecurity.co.tz/ Chagua product ya Bitdefender unayoipenda na weka idadi ya key unazohitaji Bonyeza BUY. Utaelekezwa kwenye ukurasa wa kapu (Cart) Bonyeza Con�nue shopping kuendelea kuweka product nyingine kwenye kapu, Endelea hatua ya 2 – 4, hadi pale utakapo kuwa umeweka product zako zote unazohitaji Jaza taarifa zako kwenye eneo la Cart summary. Hakikisha unajaza taarifa sahihi. Chagua njia ya kulipia Bonyeza place order kukamilisha ununuzi.

MALIPO 1. Utapokea ujumbe kwenye simu uliyoingiza, ukiwa na maelezo ya


kulipia. Namba ya kampuni na kumbukumbu (reference) namba. 2. Lipia kwa kutumia mtandao wa simu ulio chagua. Kwa kufuata hatua za mtandao husika na kutumia namba ulizopokea katika ujumbe. 3. Utapata uthibitisho wa malipo EZYTRADE AFRICA



1. Mara baada ya kukamilisha hatua za malipo, utapokea ujumbe wa simu wenye key zako. 2. Utapokea email kupitia email uliyo andikisha, yenye link ya kupakua product zako za Bitdefender Antivirus zako ulizonunua, pamoja na key. 3. Pakua product husika kwenye kifaa chako unachotaka kukilinda. 4. Endelea ku install kwa kufuata maelezo ya product 5. Sajili na ingiza product key ulizotumia 6 Kuistall kwenye simu pakua App ya Bitdefender Mobile Security kutoka kwenye play store (Android) au Apps store (Apple - iOS)

Broad Security Technologies ni wasambazaji pekee wa product za Bitdefender

P.O.Box 22718, Victoria Plaza Mezzanine Floor, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania Mob: +255 673 221 933 / +255 754 059 801 Email: info@broadsecurity.co.tz, Web: www.broadsecurity.co.tz

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20-22 OCT







The ICT commission established the first Tanzania ICT magazine which will be a source of reliable and credible information for various uses...


The ICT commission established the first Tanzania ICT magazine which will be a source of reliable and credible information for various uses...

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