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Montessori Leadership is the official magazine of the International Montessori Council, a non-profit organization. The opinions expressed in Montessori Leadership editorials, columns, and features are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the position of the magazine or the IMC. Acceptance of advertising does not represent endorsement of any product or service. The International Montessori Council does NOT grant permission to reprint material from Montessori Leadership in any other form (e.g., book, newsletter, journal). Copies of this issue or back issues are available for purchase online at www.montessori.org

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Copyright 2012 by The International Montessori Council. All rights reserved.

Chair Tim Seldin, M.Ed Editor Joyce St. Giermaine joycestgiermaine@montessori.org Art Director/IMC Membership Director/ Conference Coordinator and Bookstore Manager: Margot Garfield-Anderson Margot@montessori.org 800 632 4121 Phone 941 309 3961/FAX: 941 359 8166 Article submissions and consulting: Hillary Drinkell HillaryDrinkell@montessori.org 800 655 5843 and Sharon Caldwell SharonCaldwell@montessori.org Layout & Design Katrina Costedio katrina@katrinacostedio.com

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Montessori Leadership Features | july 2012 4

The Adult in the Montessori Prepared Environment by Sharon Caldwell

10 Letter From Your IMC Board by Margot Garfield-Anderson 11 Music-Making In Early Childhood Supports All Learning by Lili M. Levinowitz, Ph.D. 16 Why "Good Job" Rears Bad Job by Paul Epstein, Ph.D 21 SNAPSHOTS: Bullying by Hillary Drinkell 22 Living a Double Life by Claire J. Salkowski 28 The Life Cycle of the Red Rods by Cindy Venezia

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by Sharon Caldwell

THE “SPIRITUAL PREPARATION” OF THE ADULT

development and of appropriate pedagogical principles and methodology; what matters more is that he or she has the right attitude and disposition.3

M

aria Montessori saw the role of the adult in educating the child as something fundamentally different

Sometimes, this “spiritual preparation” is represented as some-

to the conventional role of the teacher. She postu-

thing almost esoteric, as a personal spiritual nurturance of the adult. While there is certainly a place for that, Montessori’s

lated that:

meaning as expressed in her own writings is something much “… a prejudice has found its way into the adult—the

more pragmatic. What she means is simply that the adult has

notion that life can be changed or improved only though

to identify and remove any preconceptions, any beliefs and

teaching. This prejudice impedes the understanding

prejudices that will prevent a proper understanding of, and

that the child constructs himself, that he has a teacher

interaction with, the child. Simple to say, but not so simple to

within himself, and that this inner teacher also follows a

do. For Montessori, this is an examination of the conscious-

program and technique of education, and that we adults

ness.4 The point is made by quite clearly by A.M. Joosten:

by acknowledging the unknown teacher may enjoy the privilege and good fortune of becoming its assistants and

“… the adult has always been trying to mold the child,

faithful servants by helping it with our co-operation.”

to turn the child into something he is not and is not

1

meant to be.”5 She further noted that the world in which the child finds himself works against his natural development, rather than sup-

If this is true, then there are profound implications for decisions

porting it.2

made within classes and schools regarding not only behavioral expectations but also the requirements for academic progress,

When we consider the nature of the Absorbent Mind and the

assessment, and other external criteria imposed on children. It

sensitivity of the young child to adult influence, it is evident

implies that the solution to “problem children” is to be looked

that the child will be greatly affected by the attitudes and

for in the adults who interact with them and in the physical

actions of any adult with whom he or she comes into contact.

environment, rather than in the children themselves.

For this reason, Montessori placed great emphasis on what

4

she called “the spiritual preparation of the adult.” It is not

All this concerns the intellectual aspect of the preparation that

sufficient that the adult has a theoretical knowledge of child

we definitely have to give to ourselves. There still remains,

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even more importantly than this, the

should go, we may use the word conver-

 “She will suppress her own personal-

spiritual preparation that we have to give

sion. It is we who have to be converted

ity, needs and wants, likes and dislikes,

to ourselves, the preparation of our spirit

in our attitude and with regard to our

so that the true personality of the child

with regard to our task in favor of the

real task concerning the child.

can flourish.”11

with regard to our attitude towards both

So how then is this “conversion”

the human being and its development.

achieved? Dr. Montessori gives certain

lectures nor book learning, nor through

This is not merely a question of learning

directives:

any act of the intellect that this transfor-

6

development of the human being and

something. It is a question of achieving

“Ultimately it is neither through

mation of the adult comes about; it is

a revolution within ourselves and of our

 “He/she must be free of preconcep-

through her interest in the child and her

whole outlook, of our whole attitude,

tions, and must have faith in the innate

ability to learn from the child.”12

and of everything we are (knowingly

ability and potentials of the child.”

7

ROLES OF THE ADULT IN THE PREPARED ENVIRONMENT

In a very real sense the role of the adult in the environment is defined more by what she does not do than by what she does do.

First, do no harm First and foremost the adult should apply the principle of non-maleficence: first, do no harm. This may appear, at first glance as obvious: What adult would deliberately set out to harm a child? From Montessori’s perspective, however, it is exactly our good intentions, our drive to help and to teach, or unknowingly). The discovery and

 “He/she must be humble, and con-

that become the greatest obstacle for a

exploration of all that we are without

stantly seek out means for personal

child. It is the “resumptions and “vain

having been aware of it is one of the

growth and improvement.”

prejudices” of the adult that make her

8

most exhilarating and fascinating expe-

an obstacle to the development of the

riences, because we precisely discover

 “She needs to have an understanding

unknown factors within ourselves. To

in the ability and natural tendency of the

try and set right the manner in which we

child towards normality, and will regard

Thus, education is aimed at facilitating

conceive our mission, and accordingly,

her role as an assistant, rather than as the

individual freedom. The adult helps

should fashion and shape our attitude

cause of this process.”

the child to meet his needs, to become

9

and being, that is spiritual preparation.

child.”13

independent. If the adult acts on behalf  “She would have the approach of

of the child, development is impeded.

Using the best of the most significant

a scientist—always seeking a greater

The result is what Dr. Montessori calls

words at our disposal to express how

understanding of the object of her

“psychic illnesses” and “deviations,”

radically we must change ourselves, and

study—the child.”

what we would today call behavioral or

to remind ourselves how far this change

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learning difficulties.14

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Some adult behaviors mentioned by

 Attending to her own inner, spiri-

Observation is also essential to under-

Dr. Montessori which can be an obstacle

tual preparation, which will help her to

stand how the environment needs to

for children are:

focus on her primary tasks of preparing

be adapted or corrected, to understand

the environment and of observing the

how the adult needs to adapt his own

 continual surveillance;

children. In addition she will need the

behavior and attitudes, to know what

 correction, admonishments;

wisdom and knowledge that will help

intervention, if any, is necessary to pre-

 arbitrary commands; and

her know when to refrain from interfer-

vent or limit disturbances, and so on.

ing in the work of the children and the

The importance of observation cannot

self-control to act on that knowledge.

be overemphasized, nor can the diffi-

 encouragements or rewards.

15

This

principle

of

non-intervention

culty of proper observation be underes-

should not be construed as abandon-

 Ensuring that an atmosphere of calm

ment. The child is not simply left free

prevails.

to his own devices—to a hit-or-miss approach that leaves the child helpless.

16

timated. Montessori stressed the importance of

 Ensuring that the children’s self-ini-

preparation for observation:19

tiated and self-directed activity is in no PREPARE AND MAINTAIN

way interrupted or impeded either by

THE ENVIRONMENT

 Children must not be disturbed “because the purpose of the observa-

Over and over, in her writings and lectures, Montessori makes it abundantly clear that the first duty of the adult is to prepare the environment for the child and then to keep it in a state that enables the child to develop according to natural laws, guided by the absorbent mind and

The environment is the teacher; the adult is merely an observer.

tion is to see what the children are doing independent of our presence.”  The observer is to remain absolutely silent and motionless.  The observer must not be tempted to show admiration or annoyance.

the sensitive periods. other children or other adults. This may

 Observers should not communicate

The teacher’s first duty is to watch over

include helping other adults in the envi-

impressions to one another.

the environment, and this takes pre-

ronment understand the necessity for

cedence over all the rest. Its influence

the requirements of non-interference.

is indirect, but unless it is well done, there will be no effective and permanent

observing ALL the children.

Observe.  Observers must know what to

results of any kind: physical, intellectual or spiritual.

In order to choose appropriate activities

17

 Observers should not cease from

observe.

to meet the children’s needs, the direcThis

preparation

would

include,

amongst other things:

Intervene To Give the Help that each child. Only by meticulous observa- Is Necessary. tress must carefully observe and assess

tion can the directress identify sensitive

6

 Ensuring that the physical environ-

periods to guide the child to the next

This is the point at which we come across

ment is properly prepared and main-

phase. Observation entails watching, as

something in Dr. Montessori’s writings

tained. This would entail acquiring or

unobtrusively as possible, without judg-

that appears as an extreme contradiction.

making the necessary materials, choos-

ment. It is necessary to observe for long

It is an issue which has contributed to a

ing suitable furnishings and tools, and

periods before forming an opinion. The

wide range of approaches to “discipline”

attending to the display and condition of

environment is the teacher; the adult is

in the Montessori environment ranging

this equipment.

merely an observer.

from an “anything goes” type of license

18

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on one extreme to a rigid authoritarian-

It is necessary to know the exact steps

sons which convey factual content are to

ism on the other. Adult authority in all

involved in each presentation. Consid-

be kept extremely short and to the point.

things is sometimes justified by citing

ering her observations of the child, the

that “Dr. Montessori believed in free-

adult will decide which materials to

dom within limits,” the limits being

present. The presentation is treated as

decreed by the adult in the environment.

a call to the child, an invitation to con-

Advocate for the Child to Society at Large.

centration and to work. The adult must

Maria Montessori felt that those trained

Neither of these extremes gives justice

not be too eager to present new materi-

in her approach had a role beyond the

to what Dr. Montessori was propos-

als, and should wait until the child has

prepared environment, but extended to

ing. But just what she was proposing

exhausted all the possibilities of those he

actually “bringing about a new attitude

is quite difficult to come to grips with.

was using before. As soon as the child

toward children on the part of adults.”24

It relies on a thorough understanding

becomes interested in the activity, the

22

WHAT’S IN A NAME?

of the complexities both of Montessori’s understanding of the child, and of nuances of the application of the methodology. It is no cookbook approach. There is evidence of real frustration in Dr. Montessori’s work as she attempted to explain the balance between necessary intervention and non-intervention.

20

One way of looking at this is explained by Susan Feez: “Montessori teachers are trained to remove obstacles, such as distractions or interruptions, when children are absorbed in activity marked by

The adult should not intervene to correct errors, but should rather find a time to represent lessons later.

effort.”21

Words can define reality—what we call something is what it becomes. Dr. Montessori tried to find a name for the adult in the environment that would be an accurate description of the role played by the adult. Initially she chose the word direttoressa translated into English by Anne George as directress. For older children she used the term maestra. Feez highlights the problem of using the word directress: “The meaning of the Italian word direttore is less about telling people what to

Present Materials and Other Lessons.

adult must withdraw and allow the child

do, and more about steering people in

to work and develop concentration. It is

the right direction. The word is used

generally very difficult, especially if the

for conductors and editors, as well as

This is the one role of the Montessori

adult has previously worked or trained in

for managers. When English-speaking

adult, which most closely resembles

a regular school, to know when to inter-

Montessori teachers use the term, it

teaching in the conventional sense of the

vene and when to keep back. Dr. Mon-

still has the valeur of its original Italian

word. The adult helps the child brings

tessori considered obtaining a “simple

use, but to English-speakers outside the

the child into contact with his environ-

lesson’ from a conventionally trained

movement, the word can seem harsh

ment and helps the child to interpret the

teacher as a particular challenge.

when referring to someone who works

23

environment in a number of ways. The

with small children.”25

main “teaching” method is the presen-

For this reason, it is essential that the

tation of materials. By simple and pre-

adult clearly understands the purpose of

While some Montessori schools favor

cise demonstrations, the child is shown

the various materials as well as the needs

“guide,” many revert to “teacher.”

how to handle materials in a way that

and intentions of the child. The adult

Montessori professionals may argue that

will lead to independent exploration and

should not intervene to correct errors,

the name of the people working in a

learning.

but should rather find a time to represent

Montessori classroom does not matter

lessons later. Vocabulary lessons, and les-

too much, provided that they follow the role of a “Montessori teacher.” On

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the other hand, it would seem, that

tinue to slip into the roles prescribed by

Many Montessori classrooms today

for a large majority of people, at least,

the terminology we are using. For this

are staffed by well-intentioned people,

the word “teacher” is used to describe

reason, I prefer to simply refer to the

who have received only a cursory train-

one who teaches. If this word is used

paid adults as “staff,” which carries no

ing and “left on their own or under a

to describe the adult in the Montes-

added implications.

principal or supervisor, who has only

sori environment, why are we surprised when parents expect to see a great deal

the vaguest idea how to help new MonTRAINING AND PREPARATION

of “teaching” taking place? Even trained

tessori teachers.” Kripalani warns that this tends towards new teachers being

Montessori staff may feel they are not

Lakshmi Kripalani, who was trained

pushed “toward mechanical teaching

doing their jobs (as “teachers”) if they

by Maria Montessori, has commented

or over dependency on the material” in

are not “teaching.”

that some teacher trainers have “mis-

order to meet the demands of standard-

read history and suggest that, from the

ized tests.28

Dr. Montessori argues for a large degree of freedom even at the elementary level.

THE PREPARATION OF THE ADULT

So how about “guide.” Does that adequately describe the role of the adult in a Montessori environment? I would argue not. A guide is a person who tells you which way to go. A guide (either a person or a text) provides a detailed commentary or set of instructions. A guide is a primary source of information. A cursory reading of Montessori’s writings on the role of the adult would indicate that the adult is required to do

FOR ELEMENTARY AND HIGHER

It is sometimes assumed that the directives outlined above only apply in the context of adults working with children under the age of six and that for the “teachers” of elementary and upward, the role becomes more similar to that seen in regular schools (and this may

little talking and much observing. As the

be supported by the use by Dr. Mon-

real guide in the Montessori environ-

beginning, Montessori put minimally

tessori of the word maestra to describe

ment is the child’s inner guide, (the sen-

prepared individuals in charge of her

that role). Even Montessori schools,

sitivities and tendencies appropriate to

classrooms.” Nothing could be further

which respect Montessori’s admonitions

each plane, along with the environment

from the truth. The early “teachers”

of non-interference at the earlier levels,

are the primary sources of information),

in the schools in Rome were not diret-

may condone increased levels of direc-

it seems that the use of the word “guide”

toressa, but merely “custodians,” whose

tion and control at the higher levels.

is an appropriation of these functions.

duty was to observe and record in detail

Dr. Montessori, however, insisted that

Small wonder, then, that very often the

whatever the children did. It was Dr.

even for children over the age of nine,

adults in Montessori classes tend to talk

Montessori,

the main focus should be removing

too much and give too many instruc-

observations and provided material and

tions to children, who could be acting

activities for the children.

who

interpreted

these

independently. So the adult is neither “teacher” nor “guide.”

8

obstacles:

26

Only thus can they obey the “natural Once she began her lecture series, Maria

process of psychic development.” It is

Montessori did not regard the courses

true that the teacher or lecturer has an

As Susan Feez has pointed out, in much

as sufficient to prepare someone lead a

ever more important role to play as cul-

of the world today “directress” just does

classroom unsupervised. She granted

ture reaches higher levels, but this role

not work either, for many reasons. It

certificates of attendance, with diplo-

consists rather in stimulating interest

would seem to me that until we find

ma’s being awarded once the teacher had

than in actual teaching.29

more suitable terminology to describe

“demonstrated success with children.” 27

what we are doing in our “prepared

Dr. Montessori argues for a large degree

environments,” we are going to con-

of freedom even at the elementary level.

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In Formation of Man Dr. Montessori

“The adolescent teacher must have the

describes children carrying out numer-

greatest respect for the young personal-

ous activities, which adults would

ity, realizing that in the soul of the ado-

regard as “a waste of time,” but notes

lescent, great values are hidden.”

35

that the children, nonetheless, “make exceptional progress in all the branches

Again, as with the earlier planes, it

of culture and also in art.”30 She argues

would appear that to be able to see the

that educational reform does not consist

adolescent as he truly is, to be able to

of changing what is or is not taught but

get past the preconceptions and the con-

rather constitutes examining “prejudices

tradictions, the demands of society and

relating to the child himself.”31

of the schooling paradigm, a “spiritual preparation” is needed.

In her work, Maria Montessori assumed that anyone taking “classes of the

REFERENCES

advanced type” would have completed the earlier course and, thus, be familiar with the psychology, which “plays a bigger part in preparation for the whole method,” and that more than anything else, the adult should “shed omnipotence and to become a joyous observer.”32 Lack of preparation leads adults to do what they find the easiest: “repress,

1. Montessori, M. (2007/1955). The Formation of Man. Montessori-Pierson Publishing. 46. 2. Montessori, M. (1989/1975). The Child in the Family. Clio Press. 41-42. 3. Montessori, M. (1966/1936). The Secret of Childhood. Ballantine. 149; Montessori, M. (1965/1918). The Advanced Montessori Method I. Kalakshetra. 107.

13. Montessori, M. The Child in the Family. 1989/1975), 24 14. Montessori, M. (2007/1949). Education and Peace. Montessori-Pierson. 15. Montessori, M. The Child in the Family. pp. 26, 27, 33 16. Montessori, M. Education and Peace. (2007/1949), 106. 17. Montessori, M. The Absorbent Mind. 253. 18. Montessori, M. The Child in the Family. (1989/1975), 28. 19. Montessori, M. (1921). “Some Suggestions and Some Advice upon the Method of Observing.” Course 1921, Lecture 3. 20. Montessori, M. The Child in the Family, 33. 21. Feez, S. Montessori’s Mediation of Meaning. 321. 22. Montessori, M. The Absorbent Mind. 256. 23. Montessori, M. The Montessori Method, 113. 24. Montessori, M. Education and Peace, 77.

4. For Montessori’s use of “psychic” and “spirit,” see Feez, S. (2007). “Montessori’s Mediation of Meaning: A Social Semiotic Perspective.” Retrieved Oct 10, 2009, from http://ses.library.usyd.edu.au/ handle/2123/1859?mode=full

25. Feez, S. Montessori’s Mediation of Meaning 42-43.

5. Joosten, A. M. (1974). The spiritual preparation of the adult. Around The Child. 15 (11).

27. Ibid., 168.

it.”34

6. Ibid.

29. Montessori, M. The Formation of Man. 40.

Clearly, the notion of the “spiritual

7. Montessori, M. (1988/1949). The Absorbent Mind. Clio Press. 252.

30. Ibid., 42-43.

command, destroy.”

33

Knowledge of

the content to be taught is also not sufficient. Besides “loving and understanding the child,” the Montessori teacher for the second plane must “first love and understand the universe. She must, therefore, prepare herself and work at

preparation” of the adult holds true at least through elementary schools. But what of those working with adolescents? From Montessori’s brief guidelines for the “high school,” it is amply clear that very different skills and attitudes would be needed, in contrast to those normally required for conventional teaching.

8. Montessori, M. The Secret of Childhood. 153. 9. Montessori, M. The Child in the Family. 63. 10. Montessori, M. (1912). The Montessori Method. Frederick A. Stokes Company. 7 & 9; Kripalani, L. (2010) Montessori in Practice: Observations from a First-Generation Montessorian. Montessori Services. 86-87. 11. Montessori, M. The Absorbent Mind. (1988/1949), pp. 240-251

26. Kripalani, L. More Montessori in Practice: Further Observations from a First-Generation Montessorian. Montessori Services. 169.

28. Ibid., 169-170.

31. Ibid., 45. 32. Montessori, M. (1989/1948). To Educate the Human Potential. Oxford, England: Clio Press. 83. 33. Ibid., 84. 34. Montessori, M. (1994/1948). From Childhood to Adolescence. Clio Press. 20. 35. Ibid., 72.

12. Montessori, M. (1965/1918), 131 J U LY 2 0 1 2 | W W W. M O NTESSORI.ORG/IMC | © MONTESSORI LEADERSHIP

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FROM YOUR IMC BOARD Dear Members: We thank you for your loyalty and continued support. The IMC continues to grow and reach across the globe. We hope we can count on your membership for this next year to go even further. We have brought back the San Jose, California conference for April 2013, due to the encouragement of our member base on the west coast. We hope that many of you will consider joining us. Here are a few important membership and Board decisions to announce: As of May 1, 2012, The Board of Trustees voted, approved, and instituted the following changes to the IMC. Here are the five issues that were passed:  The Board approved a membership dues increase of the Individual level to $60USD annually. Please know that this is the first time in the IMC’s history that an increase in membership dues has been implemented. The increase is a reflection of the steadily rising cost of printing and postage.  The annual fee for IMC accreditation, or continuing accreditation candidate school status, will be increased to $200 annually. This too, is the first time in the IMC’s history that an increase in membership dues has been implemented. The increase is a reflection of the cost of coordinating the program.  Kathy Leitch, Head of School, The Renaissance School, (Fort Myers, Florida, USA) and Carol Brands, Consultant and former Head of School, TreeTops Montessori School (Perth, Australia) have joined the IMC board as ex-officio members. Kathy Leitch was elected to serves as Treasurer.  The Board also appointed three new members to the IMC School Accreditation Commission: Kathy Leitch, Head of School, The Renaissance School (Fort Myers, Florida, USA); Suzanne Pugin, Head of School, Ghent Montessori School (Norfolk, Virginia, USA); and Mary Beth Ricks, Head of School, Bowman International School (Palo Alto, California, USA).  Finally, until further notice, the IMC Board has determined that, effective May 1, IMC teacher training center membership programs will need to have first earned IMC accreditation. This decision was made to address confusion that has occurred when some students of affiliated programs have incorrectly assumed that, upon graduation, they would receive IMC teacher certification. IMC membership continues to be open to individuals, Montessori schools, and affiliated state or national Montessori organizations. Teacher training programs, which are not yet IMC accredited but which currently hold IMC membership, may continue their membership in good standing, so long as dues and fees are kept current. Of course, we invite all training centers to go through IMC teacher training program accreditation. Best regards, Margot Garfield-Anderson Margot Garfield-Anderson, IMC Membership Director Membership Office: 935 N Beneva Rd., Ste 609-56, Sarasota, FL USA 34243 margot@montessori.org Phone: (941) 309-3961 Toll Free: 800-632-4121  Fax: (941) 359-8166

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© MO N T E SSO R I L E A DE R SH I P | W WW.MONTESSORI.ORG/IMC | JULY 2012


by Lili M. Levinowitz, Ph.D.

E

arly childhood professionals have a long-standing

ers, and early childhood professionals rediscover the plea-

positive relationship with the use of music in

sure and educational value of non-formal music experiences.

their curriculum and classroom practices. Music

“Music Together has been a wonderful addition to our Mon-

can expand and enhance the early childhood cur-

tessori program,” says Teresa De Andrado, Lead Directress of

riculum and help young children develop the language and

San Tan Montessori in Gilbert, Arizona, USA. “The con-

literacy skills that are important to their later school readi-

cept of the child’s own natural musical ability being developed

ness. Recent neuro-

through modeled par-

scientific

informa-

ticipatory activities and

tion that supports

discovery through

the use of music for

personal exploration

spatial temporal in-

is a natural exten-

telligence, language

sion of the Mon-

memory, and learn-

tessori philosophy.

ing has also height-

The

Music

To-

ened the importance of the use of music in the core curricu-

gether materials and songs can be incorporated in many ways

lum of the early childhood classroom (Rauscher, et al., 1993,

throughout the day; they are particularly helpful for transi-

1997).1 Music learning supports all learning!

tions. They allow for improvisation and direct application to current topics of the classroom. The children love the music

One curriculum model that has been successfully integrated

and the songs and look forward to the class each week.”

into many preschools in the United States and abroad is the Music Together Preschool program. This program is based

The Music Together curriculum includes a variety of music

on the philosophy that all children are musical and that they

and movement experiences designed to stimulate and support

are born with the ability to make sense of music and to par-

music learning. Activities include different types of movement;

ticipate in the music of their culture with joyfulness and ease.

ritual songs that provide a comforting predictability; flexible

The Music Together Preschool program goes beyond the

songs that offer opportunities for variation, development, and

once-a-week model of in-school music to create a music-

improvisation; instrument play with striking, shaking, and

making sensibility that infuses children, their teachers, and

tonal instruments; vocal play in a wide range of tonalities;

their parents with a feeling of community and musical rap-

and the exploration of rhythm, meter, and different levels of

port. The Music Together approach espouses the participa-

beat. The curriculum model is designed to be accessible and

tion in and modeling of spontaneous musical activity within

interesting for all styles of learning. Through a non-formal

the context of daily life, both in school and at home. In fact,

approach that is developmentally appropriate for the very

Music Together is committed to helping families, caregiv-

young, the Music Together Preschool program stimulates

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11


exploration and discovery. Children’s

and fit with our Montessori philosophy.

When separate developmental domains

natural learning cycle of play, discovery,

Music Together provides a real approach

were measured using the assessments

repetition, and mastery is engaged, and

to learning through a highly interactive

for the Creative Curriculum, the results

they can move toward acquiring the

and often hands-on approach, which

showed that children in classrooms

basic music competence that is their

is both fun and stimulating for our

that experienced the Music Together

birthright.

children ages six months through six

Preschool program (the experimental

years. The technique easily engages the

group) scored better to a statistically

Each semester, the Music Together

children and assists in the building of not

significant degree on cognitive change,

Preschool program introduces a different

only music skills, but also of math and

language development, and physical

song collection (there are nine different

language skills.”

development compared to children

collections that rotate over a three-

in classrooms that did not experience

year cycle). Each collection

the Music Together Preschool

has a carefully balanced mix

program (the control group). In

of songs, rhythmic rhymes,

the area of social development,

tonal and rhythm patterns,

children in the Music Together

and instrumental play-alongs

experimental group also scored

in a wide variety of tonalities,

better,

meters,

meeting statistical significance

and

musical

styles.

Two CDs and an illustrated

approaching

but

not

(Cohen and Frank, 2009).

songbook—which includes tips for at-home music-making—go

In 2003, a study was conducted

home to parents, to help them

in the Trenton Public Schools

connect to your processes in

to understand the impact of

school. Participating preschools

the Music Together Preschool

receive a comprehensive, high-

program

quality music program, which

children’s school readiness and

includes classroom materials

on their long-term literacy. This

and the professional support

three-year project showed that

necessary to help preschool

children in the Music Together

teachers bring music into other

experimental

curriculum areas. The Music

higher—as assessed on both the

Together specialist not only

Brigance Preschool Screen and

leads a weekly music class but

the long-term literacy subtest of

also acts as a music mentor to

the Terra Nova Test—than those

the classroom teachers.

12

scored

in the control group who did not use the Music Together Preschool model (U.S.

“As a Montessori educator for over

learning are common among classroom

Department of Education, OMB No.

seventeen

teachers using the Music Together

1890-0004). These higher scores were

opportunity to observe other music

Preschool

not statistically significant; however, it is

programs in action,” says Robyn L.

now

have

notable that the scores did not go down,

Vanllandingham, Director of A Lakes

long noticed. Recently, a project was

given that the experimental group, due

Region Montessori in New Hampton,

designed to evaluate the efficacy of the

to their music-making activities, spent

New Hampshire. “None have fit as well

Music Together Preschool program

less time than the control group on

as the Music Together curriculum. Our

within the Creative Curriculum for

literacy and numeracy tasks. Therefore,

highly motivated instructor, along with

preschool children in the Bridgeport,

the researchers concluded that the

the Music Together materials, balance

Connecticut, (USA) public schools.

Music Together Preschool program

have

had

the

program,

supports

what

and

of

group

preschool

music

I

observations

on

learning supporting other types of years,

Anecdotal

both

research

teachers

© MO N T E SSO R I L E A DE R SH I P | W WW.MONTESSORI.ORG/IMC | JULY 2012


does support the attributes that young

with obvious enjoyment instead of

or “vocables,” or even invent your own

children need for school success.

simply putting CDs on as background

lyrics. This provides a model for children

music. Share some of your favorite CDs

to break away from traditional lyrics

Unfortunately, information like this is

for dancing, too, and dance with the

and be more creative musically during

often marginalized, and receives little

children.

solitary play. You’ll see that children

media attention. In the current culture

will sing the melody to songs without

of perfection, most persons equate

 Create a music-making environment.

words more accurately than to songs

music-making with talent, believing

As Maria Montessori observed, “To

that contain lyrics (Levinowitz, 1989).

that only a chosen few deserve to or

assist a child we must provide him with

Modeling spontaneous singing that

may dare to make music. This manner

an environment which will enable him

can be free from lyrics offers children

of thinking has yielded an orientation

to develop freely.” Create a classroom

a strong imitative model. Before you

for

for

environment that can foster music

know it, students will initiate this music

participation in current culture; our

abilities. Don’t limit music-making to

activity while they explore the center

approach to music and movement is

circle time or just the music-making

materials.

performance

rather

than

passive and consumptive rather than active and participatory. It’s no wonder

 Explore the use of instruments.

that

professionals,

Throughout your day, model the

and other adults alike, rely so heavily

exploration of instruments such as

on CDs, MP3 players, and DVDs to

drums, tambourines, triangles, finger

introduce music into their classrooms

cymbals,

and homes; they desire to provide the

instruments. This range of experiences

most outstanding model for the children

provides an opportunity for you to label

they influence, yet feel confused or

the instruments for the children, which

inadequate themselves as music-makers.

enhances

vocabulary

Moreover,

children

early

childhood

xylophones,

and

world

development. practice

fine-

However, all early childhood educators

motor skills as they explore and play

can be effective music models regardless

the instruments. Another activity is to

of their own music abilities. The

have children create a band, allowing

developmental rule of nature is model-

them to explore different instruments

imperative; that is, children learn the

and timbres. Working together in this

disposition for making music only from

area—make your whole classroom a

way to form ensembles fosters social/

their primary caregivers (Pearce, 1992).

music-making area. As you visit to

emotional development.

The goal, in Maria Montessori’s words,

observe your students in each classroom

is “to prepare and arrange a series of

center, sing spontaneously yourself.

 Use the songbooks from the Music

motives for cultural activity in a special

Choose songs that reflect the theme in

Together

environment made for the child.”

each center and interject them as you

through the books during circle time

observe the children’s play.

or at other times when children need

Here are some suggestions based on the

Preschool

program.

Sing

a focus moment. This helps children

Music Together Preschool program that

 Use songs without words. Don’t

recognize that music notation “talks to

will help an early childhood educator

sing only songs with lyrics—sing songs

them in music.” Differentiating between

take an active role as a music model.

without words, too. Insert phonemes

music notation and words supports

that children are working with in class,

orthographic recognition. You can also

 Use active listening. While recordings

or sing the song on doo or la-la. This is

find picture books that feature children’s

can introduce quality music to children

a useful technique when you remember

songs, such as Twinkle, Twinkle Little

in your early childhood classroom, try

a melody to a song but not the lyrics;

Star or The Wheels on the Bus, and sing

modeling actively listening to a CD

simply use your own neutral syllables

them instead of reading them. Include

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13


these in one of your centers for the

children in a collaborative dramatic play

gleaned

children to sing with on their own.

event. Suggest that children make up

professional experience suggesting that

a script for you to record or to create

early childhood development in general

 Have children create their own singing

their own storybook to document their

and

storybooks. This can be an individual art

play. If you have video equipment, let

in particular can be attributed to the

activity or a class activity where everyone

children create and produce their own

partnership between the young child and

contributes a picture page to the lyrics of

TV variety show using the song and

his or her significant others (Levinowitz,

a favorite song. This is an opportunity

movement repertoire that you have used

1998). Finally, the Music Together

for children to use their innate creativity

in your classroom. This documentation

Preschool program may offer the vehicle

to make up their own songs for their

can be a fun way to share the classroom

to connect the teacher, students, and

drawings.

activities at parent events, and it can be

their families that love them. It can

useful for your assessment purposes.

enhance learning, create community,

 Make up your own “silly opera”

and

information

successful

support

from

education

the

programs

development

of

to a favorite storybook. You can create

 Share your music as a community.

spontaneous story songs based on

Children love audiences! If you don’t

illustrations in the Music Together

have the aforementioned equipment,

Lili Levinowitz, Ph.D., is a Professor of Music

songbooks or other books your class

introduce an event such as a family

Education at Rowan University and the Director

enjoys. Begin a catalyzing dialogue by

music party or special circle time for

of Research at Music Together LLC. She is a

singing questions on pitches that are

showing children’s self-created music

national authority on early childhood music.

comfortable for you. For example, sing

and watching their dances.

“What do you see in my picture?” Then

In summary, music learning does

transition to another child by singing,

support

“What happens next?” This activity

teachers and researchers alike have

all

learning.

children’s inborn music potential. 

Furthermore,

supports the sequencing skill that is so important to pre-reading.

Washington MontEssoRi institutE at LoyoLa univERsity MaRyLand

 Use music to enhance your own curriculum. Of course, singing in the classroom is an activity that children love and is supportive for language development. Well-chosen songs that are beautiful, meaningful, and support themes in your curriculum may pique a child’s interest and enhance their learning because you chose them and modeled their use in the classroom.  Create your own recordings and films. Children love to record and film

Minds aBsoRB & EXPLoRE Developing minDs thrive through spontaneous interaction with the environment. Discovery occurs through the senses anD the imagination. we are preparing the next generation of montessori eDucators to make a Difference in the lives of chilDren.

themselves. If you have a child-safe tape recorder in your classroom, let your children

record

themselves

singing

their favorite songs and playing their

learn more about our primary anD elementary acaDemic year programs

www.loyola.eDu/montessori · 410-617-7777 info sessions: March 10 and April 21

favorite instruments. Notice a child’s

in AffiliAtion with AssociAtion Montessori internAtionAle

self-created song and ask if s/he would like to record it. You can also support

14

their

School of Education

© MO N T E SSO R I L E A DE R SH I P | W WW.MONTESSORI.ORG/IMC | JULY 2012


REFERENCES

activity guide. These three CDs have

Cohen, M. and M. Frank. 2009. Total

including

Learning initiative research summary:

Parenting Publications) Gold award,

Formative research summary, preschool

the Mom’s Choice Gold award, and the

Music Together, embedded professional

Parents’ Choice Silver Honor Award.

development

won over 30 awards between them

program.

Action

the

NAPPA

(National

for

Bridgeport Community Development

For more information and to purchase

Inc. New York: Michael Cohen Group

these items, please visit the Music

LLC.

Together LLC online store at: http://

store.musictogether.com.

Levinowitz,

L.M.

1989.

Investigation of Preschool Children’s

About Music Together:

Comparative Capability to Sing Songs

Together

is

with and without Words.” Council for

recognized

early

Research in Music Education. Vol. 100,

program for children from birth through

Spring 50–56.

age seven and the adults who love them.

Music

internationally

childhood

music

First offered to the public in 1987, it Pearce, J. C. 1992. Evolution’s End:

pioneered the concept of a research-

Claiming the Potential of Our Intelligence.

based,

New York: HarperOne.

early childhood music curriculum that

developmentally

appropriate

strongly emphasizes and facilitates adult Rauscher, F.H., G.L. Shaw, and

SEEKING A TEACHER WITH EXPERIENCE Oneness-Family School seeks experienced

“An an

FOSTERING PERSONAL GROWTH, ACADEMIC EXCELLENCE & GLOBAL CITIZENSHIP SINCE 1988.

involvement.

teacher for our K, Pre-K & Pre School, 4,5 & 6,7,8 grade classes. A leader in progressive education, Oneness-Family School is an independent Montessori school in Chevy Chase, Maryland, serving children age 2 through Grade 8 with multi-age classrooms, challenging academics, including art, music, yoga, and physical education, foreign language studies and emphasis on character development and learning about the natural world. The best candidate will:

K.N. Ky. 1993. “Music and Spatial

• Share OFS’s mission and vision

Now taught in over 2000 communities

• Montessori Training or Diploma, or the

around the world, Music Together is

willingness to train upon hire

Rauscher, F.H., L.S. Shaw, L.J. Levine,

committed to helping families, caregivers,

• A B.A. or B.S. preferably in a related field.

E.L. Wright, W.R. Dennis, and R.L.

and early childhood professionals rediscover

• Minimum of 2 years experience teaching

Newcomb. 1997. “Music Training

the pleasure and educational value of

wand/or working with children

Causes Long-Term Enhancement of

informal music experiences. Rather

• The ability to learn new skills quickly and to

Preschool Children’s Spatial-Temporal

than emphasizing traditional music

adapt easily to suit the needs to environment

Reasoning.” Neurological Research,

performances,

or situation

Vol. 19, February.

program encourages family participation

• The attitude of a team player and ability to

in spontaneous musical activity within

work along side others.

Task Performance.” Nature. 365:611.

the

Music

Together

Resources for Family Music Making: the context of daily life. It recognizes that If you are a teacher and would like a all children are musical and that every

• Experience in a diverse and/or international environment.

taste of the Music Together curriculum

child needs a stimulating, supportive

• 90 hour childcare training or at college level

offered in preschools and kindergartens

music environment to achieve basic

classes in early childhood education.

around the world, consider adding the

competence in the wonderful human

award-winning “Music Together Family

capacity for music-making.

Favorites Songbook for Teachers” and

To apply: Please do not call the School directly. Address cover letter and resume to Karen

“Music Together Family Favorites” CD

For more information on Teacher Trainings

Donovan at jobs@onenessfamily.org.

to your library. Also available are the

and how to bring the Music Together

ALSO SEEKING A

“Family Favorites 2” and “Lullabies”

program into your school, please visit:

DIRECTOR OF ADMISSIONS

CDs which each include a 32-page

www.musictogether.com.

contact andrew@onenessfamily.org

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15


Paul Epstein, Ph.D.

I

t’s a typical school morning, and already

in science. They continue to pursue practices

I’ve lost count of the number of times

such as short-term incentive plans and pay-for-

I hear parents tell their children, “Good

performance schemes in the face of mounting

job.” I’m standing in the school’s morning

evidence that such measures usually don’t

drop-off area. Your car pulls up, I open the

work and often do harm. Worse, these

door, and I happily offer a “Good morning.”

practices have infiltrated our schools, where

Meanwhile, your child is working to unbuckle her seat

we ply our future workforce with iPods, cash,

belt, collect her lunch bag, and step out of the car. While she

and pizza coupons to ‘incentivize’ them to learn.

manages all of this, you say, “Good job! I love you!” Well,

Something has gone wrong. “(p. 15)

after all, who doesn’t feel enormous pride and love for their child? And when your child is successful, what’s wrong with

What children need most is unconditional parenting and

praising?

opportunities to develop their intrinsic motivation. Instead of praise, we should encourage; instead of praise, we should

Despite our common-sense beliefs, praised children (and

provide gratitude.

adults) do less well than their intrinsically motivated peers (Kohn 2001; Kohn 2005). In fact, a diet of external motivation

For several reasons, this is proving really, really hard to do.

results with the opposite of what we intended. Instead of

First, external praise and reward is imbedded into our cultural

sustained academic achievement, praised children produce

being. Praising children begins at a surprisingly early age, and

lower test results; instead of compliance, praised children may

its generic form is “Good job!” When very young, children are

act out with resentment and exhibit behavioral issues. And it’s

praised for smiling, holding a spoon, using the spoon, holding

no different for us adults. Daniel Pink (2009) summarizes the

a cup, and drinking from the cup. Second, from continually

situation like this:

hearing praise, we just “know” praise works just as we know its opposite, punishment and taking punitive action, works too.

16

“Too many organizations—not just companies,

After all, we were raised with praise and with punishment, and

but governments and nonprofits as well—still

it’s very likely that we will actively seek it or compensate for

operate from assumptions about human potential

it when praise is withheld. And so, third, we are addicted. We

and individual performance that are outdated,

are praise junkies. Praise surrounds us, and its forms permeate

unexamined, and rooted more in folklore than

our lives both tangibly and imaginably. Who doesn’t smile,

© MO N T E SSO R I L E A DE R SH I P | W WW.MONTESSORI.ORG/IMC | JULY 2012


What children need most is unconditional parenting and opportunities to develop their intrinsic motivation. Instead of praise, we should encourage; instead of praise, we should provide gratitude. relax, and feel really good when told,

punish: “If you don’t come to the bath

The American Heritage Dictionary

“Good job!” Who doesn’t welcome a

right now, I will not read you a story.”

defines operant conditioning as: A

pay raise, and who doesn’t work harder

process of behavior modification in which

to avoid being fired? In behavioral terms,

Operant conditioning seems straightfor-

the likelihood of a specific behavior is

this is known as operant conditioning.

ward, but it is not. If she stops playing

increased or decreased through positive

after your threat, what behavioral response

or negative reinforcement each time

We receive a stimulus, and then we

did you just reinforce? If she continues

the behavior is exhibited, so that the

respond. When we are reinforced for

to scream, and you offer another threat,

subject comes to associate the pleasure

that response, we are likely to respond

what response did you just reinforce now?

or displeasure of the reinforcement with

in the same way when we again receive

Kohn (2001) warns:

the behavior.

the stimulus. For example, you tell your child it is bath time (a stimulus). She

“Indeed, an impressive body of

And conditioning is defined as a learning

responds with a big smile and heads to

scientific research has shown that

process in which an organism’s behavior

the bath room. Your pleased “Good

the more we reward people for

becomes dependent on the occurrence

job” should reinforce her cooperative

doing something, the more they

of a stimulus in its environment.

response. The next evening, you again

tend to lose interest in whatever

tell your daughter that it is bath time (a

they had to do to get the reward.

In principle, conditioning is based on

stimulus). She again smiles cheerfully

Now the point isn’t to draw, to

the idea that how we act is who we

and heads for the bath with your

read, to think, to create—the point

are. External rewards and punishments

accompanying “Good job!” On the

is to get the goody, whether it’s

teach us how to act; the rewards and

third evening your daughter responds

an ice cream, a sticker, or a ‘Good

punishments reinforce or extinguish

by screaming, “No.” Instead of praising

job!’”

behavior. So, we should reward (praise)

her with “Good job,” you threaten to

children for acting how we want.

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When they don’t act in ways we want, we should withhold the things they like. This is known as conditional love (Kohn, 2005). We love children for what they do or don’t do and not who they are. Our children earn praise and rewards (love) according to external standards. And, we should never reward unacceptable behaviors with pleasant consequences.

According

to

this

system of beliefs, we should never do the following: Your child screams and throws her toys instead of taking her bath. When she calms down, you read her favorite story. Reading her favorite story would reinforce her screaming and throwing. Reading her favorite story is “giving in”; your young daughter is now in control, and she has conditioned you! A

powerful

reinforcement

or

to respond to is absent, children may be at a loss for what to do. Learning from conditioning is very different than learning from creativity. Becoming obedient from praise or punishment may also be temporary. Children stop doing tasks when there is no longer a reward or when the reward is of equal or lesser value. Children (and adults, too) can lose interest and then become less successful at tasks even when rewarded for doing them. Other research suggests that when children are rewarded for doing something nice, they do not think of themselves as nice, and they are less likely to be helpful when they are not given rewards. These results are not too surprising

punishment is our use of love. If you do

because praising interferes with natural

things I don’t like, I will withdraw my

learning. Praise and rewards are

love and ignore you, put you in timeout, express my disapproval, or remove myself. Because children do want our approval, these are forms of control and manipulation. When we withhold our love and approval, younger children experience anxiety. Older children may experience depression. Teenagers may lose touch with their real selves and pretend to be a person whom their parents would love. In sum, the more we offer children conditional love, the lower their self-perception of self-worth and self-esteem (Kohn, 2005). A key word in the definition of conditioning is dependent. When we condition children to respond to “good job” and other forms of praise, we erode internal, intrinsic motivation. Children become addicted to praise;

18

When we condition children to respond to “good job” and other forms of praise, we erode internal, intrinsic motivation. Children become addicted to praise; the more we praise, the more they need to be praised. This erodes their abilities to be independent, self-reliant, and creative. the more we praise, the more they need to be praised. This erodes their abilities to be independent,

dependent

Children hear, “I love you, but ...” So, while a child may initially feel good

become on

external

job” is not, in other words, praise. It is a judgment.

self-

reliant, and creative. Children

forms of control; we praise and reward what we like and want. “Good

motivation

instead of satisfaction from the task or learning itself. Instead of reading for the enjoyment and sake of reading, children read for a sticker. They become dependent on someone else to know how they are doing. And if the sticker is withheld, why read? If someone else receives a sticker, why read? And if everyone receives a sticker, certificate, medal, or trophy, why bother? Praising and rewarding children should work, but it does not. When the stimulus children have been conditioned

from hearing your praise, they also become suspicious, uncertain, guilty, and dependent. They have learned to listen for the “but.” This is conditional love instead of unconditional love. There is a world of difference between the bumper sticker that read, “I am proud of my child who was student of the month,” and, “I am proud of my child” (Kohn, 2005). We say “Good job” so readily. Perhaps we’ve been conditioned to say “Good job.” How would you break this habit?

© MO N T E SSO R I L E A DE R SH I P | W WW.MONTESSORI.ORG/IMC | JULY 2012


These results are not too surprising because praising interferes with natural learning. Praise and rewards are forms of control; we praise and reward what we like and want. “Good job” is not, in other words, praise. It is a judgment. What would you do if you stopped

respond with empathy and connect

that of a mother to her baby ….

saying, “Good job?” What would you

with her feelings and needs. When she

[P]erfection and confidence must

say the next time your child shows you

calms down, you read her favorite story.

develop in the child from inner

his picture? How would you express

Instead of believing you are rewarding

sources with which the teacher has

your delight and love? Kohn (2005)

her tantrum behaviors, you attend to

nothing to do.” (pp. 250-251)

suggests:

your child with understanding; her behaviors are expressions of unmet

Once a child engages in an activity,

“It’s harder to make sure children

needs,

Montessori

feel loved unconditionally than

thoughts. After the story, you and your

requires teachers (and parents too) to

it is just to love them. It’s harder

child can talk together about different

refrain from praise.

to respond to them in all their

ways to meet her needs and yours.

complexity than it is to focus just

In keeping with unconditional love,

“The teacher, now, must be most

on their behaviors. It’s harder to

encouragement

careful. Not to interfere means

try to solve problems with them,

two strong alternatives to praise and

not to interfere in any way. This is

to give them reasons for doing the

punishment. Montessori (1949/1994)

the moment at which the teacher

right thing (let alone to help them

endorses encouragement but with a

most often goes wrong …. If, as

formulate their own reasons), than

word of caution.

she passes, the teacher merely says,

intentions,

feelings,

and

and

gratitude

are

it is to control them with carrots

(1949/1994)

explicitly

“Good,” it is enough to make the

and sticks. ‘Working with’ asks

“It makes us think of the first

trouble break out all over again.

more of us than does ‘doing to.’”

tottering steps of the baby, when

Quite likely, it will be another

(p. 118)

he still needs to see an adult’s

two weeks before the child takes

outstretched arms waiting to catch

an interest in anything else ….

him, although he may already have

Praise, help, or even a look, may

When we connect with children with

within him the power to begin

be enough to interrupt him, or

unconditional love, we can respond with

walking and of learning to do it

destroy the activity. (p. 255)

encouragement and gratitude. It’s bath

perfectly. The teacher must then

time, and your child screams and throws

respond with a word of approval,

Gratitude is an essential alternative to

her toys instead of taking her bath. You

encouraging him with a smile, like

praise, and as Mogel (2001) declares, it must be taught. “In order to effectively teach children gratitude, we parents must

r

Stimulus

Reinforced

start with ourselves. If you lift your mood by a trip to the mall or try to maintain your status by keeping up with the Ornsteins, your children will pick up the not-very-hidden message that acquiring things is a

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19


way to reward yourself, feel important, or cheer yourself

will by using in freedom his own power of choice;

up. Even if we manage to get our children to stop asking

he must become capable of independent thought by

for so many things, they still won’t learn how to be

working alone without interruption….We have to help

grateful unless they see us practicing gratitude. No one

the child to act, will and think for himself. This is the

is born feeling grateful; it’s an acquired skill.” (pp. 125-

art of serving the spirit, an art which can be practiced

126)

to perfection only when working among children.” (pp. 256-257) 

Gratitude is expressed as a celebration of life. Gratitude is neither reward nor praise, and gratitude is not a judgment.

REFERENCES

Gratitude is a system of feelings that tell us we have met our

Kohn, A. (2001). Five reasons to stop saying “good job!” to Young

need to enrich and serve life (Rosenberg, 2003).

Children. Retrieved June 3, 2012, from http://www.alfiekohn. org/parenting/gj.htm

When your child shows you her picture, you can express an observation, your feelings, and your met needs: “When I look

Kohn, A. (2005). Unconditional Parenting. Moving from Rewards

at your picture, I feel so happy, because I enjoy creativity.”

and Punishments to Love and Reason. New York: Atria Books.

Expressing unconditional love, encouragement, and gratitude

Mogel, W. (2001). The Blessing of a Skinned Knee. New York:

eliminate the detrimental effects of praise (and punishment).

Penguin Group.

Children become independent and more able to develop their unique capabilities. Montessori (1949/1994) defines the role

Montessori, M. (1949/1994). The Absorbent Mind. Oxford,

of the adult in guiding children to become independent in this

England: Clio Press.

way: Pink, D. (2009). Drive. The Surprising Truth about What “[In the] relationship between teacher and child, the

Motivates Us. New York: Riverhead Books.

teacher’s part [is] to serve, and to serve well: to serve the spirit….The child has to acquire physical independence

Rosenberg, M. B. (2003). Nonviolent Communication. A

by being self-sufficient; he must become of independent

Language of Life (2nd ed.). Encinitas, CA: PuddleDancer Press.

Remember to renew early and recommend joining the International Montessori Council to a friend.

Join or renew now through our online bookstore at www.montessori.org or call our membership office at 1 (800) 632-4121. Individual Membership ($60 US/Year) School Membership ($250 US/Year) Business Membership ($250 US/Year) Montessori Organization Member* ($250 US/Year) *Until further notice, and unless IMC accredited, Teacher Training programs are no longer being accepted into the IMC.

20

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SNAPSHOTS

TOPIC OF THE MONTH : BULLYING It is unusual for Montessorians to discuss the subject of bullying; in fact, in our well-prepared peace environments and community conscious classrooms, bullying is rarely an issue. However, it seems that more and more scenarios that would fit within the definition of bullying are cropping up in our elementary and upper school environments. The following points serve as a platform to assist you in recognizing the basics surrounding this topic. We welcome your feedback, experiences and solutions. Bullying is repetitive, hurtful behavior with a conscious intent to hurt someone. The person being bullied often does not have the skills to defend himself and hence the repetitive nature of the act Types of bullying: physical, such as hitting, and taking belongings; verbal, such as insults, name-calling or racial remarks; psychological (emotional), spreading rumors, excluding someone from a group A bully: attention seeker; tests limits and receives no repercussions to the behavior thus perpetuating it; power/popularity seeker A victim: poor social skills; few friends; lacks self-confidence; often thinks he is deserving of the bullying Warning signs of bullying: withdrawal from usual behaviors, complaints regarding physical symptoms such as headaches, stomachaches and the like, withdrawal from friends, changes in work habits or in enjoyment of school Administrator’s role: have clear policies and guidelines in the parent and faculty handbooks specifying bullying behaviors and consequences (remember to include social media within these guidelines); talk openly with faculty – spend time role-playing how to handle a variety of situations; discuss, record and maintain consistent classroom management expectations and how to work with students if needed – consistency is key here; talk openly with parents about school policy on this issue; follow through on policy and be consistent with your response/s if needed Faculty’s role: discuss openly with your class community (preferably at neutral moments at the beginning of the school year) what bullying is and the community’s expectations community

regarding this; brainstorm and create a class community contract that sets the stage for a well-functioning, peaceful class community; give students opportunities and skills to voice their concerns in an open, supportive forum; ensure that you have clearly communicated how students can get help from each other or adults if they feel unsafe – most times guides have a series of steps to help students work out their differences, but to also enlist the help of others when needed; if you have an issue with bullying behavior in the class, ask the class community for help and brainstorm how to resolve it, if the victim is comfortable with this – if the situation persists, speak to your administrator; have regularly scheduled class meetings, preferably once per week so students feel class community ownership and develop the skills to communicate kindly and respectfully with each other; check in with your classroom management style – is it consistent, kind, but firm? The Montessori environment’s advantage: we support a curriculum of peace; we work to enhance students’ exposure to many cultures thereby developing tolerance of differences; we look at the big picture and how we fit within it, developing a sense of belonging and unity; we are a community, at the class level, then at the school level, thereby helping to avoid a sense of isolation from any stakeholders and hopefully developing tolerance of all community members Resources: www.onenessfamily.org/blog.html www.interventioncentral.org www.tolerance.org www.nobully.org.nz/guidelines.htm www.helpguide.org/mental/bullying.htm www.apa.org/helpcenter/bullying.aspx Join the conversation, email Hillary Drinkell at hillarydrinkell@montesori.org

SNAPSHOTS is a new feature in Montessori Leadership intended to: Spark the administrator’s creativity in problem solving a variety of issues  Bring to an administrator’s attention issues that are relevant/topical at the moment  Assist the administrator in opening conversations with takeholders in their schools  Create conversation points to be discussed in our Yahoo Group regarding these issues  Allow for feedback which we may be able to print in a following issue  Encourage readers to provide topics which we will research and present in future issues.

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21


Career Confessions & Fond Hopes of a Montessori Educator and ADR Specialist

by Claire J. Salkowski

I

confess. I’ve been living a double life for a long

internal motivation, the value of auto- education, and

time. Since early in my career, begun almost forty

experiential hands-on learning have since been validated by

years ago, I’ve had one foot in the Montessori world

today’s scientific brain research, which is exactly what she

and the other in the ADR (Alternative Dispute

said would happen. She developed the best way to prepare an

Resolution) world, yet I’ve still managed to dance

environment that allowed children to take responsibility for

quite well in both worlds. In fact, both fields have informed

their own learning, a radical concept then as now. She taught

the work I do and intersect in the place where I hold my most

that the role of the adult was to facilitate and guide rather than

deeply held and cherished beliefs and hopes for making the

dictate or impose and that the purpose of education was to

world a more peaceful place. As I reflect upon the work I do, I

teach children how to realize their full potential and live their

realize that I was drawn to each field because they called to my

best life in the world. She passionately believed that the way to

fervent desire for work that allowed me to realize my passion

change the world and create peace was through the education

for advancing the goal of creating peace in the world through

of children, and that was a sentiment that drew me to her work.

work with children and families in a variety of ways.

I first heard about Montessori from my best friend in college and decided that if I ever had children I’d like them to go to

22

I first began as a secondary school teacher, but after five years

a Montessori school.In the midst of my public school career,

of working in the traditional classroom I became frustrated

the day came when my oldest daughter was enrolled in a

with a system that I felt did not allow me to meet the real needs

Montessori school, and when I observed the classroom and the

of my students or maximize my goals as a teacher. That’s when

peaceful, holistic way the children operated in that beautiful

I remembered Montessori. In the early 1900s, as Italy’s first

space, I knew instantly that I had stumbled upon something

female physician, Dr. Maria Montessori approached education

important. In 1979, I left my job with the public schools, took

from a completely different perspective.She discovered what

my first Montessori training, and started my own school,

she considered universal truths about the nature of children

while continuing with additional Montessori training at the

and how they developed and learned. Her concepts about

elementary level. While I taught and ran the school in those

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been privileged to work with some of these pioneers as we have attempted to advance this work in schools across the county through the CRETE (Conflict Education

in

Teacher

Education)

project, which seeks to train teachers in the vast array of skills and techniques that have been amassed in the important field of peace education and conflict resolution since those early days. It was in the mid-80s that I discovered the field of conflict resolution and peer mediation and began to teach my students the basic skills in social emotional learning, perspective taking, communication,

problem

solving,

and then finally conflict resolution. Eventually, I began training my students and others in the growing field of peer mediation. My work in the ADR world greatly expanded in the mid 90s when I was first trained as a mediator to work in the program I recently directed and in early years, I became enthralled with the

supported the teaching of peacemaking

community mediation. With this work,

idea of creating a peace curriculum that

and problem solving to young children.

I made the leap from working solely

could be implemented as carefully as

Much of the work began in the early

with children to working with adults

the academic skills we presented to the

70s with CCRC grew out of the work

and the wider community. And so,

children so precisely. I believed fervently

of the Quaker Project on Community

my dual roles expanded, as I continued

that the affective side of education was

Conflict (QPCC) under the auspices of

to teach and operate the school but

equally as important as the academic

the New York Yearly Meeting of the

continued training students and faculties

side if we wanted children to become

Society of Friends and the Nonviolence

in peer mediation and began doing

whole and healthy human beings.

and Children Program of the Friends

cases in the community center and for

Peace

Philadelphia.

the Court program regarding custody

As a Quaker, I was also drawn to the early

These early pioneers in the field of peace

and visitation issues. My training as

work of CCRC (Children’s Creative

education recognized the need to create

a mediator also helped immensely in

Response to Conflict) and began

a foundation for children to develop the

my work as the school’s administrator

to implement those activities in my

ability to solve problems in peaceful ways

dealing with faculty and parent issues.

classroom and school. Their beliefs about

by focusing on communication skills,

Later I added divorce mediation and elder

the need for nurturing peace spoke to my

identifying and understanding feelings

mediation to my repertoire of skills as a

profound need for cultivating not only

and finding unique ways to resolve

mediator, and then discovered additional

the skills of peacemaking but awakening

problems

approaches

the deeper spiritual dimension as well.

conflicts. (Prutzman et al, 1988) That,

such as Community Conferencing

Quakers (The Society of Friends) have

too, matched my deepest need to align

and Peacemaking Circles. Conflict

always been considered one of the

belief and values with work and practice.

Coaching as a way to assist individuals

“peace churches,” and they have long

So began the dual life. I have since

through the labyrinth of conflict has

Committee

and

in

prevent

unnecessary

in

restorative

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practices

23


been another wonderful addition to

while, recognizing and honoring the

when to get out of the way requires

the range of options we can now offer

gifts of others—and, thus, create a better

great skill in observation, a wealth of

to anyone seeking understanding and a

world. The roles of mediator, teacher, or

knowledge about the development and

better way to manage ongoing conflict.

facilitator differ, but they emanate from

developmental needs of the child, and

a common philosophy.

much practice. Judgment is called for

As

Director

of

Mediation

and

in assessing the needs of the child at any

Educational Programs I was able to

Montessori saw the teacher not as the

given moment and being able to respond

truly blend the work of each field and to

all-knowing,

authority

with the appropriate match of activity,

integrate the various approaches afford

who gave knowledge to the child, but

experience, or interaction. All of this

by the ADR world. The Peaceable

rather as the guide and facilitator of

grows out of a deep, abiding respect

Education Program we offered to schools seeking a nonviolent approach grew directly out of my work in the classroom, as it blended with my ADR work. Although I recently stepped down as Head of School, I am still involved in the school I founded and the wider Montessori world. I have introduced my colleagues here to many of the wonderful techniques and approaches from the ADR field. I’ve also tried to merge both fields by teaching at the university level and in Montessori training centers in a number of places as well. I’ve found that Circles are a wonderful tool for conducting faculty meetings and parent groups, especially if there

benevolent

In honoring and assisting the child, however, knowing when to step in and when to get out of the way requires great skill in observation, a wealth of knowledge about the development and developmental needs of the child, and much practice.

are thorny issues to discuss or conflicts

and belief in the awakening powers of the individual life we are attempting to serve. No easy task to be sure. We must know and examine our own biases, prejudices, and individual orientations. We must constantly search and examine the places where we have imposed our own will to the detriment of the child. There are times, she told us, when it is appropriate to “use our authority” but always with the goal of encouraging the child to master the lesson and discover the inner truth for herself. In my ADR work, as mediator, conflict coach, and Circle facilitator, I take an approach that is very similar to the Montessori approach to teaching children, beginning with foundational

that need to be resolved. Peacemaking

the child’s own process of discovery

respect for each individual party. I try

Circles have also been useful in helping

and learning. It was a position of deep

to help remove the obstacles so that

families deal with bullying issues or long-

respect, walking as it were beside the

the parties are released from patterns of

standing conflicts between students

child, and sometimes behind, but rarely,

negativity and can reach new levels of

that have not been resolved by other

if ever, in front. We adopt an optimistic

positive functioning and inner growth.

approaches or measures. And more than

philosophy about the nature of the

Although mediation or any other ADR

once, I have officially and “unofficially”

child and believe deeply in the inherent

approach is clearly not therapy, it often

mediated between staff members or

goodness and ultimate potential of the

has a therapeutic effect. The parties

parents who needed the assistance of a

individual. Recognizing that the child’s

experience new insights and inner

trained neutral third party.

becoming or development of self belongs

growth takes place.

not to the teacher, parent, or anyone Within these many diverse approaches

else, but unequivocally to the child, the

This transforming, spiritual response to

and varied fields, the central goal is to

Montessori teacher views her role from

conflict comes from viewing conflict as

assist individuals in actualizing their

a place of great humility.

an opportunity to learn, to grow, and to

own goals and in discovering their

24

be changed. Conflict is often a powerful

special purposes in life so that they may

In honoring and assisting the child,

challenge to our clouded perceptions

also contribute their gifts to the whole

however, knowing when to step in and

and serves as a wake-up call to change.

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Often it can motivate us to move in

unique individuals that they are and

We all met at the school for the first

different, more positive directions in

the gifts that they bring to the world.

of several sessions. The principal, vice

our relationships and inspire us to create

They have discovered, for themselves,

principal, counselor, and the girls’

more functional patterns of behavior.

the power that resides within and have

teachers as well as their parents were all

The spiritual nature of conflict manifests

moved in ever-widening circles of

in attendance. The grandmother of each

itself when we are transformed and begin

understanding, while achieving deep

girl was also in attendance. At one point,

to act in harmony and cooperation with

personal growth. When parties truly

one of the grandmother’s vehemently

others, when we are awakened to our

connect with one another, their spirits

expressed a lot of negative emotion

own potential for growth, and when

are lifted and they become enriched.

about the situation and, in frustration,

we recognize the potential, dignity and

threw the talking piece at the principal.

rightful respect of others.

For several seconds, there was only

By recognizing the very special nature of my relationship to the parties and acting as catalyst for change, we enable the participants to move from fear and despair to hope and optimism; from anger, jealousy, and greed to acceptance, empathy and generosity. In successful mediations,

Circles,

or

coaching

sessions, the parties are able to develop new perspectives on the meaning of life and come to understand their interconnected role in it. Creativity is unleashed, and the parties come to understand their true needs and are willing to respond to the needs of the other. New ways of thinking and feeling are opened up, and communication is enhanced. The relationship is improved,

They have discovered, for themselves, the power that resides within and have moved in everwidening circles of understanding, while achieving deep personal growth. When parties truly connect with one another, their spirits are lifted and they become enriched.

and the parties strive toward cooperation

stunned silence, as the group weighed the magnitude of the act. It was a critical moment, and much to the enormous credit of the principal, he remained calm and did not respond with anger or as the “authority” in the group but sat quietly while the father of the other child carefully picked the talking piece from the floor and eloquently moved the group back to a place where feelings were heard and perspectives understood. As the facilitator, or Circle Keeper, I allowed the group to own the situation rather than immediately intervening to try and “make things right.” It was a real lesson in the power of the process to illuminate and heal with the collective wisdom of the group. We met two more times and, as the group worked together,

and collaboration in resolving the issues

Last year I conducted a Conflict Circle

there was no doubt that they had all been

between them. They are empowered to

in one of the schools that was having

deeply touched and had grown from the

make their own decisions and creative

difficulty with two fourth-grade girls,

Circle experience. By the end of the

solutions inevitable arise from such

who had been in conflict with each other

year, the fourth grade was transformed.

insight (Sidy, 1996).

since the second grade. Each girl felt the

Both girls had come to appreciate each

other had repeatedly bullied them, and

other and learned to treat one other with

As a mediator, Circle facilitator, conflict

the parents shared the same perspective.

true respect. They had each changed

coach, or teacher, I have witnessed

The administrators, teachers, and the

and grown so much that they were

the vast transforming and growth-

counselor had all had many discussions

named as honorary “peacemakers of

enhancing power of each approach. In

and tried various interventions with

the year” by their school in our annual

both the classroom and the ADR room,

both the children and their parents, to

award ceremony.

individuals have been deeply touched

no avail. It had gotten to the point that

by the significant change that has come

it was infecting the entire fourth grade,

Very recently I worked with a school

into their lives from being respected,

and everyone agreed that some workable

faculty that had become deeply divided

empowered and recognized for the

solutions had to be found.

by contention over the departure of a

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25


Director who had been there for the last

the adults around them, they will not

their role to aid the individual have the

ten years. The faculty had split along

gain the skills needed to manage these

potential to create a space for personal

sides in support of the Director and

important life skills. Skilled, trained,

transformation and intense individual

those who were glad to see her leave.

and practiced adults are critically needed

and spiritual growth. The quality of

All who participated in the healing

in our school communities. Many

the relationship assumes a dimension

circle that was conducted expressed a

Montessori teachers are familiar with

far beyond what we generally assume.

pervading sense of loss and real grief,

the use of Circles in their classrooms;

There is a depth of relationship and

as well as the emotional exhaustion of

so additional training or experiences

sacredness in our connection. We invest

dealing with the trauma and drama of

with

would

deeply in our inner most humanity.

the year. The structure of the Circle

greatly expand their repertoire of skills.

Thus, is the work of the peacemaker

and the power of the process allowed all

Administrators

enriched

and thus I continue to embark upon this

voices and all perspectives to be heard

and become more effective with such

marvelous journey down an entwined

and acknowledged. Each person was

knowledge and experience as well.

path that takes me in and out of both

peacemaking would

circles be

deeply touched and impacted by the

26

worlds on a daily basis.

stories they were able to tell. By the end

In my role as mediator or ADR specialist,

of the session, the focus had shifted, and

much like my role as Montessorian, I

everyone was unified in their support

must always prepare the environment,

for each other and their fervent desire

and observe carefully in order to assess

Prutzman, P. et al. (1988) The Friendly

to move forward in the best interest of

the needs of the parties. I endeavor to

Classroom for a Small Planet. Santa Cruz,

the school. Without the willingness of

recognize and honor each person for

CA. New Society Publishers.

everyone to devote the time to engage

where they are in their own development

in such a process and to openly and

and personal growth. My task is to make

Salkowski, C.J. (2000) Developing the

honestly participate, while drawing upon

the match between the needs of the

Spiritual Dimension of Mediation

the collective wisdom of the group, this

parties and the experience of the ADR

faculty may have remained divided, and

process. I facilitate and assist the parties

Salkowski, Claire J. (1999, Fall)

the derision would have further eroded

through the ADR process, but never

“Montessori and Mediation: Midwife

morale and contaminated the proud and

impose or try to do “it” for them. The

to a Process.” Montessori Leadership.

positive history of this highly regarded

ADR process belongs to the parties, just

1(2), 34- 43.

school.

as the learning process belongs to the

REFERENCES

student, the problem-solving process

Salkowski, Claire J. (2000, Winter)

I am deeply convinced that part of our

belongs to the parent or faculty group,

“Mediation: Midwife to a Process.

Montessori education should include

or the healing process belongs to the

Practical

extensive work in peace education

client in therapy. Parents cannot make

Montessori Leadership 2(1), 24-28.

and the art and techniques of conflict

their children grow any more than

resolution. Conflict is, indeed, a fact

teachers can make their students learn

Salkowski, Claire J. (2001, Spring)

of life and learning to manage it in the

or mediators can force a resolution of

“Developing the Spiritual Dimension

classroom and the school is vital to

conflict. The issues in mediation, Circles,

of

creating and maintaining a healthy and

or coaching belong to the parties and

Resolution.”

loving school community. Students

cannot be owned by the ADR specialist,

2(2), 1-8.

can and should be systematically taught

any more than the teacher can learn for

to create peace and resolve conflicts,

the child, or the therapist can be healed

Sidy, R.( 1996 ) “Spiritual Dimensions

but without the conducive climate

for her client. At a much deeper level,

of Conflict. “The Fourth R 74 ( Aug/

and school culture, and real modeling

mediators, facilitators, teachers, parents,

Sept.). pp.18-20.

coupled with specific instruction by

and any who assume such a posture in

Dispute

Mediation.

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Resolution.”

Practical

Montessori

Dispute Leadership


November 1-4, 2012

The 16th Annual Montessori Foundation International Conference at the beautiful Hyatt Regency Sarasota This year’s conference themes are: REFLECTIONS: a look at ourselves and of course, COMMUNITY: Always striving to build it stronger Keynote speakers include: We are not printing and mailing a brochure this year. Please go to our website, www.montessori.org and click on the two links there for the

Tim Seldin and Dr. Cindy Acker Dr. Paul Epstein Dr. MA Greenstein and Vicki Abeles, director of the award winning documentary, Race to Nowhere

schedule of events and the information about the hotel and conference for more information, or contact our conference coordinator, Margot Garfield-Anderson at 1 (800) 632 4121, margot@montessori.org Remember, IMC members in good standing will receive a generous registration discount to the event. We’ll be using Constant Contact throughout the summer to let you know more details as they develop. If you are not on our emailing list email Margot and she will make certain your email gets added. Registration for the event will open in late August. Use this link to make your hotel reservations at the greatly discounted rate our attendees receive. https://resweb.passkey.com/go/montessori12

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by Cindy Venezia

O

ur preschool, which is a part of a non-profit agency serving a socioeconomically challenged area of Fort Myers, Florida, gives children a stronger ground to stand on upon entering

public school. But this wasn’t always the case… In 2007 I entered the day care I was going to convert to a Montessori preschool and began accessing what we would need. I quickly realized I would need the help of others to do this. I started with two local Montessori schools: Renaissance School and Montessori Academy of Naples (through years of support and collaborations we call each other “sister schools”). I taught 13 years at affluent schools and never realized just how lucky my students and I were when we received brand new materials. Getting new materials was like getting presents on a special holiday!

But now I needed to ask others to spare

whatever they could. What we received was a blessing but it was also humbling. These materials are the ones that are on their last leg and are being replaced by something that is cleanly cut and freshly painted. But we knew these pieces of work, chipped and dented, were going to change lives. We had mismatched shelves that volunteers sanded and stained for us, pieces of the work that had been repaired the best that we could and eight person table tops that had been cut down to two and four person table tops. Our classes had the very basics but still needed more. One day I get a phone call from Margot telling me a school had shut down and they were entrusting her to give the materials to someone in need. I couldn’t believe it! She was delivering a massive amount of beautifully chipped and dented materials to us! Our classes were fairly complete now.

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A relationship with a group of individuals from a local neighborhood had been growing for a couple of years. Those individuals held an event that raised enough money for us to buy brand new, never been chipped or dented, materials! At the same time the new material was coming in I got a phone call from my mentor, Drina Madden. A Guatemalan orphanage, where her granddaughters were adopted from, needed materials…Montessori materials. Within a couple of weeks the chipped, dented and much loved materials were traveling again to a teacher and students that would most likely feel as blessed as we did. If I ever think giving is a lost art I think about the journey the “red rods” and how they have brought people from different states and countries together. 

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No act of kindness, no matter how small, is ever wasted. — Aesop, The Lion and the Mouse Establishing lasting peace is the work of education; all politics can do is keep us out of war. — Dr. Maria Montessori

Leave a Legacy

Life is a challenge. Most of us need help at some point along the way. Maybe we received a college scholarship from an “angel” benefactor. Maybe a nurse held our hand in the emergency room when we were afraid. Maybe a kind word from a stranger gave us the strength to forgive an injustice. Maybe a teacher recognized our value when we couldn’t see it ourselves. It’s during the hard times that we are reminded that we must continue to demonstrate to children the value in positive acts of human kindness.

Montessori schools, teachers, and children since 1992. Through our leadership workshops, conferences, books, and journals (including Tomorrow’s Child, one copy of which is provided free of Montessori schools do this every day in charge to all Montessori schools in the their classrooms around the world. In US and Canada ), we help bring the benlarge cities and undeveloped countries, efits of Montessori education to schools for more than one hundred years, the big and small. Through our national work of Dr. Maria Montessori has inmodel school, we share everything that spired many thousands of children to we learn and develop with all Montessori live lives of purpose and integrity, know- schools, in order to enhance the proing that each one of them is a member of grams that they offer for their children. a global community and each one of them has the ability to change the world. Charitable 501(c)3 organizations, like The Montessori Foundation, need finanThe Montessori Foundation has helped cial assistance from people like you to continue our work. These gifts can be

The Montessori Foundation

Montessori THE

FOUNDATION

19600 E State Road 64 • Bradenton, FL 34212 941-729-9565/800-655-5843 • 941-745-3111 (fax) www.montessori.org

Dr. Maria Montessori 1870-1952 Italy’s First Female Medical Doctor Creater of the “Montessori Method” Educational Activist Child Advocate Nobel Peace Prize Nominee

donated as gifts of cash, negotiable securities, and charitable bequests. By making bequests and other “planned gifts,” you continue to make an important difference in the world. What better way to thank the people or organizations that have had an impact on your life, or the life of your child or grandchild, than to make a contribution from your estate through a bequest? Gifts large and small are important. It is a way to demonstrate your values and beliefs to your family. It reinforces what you have done during your life and sets an example of kindness to people you wish to help. By donating, you become an immortal philanthropist. If you would like to help The Montessori Foundation continue our work, please visit our website at www.montessori.org or call our office: 800-655-5843/941729-9565.

THE MONTESSORI FOUNDATION IS A 501(C)3 NON-PROFIT CHARITABLE INTERNATIONAL NGO ORGANIZATION. YOUR DONATION WILL BE TAX DEDUCTIBLE TO THE FULL EXTENT PROVIDED BY THE LAW IN YOUR NATION.

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7577 E. Main Street, Lima, NY 14485 1 (877) 807-PLAY or (585) 624-5964 www.bearsplaygrounds.com 30

© MO N T E SSO R I L E A DE R SH I P | W WW.MONTESSORI.ORG/IMC | JULY 2012


2012 MONTESSORI LEADERSHIP INSTITUTE ONLINE!

Distance learning is fast becoming the easiest way for busy administrators and administration personnel at your school to keep up with new information or gain valuable insights. This is an excellent way for first time administrators to learn from the bottom up.

HERE IS A LIST OF THE PROGRAMS WE RUN: Finding the Perfect Match: Recruit & Retain Your Ideal Enrollment

LOCATION Your office or home, on your computer!

Building a World-Class Montessori School.

INSTRUCTORS Tim Seldin and Sharon Caldwell of the Montessori Foundation

An Overview of Montessori Principles & Curriculum from Infant/Toddler through High School.

Special discount for IMC members and multiple attendees from the same IMC school.

and coming soon... Certification Program for Montessori School Leadership.

For complete information visit the Montessori Leadership wing on our website: www.montessori.org

While Term 1 is underway check our website www.montessori.org for when our next cohort starts.

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The International Montessori Council 19600 E SR 64 • Bradenton, FL 34212

Non-Profit Org U.S. Postage PAID St. Petersburg, FL PERMIT # 597

Montessori Leadership June 2012  

This is the June, 2012 issue of Montessori Leadership, the journal of the International Montessori Council