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For Years 3-7 Ready-Ed Publications

Persuasive

Writing

NAPLAN*- type practice examples for Australian Students. Persuasive Writing teaches students to recognise and discuss the specific features of persuasive texts so that they can begin to write their own effective persuasive pieces. Written for students in Years 3 to 7, this book will be especially useful for students in Years 3, 5 and 7 who are asked to write their own persuasive text in the annual NAPLAN* English test.

Persuasive

Writing NAPLAN*- type practice examples for Australian Students.

Persuasive Writing exposes students to a number of short persuasive texts, provides examples of possible unseen persuasive topics, looks in detail at ten persuasive devices and highlights the specific structure that most well-written persuasive pieces follow. Linked to the Australian Curriculum, this book is easy to use and will make a valuable classroom resource.

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Also available:

Persuasive Writing ISBN 978 186 397 837 8

  

By Lindsay Marsh * The publisher is not an endorsed creator of materials used for annual NAPLAN* testing, and this book has been produced without consulting any Australian government bodies.


EBOOK CODE: REAU1137

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview.

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This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. Ready-Ed Publications

Title: Persuasive Writing © 2012 Ready-Ed Publications Printed in Australia Author: Lindsay Marsh Illustrators: Terry Allen, Rod Jefferson.

Acknowledgements i. Clip art images have been obtained from Microsoft Design Gallery Live and are used under the terms of the End User License Agreement for Microsoft Word 2000. Please refer to www.microsoft.com/permission. ii. Corel Corporation collection, 1600 Carling Ave., Ottawa, Ontario, Canada K1Z 8R7.

Copyright Notice The purchasing educational institution and its staff have the right to make copies of the whole or part of this book, beyond their rights under the Australian Copyright Act 1968 (the Act), provided that: 1.

The number of copies does not exceed the number reasonably required by the educational institution to satisfy its teaching purposes;

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Copies are made only by reprographic means (photocopying), not by electronic/digital means, and not stored or transmitted;

3.

Copies are not sold or lent;

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Every copy made clearly shows the footnote, ‘Ready-Ed Publications’.

Any copying of this book by an educational institution or its staff outside of this blackline master licence may fall within the educational statutory licence under the Act. The Act allows a maximum of one chapter or 10% of the pages of this book, whichever is the greater, to be reproduced and/or communicated by any educational institution for its educational purposes provided that

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educational institution (or the body that administers it) has given a remuneration notice to Copyright Agency Limited (CAL) under Act. For details of the CAL licence for educational institutions contact: Copyright Agency Limited Level 19, 157 Liverpool Street Sydney NSW 2000 Telephone: (02) 9394 7600 Facsimile: (02) 9394 7601 E-mail: info@copyright.com.au Reproduction and Communication by others Except as otherwise permitted by this blackline master licence or under the Act (for example, any fair dealing for the purposes of study, research, criticism or review) no part of this book may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, communicated or transmitted in any form or by any means without prior written permission. All inquiries should be made to the publisher at the address below.

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Go to www.readyed.net Ready-Ed Publications PO Box 276 Greenwood WA 6024 www.readyed.net info@readyed.com.au

ISBN: 978 186 397 837 8 2


Contents

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. Teachers’ Notes Australian Curriculum Links

4 4

Section 1: What is a Persuasive Text? Teachers’ Notes Activity 1 Activity 2 Activity 3 Activity 4 Activity 5 Activity 6

5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

Section 2: Persuasive Topics Teachers’ Notes Activity 1 Activity 2

13 14 15 16

Section 3: Persuasive Devices Teachers’ Notes Activity 1 Activity 2

17 18 19 20

Teachers' Notes Activity 3 Activity 4 Activity 5 Activity 6

21 22 23 24 25

Teachers' Notes Activity 7 Activity 8 Activity 9 Activity 10 Activity 11

26 27 28 29 30 31

Section 4: The Structure of a Persuasive Text Teachers' Notes Activity 1 Activity 2 Activity 3 Activity 4 Activity 5 Activity 6a Activity 6b Activity 7a Activity 7b

32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42

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43-44 3


Teachers’ Notes

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. Persuasive Writing has been written for students in Years 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7 who are expected to recognise and discuss the specific features of a persuasive text, as well as employ these features to write their own persuasive pieces. This book will be especially useful to students in Years 3, 5 and 7 who are asked to write their own persuasive text in the annual NAPLAN* test.

Each activity in this book has a corresponding set of notes for teachers, to help them introduce each concept as clearly as possible. Students will be asked to identify and employ persuasive devices, understand how to structure a persuasive piece and be given the opportunity to write on a number of persuasive topics. As an extension activity, you could set up lively classroom debates. This will help students form an opinion on a persuasive topic and express their reasons for holding this opinion clearly and fluently.

Australian Curriculum Links Year 3

Year 6

Language Text structure and organisation – ACELA1478, ACELA1479 Literacy Interpreting, analysing and evaluating – ACELY1678, ACELY1679, ACELY1680 Creating texts – ACELY1682, ACELY1683

Language Text structure and organisation – ACELA1518 Literacy Interpreting, analysing and evaluating – ACELY1711, ACELY1801 Creating texts – ACELY1714, ACELY1716

Year 4 Language Text structure and organisation – ACELA1490 Literacy Interpreting, analysing and evaluating – ACELY1690, ACELY1691 Creating texts – ACELY1694, ACELY1695

Year 7 Language Text structure and organisation – ACELA1531 Literacy Interpreting, analysing and evaluating – ACELY1721, ACELY1722 Creating texts – ACELY1725, ACELY1726

Year 5 Language Text structure and organisation – ACELA1504 Literacy Interpreting, analysing and evaluating – ACELY1701 Creating texts – ACELY1704, ACELY1705

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4


This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. Section 1: What is a Persuasive Text?

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Section 1 What is a Persuasive Text?

’ Notes Teachers

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. Activity 1

• Ask students what they think the word ‘persuade’ means. Write all suggestions on the board. As a class decide on a definition for ‘persuade’ and ask students to copy the definition on to the activity sheet.

• Ask the students to think of a time when they have been persuaded by someone (persuaded to go to the movies, to buy a certain video game, to like a certain band). Students can write this example down on the activity sheet. • Students should then think of a time when they have persuaded another person to do something or think something. (To go bowling with them, to dislike Justin Bieber’s new song, to join Facebook.) Students can write this example down on the activity sheet. • Ask students to look at the persuasive text on the activity sheet. Help them to identify the topic (air-conditioning), opinion (that air-conditioning should be installed in all schools) and reason given (air-conditioning will improve students’ ability to learn). You can tell them that these three things appear in the introduction of a persuasive piece.

Activity 2 • This activity sheet will help students understand that they are persuaded by people all the time in their daily lives. The activity also reinforces the three parts of a persuasive text: topic, opinion and reasons given.

Activity 3 • To help students persuade someone to buy the bottle of shampoo, you could ask them to think of persuasive advertisements that they see everyday and brainstorm written text from advertisements that they remember.

Activity 4 • Ask students to find a persuasive text. This could be in the form of an advertisement, letter, essay, etc. Each student should paste the persuasive text onto the sheet and identify the topic, opinion(s) and reason(s) given in the text. Alternatively you could provide the students with a persuasive text.

Activity 5 • This sheet will help reinforce the definitions of: topic, opinion and reason.

Activity 6 • Instruct students to state their opinion on the topic (say whether they agree or disagree) and give two reasons for their opinion in dot points. Draw their attention to the example that has been done for them. Tell them that this is the information that goes in the introduction of a persuasive piece of writing. Stress that their reasons should be brief. Elaboration goes in the body of their writing, not in the introduction. • Ask the students to write out their introduction in a paragraph, without using headings or dot points.

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6


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What is a Persuasive Text?

Activity 1

Part 1: Answer the questions.

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. 1. What does ‘persuade’ mean?

_______________________________________________

Like...Justin Bieber is so awesome you know …

_______________________________________________ 2. When have you been persuaded by someone? _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ 3. When have you persuaded someone?

___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ Part 2: Read this persuasive text. The topic of this text is air-conditioning.

School Should Be Cool All schools in Western Australia should have air-conditioning. Teaching children in hot and sticky classrooms is just simply ridiculous! When children are too hot at school they cannot concentrate. This means that they miss out on valuable learning time. If your child attends a school which has no airconditioning, you should put pressure on the school Principal to start raising money to keep your child’s school cool. 1. Identify the main opinion presented in the text. (What the text is persuading you to think.) _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ 2. Identify the main reason presented in the text. (This supports the opinion given.) _________________________________________________________________

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_________________________________________________________________ Extra: Look at other persuasive texts and see if you can identify the topic, opinion and reasons given. 7


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What is a Persuasive Text?

Activity 2

Did you know that you spend a lot of your day being persuaded by others?

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. ď ˛ In each caption: circle the topic, highlight the opinion (what you are being persuaded to do) in red and the reason (given for the opinion) in yellow.

Turn that TV off, it is not good for your eyes!

Eat your spinach, it will make you strong.

ď ˛ Write your own persuasive captions in the speech bubbles below. Highlight the opinions and the reasons in different colours. Circle the topics.

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Activity 3

What is a Persuasive Text?

 Look at the two persuasive texts. Identify the topic, opinion (what you are being persuaded to do) and reason (given for the opinion) in each text.

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' 50%book Off preview. Brand Names! Rip Curl, Billabong, Mambo

Surf’s Up Hurry while stocks last! The best surf store in town. Centrally Located 1 Crawford Road, Appleshore, WA

Slip, Slop, Slap! Don’t become another victim. Protect yourself with a high UV sunscreen everyday. Keep Australians healthy and safe.

Topic: __________________________

Topic: __________________________

Opinion: ________________________

Opinion: ________________________

________________________________

________________________________

Reason:_________________________

Reason:_________________________

________________________________

________________________________

 Persuade someone to buy this shampoo. Add persuasive text around the bottle.

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What is a Persuasive Text?

Activity 4

ď ˛ Paste your chosen persuasive text here.

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview.

1. What is the topic of your chosen text? _____________________________________________________________________ 2. What is the opinion presented in the text? (What is it persuading you to think/do?) _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ 3. What reasons does the text give for the opinion presented? _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________

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_____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________

10


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What is a Persuasive Text?

Activity 5

ď ˛ Read each persuasive text and identify the topic, opinion(s) (what you are being persuaded to do) and reason(s) (given for the opinion) presented.

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. Young children are watching far too much television these days and this is very concerning. Watching too much television can lead to children being less active and therefore unhealthy. Children who watch too much television can also become very unsociable and lack communication skills. It is important that parents limit the time that young children spend watching the box.

Topic: _________________________________________________________ Opinion(s): _____________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ Reason(s): _____________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________

It is more than clear that each year, fewer animals are being listed as endangered species and this highlights that we are doing enough to protect our wildlife. The funding provided to protect our wildlife has increased, and people are becoming more aware of what they can do to help prevent animals from being endangered. To say that we are not doing enough is simply unfair and untrue. Topic: _________________________________________________________ Opinion(s): _____________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ Reason(s): _____________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________

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extra: On the back of this sheet write your own five line persuasive piece. Swap with a friend. Identify the topic, opinion(s) and reason(s) in each other’s texts. 11


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What is a Persuasive Text?

Activity 6

 It is important to be able to recognise the topic, opinion(s) and reason(s) given in a persuasive text. Look at this example.

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. Topic: Homework for primary school students.

Opinion (agree/disagree): It goes without saying that homework for primary students should be banned!

I love homework because …

Reasons (to support opinion): • Homework causes primary students unnecessary stress and anxiety. • Homework stops primary students from leading any kind of balanced lifestyle.

 Write your own opinion on the topic below and state your reasons for the opinion given. Topic:

Zoos and circuses are cruel. _______________________________________________________

Opinion (agree/disagree): ____________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ Two reasons for your opinion: •

_______________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________ •

_______________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________ Write out your notes above as a paragraph. (Don’t use any headings.) Your opinion on a topic and reasons for your opinion always appear in the introduction of a persuasive text. The paragraph that you will write below will look like the introduction of a persuasive text. _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________

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_________________________________________________________________  Choose a topic of your own and write an introduction on this topic. Use the back of this sheet. Remember, an introduction includes your opinion on the topic and reasons to support your opinion. 12


This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. Section 2: Persuasive Topics

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Section 2 Persuasive Topics

’ Notes Teachers

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. Activity 1

• Ask the students to imagine that one week from now they will be given a topic and asked to write a persuasive piece based on this topic. Tell them that this task will be a lot less scary if they have looked at, and written on, lots of different topics before. • Explain that looking at a range of topics will help them to think about lots of different issues in the world and increase their general knowledge. Read through the list of topics on the student activity sheet. • Instruct students to individually highlight in yellow the topics that they think they could easily write about. • Using a red highlighter, ask students to mark the topics that they would find hard to write about. • Beside each topic, tell students to show their opinion on each topic by ticking agree or disagree.

Extension Activity •

Expose students to as many persuasive topics as possible and discuss them as a class.

Use the topics to set up lively classroom debates.

Activity 2 • Explain to the students that often we can group lots of topics under one heading. Grouping or categorising topics will help them to prepare for unseen topics. It can also help students to identify what categories they know the most about and the least about. You will probably find that a student is strong in one area, such as the environment or technology. Students should be asked to research their weakest category/categories at home or in class to help them prepare for unseen persuasive pieces. • Read out the categories on the activity sheet. • Individually or in pairs, students should categorise the topics on page 15, by writing the number of each topic under one of the headings. • Ask students to write one of their own topics under each category. • Students should identify the categories that they would be most and least confident about writing on.

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Activity 1

Persuasive Topics

 Read the list of persuasive topics.

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview.  Highlight the ones that you think look easy in yellow.

 Highlight the ones that you think look difficult in red.

 Tick agree or disagree to show your opinion on each topic. 1. Homework for primary students should be banned.

Agree Disagree

2. Playing video games is bad for young children.

Agree Disagree

3. Junk food should be banned from lunch boxes.

Agree Disagree

4. The internet is dangerous.

Agree Disagree

5. All students should be made to wear a school uniform.

Agree Disagree

6. We should not be made to recycle.

Agree Disagree

7. Swimming lessons should be compulsory for all students.

Agree Disagree

8. Dangerous animals should be killed.

Agree Disagree

9. Children should do chores around the house.

Agree Disagree

10. School hours are too long.

Agree Disagree

11. All schools should have air-conditioning.

Agree Disagree

12. Sport should be compulsory for all school children.

Agree Disagree

13. TV should be limited to one hour a day for all children.

Agree Disagree

14. Computers will soon replace us.

Agree Disagree

15. Peer pressure is a problem.

Agree Disagree

16. Not enough is being done to stop bullies in schools.

Agree Disagree

17. Public schools are better than private schools.

Agree Disagree

18. We are not doing enough to save endangered animals.

Agree Disagree

19. Children these days are not sunsmart.

Agree Disagree

20. We should not be able to download music free of charge.

Agree Disagree

21. Zoos and circuses are cruel.

Agree Disagree

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22. Children should spend less time listening to music.

Agree Disagree

23. Testing on animals should be illegal.

Agree Disagree

24. Children should do more to help the environment.

Agree Disagree 15


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Persuasive Topics

Activity 2

 Categorise the persuasive topics on page 15 under the headings below, e.g. topic 4 (The internet is dangerous) = Technology. Add one of your own topics to each category.

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. 4 Technology

Animal Cruelty

The Environment

Child Health

Education

Children’s Leisure Time

Go to www.readyed.net  The category that I know the most about is: ____________________________  The category that I know the least about is: ____________________________ 16


This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. Section 3: Persuasive Devices

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Section 3 Persuasive Devices

’ Notes Teachers

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. Activity 1 •

Explain to the students that when they write a persuasive piece, they should include some persuasive devices. This will help them convince their target audience to agree with their opinion.

Identify confident tone as a persuasive device. Tell them that they will not be very persuasive if they sound unsure or hesitant about what they are saying. Sounding confident will make their target audience feel more confident about agreeing with their opinion. Ask students to write down in their own words why confident tone is such a useful persuasive device.

Draw students’ attention to the sentences on the activity sheet. Ask them to highlight the sentences that use a confident tone and circle the words which make the sentences sound confident. These are words that they can use in their own writing.

Brainstorm more words on the board which will help students sound confident in their writing. This will help them with question three.

Activity 2 •

Identify direct address as a useful persuasive device. Explain that a good way of engaging the reader is to ‘include’ them and/or assume that they are already on the writer’s side, (e.g. We all know that...). Explain that direct address closes the distance between the writer and the reader and can make the reader step into somebody’s shoes (e.g. Can you imagine being trapped in a cage all day long?). Direct address can also position the reader to take responsibility for a problem (e.g. This is our world, it is our future). Ask students to write down in their own words why direct address is such a useful persuasive device.

Students should underline the words which directly address the reader on the activity sheet. You could also ask the students to circle any words which make the sentences sound confident. This shows that direct address can be used together with confident tone.

Students should rewrite the sentences so that they address the reader.

Extension Activity

Go to www.readyed.net Students should practice identifying direct address and confident tone in as many persuasive texts as possible.

18


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Persuasive Devices

Activity 1

1. Confident tone is an important persuasive device. Why do you think it is important to sound confident when persuading someone?

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ 2. Highlight the sentences that use a confident tone, then circle the words that make the sentences sound confident. a. Junk food should probably be banned from lunch boxes. b. Junk food should most certainly be banned from lunch boxes. c. The internet is, without a doubt, extremely dangerous. d. The internet can be a little dangerous at times. e. There is no question about it, kids should definitely help out in the kitchen. f. Primary students shouldn’t really be allowed to watch PG-rated movies. g. Allowing primary students to watch PG-rated movies is unthinkable. 3. Add words to make these sentences sound more confident. • Listening to music is a waste of time. ________________________________________________________________ • Children shouldn’t be made to do sport at school. ________________________________________________________________ • The kitchen is not a place for children. ________________________________________________________________

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extra: Use the back of this sheet to write three of your own confident sentences on a topic of your choice. Pick a topic from page 15 if you wish. 19


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Persuasive Devices

Activity 2

1. Why is direct address a good persuasive device?

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ Direct address uses these words: you, we, our, your and us. All of the sentences below use direct address.

2. Highlight the words in each sentence that address the reader. a. We all know that junk food is connected to heart disease. b. You and I both know that being able to swim can save lives. c. This is our future, we must take action. d. Limiting TV will benefit us all. 3. Rewrite the sentences below so that they directly address the reader. Use you, we, our, your and us. • Peer pressure is a problem. _________________________________________________________________ • Playing video games will help children’s hand-eye coordination. _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ • Each year more and more money is spent on recycling. _________________________________________________________________ • Homework makes sure that students understand what is being taught in the classroom. _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ • The more chores children do around the house, the more independent they will be as young adults.

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_________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ 20


Section 3 Persuasive Devices

’ Notes Teachers

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. Activity 3 •

Tell the students that rhetorical questions are questions directed at the reader which don’t require an answer. They are a form of direct address. They 'wake up' the reader and involve him/her. They also make a persuasive piece look as though they have every question that may be asked covered. Ask students to write a definition of rhetorical questions on the activity sheet and say why they are included in persuasive texts.

Instruct students to write three rhetorical questions based on the topic: school hours are too long, then identify rhetorical questions in the text provided.

Activity 4 •

Explain to students that using descriptive language is another way of persuading someone to agree with them.

In a persuasive piece of writing, students will generally be arguing if something is good or bad. Learning descriptive words to say ‘good’ or ‘bad’ is a way of extending students’ vocabulary and preparing them for writing persuasively. Instruct students to cut out the descriptive words for ‘good’ and ‘bad’ and paste them under the correct headings.

Students can practice using descriptive language by filling in the gaps in the sentences and by writing one of their own descriptive sentences.

Extension Activities • • •

Students sit in a circle and take turns coming up with another word for either ‘good’ or ‘bad’. Students sit out when they can’t think of a word. Students can be tested on the spellings of alternative words for ‘good’ and ‘bad’ to prepare them to write a persuasive speech. Students can create a word search which includes words for ‘good’ and ‘bad’, and swap their searches with a partner.

Activities 5 & 6 •

Explain to students that a good way to convince readers to agree with their opinion is to make their writing look factual. Statistics and expert opinion will make their writing look well-researched and well-supported and make readers feel more comfortable about agreeing with their opinions.

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Persuasive Devices

Activity 3

1. What are rhetorical questions?

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ 2. Why do rhetorical questions appear in persuasive texts?

____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ Here are some rhetorical questions: • •

How would you like to sit in a classroom dripping in sweat while trying to complete a Maths test? Are there really any good reasons why schools should not have airconditioning?

3. Write your own rhetorical questions on the topics below. Topic: School hours are too long. Rhetorical questions:

1. ______________________________________________________________ 2. ______________________________________________________________ 3. ______________________________________________________________

Topic: Computers will soon replace us. Rhetorical questions:

1. ______________________________________________________________ 2. ______________________________________________________________

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3. ______________________________________________________________

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Activity 4

Persuasive Devices

1. Descriptive language is an important persuasive device. Cut out the descriptive words for ‘good’ and ‘bad’ and paste them under the correct headings.

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. perfect

sickened

scary

fabulous

horrified

unacceptable

disgusted

superb

delighted

admirable

shocked

inappropriate

excellent

frightening

pleasing

appalled

wonderful

great

Good

Bad

2. Fill in the spaces using descriptive words. •

Testing on animals is a ____________________ experience for them and I am personally ________________ to discover that it is still happening!

I think that watching TV for more than one hour a day is ________________ and I know that many people would agree with me.

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3. Write your own sentence using descriptive words.

_____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ 23


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Activity 5

Persuasive Devices

 Using statistics and expert opinion in your writing will make your information look well-researched and more believable. Look at the examples below.

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. Here is an example of expert opinion: Many primary school teachers agree that it is not appropriate to give homework to young children.

Who is the expert in the above statement? _______________________________ Here is an example of expert opinion and statistics: A recent survey conducted by the Educational Board of Western Australia revealed that three in four children don’t complete their homework because they are playing video games. Who is the expert? ___________________________________________________ What is the statistic? __________________________________________________  Who said what? Draw lines to match the statistic with the expert. Then highlight the statistic in each sentence. Over 90% of animals in circuses are treated unkindly. Junk food is responsible for 80% of overweight children.

RSPCA Dietician

Recycling has happily increased by 10% in the last year. Surf Life Saver Children who don’t wear hats are four times more likely to suffer sunstroke. Environmentalist

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Hundreds of Aussie children are unable to swim. 24

Doctor


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Persuasive Devices

Activity 6

ď ˛ Write a sentence on each topic which includes a statistic from an expert. Underline the expert and circle the statistic in each sentence.

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. Topic: Not enough is being done to stop bullies in schools.

My sentence: ________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ Topic: Sport should be compulsory for all children. My sentence: ________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ Topic: Kids should help their parents in the kitchen. My sentence: ________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ ď ˛ Write a statistic by each expert shown in the pictures. Statistic 1: ________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________

Expert 1

Statistic 2: ________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________

Expert 2

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Statistic 3: ________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________

Expert 3 25


Section 3 Persuasive Devices

’ Notes Teachers

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. Activity 7 •

Explain to students that repetition means repeating a word. Repeating a word helps the word and the message to stand out and be remembered by readers. Repetition is therefore a good, and for most writers, an easy persuasive device to use. For the first activity, students can add words to the sentences to create repetition or repeat words which already appear in the sentences.

Discuss the way that alliteration affects the sound of a sentence (it gives a sentence rhythm and a sing-song quality and makes it stand out and easy to remember). Tongue twisters can be used as an example of extreme alliteration (she sells sea-shells on the sea shore).

Activity 8 •

As a class discuss and define the terms metaphor and simile (metaphors and similes compare two things to make a point. Similes make the comparison using the words ‘as’ ‘like’ or ‘than’. Metaphors and similes are a way of speaking figuratively rather than literally).

Explain to students that using metaphors and similes in persuasive pieces will help make their writing more interesting and engaging because metaphors and similes say things in new and refreshing ways.

Students can look at the examples of metaphors and similes on the sheet. Help students to make sense of them and create some of their own.

Activity 9 •

Encourage students to look at a range of persuasive texts and identify the devices used.

Activity 10 •

Fun activities will help students remember persuasive devices.

Activity 11 •

Students can create their own Who Am I? and True or False? questions to swap with a friend.

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Persuasive Devices

Activity 7

Repetition and alliteration add emphasis.

This Repetition is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. If you repeat a word, the word and the message will stand out. Example: Peer pressure is a big, big problem!

 Rewrite the sentences adding repetition. •

More animals are becoming extinct.

____________________________________________________________________ •

Downloading music free of charge is wrong!

____________________________________________________________________ •

Kids should definitely not be able to choose what they spend their money on.

____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________

Alliteration Alliteration gives a sentence rhythm and makes it stand out. Example: Long hours at school make children really ratty and restless.  Circle the letters that create alliteration. Killing dangerous animals is cold, callous and cruel. Compulsory swimming lessons will keep children safe and secure. Junk food will stop children from being happy and healthy.  Use the back of this sheet to write a sentence for each picture below which contains alliteration.

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Persuasive Devices

Activity 8

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. Metaphors are not literal. They are a figure of speech. Metaphors can compare two things. Read the two metaphors below. 1. The internet is a deadly trap.

2. The students are drowning in homework.

 Highlight the two things/people being compared in each sentence.  What does each metaphor mean? 1. ______________________________________________________________ 2. ______________________________________________________________

Similes compare two things using the words ‘as’, ‘like’ or ‘than’. Read the three similes below. 1. Zoos are like dungeons for animals. 2. Swimming lessons will make sure that everybody can swim like fishes. 3. Testing on animals is crueller than Cruella di Vil.  Highlight the two things/people being compared in each sentence.  What do the similes mean? 1. ______________________________________________________________ 2. ______________________________________________________________ 3. ______________________________________________________________

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 Now try to write some of your own similes and metaphors on the back of this sheet.

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Activity 9

Persuasive Devices

Persuasive Devices

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. • Descriptive language

• Expert opinion

• Metaphors

• Direct address

• Repetition

• Similes

• Statistics

• Alliteration

• Confident tone

• Rhetorical questions

 Read the persuasive text below and circle and label as many persuasive devices as you can. The first one has been done for you. repetition Allowing young children to play video games is a bad, bad move. It is well-documented that video games encourage young children to act violently and lose interest in school. Does your child play video games? If you have answered yes to this question you may be horrified to hear that 30% of juveniles charged in our courtrooms last year, admitted to copying violent behaviour displayed by characters in video games. Shocking and scary isn’t it! Allowing children to play video games is like allowing them to play with fire. Nearly all video games involve some kind of violent behaviour and many young children begin to see this type of behaviour as acceptable and even desirable! Act responsibly by encouraging your child to choose an alternative activity.

1. What is the topic of this persuasive text? ____________________________________________________________________ 2. What is the main opinion of the text? ____________________________________________________________________ 3. What are the two reasons given to support the opinion? ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________

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4. Write the next paragraph of this persuasive text on the back of this sheet (this will be on the second reason given). Include some persuasive devices. Swap with a partner and see if they can identify the devices that you have included.

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Activity 10

Persuasive Devices

 Find the persuasive devices in the word search.

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Persuasive Devices • Descriptive language

• Metaphors

• Statistics

• Similes

• Expert opinion

• Confident tone

• Repetition

• Direct address

• Alliteration

• Rhetorical questions

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Persuasive Devices

Activity 11

ThisWhoisAm aI? Ready-Ed Publications' book preview.  Read the definitions and guess the device. 1. I say the same thing over and over and over.

_____________________

2. I am great with numbers and can sound very well-researched.

_____________________

3. I like to involve you.

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4. I never stop asking questions.

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5. I like using words that begin with the same letter next to each other.

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6. I never sound hesitant.

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7. I help you say ‘good’ and ‘bad’ in different ways.

_____________________

True or False?  Write true or false beside each statement. 1. This is a metaphor: Bullies are like lions who hunt for their prey. 2. This is a simile: Eating junk food will make you as big as a balloon. 3. This is alliteration: Zoos are deadly dungeons. 4. This is expert opinion: 60% of people believe that homework is not worthwhile. 5. This is direct address: Imagine if you were kept in a cage for hours on end.

Go to www.readyed.net  On the back of this sheet create a jingle to help you remember persuasive devices. 31


This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. Section 4: The Structure of a Persuasive Text

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Section 4 The Structure Of A Persuasive Text

’ Notes Teachers

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. Activity 1

• Guide the students through the activity sheet so that they understand what the introduction of a persuasive text looks like. More able students should express themselves more creatively and fluently. • Ensure that students don’t include any detail in their introductions. Additional information should appear in their body paragraphs.

Activities 2 and 3 • Work through the activity sheets in class so that students understand that each body paragraph deals with a separate reason stated in the introduction. This should help students begin writing the body of a persuasive piece of writing. • As an extension activity, ask students to practise writing body paragraphs which consist of a rebuttal.

Activity 4 • Students should try to restate their opinion and reasons for their opinion using different words so that their conclusion isn’t too similar to their introduction. Explain that they must not introduce any new points in the conclusion.

Activity 5 •

Students may like to choose a topic from page 15 to develop. The second body paragraph can be a rebuttal.

Activities 6, 7, 8, & 9 •

The texts give students the opportunity to identify persuasive devices, revise the structure of a persuasive text and do some of their own persuasive writing.

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The Structure of a Persuasive Text

Activity 1

The first part of a persuasive piece of writing is the introduction.

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. The introduction does two things:

• It states your opinion on the topic (whether you agree or disagree). • It outlines the reasons for your opinion.

Part 1

• The first sentence of an introduction states whether you agree or disagree with the topic. This statement must be confident.

Example: School hours are far, far too long.  Practise writing the first sentence of your introduction on this topic: Testing on animals should be illegal. ___________________________________________________________________________

Part 2

• The second sentence of an introduction outlines the reasons for your opinion. Your reasons must be brief. You should not give any examples in your introduction. How many reasons you give, depends on the intended length of your paper. The example below provides two reasons. Highlight each reason in a different colour.

Long hours at school mean that children are too tired to concentrate and don’t have any time or energy left for after-school activities.  Practise writing the second sentence of an introduction on this topic: Testing on animals should be illegal. ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________

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 Use the back of this sheet to put the two parts of your introduction together and create one paragraph. 34


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The Structure of a Persuasive Text

Activity 2

Body paragraphs come after your introduction.

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. Your first body paragraph develops the first reason stated in your introduction.

The second body paragraph develops the second reason stated in your introduction and so on.

Questions

 If you have two reasons in your introduction, how many body paragraphs should you have?

?

 If you have three reasons in your introduction, how many body paragraphs should you have?

Example Here is a body paragraph which develops the reason that long school hours mean that children can’t concentrate. Long school hours make students overtired and stop them from concentrating on their school work. If children cannot concentrate, they can’t complete their work to the best of their ability. Is it any wonder that national numeracy and literacy standards are dropping? Sleepy students can’t concentrate, focus or think clearly! Shortening school hours will improve our state’s educational record by producing more alert school children.

Breaking it down •

The first sentence of this body paragraph restates the reason given in the introduction.

The second, third and fourth sentences provide more detail.

The final sentence sums up the main point being made.

Body paragraphs include persuasive devices. The body paragraph above uses confident tone, a statistic, a rhetorical question and alliteration. Use a highlighter to find them.

Go to www.readyed.net  On the back of this sheet, write a body paragraph based on an introduction that you have written. 35


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The Structure of a Persuasive Text

Activity 3

 One of your body paragraphs can contain a rebuttal. A rebuttal disproves an opinion that goes against your own.

ThisExampleis1 a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. The internet is not dangerous for young children. The children who found themselves in danger when using the internet last year, did so because they were using computers which were not installed with filter devices. If all young children use computers with filter devices then they will stay out of danger and remain safe. That is what filters are for; to be installed. What is the writer’s opinion? _________________________________________________________________ What opinion is the writer disproving? _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ Briefly, how does the writer disprove this opinion? _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________

Example 2 TV shouldn’t be limited to one hour a day for young children. Children can benefit from watching television for two to three hours a day if the programs that they watch are carefully selected. Parents and other experts who argue that more than one hour of television a day is harmful to children are not considering the huge selection of programs available to children which are educational. What is the writer’s opinion? _________________________________________________________________ What opinion is the writer disproving? _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ Briefly, how does the writer disprove this opinion?

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_________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ 36


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The Structure of a Persuasive Text

Activity 4

The conclusion is the last part of a persuasive piece of writing.

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. A conclusion sums up your argument.

It restates your opinion and the reasons for your opinion using different words than you did in your introduction.

Task Here is a conclusion on the topic: School hours are too long. School hours should be cut short. They are much too long. Long hours at school make students so tired that they cannot concentrate and cannot participate in after-school activities. Reducing school hours will create happier and healthier children. ď ˛ Use the following introduction to write your own conclusion. Allowing young children to play video games is a bad, bad move. It is welldocumented that video games encourage young children to act violently and lose interest in school. ________________________________________ ________________________________________ ________________________________________ ________________________________________ ________________________________________

Draw a picture here to match your conclusion.

__________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________

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ď ˛ In your own words explain the structure of a persuasive piece of writing on the back of this page.

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The Structure of a Persuasive Text

Activity 5

ď ˛ Use what you have learned to write a full-length persuasive piece on a topic of your choice. Draw pictures to match your text.

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. Topic:

Introduction: _______________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ First body paragraph: ___________________________ _____________________________________________ _____________________________________________ _____________________________________________ _____________________________________________ _____________________________________________ _____________________________________________ _____________________________________________ Second body paragraph: ________________________ _____________________________________________ _____________________________________________ _____________________________________________ _____________________________________________ _____________________________________________ _____________________________________________ _____________________________________________ Conclusion: ________________________________________________________________

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__________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________

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The Structure of a Persuasive Text

Activity 6a

ď ˛ Read this persuasive text. It is written in response to the statement: Children should spend less time listening to music. Then complete the questions and tasks on the next page.

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. Children should spend more, not less time listening to music. Music connects people and improves people’s general well-being. Music is beneficial socially and emotionally. Music is definitely the best medicine children can take.

Did you know that scientists have spent many, many years studying the effects of music and have proved that listening to music makes people feel happier and healthier ? In many hospitals patients are being encouraged to listen to music to help them take their mind off pain and lift their spirits. Many athletes claim that they use music to motivate them to train and many teenagers have said that listening to music makes them feel less tired, less anxious and less stressed. Music is good for us emotionally. Music is responsible for connecting people socially. Concerts and other music performances bring people with similar tastes in music together. This can create friendships and lively discussions. Music is like a social network . People may argue that music distracts young children from doing their homework. Music however is more likely to provide students with a necessary break from their studies and help them to relax and find the energy to revisit their homework in a more focused manner.

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The Structure of a Persuasive Text

Activity 6b

ď ˛ Read the persuasive text on page 39 and then complete the questions and tasks below.

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. 1. Draw a red box around the introduction of the text.

2. Draw a green box around the body paragraphs of the text. 3. What is the topic of this persuasive piece?

_____________________________________________________________________ 4. What is the main opinion of this persuasive piece? _____________________________________________________________________ 5. What are the main reasons given to support the opinion? _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ 6. What opinion is rebutted? _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ 7. Look at the words in the boxes. Draw a line from each box to label each persuasive device. 8. Write the conclusion of this persuasive text. _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ 9. Write another introduction on the same topic which argues that children should spend less time listening to music. _____________________________________________________________________

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_____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ 40


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The Structure of a Persuasive Text

Activity 7a

 Read this persuasive text. It is written in response to the statement: Everybody should be made to recycle. Then complete the questions and tasks on the next page.

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. Stand on a chair and shout out loud, “Everybody should be made to recycle.” Feel better? You should do , because recycling saves trees and that can only be a good thing. Recycling also helps us live in a cleaner, less polluted world.

Did you know that recycling one tonne of mixed paper and newspaper can save 12 trees? Trees give us shade, food, oxygen, play areas and something good to look at, so they are important to save . Set up a bin in your classroom and at home to recycle used paper. You will be surprised at how much paper you actually throw out! Some people may argue that recycling is unhygienic , but this only happens when people are careless and do not separate materials well. The worst thing that we can do is excuse careless people from recycling. Everybody should be made to take responsibility for our world. We should put pressure on all people to recycle correctly, rather than making a percentage of people do the work. Recycling is something that should be done by everyone all over the world. If we make recycling optional, people will get more and more lazy and only a section of the population will take responsibility for making our world a cleaner, greener place.

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The Structure of a Persuasive Text

Activity 7b

ď ˛ Read the persuasive text on page 41 and then complete the questions and tasks below.

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. 1. Draw a red box around the introduction of the text.

2. Draw a green box around the body paragraphs of the text. 3. What is the topic of this persuasive piece?

_____________________________________________________________________ 4. What is the main opinion of this persuasive piece? _____________________________________________________________________ 5. What are the main reasons given to support the opinion? _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ 6. What opinion is rebutted? _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ 7. Look at the words in the boxes. Draw a line from each box to label each persuasive device. 8. Write another body paragraph which includes a rebuttal for this persuasive text. _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ 9. Write another introduction on the same topic which argues that everybody should not be made to recycle. _____________________________________________________________________

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_____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ 42


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Answers

P8

inappropriate.

Topic: TV. Opinion: Turn that TV off. Reason: It is not good for your eyes!

P24

Topic: Spinach. Opinion: Eat your spinach. Reason: It will make you strong.

The expert is the Educational Board of Western Australia. The statistic is that three in four children don't complete their homework because they are playing video games.

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. P9

Topic: Surf's Up surf store. Opinion: Hurry in and buy the reduced brand names. Reason: It is the best surf store in town/It has discounted stock. Topic: Sunscreen. Opinion: Apply a high UV sunscreen daily. Reason: To stay healthy and safe. P11 Topic: Television. Opinion(s): Young children watch too much TV/We should limit the time that children spend watching TV. Reason(s): Children who watch TV are less active and unhealthy, are more unsociable and lack communication skills. Topic: Endangered species. Opinion(s): We are doing enough to protect endangered species. Reason(s): Fewer animals are listed as endangered, funding has increased and people are becoming more aware of what they can do to protect endangered species. P16 Technology: 4, 14, 20. Animal Cruelty: 8, 18, 21, 23. The Environment: 6, 24. Child Health: 3, 15, 19. Education: 1, 5, 10, 11, 12, 16, 17. Children's Leisure Time: 2, 7, 9, 13, 22. P19 2. Students should highlight b, c, e and g. Students should circle the words: certainly, without a doubt, extremely, no question, definitely and unthinkable. P20 2. a = we, b = you, c = our and we, d = us. P23

The experts are primary teachers.

Over 90% of animals in circuses are treated unkindly = RSPCA. Junk food is responsible for 80% of overweight children = Dietician. Recycling has happily increased by 10% in the last year = Environmentalist. Children who don't wear hats are four times more likely to suffer sunstroke = Doctor. Hundreds of Aussie children are unable to swim = Surf Life Saver. P27 Cold, callous and cruel. Safe and secure. Happy and healthy. P28 1. The internet and a deadly trap are being compared. 2. The students and drowning and are being compared. 1. The first metaphor means that the internet is dangerous. 2. The second metaphor means that students are getting so much homework that they cannot cope with it. 1. Zoos and dungeons are compared. 2. Swimmers and fishes are being compared. 3. The people who test on animals are being compared to Cruella di Vil. 1. The first simile means zoos are terrible places for animals. 2. The second simile means that if you take swimming lessons you will be a great swimmer.

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Good = perfect, fabulous, admirable, excellent, superb, wonderful, delighted, pleasing, great. Bad = disgusted, appalled, sickened, horrified, shocked, frightening, scary, unacceptable,

3. The third simile means that testing on animals is dreadfully cruel. 43


P29

Example 2

Students should identify the following devices: confident tone, rhetorical questions, direct address, statistics, a simile, alliteration, and descriptive language.

Opinion: Young children should be able to watch more than one hour of TV a day. Disproving: More than one hour of television for children is harmful. How: Programs should be carefully selected.

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. 1. The topic of the text is video games.

P40

2. The main opinion is that young children should not be allowed to play video games.

3. The two reasons are that video games encourage children to act violently and lose interest in school. P30 E M K

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3. Music. 4. Children should spend more time listening to music. 5. Music connects people (good socially) and improves people's wellbeing (good emotionally). 6. Music distracts children from doing their homework. 7. Confident tone, metaphor, direct address, expert opinion, repetition, rhetorical question and alliteration, simile. P42

3. Recycling. 4. Everybody should be made to recycle. 5. Saves trees and make the world cleaner. 6. Recycling is unhygienic. 7. Rhetorical question, direct address, direct address, statistic, statistic and rhetorical question, confident tone, direct address, descriptive language, direct address, repetition.

P31 1. Repetition. 2. Statistics. 3. Direct address. 4. Rhetorical questions. 5. Alliteration. 6. Confident tone. 7. Descriptive language. 1. False. 2. True. 3. True. 4. False. 5. True. P35 Questions: Two body paragraphs. Three body paragraphs. P36 Example 1 Opinion: The internet is not dangerous for young children. Disproving: Many children have found themselves in danger using the internet. How: Claims that the children who have found themselves in danger are not using computers installed with filters.

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Persuasive Writing