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Natural Disasters

Ready-Ed Publications

Natural Disasters

Natural Disasters is written for students in Year 6, however the activities may also suit Year 5 and 7 students. The activity sheets included in this book are designed to help your students to understand the science behind four common natural disasters: earthquakes, volcanoes, tsunamis and cyclones. Equipped with this knowledge, students will be better judges of the decisions made by countries which are prone to natural disasters and will be better able to make their own decisions if ever faced with a life threatening event. This topic is bound to grab the attention of young minds.

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Worksheets based on extreme events

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Natural Disasters ISBN 978 186 397 838 5

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  

www.istock.com/erlucho

By Miranda Mason


This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. Ready-Ed Publications

Title: Natural Disasters © 2012 Ready-Ed Publications Printed in Australia Author: Miranda Mason Illustrators: Alison Mutton, Melinda Brezmen, Terry Allen

Acknowledgements i. I-stock Photos. ii. Clip art images have been obtained from Microsoft Design Gallery Live and are used under the terms of the End User License Agreement for Microsoft Word 2000. Please refer to www.microsoft.com/permission. iii. Corel Corporation collection, 1600 Carling Ave., Ottawa, Ontario, Canada K1Z 8R7.

Copyright Notice The purchasing educational institution and its staff have the right to make copies of the whole or part of this book, beyond their rights under the Australian Copyright Act 1968 (the Act), provided that: 1.

The number of copies does not exceed the number reasonably required by the educational institution to satisfy its teaching purposes;

2.

Copies are made only by reprographic means (photocopying), not by electronic/digital means, and not stored or transmitted;

3.

Copies are not sold or lent;

4.

Every copy made clearly shows the footnote, ‘Ready-Ed Publications’.

Any copying of this book by an educational institution or its staff outside of this blackline master licence may fall within the educational statutory licence under the Act. The Act allows a maximum of one chapter or 10% of the pages of this book, whichever is the greater, to be reproduced and/or communicated by any educational institution for its educational purposes provided that

educational institution (or the body that administers it) has given a remuneration notice to Copyright Agency Limited (CAL) under Act. For details of the CAL licence for educational institutions contact: Copyright Agency Limited Level 19, 157 Liverpool Street Sydney NSW 2000 Telephone: (02) 9394 7600 Facsimile: (02) 9394 7601 E-mail: info@copyright.com.au Reproduction and Communication by others Except as otherwise permitted by this blackline master licence or under the Act (for example, any fair dealing for the purposes of study, research, criticism or review) no part of this book may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, communicated or transmitted in any form or by any means without prior written permission. All inquiries should be made to the publisher at the address below.

Go to www.readyed.net Published by:

Ready-Ed Publications PO Box 276 Greenwood WA 6024 www.readyed.net info@readyed.com.au

ISBN: 978 186 397 838 5 2


Contents

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. Teachers' Notes Australian Curriculum Links

4 4

Section One: Introducing Disasters Teaching Ideas Finding Out About Disasters Disaster Watch

5 6 7 8

Section Two: Earthquakes The Four Layers Of The Earth Make A Model Of The Earth Tectonic Plates 1 Tectonic Plates 2 Seismic Waves Earthquake Shocks Measuring Earthquakes 1 Measuring Earthquakes 2 The Most Damaging Earthquakes Make It Quake Proof Earthquakes Create Tsunamis

10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20

Section Three: Volcanoes What Is A Volcano? 1 What Is A Volcano? 2 Types Of Volcanoes Hotspots And The Pacific Ring of Fire Useful Volcanoes The Effects Of A Volcano

22 23 24 25 26 27

Section Four: Tsunamis Tsunamis Are Terrible Waves Tsunamis Around the World The Speed And Power Of Tsunamis Being Prepared

29 30 31 32

Section Five: Cyclones What Is A Cyclone? What's The Damage? First Hand Accounts Preparing For A Cyclone Disasters What’s The Difference? The Impact Of Cyclones

34 35 36 37 38 39 40

Section Six: The Four Disasters The Exposure Of Disasters Extreme Jobs – Who Does What? Having A Plan Extreme Weather Myths And Legends The Ripple Effect Disaster Box Memory Game Homework Tasks Natural Disaster Vocabulary

42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49-50 51

Answers

52-55

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3


Teachers’ Notes

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. Our world is a volatile and amazing place. The ground beneath our feet is constantly on the move even though we might not be aware of it. This movement can trigger natural disasters, such as earthquakes, volcanoes, tsunamis and cyclones. Understanding how our natural world works helps us to make better decisions when faced with life threatening events. This book will take your students on a journey to unlock the secrets of our planet and explain why nature is capable of creating such carnage. Natural Disasters is written for students in Year 6, however the activities may also suit students in Years 5 and 7. Suggested ways to use this resource: • • • • •

You could work your way through the book chronologically. Dip in and out of the topic pages to suit your lesson plans. Use it as a reference book. Set activities for homework. Give activities to fast finishers.

Australian Curriculum Links Year 6 - Science Earth and Space Sciences Science Understanding Sudden geological changes or extreme weather conditions can affect Earth’s surface (ACSSU096)

Nature and Development of Science Science involves testing predictions by gathering data and using evidence to develop explanations of events and phenomena (ACSHE098)

Use and Influence of Science Scientific understandings, discoveries and inventions are used to solve problems that directly affect people's lives (ACSHE100) Scientific knowledge is used to inform personal and community decisions (ACSHE220)

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This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. Section One: Introducing Disasters

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5


Teaching Ideas

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. Below are some ideas to help you introduce the topic of natural disasters to your class. Create a Word Wall Using coloured paper, ask students to write words that they associate with natural disasters and display these words on a wall in the classroom. Towards the end of this topic, students can add definitions to the Word Wall. Start a Curiosity Corner Ask the class to bring in news articles, books, photographs, songs – anything that connects to the topic for the class to explore and share. Paint a Word Picture Ask students to close their eyes and describe the situation during or after a natural disaster – help them to imagine what the scene might be like. KWL Chart Each student can create their own KWL chart to map out what they know already, what they want to learn about and later they can detail what they have learned. Headline Fun Students can use the internet to find and print off headlines about natural disasters – they can cut them out to add to a groovy class collage. Hear From an Expert Contact your local SES service and ask an expert to visit your class. Hearing from someone in the natural disaster field is a great way to get everyone interested. If you can’t find a kind volunteer, look for videos on the web or old BTN stories www.abc.net.au/btn/

Imaginary Interview Ask your students to imagine that they are a reporter interviewing an expert on natural disasters – they can list what questions they would like to ask. Students could use the questions to ask parents, neighbours and family what they think about disasters. Students can write down important quotations and display them in the classroom.

The Top Three Game Students should think of three things that they already know about disasters. They should pair up with another student and exchange their three points of information. Students should then choose another student to pair up with and exchange points. Hands on HELP Contact the CSIRO Scientists in Schools Program – they might be able to help run an investigation in your classroom www. csiro.au Science BLOG Instead of keeping a science journal for this topic, show your kids how to keep their own blog; an online journal. Give them time to update it weekly and keep a track of their learning. Check out these sites for blogging ideas: www.blogspot. com www.classblogmeister.com and www.edublogs.org

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6


Introducing Disasters

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. Finding Out About Disasters

 Disasters happen around the world at any time of the day or night.

Some disasters include: floods, cyclones, fires and earthquakes.

1. Name as many other types of disasters as you can. ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________ 2. Discuss your list with your partner. In your own words

define a disaster. _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ 3. Explain the difference between a natural disaster and a human-made disaster. __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ 4. Organise the types of disasters from your list under the headings.

Natural Disasters

Human Disasters

_______________________________________

_____________________________________

_______________________________________

_____________________________________

_______________________________________

_____________________________________

_______________________________________

_____________________________________

5. You, or someone you know, may have experienced a personal disaster.

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Provide a brief outline of it.

__________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ 7


Introducing Disasters

Disaster Watch

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. Over the next few weeks collect information on any disasters that happen around the world. Create a wall chart or collect the articles in a scrap book. Use newspapers, magazines and the internet as sources of information.  Record each disaster in the table below and classify it according to its location. Make a tally of the newspaper articles related to each disaster.

Local

Tally

National

Tally

International

Tally

 What type of disaster was most frequently reported? ________________________

____________________________________________________________________  Why do you think this was the case? ______________________________________

____________________________________________________________________  On the world map below use different colours to show where different types of disasters have occured. Cyclone Earthquake

Volcano Flood

__________ _________

__________ _________

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 Which of these disasters do you think is the most devastating? __________________  Give reasons for your answer. ____________________________________________

____________________________________________________________________ 8


This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. Section Two: Earthquakes

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9


The Four Layers Of The Earth

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. Questions It is essential to know about the four layers of the Earth in order to understand how earthquakes happen. Read Get The Facts then complete the questions and label the diagram.

 The crust is the rocky outer thin layer of the Earth. It varies in thickness from 5-60 kilometres. It is made up of hard rock which is mainly granite. Sometimes earthquakes happen when the rocks in the Earth's crust bend and break causing shockwaves to travel on the Earth's surface.

 The mantle is beneath the crust and is over 2,800 kilometres thick. It is made of a thick layer of hotter, heavier rocks. Parts of this layer are so hot that rocks have melted. This molten rock or lava, called magma, is what the Earth's crust floats on. Plates float on top of the magma. The plates rub together and collide and these movements cause cracks and slips in the Earth. These cracks and slips release huge amounts of energy in the Earth and this energy results in an earthquake.  The Earth’s core (centre) is made of two layers and is extremely hot, possibly over 2,000 degrees. The outer core is liquid and the inner core is solid iron and nickel.

Label the four layers of the Earth.

1. What can happen to the Earth's crust which causes earthquakes? ________________________________ ________________________________ ________________________________ 2. Where are plates found? ________________________________ 3. How do the plates cause earthquakes? ________________________________ ________________________________ ________________________________ ________________________________ ________________________________ ________________________________ magma (molten rock lava)

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Make A Model Of The Earth

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' Step 1: Inner core preview. book You will need four different colours of modelling clay or Plasticine for this activity. Each colour will represent a layer of the Earth.

Sam

Make the inner core (a ball) about two centimetres in diameter.

Step 2: Outer core With a different coloured clay, roll out a thick layer. Place the inner core into the middle and pull the second layer around the inner core. Compare the thickness to that of the inner core.

Step 3: Mantle Repeat Step 2 using a third colour.

Step 4: Crust The outer layer must be rolled very thin to represent the crust. When complete, cut with a knife to see the cross-section.

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Tectonic Plates 1

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. The theory that the Earth’s crust is broken up into parts called plates, is known as tectonic plates. It is believed that the movement of these plates (they can rub together and collide) causes slips and cracks in the Earth which releases a lot of built up energy and causes earthquakes. Earthquakes usually occur where two plates meet, called faults. When the pressure between two plates is too great for them to be held in place, the rocks snap causing shockwaves (a release of energy). Look at how the plates fit together on the map below. List of the Earth's Plates 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

North America Plate IndoAustralian Plate Cocos Plate Eurasian Plate Philippine Plate

6. Juan de Fuca Plate 7. Pacific Plate 8. Arabian Plate 9. Indian Plate 10. Antarctic Plate

11. South America Plate 12. Scotia Plate 13. Nazca Plate 14. Caribbean Plate 15. African Plate

Key Fault lines Quake zones

Lightly colour each plate a different colour and match the plate names by writing the correct number in the boxes.

Use the back of the sheet to answer these questions. 1. Where do most earthquakes occur? 2. Is Australia considered to be in an earthquake prone area? Explain.

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3. Name two countries most likely to be affected by earthquakes in: Asia, South America, North America, Europe and Africa.

4. Name a country (other than your own) where you would like to live. Why? 5. Write down the names of the seven largest plates. 12


Tectonic Plates 2

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. Read Get The Facts then complete the tasks below.

 Faults are cracks in the Earth where plates are moving in different directions. These areas experience constant pressure and tension.  There is a correspondence between the earthquake zones of the world and the boundaries of the tectonic plates.

 There are four types of earthquake faults: -

-

 Any sudden plate movement causes an earthquake.  Tectonic plates move in different ways at boundaries or fault lines.

-

A normal fault is when pieces of the Earth's surface are pulled apart. A reverse fault is when the plate is being compressed so one part of the Earth's surface is pushed up and one is pushed down. In a strike-slip fault, pieces of the Earth's surface move in opposite horizontal directions. A thrust fault is similar to a reverse fault. The plates are compressed, but the pieces of the Earth's surface are pushed up lifting the Earth.

After reading Get The Facts, label and describe in your own words the four different earthquake fault types below.

1

2

Fault type: _________________________ Fault type: _________________________ Description: ________________________ Description: ________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________

3

4

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Fault type: _________________________ Fault type: _________________________ Description: ________________________ Description: ________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ 13


Seismic Waves

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' Get The Facts book preview. Questions When the plates that cover the Earth's crust, slip or fracture, energy is released as seismic waves. These waves cause damage. Read Get The Facts, then answer the questions.

There are two types of seismic waves: body waves and surface waves.

1. Which type of seismic wave causes the most devastation?

Body waves move through the inside of the Earth. There are two types of body waves: primary and secondary.

_______________________________________

Primary waves move the fastest so they reach the Earth first and are therefore the first to be felt. They can pass through solids, liquids and gases easily. They arrive at the Earth's surface with a large thud which shakes and rattles the Earth.

_______________________________________

Secondary waves arrive on Earth after the primary waves. As they pass through rocks they cause them to change and vibrate making the Earth shake vertically and horizontally. They damage the structure of buildings, etc.

_______________________________________

Surface waves move along the surface of the Earth and are to blame for most of the devastation caused by earthquakes. They move up and down the surface of the Earth rocking the foundations of structures. They are the slowest moving waves and are the last waves to be felt. This is why the most intense shaking happens at the end of the main earthquake.

_______________________________________

2. In what order do the waves hit the Earth? _______________________________________

3. Describe the kind of damage which could be caused by: primary waves: _______________________________________

secondary waves: _______________________________________ _______________________________________ surface waves:

_______________________________________

Click IT To find out more information about measuring earthquakes go to: http://earthquake.usgs.gov/ To play some online geology games go to: www.kidsgeo.com

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The scientist is not a person who gives the right answers, he’s one who asks the right questions. ~ Claude Lévi-Strauss, Le Cru et le cuit

14


Earthquake Shocks

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' Questions book preview. Read Get The Facts then complete the questions.

The largest, main earthquake is called the mainshock.

Sometimes an earthquake has foreshocks. These are smaller earthquakes that happen before the larger earthquake that follows. Some scientists have tried to predict earthquakes using foreshocks but have found this difficult. Foreshocks are unpredictable; they can occur minutes, days or even years before the mainshock. Some earthquakes have no foreshock.

1. Order the events correctly by placing a number in each box and describe each type of shock in your own words. mainshock

________________________________________ ________________________________________ aftershock ________________________________________ ________________________________________ foreshock

________________________________________ Aftershocks follow the mainshock of an earthquake. ________________________________________ They are smaller earthquakes 2. Why do you think most casualties occur during that occur in the same place. aftershocks? Aftershocks can continue for weeks, months or years. _________________________________________ Aftershocks are dangerous _________________________________________ because they are unpredictable and can cause buildings _________________________________________ to collapse that have been _________________________________________ weakened by the mainshock. Usually the larger the earthquake, 3. Why is it difficult to use foreshocks to predict the greater the aftershock. mainshocks?

Hold On! Doorways are one of the safest places to be during an earthquake because they are usually reinforced and will be the best protection from falling debris. Hold on until the quake is completely over (most casualties occur during aftershocks).

_________________________________________ _________________________________________ _________________________________________

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Go to www.readyed.net To find out more information about earthquakes go to:

 www.weatherwizkids.com/weather-earthquake.htm

15


Measuring Earthquakes 1

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. Richter Scale Mercalli Scale Read about the Richter scale and the Mercalli scale which are used to measure the power of earthquakes, then answer the questions.

 In 1935, Two American Geologists',Beno Gutenberg and Charles Richter developed the Richter scale, which is used to compare the intensity of earthquakes. By measuring the speed or acceleration of the ground when it suddenly moves, they devised a scale that reflects the 'magnitude' of the shock. The scale is a measure of force (the amount of energy it releases) but can’t determine damage. Earthquakes measuring less than three on the scale aren't felt by humans. Earthquakes measuring seven or over are considered major. You will not see much damage from an earthquake measuring four on the scale.

 The Mercalli scale measures the actual damage of earthquakes. The Mercalli scale is a set of observations based on what people in the earthquake area feel and see and so it is a fairly subjective report. Results of the Mercalli scale are not as immediate as the results of the Richter scale because information has to be gathered together after the event and this can take time.

i. What does the Richter scale measure? ____________________________________________________________________________ ii. What does the Mercalli scale measure? ____________________________________________________________________________ iii. Which measurement is likely to be released soon after an earthquake strikes? ____________________________________________________________________________ iv. Which measurement is likely to released sometime after an earthquake strikes? ____________________________________________________________________________ v. Which scale do you think is more useful and why? ____________________________________________________________________________

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____________________________________________________________________________

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For tips on how to protect yourself during an earthquake go to:

 www.fema.gov/kids/quake.htm


Measuring Earthquakes 2

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. Complete the Mercalli scale by cutting out the descriptions below and pasting them into the correct sections.

Mercalli scale 1-4 Instrumental – moderate

Level of damage

0-4.3

5 Rather Strong 6 Strong

4.4-4.8 Damage slight. Windows, dishes, glassware broken. Furniture moved or overturned. Weak plaster and masonry cracked.

7 Very Strong 8 Destructive

4.9-5.4 5.5-6.1

Structure damage considerable, particularly to poorly built structures. Chimneys, monuments, towers, elevated tanks may fail. Frame houses moved. Trees damaged. Cracks in wet ground and steep slopes.

9 Ruinous 10 Disastrous

Richter scale

6.2-6.5

6.6-6.9 Most masonry and frame structures/foundations destroyed. Some well-built wooden structures and bridges destroyed. Serious damage to dams, dikes, embankments. Sand and mud shifting on beaches and flat land.

11 Very Disastrous

7.0-7.3

7.4-8.1

12 Damage nearly total. Large rock masses displaces. Lines of sight Catastrophic and level distorted.

>8.1

Damage negligible. Small, unstable objects displaced or upset; some dishes and glassware broken. Few or no masonry structures remain standing. Bridges destroyed. Broad fissures in ground. Underground pipelines completely out of service. Rails bent. Widespread earth slumps and landslides. Structural damage severe; some will collapse. General damage to foundations. Serious damage to reservoirs. Underground pipes broken. Conspicuous cracks in ground; liquefaction.

Go to www.readyed.net Damage slight-moderate in well-built structures; considerable in poorly-built structures. Furniture and weak chimneys broken. Masonry damaged. Loose bricks, tiles, plaster, and stones will fall. No Damage.

17


The Most Damaging Earthquakes

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. Earthquakes are common, There are around 500,000 detectable earthquakes in the world each year. Less than 100,000 of those can be felt and less than 100 cause damage to human settlement. Sadly there have been some very large earthquakes across the world, but large earthquakes don’t happen very often.

Look at the list of the world’s most damaging earthquakes. Create a bar graph from this information. The World’s Most Damaging Earthquakes Date

Richter Reading

Northern Sumatra, Indonesia Off western coast of Sumatra, Indonesia Prince William Sound, Alaska Andreanof Islands, Aleutian Islands Offshore Maule, Chile Japan Kamchatka Chile Off the coast of Ecuador Rat Islands, Aleutian Islands

March 28, 2005 Dec. 26, 2004 March 28, 1964 March 9, 1957 Feb. 27, 2010 March 11, 2011 Nov. 4, 1952 May 22, 1960 Jan. 31, 1906 Feb. 4, 1965

8.7 9.0 9.2 9.1 8.8 9.0 9.0 9.5 8.8 8.7

Richter Scale Reading

Location

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18


Make It Quake Proof

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. Read Get The Facts then complete the tasks on the back of this sheet or in your exercise book and carry out the experiment.

Because earthquakes are so unpredictable and big earthquakes can cause so much damage, scientists are working on ways to make our infrastructure stronger so that the damage caused by earthquakes can be reduced. Earthquakes generate different forces that buildings aren’t used to enduring. Buildings are rocked from the ground and need to have strong and secure foundations to hold them together. Tokyo in Japan stands on a meeting point of three tectonic plates and has experienced a few big earthquakes. The Japanese are very clever at devising new technology to support their buildings, to alleviate earthquake damage.

Experiment Aim: To make a quake proof structure. Materials: paper, tape, scissors, scrap cardboard, straws, tray of set gelatin. Process: 1. Set some gelatin in a shallow flat container over night. This will simulate the earthquake for your structure to stand on. 2. Start to create your structure to withstand a quake. HINT: Think about reinforcing the frame. Structures that have flexibility, have solid footings and aren't too tall have the best chance of remaining intact. 3. Place your structure on a thin piece of cardboard resting on the gelatin tray. 4. Shake the tray and test each of the structures. 5. Discuss which features make stronger buildings?

Tasks  Earthquakes happen during both the day and the night. There is no pattern.  There is no such a thing as "earthquake weather".  We can’t prevent earthquakes from happening but we can take protective measures.

1. Write definitions of the following words: infrastructure, unpredictable and quake proof.

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2. Explain why Tokyo has experienced big earthquakes.

19


Earthquakes Create Tsunamis

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. Read Get The Facts then complete the experiment.

When an earthquake occurs along the edge of two plates, the plates can buckle or slide beneath each other. This is known as subduction. Earthquakes can also happen along faults which are breaks in the Earth’s crust that are away from plate boundaries.

Many earthquakes occur in the sea as the Earth’s crust is thinner than it is below landmass. Undersea earthquakes sometime generate tsunamis, waves that are pushed along by the initial disturbance and can travel hundreds of kilometers at great speeds.

Experiment: Quake making Waves Aim: To test how an earthquake triggers a tsunami. Materials: ice cream container, water, cling wrap, tape, scissors. Process: 1. Cut a hole about six centimetres wide in the base of the container. 2. Cover it from the outside with cling wrap and secure using tape. Make sure it is water tight. 3. Fill the container with water. 4. Tap the wraped hole with your finger and simulate an earthquake on the sea floor. 5. Observe what happens if you vary the strength of your 'earthquake' taps. 6. Try changing the water level and repeating the experiment. The speed that a tsunami travels is related to water depth. If the water is deep, the tsunami waves will travel more slowly.

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 Find out if we have any faults in Australia.

 Find out when the last major earthquake was in Australia.

20

Earthquake animation  http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/4126809.stm


This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. Section Three: Volcanoes

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21


What Is A Volcano? 1

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. Read Get The Facts then label lava, magma and the Earth's crust on the diagram. Complete the experiment and questions.

A volcano happens when hot magma from the inside of the Earth breaks through the surface (crust) of the Earth. Magma starts off as mantle. Mantle is the layer of Earth below the surface. When the mantle melts it forms hot magma. When hot magma bursts through the surface of the Earth it is known as lava.

Experiment Aim: To test how a volcano explodes. Materials: bottle of soft drink, a balloon. Process: 1. Don’t shake the soft drink bottle. 2. Gently unscrew the top and put balloon over the bottle. 3. Hold the balloon on and shake the bottle. 4. Watch what happens. 5. The soft drink should explode into the balloon. Questions: i. What does the soft drink in the bottle represent? _____________________________ ii. Which layer of the Earth is the balloon?

_____________________________

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Amazing Fact 22

ď Ż Lava forms volcanic rock when it cools. Basalt is the most common, and over millions of years it can break down into soil, stained red by the iron content.


What Is A Volcano? 2

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. Read Get The Facts then label the diagrams below either convergent or divergent and explain in your own words what is happening in each diagram.

The surface of the Earth is divided up into plates. When these plates pull apart (divergent plates) or push together (convergent plates) it causes the mantle to melt into magma and the magma will then break through the surface (crust) of the Earth causing a volcano.

When two plates collide or push together (convergent plates), one plate will slip under the other. This process is known as subduction. The plate that slips will plunge into the mantle and cause the mantle to melt into magma which bursts through the surface of the Earth. If two plates collide but subduction does not take place, the Earth is instead pushed up and mountains are formed. This can develop later into a subduction zone. When two plates pull apart (divergent plates), the surface (crust) of the Earth thins causing a weak spot. This causes the mantle to melt into magma and the magma will break through the weak spot. Some divergent plates happen at the bottom of the ocean so the volcano will happen underwater. This is called a submarine volcano. When plates move against each other, a volcano does not usually occur. These plates are known as transform plates.

1

2

Plate: __________________________

Plate: __________________________

Description: _____________________

Description: _____________________

________________________________

________________________________

3

4

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Plate: __________________________

Plate: __________________________

Description: _____________________

Description: _____________________

________________________________

________________________________ 23


Types Of Volcanoes

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. Read Get The Facts then label the volcanoes and write one interesting fact under each type of volcano.

Active volcanoes are volcanoes which continuously erupt. Dormant volcanoes are those that "sleep" for a long time and then suddenly erupt. Extinct volcanoes are those that have been inactive for thousands of years. There is however still a possibility of an extinct volcano erupting again. Volcanoes can also be categorised according to their shape, the way that they erupt and the material that the eruption is made from. Composite volcanoes (or stato volcanoes) are made of layers of lava and rock fragments, thus the name composite. They form large conical snow-capped peaks and between eruptions they are so still that they can seem extinct. They occur when subduction happens and explode in spectacular fashion. They can look symmetrical. A shield volcano is broad and slopes gently; it is not steep. It is made up of lava. Its explosions are tame. They are the product of hot spots and subduction. A cinder volcano forms a steep cone-shaped hill. It is made up of lava fragments called cinders. It usually has one bowl shaped crater at the top.

______________

______________

______________

______________

______________

______________

______________

______________

______________

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Pauling

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This website includes some great pictures which help explain volcanoes:  http://kids.discovery.com/tell-me/ earth/natural-disasters

24


Hotspots And The Pacific Ring Of Fire

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. Most of our most violent and explosive volcanoes are located on the Pacific Ring of Fire, highlighted below. This is where the majority of plates meet and move.

 Can you mark some volcanoes on the map that have occurred on the Pacific Ring of Fire?

 Hotspots are places where plates don't have to meet and move for volcanoes to occur. Experts believe that the mantle underneath hotspots is exceptionally hot compared to the mantle elsewhere. Australia has over 10 extinct hotspot volcanoes and hundreds of extinct plume volcanoes. They are found mainly along the east coast.

 Find a map of Australia and locate the following extinct hotspots: • Cape Hillsborough • Main Range • Mt Nebo

• Peak Range • Mt Warning • Springsure

• Mt Macedon • Glasshouse Mountains • Bunya Mountains

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Check out this great video:  www.video.nationalgeographic.com/video/player/kids/forces-of-nature-kids/volcanoes-101-kids.html 25


Useful Volcanoes

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' Tasks book preview. Volcanoes have many positive benefits. Read Get The Facts then complete the tasks below.

 Volcanoes generate electricity from geysers by using steam to drive generators.

 Volcanoes make quarries for road building materials – basalt is particularly useful for roads and scoria is used as a gravel.

 Unscramble the words and then write your own explanation for each word: ysegeys _______________________________ ______________________________________ ______________________________________

 Volcanic craters formed by a steam explosion millions of years later are often lakes.

cepmui _______________________________

 Some of the most beautiful and popular areas to holiday in are volcanic sites.

______________________________________

 Pumice is a bubbly light rock and is often used to exfoliate skin as a beauty aid. Pumice is developed from active volcanoes.

______________________________________

 Volcanic ash makes soil very rich and fertile for growing crops.

______________________________________

hsa lvoncica ___________________________

______________________________________ rraesiqu _______________________________ ______________________________________ ______________________________________

Amazing Fact  Diamonds that form under the Earth's crust are sometimes brought to the surface by a hotspot or rising plume. The Argyle Diamond mine in Western Australia finds diamonds that were brought to the surface by an ancient volcano over 1000 million years ago.

Design a Brochure  Design a travel posture encouraging people to visit Hawaii - one of the world's most beautiful volcanic islands. Outline the benefits of tourism.

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There are more things in Heaven and Earth, Horatio, than are dreamt of in your philosophies. William Shakespeare

26


The Effects Of A Volcano

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. Read Get The Facts then complete the tasks.

 Match the causes and effects by drawing lines.

Explosive volcanoes are hazardous to people and communities. They can kill people and the ash often spreads for hundreds of kilometres which can affect farms, aeroplanes and other systems. Ash from volcanoes can cause respiratory problems for people in areas where the ash has spread to. Ash can also disrupt airlines by reducing visibility in the skies and preventing aeroplanes from taking off and landing.

Cause

Effect

Ash spews from the volcano.

Dangerous for people to touch.

Intensive storm activity that might accompany an eruption leads to mudslides.

Poor visibility and breathing difficulties for people.

Molten lava can reach very high temperatures.

Communities living close to the slope are at risk of landslides and must evacuate.

On a separate piece of paper explain why taking the actions described below would help you to deal with the effects of a volcano. • • • • • • • •

Avoid areas downwind and river valleys downstream of the volcano. Close all windows and doors. Bring animals and livestock into closed shelters. Wear long-sleeved shirts and long pants. Wear goggles. Turn off car and truck engines. Follow emergency officials’ instructions. If you see the water level of a stream begin to rise, quickly move to high ground.

 Once the magma has emptied as lava, the volcano may collapse forming a caldera, a deep hollow.

Click IT Safety information site  http://nilesema.com/volcanosafety.htm

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 Yellowstone National Park is a giant hot spot with over 1000 hot springs and geysers in the park – this is more than in the rest of the world.

 Are there any volcanoes overdue for an eruption? Where are they located?

27


This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. Section Four: Tsunamis

Go to www.readyed.net www.istock.com/erlucho

28


Tsunamis Are Terrible Waves

This is a Ready-EdQuestions Publications' book preview. Read Get The Facts then complete the questions.

 A tsunami is a series of water waves caused by the displacement of a large body of water.  A tsunami is not the same as a tidal wave. Although tsunamis and tidal waves both move inland, tsunamis move inland more quickly and for longer periods of time than tidal waves.  Tsunamis are not generated in the same way as tidal waves. Tsunamis are started by earthquakes, landslides, volcanic eruptions, underwater explosions (such as nuclear detonations), meteorites and any other underwater disturbance.  A tidal wave is caused by the gravitational interactions between the Sun, Moon, and Earth.  When a body of water is displaced, it is pushed upwards above normal sea level, but gravity acts on it making it move in a horizontal direction and away from the disturbance.  A tsunami can move under the surface of the water at great speeds and therefore can remain undetected until it nears the shoreline where it takes on a wave-like form and becomes deadly.  Tsunami is a Japanese word that means 'harbour wave'.

1. Write down four differences between tsunamis and tidal waves.

__________________________________ __________________________________ __________________________________ __________________________________ __________________________________ __________________________________ __________________________________ __________________________________ 2. What does the word tsunami mean? __________________________________ 3. Why do you think boats and ships at sea don't notice tsunamis very much? __________________________________ __________________________________ __________________________________

Click IT  Ocean currents affect our weather and climate – they are amazing systems that vary in temperature, depth, salt content and density. They are also big carbon sponges, soaking up large amounts of carbon dioxide.

Watch this science movie about tsunamis:  www.brainpop.com/science/theearthsystem/ tsunami/preview.weml

 Create a PowerPoint that explains how ocean currents work, for your classmates.  Grab an atlas, write a list of the world’s oceans and seas.

Go to www.readyed.net Anyone who has never made a mistake has never tried anything new. — Albert Einstein

29


Tsunamis Around The World

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. Read the information, then complete the tasks and questions.

On the 26th January 2004, an undersea earthquake triggered one of the largest tsunamis to date. The Boxing Day disaster caused over 200,000 people to lose their lives with waves up to 15 metres high reported in Indonesia and Thailand. Economic losses of over AU$10 billion resulted from this disaster and the recovery was internationally supported. The tsunami took between 15 minutes to seven hours to reach the coastlines of different countries.

Read these amazing stories. Highlight the parts you think would be the hardest to face if it were you. Nanandhuga was delighted to see her mother. They were separated while escaping the tsunami on Sri Lanka's coast. For several days Nanandhuga thought her family were gone. Luckily, they had found shelter and returned to find her when it was safe. Joe worked on a dive boat taking tourists on adventures with his dad. On the day of the tsunami, no one had booked in so he wasn't working. The tsunami destroyed the harbour and all of the boats. He knew many people who lost their lives. Joe is busy helping to fix up his town and get his boats up and running again. [adapted from World Vision]

Click IT Visit this site to see locations and images of tsunami affected areas  www.usc.edu/dept/tsunamis/worldmappage.htm Date

Place

Richter Scale

Latitude

Longitude

Casualties

8 Oct 1995

Mexico

8.0

19 degrees North

104 degrees West

40

17 July 1998

Papua New Guinea

7.1

4 degrees South

144 degrees East

2182

26 Nov 1999

Vanuatu

7.6

16 degrees South

168 degrees East

5

23 June 2001

Peru

8.4

16 degrees South

73 degrees West

100

17 July 2006

Java

7.7

9 degrees South

107 degrees East

800

The table above shows when and where tsunamis have been triggered around the world. i. Which tsunami caused the most casualties? ___________________________________________ ii. Which tsunami caused the least casualties? ___________________________________________

Go to www.readyed.net In the deep ocean, tsunami waves can travel at more than 700km per hour!!

30

ď Ż Find some newspaper reports and headlines for tsunamis.


The Speed And Power Of Tsunamis

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. Read Get The Facts then complete the questions.

 To calculate the actual speed of a tsunami you must measure the water depth at the time that the tsunami passes.

 Tsunamis can strike with little warning and can strip away coastlines and drag everything that they reach, back out to sea.

 Tsunamis move faster in deeper water and can travel hundreds of kilometres per hour under the surface of the water. They are so quick they can outrun a commercial jet.

 Any area that is within 1.6 kilometres of the shoreline is most at risk of tsunami damage.

 If you are standing on a beach when a tsunami is about to strike you will see  A typical tsunami which is approaching a rise and fall of the water levels. When the tsunami is about to arrive all of the land slows down to 50 kilometres an coastal water may drain way. hour and has wave heights of up to 30 metres above sea level.  Scientists are working on developing  A large vertical wave known as a bore, usually strikes the land first, followed by rapid floods of water. Waves can then follow between 5-90 minutes after the initial strike.

more sensitive early warning systems that use sensors to detect activity that might trigger a tsunami.

Questions i. When are tsunamis at their fastest? ____________________________________________ ii. When do tsunamis slow down? _______________________________________________ iii. How do you measure the speed of a tsunami? ___________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ iv. What is a bore? ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ v. What could prevent the damage caused by a tsunami? ____________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ vi. To a person standing on a beach what are typical signs that a tsunami may be arriving?

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____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ 31


Being Prepared

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. Read Get The Facts then design a comic strip or an informative poster telling people how to be prepared for a tsunami. Include words and images.

 The Japanese are no strangers to tsunamis – they have invested lots of money to help their citizens be more prepared for a tsunami and to strengthen their country against such a disaster.  They have built huge concrete sea walls on coastlines and constructed buildings with wide paths and marked escape routes. Drills and safety skills are regularly taught in schools.  Tsunamis can cause lots of damage to buildings, washing away factories and power lines.

Here are some ways that you can prepare for a tsunami:

 Plan an evacuation route leading to higher ground.  Make sure that you know what your family plan is.  When on the coast, stay alert for tsunami warnings.  Learn the warning signs of a tsunami - rapidly rising or falling coastal waters and the rumblings of an offshore earthquake. During a tsunami:  Don't stay and watch on the shore to see a tsunami come in.  A tsunami is a series of waves. Only return when the authorities say it is safe to do so.

Click IT A tricky read on the Pacific Tsunami Warning system:  www.ess.washington.edu/tsunami/general/ warning/warning.html Movie time – know what to do:  www.youtube.com/watch?v=UzR0Rt3i4kc

 You are the Chief Minister for Disaster Management – what is your 10 point plan for emergencies?  Find out what non-government organisations like the Red Cross do to help in an emergency.

Go to www.readyed.net The universe is simple; it's the explanation that's complex.

32


This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. Section Five: Cyclones

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33


What Is A Cyclone?

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' Questions book preview. Read Get The Facts then complete the questions and tasks on the back of this sheet or in your exercise book.

 Cyclones are tropical storms characterised by high winds moving in a circular direction.

 They get their energy from the heat that is released when water vapour condenses, and so they only form over warm oceans, where the air is warm and moist, between the Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn.  There are three parts to a cyclone.  At the centre of a cyclone is a low pressure section called the eye. Within the eye the air sinks, the skies are clear and all seems calm.  Surrounding the eye of a cyclone is a dense ring of cloud called the eye wall. It is within the eye wall that the wind speed and rainfall are most extreme. The eye wall acts much like a whirlpool does. Winds circle rapidly around the eye and are finally deflected upwards.  Storm surge, an abnormal rise in sea level after the cyclone hits, is usually the most dangerous part of a cyclone. Surges can cause beach erosion, wash out roads, and decimate homes.

1. Why are cyclones tropical?

2. What is a storm surge and when does it occur? 3. Explain the three parts of a cyclone. 4. Look at the globe below. Shade the area where cyclones usually form and explain why. 5. Do you (or anybody you know) live in a cyclone zone? 6. Every cyclone is given a unique name by the Bureau of Meteorology to eliminate any confusion. Brainstorm 10 cyclone names.

Tropic of Cancer

The Tropics

Tropic of Capricorn

Click IT More on naming cyclones:  www.bom.gov.au/cyclone/about/names.shtml Build your own tropical cyclone at:  www.nationalgeographic.com/forcesofnature/index.html Track cyclones at the following two sites:  www.miamisci.org/hurricane/killerstormsmenu.html  http://reg.bom.gov.au/cyclone/about/plotting.shtml

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34

 How are cyclones named in Australia?  How does air pressure help to create a cyclone?


What's The Damage?

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' Task book preview. Read Get The Facts then complete the task.

 The Bureau of Meteorology (BOM) provides advice and warnings about our weather. The BOM issues warnings, monitors storms and makes predictions about the path of cyclones to help us prepare for cyclones and alleviate the damage they cause.  Cyclone season is between November and April each year. There have been a few cyclones occur either side of this time, however.

 Write a warning to your school about the imminent arrival of a cyclone …

______________________________ ______________________________ ______________________________ ______________________________ ______________________________

Complete the table by drawing lines from the boxes to the columns under the heading Damage. Structural damage to the roofs of buildings. Power failures are likely.

Significant damage. Minor house damage. Severe damage to signs and trees. Heavy damage to crops.

Almost total destruction and extremely dangerous. Houses flattened, cars over-turned.

Category

Wind Gusts

Ocean Swells

1

Up to 125km/hr Gales

1.2 – 1.6m

2

126 – 169km/hr Destructive

1.7 – 2.5m

3

170 – 224km/hr Very Destructive

2.6 – 3.7m

4

225 – 279km/hr Very Destructive

3.8 – 5.4m

5

Winds above 280km/hr Very Destructive

More than 5.5m

Slight damage. Trees and farmland damaged.

Significant roofing and structural damage. Airborne debris, widespread power failure.

Damage

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Click IT

Play the Stormwatchers game:  www.bom.gov.au/storm_watchers_game/

 Which cyclone was Australia’s most destructive?  Find a cyclone for each of the five cyclone categories above. 35


First Hand Accounts

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. Read the stories then complete the questions.

Story 2

Story 1

On Saturday, 4th March 1899, a category five cyclone caused one of Australia’s worst natural disasters. Winds reached 260 kilometres an hour. A pearling fleet was smashed and over 400 people lost their lives. Most were Asian and Islander crew members. Only a handful of white men died. Some of the estimated 100 Aboriginal people killed were swept away at Cape Melville while they were assisting shipwrecked sailors. Sharks and dolphins were left hanging from trees and cliffs. Condolences came from around the world but few people today know of the disaster. Anna Haebich, Curator (State Library of Queensland)

Ray and Lynne Scafidi's Mission Beach home became a makeshift Noah's Ark as Cyclone Yasi lashed their town. Mr Scafidi said the couple's horse Jazz waited out the cyclone from the safety of their garage. “We've put hay down, Jazz is under control, happily eating away for most of the night," he said. Meanwhile, 10 chickens and a rooster bunkered down in the bathroom. "It makes you realise how important people in your life are," he said. "We've had 30 calls overnight from people worried about us." (Channel 10 - 4th February 2011)

Story 3 Mother-of-two Nicky Smith, who took shelter with nine people in her powerless home, described the fury of the height of the storm. "It's very noisy. It's like a train all around us. We can't see anything. We opened the door a while ago and could just see leaves and everything flying everywhere. It's so dark. That's the worst bit." (Channel 10 - 3rd February 2011)

f _____________ i. What do you think the people in Story 2 and Story 3 have been told to do to stay safe? ____________________________________________________________________________ ii. How do we know the people in Story 1 did not have any warning about the cyclone? _______________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________

Click IT Find out about tropical cyclones in Queensland:  http://blogs.slq.qld.gov.au/jol/2011/02/01/ tropical-cyclones-in-queensland/

 Find out where the Tropical Cyclone Warning Centres (TCWC) are located in Perth, Darwin or Brisbane. Would it be useful to have another one in Adelaide or Melbourne?

Go to www.readyed.net The worst hurricane in the world occurred in Bangladesh in November, 1970. Nearly 300,000 people died in the storm.

36


Preparing For A Cyclone

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' Tasks book preview. Cyclones are a way of life for Australians living in the north. Being prepared for extreme weather is so important. Read Get The Facts then complete the tasks on the back of this sheet or in your exercise book.

 Australia has around 13 cyclones a year. What to do in case of a cyclone: - Disconnect all electrical appliances. - Listen to your battery radio for updates. - Stay inside, away from windows and in the strongest part of the building (e.g. the cellar, internal hallway or bathroom). - Keep evacuation and emergency kits with you. - Protect yourself with mattresses, rugs or blankets under a strong table. - Listen out for the 'eye'. If the wind drops, don't assume the cyclone is over.

 Which would be better to have during a cyclone? Explain your answer. radio mobile phone internet access

 Does your school have a disaster plan? What does it say? Make a poster for display in the classroom entitled 'What To Do During A Cyclone'.  Draw a map of your home, identify the potential hazards in the event of a cyclone. Which room in your house would be the best one to stay in during a cyclone?  Prepare a presentation that tells people what to do in an emergency.

Complete a cyclone emergency plan below.

My Emergency Cyclone Plan 1. What important phone numbers do I need? _______________________________________________________________________ 2. If I have to leave, where will I go? _________________________________________ 3. What do I need in my emergency kit? _______________________________________________________________________ 4. What do I need to be careful of after the cyclone has passed? _______________________________________________________________________

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Lightning is a major danger during storms. Each year many people receive electric shocks, burns and hearing loss from using a telephone when lightning struck the telephone lines in their area. 37


Disasters

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' Tasks book preview. Cyclones are frightening experiences because they are unpredictable and largely out of our control. To minimise their impact, we can keep identifying ways that we can reduce damage and protect people during a cyclone. Complete the tasks below.

ď Ż Can you explain how some of these new inventions might work and be useful during and after a cyclone? Inflatable shelters: __________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ Portable battery chargers: ____________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ Disaster clean up vehicles: ____________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ Water purifying: ___________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ ď Ż Cyclones consist of gale force winds, driving rain, storm surges and can often cause debris to be lifted into the air. If you were to build a 'cyclone-resistant' house what features would it have? Draw and label your design.

To judge how far away lightning is - count the number of seconds between a thunderclap and a lightning flash. If the lightning is ten seconds after the thunderclap it is about three kilometres away. If you count less than ten seconds, then it is time to get indoors.

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This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. What’s The Difference?

Cyclones, typhoons and hurricanes are all rotating tropical storms with fierce winds. The difference lies in where they develop. Read Get The Facts then complete the task.

 Hurricanes: develop over the Atlantic or eastern Pacific Oceans.

 Cyclones: form over the Bay of Bengal and the northern Indian Ocean.  Typhoons: develop in the western Pacific. Shade hurricane areas blue, cyclone areas red and typhoon areas yellow.

East Pacific Ocean Northern Indian Ocean

Bay of Bengal

Western Pacific Ocean

Amazing Facts  A tropical storm becomes a hurricane when the speed of its winds goes over 74 mph.  Thunder is the sound produced by the explosive expansion of air heated by a lighting strike to temperatures as high as 20,000 degrees Celsius.

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Click IT

These animations are great to help you understand more about cyclones:  http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/science/ nature/4588149.stm

 Find the top three worst disasters for each type of tropical storm and create a fact file for each one. Include date, location, current day status and interesting fact.

39


The Impact Of Cyclones

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. After a cyclone there must also be a plan to deal with its impact. Read Get The Facts then complete the tasks.

 Emergency management is about dealing with disasters. There are four phases: impact, emergency response, recovery and reconstruction.

 Immediately after a cyclone, there is the recovery phase which ensures that the area affected is safe, water and food supplies are available and services like electricity and sewage are working.  If deemed safe, people can return to their homes and assess the damage. Often decisions need to be made about rebuilding in a safer manner to prepare for any future disasters.  Over the past decade, about 258 million people have been affected every year by natural disasters worldwide.

Tasks  Provide a definition for each of the following: Impact_______________________________________________________________________ Emergency response ____________________________________________________________ Recovery _____________________________________________________________________ Reconstruction ________________________________________________________________

 Imagine that you are the Mayor of a small town that has experienced a cyclone. Address the town and media detailing a plan for reconstruction. ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________

Amazing Fact  In Sydney during a 1998 cyclone, hailstones the size of oranges caused severe damage to buildings, cars, trees and power lines. The total cost of the damage was approximately AU$550 million.

 Do you think climate change is affecting the number of cyclones that occur? Check this out and explain your findings.

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40


This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. Section Six: The Four Disasters

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41


The Four Disasters

The Exposure Of Disasters

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. We are the most connected generation in history – we have television, radio, print and internet news. All of these help to keep people informed during natural disasters and make them feel safe. Read the article then complete the task.

Recent disasters a social media wake-up call

The Queensland floods and recent natural disasters such as Cyclone Yasi have been a “wake-up call” to emergency services and government authorities on the power of using social media during crises. Twitter and Facebook played a crucial role in disseminating information during January’s floods. “These natural disasters have been a wake-up call for us. It’s been a clear pointer to the value of social media during crises and how we should use it for future events,” Professor Bruns said, “We need to find the next steps to further develop some of these platforms and how we can use tools such as Facebook and Twitter more effectively to map and share information.” An analysis of Twitter by Professor Bruns and Dr Burgess found the Queensland Police Service was the public’s top source of information during the floods, with up to 1,800 ‘retweets’ of QPS media information between January 11th and 14th. “It helped reduce fear. People felt like they were engaged and informed.” said Dr Burgess. “We realised this was easily the fastest, most effective way to get information to people in Queensland and also to our media stakeholders.” www.unisaustralia.com/2011/04/24/recent-disasters-a-social-media-wake-up-call/

Record the pros and cons of Facebook, Twitter and the internet during disasters. Positives

Negatives

Write some possible captions for this photo from the perspective of a survivor, business owner, tourist or journalist. __________________________________________ __________________________________________ __________________________________________ __________________________________________ __________________________________________

Click IT

   

Which ones receive most newspaper space? How are techniques, such as persuasive language, used? Why might some disasters receive more coverage than others? Is it easy to find out how people have recovered 12 months after a disaster?

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At any one time there are many disasters or recovery phases occurring around the world. Visit the website below to see what is going on then answer the questions on the back of this sheet. http://reliefweb.int/ 42


The Four Disasters

Extreme Jobs – Who Does What?

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. When a disaster occurs everyone pulls together to help, but there are some jobs that take on extra importance during a disaster. Can you think of some? Brainstorm in pairs.

Brainstorm

Select two jobs from the brainstorm. Put yourself in the shoes of two people who do these jobs and write a profile for each person.

Job: _______________________________

Job: _______________________________

Job description: _______________________

Job description: _______________________

__________________________________

__________________________________

__________________________________

__________________________________

Training: ___________________________

Training: ___________________________

__________________________________

__________________________________

__________________________________

__________________________________

Pros:

Cons:

Pros:

Cons:

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Hurricane Katrina in the USA was the most expensive disaster in history Click IT causing more than AU$84 billion To find job descriptions and ideas:  www.myfuture.edu.au dollars worth of damage.

43


The Four Disasters

Having A Plan

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. When any disaster happens, be it a cyclone, earthquake, volcano or tsunami if you have a plan and know what to do then you will minimise your chances of being hurt. If you don't have a plan, you can quickly become worried and stressed and not able to think clearly and you can put yourself in danger. If you know what to do in a crisis you will feel in control.

Look at the pictures and write down what you think the people's plans are. Say whether the action is taking place before, during or after a natural disaster. Use the back of this sheet.

Keep your cool On the back of this sheet make an outline around your hand. Write five ways to keep calm during an emergency, one in each finger.

Go to www.readyed.net It is more difficult to find clean water than food after a waterrelated disaster because water supplies become contaminated.

44

Click IT

For more information on how to stay safe during a disaster go to:  www.whatstheplanstan. govt.nz/


The Four Disasters

Extreme Weather Myths And Legends

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. Examine these ancient beliefs from the past about extreme weather. Write down the type of extreme weather they describe and offer some explanations based on what you know.

Ancient Beliefs

Your Explanation

In West Africa it was believed that the Earth was a flat disk and that it was held up on one side by a mountain and on the other by a giant. It was also believed that the giant's wife held up the sky and the Earth trembled when he stopped to hug her.

Type of extreme weather:

Typhoeus was a storm-giant who was defeated and imprisoned by Zeus, king of the Greek Gods. Because of his anger, he continued to create strong winds and storms.

Type of extreme weather:

A great catfish, or namazu, lies curled up under the sea, with the islands of Japan resting on his back. A demi-god holds a heavy stone over his head to keep him from moving. Once in a while he is distracted and the catfish moves, and the Earth trembles.

Type of extreme weather:

Romanians believed that the world rested on the divine pillars of faith, hope and charity. When the deeds of human beings make one of the pillars weak, the Earth shakes.

Type of extreme weather:

According to William Shakespeare's play Henry IV, strong, wild winds are trapped and held in caverns under the ground. They struggle to escape, and shakes are the result of their struggle.

Type of extreme weather:

Your explanation:

Your explanation:

Your explanation:

Your explanation:

Your explanation:

Click IT Go to www.readyed.net

Extra

Dream up your own legend that explains extreme weather.

To kick start your ideas, develop creativity and get thoughts flowing go to:  www.bbc.co.uk/scotland/pinball/ 45


The Ripple Effect Write the natural disaster that is caused by the actions described.

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. Heat is released from an oceanic body.

A large under-water explosion causes a huge body of water to be displaced.

Natural Disaster Ripple Effect

Hot magma breaks through the Earth's crust.

Plates collide and energy is released, sending shockwaves through the Earth's surface.

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Disaster Box

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. Follow the numbered steps to create a Disaster Box.

1

2

3

Disaster Box 1. Draw a cross section of the four layers of the Earth.

4

2. Draw the huge wave of a tsunami. 3. Write down the name of a place that has been severely affected by a natural disaster. 4. Write down one important thing to do if in a natural disaster.

5

Once you have decorated your box … •

Cut out the box and fold tabs along the dashed lines.

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5. Draw an exploding volcano.

Glue the sides together.

47


Memory Game In pairs, cut out the cards and turn them face down. Take turns turning each card over to create a pair. You can create your own cards to add to these.

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview.

Tropic of Cancer

The Tropics

Tropic of Capricorn

Tropic of Cancer

The Tropics

Go to www.readyed.net Tropic of Capricorn

48


Homework Tasks

ThisCrazy is aQuestions Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. No one has all of the answers and finding out is half the fun. Think back to all the activities that you have done in class so far and make a list of questions you have that are unanswered. There are NO silly questions. Asking questions is how we have discovered so much about the world. Start your list!

At Home Interview your parents and find out what they know about natural disasters. Maybe they have experienced one, or been a volunteer. •

Write down your questions (you will need at least five).

Record the interview.

Take your recording to school and play it to your class.

60 Minutes here you come!

In the News Document some recent natural disasters that have happened around the world. There may be a story about a natural disaster in the news today. Cut out the articles and take them to school to discuss.

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Homework Tasks

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' Explain It – Be The Expert book preview. The best way to strengthen what you know is to try and explain it to someone else. Choose one of the topics that you have learnt about and write out 10 key points from memory. Next, get your audience ready. Ask a friend or parent to listen and ask questions at the end. Take a deep breath and tell them all about it!

Invention You know about some of the problems that natural disasters like cyclones and earthquakes can cause. It’s time for solutions. Can you come up with an invention that would solve one of the problems? It doesn’t have to be big, maybe a device that cleans water quickly, a warning system or a design for a cyclone proof school. Get on the computer or use a notepad and create!

Spreading The Word We are lucky that we have wonderful professionals who can help when a disaster happens so we can get back on our feet fast. There are some things that you can do to be prepared for a natural disaster that may affect your neighbourhood. Keep an emergency kit, a family plan and know important phone numbers. Come up with a presentation, a quick movie, a song or a poster that tells kids what they can do to prepare for natural disasters.

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50


Natural Disaster Vocabulary Corewords

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. aftershock

gravity

source

affect

fault

landslide

failure

effect

core

movement

difficult

equipment

crust

stress

intense

fuel

bedrock

percent

shock

environment

rock

special

trial

metal

brittle

Ring of Fire

disaster

electricity

epicentre

slip

management

scientist

geology

soil

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Answers Page 7: Finding Out About Disasters 1. Possible answers: tornadoes, hurricanes, tsunamis, volcanoes, heat waves, landslides, blizzards, droughts and hailstorms. 3. A natural disaster occurs without human interference or involvement and is the result of the Earth’s forces. A human-made disaster is directly caused by human activity, for example, lighting a fire which burns out of control and becomes a wild fire. Page 10: The Four Layers Of The Earth 1. The rocks in the Earth's crust can bend and break causing shockwaves to travel on the Earth's surface. 2. The Earth’s plates float on top of the molten rock outer core lava. inner core 3. The plates can rub together and collide and mantle these movements can cause cracks and slips in The Earth's crust the Earth which release huge amounts of energy resulting in an earthquake.

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Page 12: Tectonic Plates 1

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1. Most earthquakes occur along the edge of the oceanic and continental plates, sometimes called fault lines. 2. Australia is not on the edge of a tectonic plate and so is less likely to have large earthquakes. Adelaide has the highest risk for earthquakes. Students can learn more at: http://www.ga.gov.au/ earthquakes/ 3. Asia: Japan and Indonesia South America: Argentina and Chile North America: Mexico and Alaska Europe: Spain and Italy Africa: Iran and Morocco 5. Antarctic plate, Eurasian plate, African plate, South American plate, Indo-Australian plate, Pacific plate and North American plate.

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Answers Page 13: Tectonic Plates 2 1. Fault type: A thrust fault. 2. Fault type: A strike-slip fault. 3. Fault type: A reverse fault. 4. Fault type: A normal fault. Page 14: Seismic Waves 1. Surface waves cause the most devastation. 2. Primary waves hit the Earth first, then secondary waves, then surface waves. 3. Primary waves: damage to contents inside houses, some windows or glass smashed. Secondary waves: structural damage to poorly built structures. Roof damage, chimneys dislodged, trees damaged and uprooted. Surface waves: can cause the collapse of infrastructure, damage to dams, dikes, embankments. Page 15: Earthquake Shocks 1. 2 = mainshock, 3 = aftershock, 1 = foreshock. 2. Aftershocks are very unpredictable taking people by surprise and can bring down infrastructure weakened by the initial shock. 3. Foreshocks are unpredictable; they can occur minutes, days or even years before the mainshock. Some earthquakes have no foreshock. Page 16: Measuring Earthquakes 1 i. The Richter scale is a measure of force (the amount of energy it releases) but can’t determine damage. ii. The Mercalli scale measures the actual damage of earthquakes. iii. The Richter scale. iv. The Mercalli scale. Page 17: Measuring Earthquakes 2

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Mercalli 1-4 5 6 7

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Level of damage No Damage. Damage negligible. Small, unstable objects displaced or upset; some dishes and glassware broken. Damage slight. Windows, dishes, glassware broken. Furniture moved or overturned. Weak plaster and masonry cracked. Damage slight-moderate in well-built structures; considerable in poorly-built structures. Furniture and weak chimneys broken. Masonry damaged. Loose bricks, tiles, plaster, and stones will fall. Structure damage considerable, particularly to poorly built structures. Chimneys, monuments, towers, elevated tanks may fail. Frame houses moved. Trees damaged. Cracks in wet ground and steep slopes. Structural damage severe; some will collapse. General damage to foundations. Serious damage to reservoirs. Underground pipes broken. Conspicuous cracks in ground; liquefaction. Most masonry and frame structures/foundations destroyed. Some well-built wooden structures and bridges destroyed. Serious damage to dams, dikes, embankments. Sand and mud shifting on beaches and flat land. Few or no masonry structures remain standing. Bridges destroyed. Broad fissures in ground. Underground pipelines completely out of service. Rails bent. Widespread earth slumps and landslides.

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Damage nearly total. Large rock masses displaces. Lines of sight and level distorted.

Richter 0-4.3 4.4-4.8 4.9-5.4 5.5-6.1 6.2-6.5 6.6-6.9

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Answers Page 19: Make It Quake Proof 1. Infrastructure: the base and foundations. Unpredictable: not able to be predicted or foretold. Quake proof: able to withstand damage from an earthquake. 2. Tokyo has experienced big earthquakes because it stands on a meeting point of three tectonic plates. Page 20: Earthquakes Create Tsunamis Research Yes, Australia has numerous fault lines across the continent but no major ones. There are several near the Queensland and New South Wales coasts and in the centre of the country. Students can lean more at Geoscience Australia: http://cooberpedyregionaltimes. wordpress.com/2008/09/26/fault-linesweaving-their-way-across-southern-australia/ Page 22: What Is A Volcano? 1 lava

Page 25: Hotspots And The Pacific Ring Of Fire

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magma Earth's crust

i. The soft drink bottle represents the layers below the Earth’s crust. ii. The balloon would represent the Earth’s crust and the area above it. Page 23: What Is A Volcano? 2 1. Plate: Divergent plate. 2. Plate: Convergent plate. 3. Plate: Convergent plate. 4. Plate: Divergent plate. Page 24: Types Of Volcanoes 1 = composite volcano. 2 = shield volcano. 3 = cinder volcano.

Page 26: Useful Volcanoes Unscramble terms: Geysers Pumice Volcanic ash Quarries Page 27: The Effects Of A Volcano Ash spews from a volcano = poor visibility and breathing difficulties for people. Intensive storm activity that might accompany an eruption leads to mud slides = communities living close to the slope are at risk of landslides and must evacuate. Molten lava can reach very high temperatures = dangerous for people to touch. Page 29: Tsunamis Are Terrible Waves 2. Harbour wave. 3. A tsunami can move under the surface of the water at great speeds and therefore can remain undetected until it nears the shoreline where it takes on a wave-like form. Page 30: Tsunamis Around The World i. Papua New Guinea. ii. Vanuatu. Page 31: The Speed And Power Of Tsunamis i.Tsunamis are at their fastest when moving through deep water. ii.Tsunamis slow down on approaching land. iii.By measuring the water depth at the time the tsunami passes. iv.A large vertical wave. v.More sensitive early warning systems that use sensors to detect activity that might trigger a tsunami. vi.A rise and fall of the water followed by the coastal water completely draining away.

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Answers Page 34: What Is A Cyclone? 1. They only form over warm oceans, where the air is warm and moist, between the Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn. 2. A storm surge is an abnormal rise in sea level after the cyclone hits. It is usually the most dangerous part of a cyclone. 3. The centre of a cyclone is referred to as the eye. The air sinks, the skies are clear and everything seems calm. The eye wall surrounds the eye of a cyclone. The wind, speed and rainfall are most extreme. The storm surge is the most dangerous part of a cyclone and causes the most damage.

Page 35: What’s The Damage?

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Tropic of Cancer

The Tropics

Tropic of Capricorn

Research The Bureau of Meteorology chooses the next name on a list of 104. If a cyclone makes landfall, the name will not be used again. Low air pressure, where the clouds are forming over a warm ocean, helps pull the clouds in and the Earth's rotation causes the cyclone's clouds to spin and develop.

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Slight damage. Trees and farmland damaged. Significant damage. Minor house damage. Severe damage to signs and trees. Heavy damage to crops. Structural damage to the roofs of buildings. Power failures are likely. Significant roofing and structural damage. Airborne debris, widespread power failure. Almost total destruction and extremely dangerous. Houses flattened, cars over-turned.

Research . Cyclone Tracey in 1974 was Australia's most destructive cyclone. . Possible answers: Category 1: Cyclone Anthony (2011) Category 2: Cyclone Justin (1997) Category 3: Cyclone Winifred (1986) Category 4: Cyclone Larry (2006) Category 5: Cyclone George (2007) Page 36: First Hand Accounts i. Stay inside and put all pets inside. ii. Because no-body had taken shelter indoors. Many people were still out on their boats at the time. Research The TCWCs are located in the Bureau of Meteorology's headquarters in each city. Students can learn more about them at: http:// www.bom.gov.au/cyclone/about/warnings/ Page 30: What’s The Difference? Students should shade the Atlantic and eastern Pacific Oceans blue, the Bay of Bengal and the northern Indian Ocean red, and the Western Pacific Ocean yellow. Page 46: The Ripple Effect Heat is released from an oceanic body = cyclone. A large under-water explosion causes a huge body of water to be displaced = tsunami. Hot magma breaks through the Earth’s crust = volcano. Plates collide and energy is released, sending shockwaves through the Earth’s surface = earthquake.

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Natural disasters, 11-12 year olds