Page 1

Ready-Ed

PHOTOCOPY MASTERS

Publications

Practical Science

Natural and Processed Materials for 8-10 year olds ! Practical hands-on science activities ! Contains comprehensive teachers’ notes and lesson ideas

By Kevin Rigg


Contents

Contents

Natural & PProcessed rocessed Materials

Teachers’ Notes Presentation Ideas Curriculum Links

........ page 4 ........ page 5 ........ page 6

Lesson 1: Properties of Materials Teachers’ Notes Activity

........ page 8 ........ page 9

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. Lesson 2: Reversible & Irreversible Changes Teachers’ Notes ...... page 10 Activity ...... page 11 Lesson 3: A Close Look Teachers’ Notes Activity

...... page 12 ...... page 13

Lesson 4: Bicycle Materials Teachers’ Notes Activity

...... page 14 ...... page 15

Lesson 5: Testing Materials Teachers’ Notes Activity 5a Activity 5b

...... page 16 ...... page 17 ...... page 18

Lesson 6: Food Processing (1) Teachers’ Notes Activity 6a Activity 6b

...... page 19 ...... page 20 ...... page 21

Lesson 7: Food Processing (2) Teachers’ Notes Activity 7a Activity 7b

...... page 22 ...... page 23 ...... page 24

Lesson 8: Bake Up Teachers’ Notes Activity

...... page 25 ...... page 26

Answers

...... page 27

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Teachers’ Notes This book contains a package of photocopiable worksheets designed to be used to cover the Science learning area of “Natural and Processed Materials” with 8-10 year old students.

Natural & PProcessed rocessed Materials

Lesson Sheets Layout

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. At this level the students are aware of the materials around them and should be able to identify and assess the properties of materials. Students will be involved in making close observations, collating information and assessing materials and their suitability. Tasks include altering common materials and determining whether the change is reversible or not, as well as undertaking a magnified study of some everyday cooking materials. Activities also include a look at food processing, including how the properties of food can change, and an analysis of the materials used to make a bicycle.

…

†

STUDENT LESSON SHEET … Lesson title † Student learning activities

Each lesson has the potential to: • extend into more than one lesson by having separate parts to the lesson sheet. Some sections of a lesson may need planning on other paper before final copies are transferred to the lesson sheet. Some lessons may be too long for one lesson and could be completed at another time. • expand into other curriculum areas using a similar theme. There are ideas for crosscurricular integration with other learning areas. Sometimes a whole day’s work could be planned around one lesson sheet.

… † ‡

ˆ

Science Materials and Equipment The equipment needed has been kept to a minimum to facilitate ease of planning. It is readily available in schools or is easily acquired. All lesson sheets are outcome linked to the various curriculum documents (see page 6). Answers are provided where necessary (see page 27). Other books in the Practical Science series:

• • • • 4

TEACHERS’ NOTES INCLUDE: (FOR EACH LESSON) … Outcome links; † Required materials; ‡ Lesson plan ideas including extension ideas and teaching tips;

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Earth and Beyond Life and Living Energy and Change Working Scientifically

ˆ Cross-curricular/integration ideas.


Presentation Ideas

Natural & PProcessed rocessed Materials

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. • Create a display using items used in the lesson and worksheets. Children could make labels for the items.

• Make a frieze of drawings, magazine cut-outs and worksheets used in the lesson. Students can label the pictures. • Take digital photos of the activity and download/print them for a language activity. Children can create labels to put under the photos. • Children could produce labels or text for the photos which can be used to create a class book or display in the library. • Display record pages alongside the data collection pages in a class display. • Collect photos from the children of activities, pets, homes, etc. • Cut the worksheets up into parts and display, together with the children’s drawings. • Use art pieces as a backdrop to a display of the children’s worksheets.

• Children could prepare and present talks to another class using the worksheets as a guide.

Internet Use All websites listed in the Practical Science books are linked from the Ready-Ed website listed below. This saves the teacher and/or student from typing in the addresses each time. External websites referred to in this book will be updated through the Ready-Ed site below should they disappear or modify their address after publication.

Go to www.readyed.net www.readyed.com.au/urls/science Bookmark this site for ease of use:

5


Curriculum Links

Natural & PProcessed rocessed Materials

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. The activities in Practical Science: Natural and Processed Materials can be linked to the following Science strands and learning outcomes for each state/ territory.

State/Territory

NT, ACT and Tas. (National Curriculum)

Subject Area

Science

Strands

Outcomes

· Natural and Processed

Materials - Materials and Their Uses 2.10 - Structure and Properties 2.11 2.12, 3.12 - Reactions and Change

New South Wales

Science and Technology

· Products and Services · Built Environments

Victoria (VELS)

Science

Queensland

Science

· Science, Knowledge

and Understanding · Science at Work Chemical Science: Substances Reaction and Change · Natural and Processed

Materials

PS S1.5 PS S2.5 BE S2.1 CSF 2.1

2.1, 2.2, 2.3 D2.4 D3.4

South Australia

Science

· Matter

2.7, 2.8

Western Australia

Science

· Natural and Processed Materials

NPM 1 NPM 2

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Natural and Processed Materials

This is aLesson Ready-Ed Publications' plans and activities for: book preview. •Properties of Materials •Reversible & Irreversible Changes •A Close Look •Bicycle Materials •Testing Materials •Food Processing (1) •Food Processing (2) •Bake Up

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Lesson 1

Lesson 1

Teachers’ Notes

Natural & PProcessed rocessed Materials

Properties of Materials

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. Learning Outcomes:

• Lists the ways materials are used for different purposes. • Makes connections between the structure of common materials and their properties.

Materials: • • • • • • •

object made from wood, e.g. ruler object made from glass, e.g. jar object made from paper, e.g. scrap paper object made from cloth, e.g. library bag object made from plastic, e.g. ice cream container board or chart to create the list of properties card and Blu-Tack® for labels

Lesson Ideas: • Discuss each of the objects and relate their properties to the list on the worksheet. • Children match the properties to their meanings in a group on spare paper. When checked they can complete the activity on their sheet. • Students should be able to touch each material before they attempt to list the properties. They can refer to Part A for assistance. • When the properties are listed students can add up the total number of properties for each of the materials. • Extension for early finishers: On the back of the worksheet, students can draw an item which is made from each of the materials. Encourage students to draw what they think is the most useful object made from the material, e.g. for glass – they might draw a bottle. • Part C of the worksheet should lead students to assess why certain materials are used for objects.

Focus questions can include: • Why is a pencil sharpener made from plastic? • Why is a window made from glass? • Make a collection of cards/labels with the properties written on. Children attach them to classroom items that possess those properties.

Integration Ideas: English (Writing): Story writing: “What if … ?” Write a narrative telling what would happen if ... • cars were made from wood? • aeroplanes were made from glass? and so on. The Arts: Create an illustration for the story using art or paint materials. English (Spelling): Make a collection of words from the lesson for word study activities.

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8


Lesson 1

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A

Properties of Materials

Natural & PProcessed rocessed Materials

Join the sentences to show the meanings of the properties:

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. … A material is flexible if

it withstands banging.

† A material is opaque if

it breaks into small pieces easily.

‡ A material is transparent if

it can be twisted easily.

ˆ A material is brittle if

you can't see through it.

‰ A material is soft if

it stretches easily.

Š A material is elastic if

you can easily push your fingers into it.

‹ A material is strong if

you can see through it easily.

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B

Tick the properties of these materials found in the classroom. Tally up their properties for each material. PROPERTIES

MATERIALS flexible transparent

TOTAL

opaque

brittle

strong

soft

elastic

WOOD

‰

‰

‰

‰

‰

‰

‰

GLASS

‰

‰

‰

‰

‰

‰

‰

PLASTIC

‰

‰

‰

‰

‰

‰

‰

PAPER

‰

‰

‰

‰

‰

‰

‰

CLOTH

‰

‰

‰

‰

‰

‰

‰

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C

Think About!

… Why is paint used to create pictures? _____________________________________ ________________________________________________________________

† Why is rope used to skip with?

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________________________________________________________________

‡ What material is used to draw on a blackboard? Why?

________________________________________________________________ 9


Lesson 2

Teachers’ Notes

Natural & PProcessed rocessed Materials

Reversible & Irreversible Changes

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. Materials: Learning Outcome:

• Distinguishes between changes that cannot be readily reversed and those that can.

• small piece of paper • lighter • metal rubbish bin • candle/matches • jar of water

• spoonful of sand • ½ glass milk and some food dye • ball of modelling clay/Plasticine • paper and pencil • ice block

Lesson Ideas: As a whole class: • Burn the paper in the bin and ask children if the paper can be brought back. Children can fill in the table for the burnt paper (Part … in the table on the worksheet). • In the jar, mix the spoonful of sand with the water. Ask students if the sand and water can be separated back to their original state. Children can fill in the table for this test. • Discuss the concepts for reversible and irreversible changes using the two tests above as examples. Children can now answer the questions for (A) and (B) at the top of the worksheet. • Work through the rest of the tests listed in the table. Selected children can perform the tests as the class completes the table together. • Ask children to come up with their own test for the final row in the table. This test could be done the next day or even as a homework activity. Another idea is to place students in small groups and provide each of these groups with random materials. Groups can then see what tests they can devise. These tests can then be demonstrated by each group for the rest of the class. • When all the tests are completed the children can write down their conclusions about their findings.

Integration Ideas: The Arts: Children can create a collage of the tests showing the changes in some of the materials. English (Writing): Students write a recount of the tests and findings. Society and Environment / SOSE / HSIE: Children research the changes that take place to foodstuffs when cooked. Focus questions to ask: 1. Can the ingredients be separated out of the final product? 2. How has each ingredient changed during cooking?

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10


Lesson 2 Reversible & Irreversible Changes

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A

Natural & PProcessed rocessed Materials

When a material undergoes a REVERSIBLE change, what does this mean?

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. ______________________________________________________

How is this different to an IRREVERSIBLE change?

______________________________________________________

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B

Complete the chart below.

INSTRUCTIONS Explain the CHANGE that takes place.  TICK to say whether the change is reversible or irreversible.  Give your REASONS for this result. „ Think of one more event of your own.

CHANGE

EXPLAIN CHANGE

TICK

… A small piece of paper is burnt.

‰reversible ‰irreversible

† Sand and water is mixed together.

‰reversible ‰irreversible

‡ Some milk is mixed with some food colour.

‰reversible ‰irreversible

ˆ A stick of modelling clay is rolled up.

‰reversible ‰irreversible

‰ A clean piece of paper is scribbled on with a lead pencil.

‰reversible ‰irreversible

Š An ice block is melted.

‰reversible ‰irreversible

„

‰reversible ‰irreversible

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C

REASONS

What surprised you about these tests?

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____________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________

11


Teachers’ Notes

Lesson 3

Natural & PProcessed rocessed Materials

A Close Look This is a Ready-Ed Publications' Learning Outcome:

book preview.

• Describes the sub-structure of some common materials.

Materials:

Each pair/group will need: • small quantities of at least three common cooking materials, e.g. flour, coconut, salt, sugar, cocoa, coffee • hand lens or magnifying glass • small pieces of card or lids on which to place the materials

Lesson Ideas: This activity can be done in small groups of four or, if possible, children can complete the activity individually. • Students describe the materials before they write their answers on the worksheet. Their descriptions should include smell and texture. • Children should take care when drawing what they see. Their diagrams should be accurate and show what they actually see. • Children should not taste the material for hygiene reasons. • Follow up this lesson using the same activity with another group of materials/ingredients. • This sheet can be used as part of a cooking activity where students observe how the materials change when heated and combined with other ingredients. • The materials can be glued to card to create a display.

Integration Ideas: Society and Environment / SOSE / HSIE: Children research the history of the magnifying glass. Check out: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Magnifying_glass Cooking: Use some of the ingredients from this experiment to make simple recipes such as pancakes (flour), chocolate crackles (cocoa, sugar). Check out: www.mcgees.com/Kitchen/kidstuff.htm Maths: Use the magnifying glass to count the grains in a square centimetre of the material. English (Writing): Children to write stories with headings such as “My Life as a Microbe” or “I Was Shrunk” and so on.

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12


Lesson 3

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A

A Close Look

Natural & PProcessed rocessed Materials

Select three materials and follow the instructions below.

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. INSTRUCTIONS Draw and label each material as you see it with the naked eye. Give a description of the material including smell and texture. Draw and label each material as you see it with a lens. Give a description of the material with a lens.

NAKED EYE

Material …

DESCRIPTION

NAKED EYE

___________________

___________________

___________________

___________________

___________________

___________________

___________________

___________________

___________________

Material †

B

WITH LENS DESCRIPTION

___________________

___________________

___________________

___________________

___________________

___________________

___________________

___________________

___________________

___________________

Material ‡ DESCRIPTION

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DESCRIPTION

___________________

DESCRIPTION

NAKED EYE

WITH LENS

WITH LENS DESCRIPTION

___________________

___________________

___________________

___________________

___________________

___________________

___________________

___________________

___________________

___________________

Which material surprised you the most when you looked at it through the lens? Explain why.

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_________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ 13


Teachers’ Notes

Lesson 4

Natural & PProcessed rocessed Materials

Bicycle Materials

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. Learning Outcomes:

• The student lists the ways materials are used for different purposes. • Makes connections between the structure of common materials and their properties.

Materials: • bicycle (just one will do but more could be used if working in groups)

Lesson Ideas: Children will study the materials that are used to manufacture a bike and explore why those materials were chosen by the manufacturer. • Discuss the materials found on the bike before the children do the worksheet. List the materials if needed (e.g. metal, plastic, paint, oil, etc.). • Chart a list of bike parts as they are suggested by the children (e.g. handlebars, chain, bell, gears, tyres, and so on). • Discuss experiences with broken bike parts. Ask children why those parts possibly broke and ask students to think about whether a better material might have prevented the damage. • Focus the children’s attention on the properties of the materials and how well the material performs. • Children can list the first material and its uses. They can then rate how much of this material is used by studying the bike as a whole. • Children can then work through the other materials one at a time. • Conduct a class discussion about which material is the most important for the function of the bike. Children can disagree but they should give reasons for their opinions. Hold a similar discussion about which material is the least important. • Collect photos of different bikes from magazines to use with the worksheets and create a display. Children could bring photos of their own bikes to use.

Integration Ideas: The Arts: Students draw bikes using different techniques (contour drawing, scaling on grid art paper, detailed pencil sketches, large oil paint brushes, and so on). English (Writing): Students write a poem or story with bikes as the central theme. Possible titles can include “My Bike Adventure”, “The Day I Broke Down”, “The Stolen Bike”. Maths: Students count and tally the bike parts. If possible, students can weigh bikes, compare weights of different bikes and predict weights. Use bathroom scales to weigh a child holding the bike. English (Speaking and Listening): Hold a debate, with two teams debating the most important material on the bike, or the worst material. Health: Follow up this activity with a lesson on road safety and bicycle safety. Library Research: Visit the website below and choose a topic for research:

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42explore.com/bicycle.htm 14


Lesson 4

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A

Bicycle Materials

Natural & PProcessed rocessed Materials

List three of the main types of materials that are used for making a bicycle. List up to three uses and estimate how much this material is used.

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. Material

A LOT

___________________________________________________________

SOMETIMES

___________________________________________________________ A LITTLE

Material

A LOT

___________________________________________________________ SOMETIMES

___________________________________________________________ A LITTLE

Material

A LOT

___________________________________________________________ SOMETIMES

___________________________________________________________ A LITTLE

List all of the other materials that are usually used to make a bike. ______________________________________ ______________________________________ ______________________________________ 12345678901 12345678901 12345678901 12345678901 12345678901 12345678901 12345678901 12345678901 12345678901 12345678901 12345678901

B

… What is the most important material used on a bike? _____________ † Why is it the most important? (Think about this material’s properties.)

____________________________________________________________ ‡ Which bike material is not very suitable (does not work very well)?

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____________________________________________________________

ˆ Why is this material not very suitable?

____________________________________________________________

15


Lesson 5

Teachers’ Notes

Natural & PProcessed rocessed Materials

Testing Materials

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. Learning Outcomes:

• Conducts simple tests and describes observations. • Cooperatively suggests possible improvements to investigations in the light of findings. • Makes the connections between the structure of common materials and their properties.

Materials (for each group): • • • • •

brick different sorts of paper elastic pop sticks paper for group writing

• • • • •

pipe cleaners • string cardboard • wire old pencils • cotton buds crayons • cloths some hand tools or equipment*

(*Optional, e.g. screwdrivers, hammers, coins, keys, and so on.)

Lesson Ideas: • Each group is to choose one of the three properties to test: hardness, strength, flexibility. Explain to the students that in their groups, they choose four materials to test and must devise a way of conducting a fair test on each of these items. Students then predict the results, conduct tests, collect data and write up a summary. Note: Try to provide materials which will make the tests interesting. • Children, in their groups, can make the decisions and write up the answers to Parts C, D and E on other sheets of paper. It would be a good idea to work through one item and one test as a whole class, showing students how the information can be recorded in the table. Children may use terms such as: “very easily”, “difficult”, “quite easy”, in their data, but they should be able to rank the materials in an order, e.g. 1 = most flexible, 4 = least flexible. If students have trouble ranking the items it should lead to the realisation that the data should be “measurable” to be fair (e.g. using scales or rulers to be exact). • Children can conduct the tests and collect results on scrap paper before copying the data onto the table on their worksheet. • Discuss the results as a whole class before the children complete their analysis of the tests. Students may need help (or starters) when it comes to suggesting ways in which the test could be improved.

Integration Ideas: The Arts: Using the knowledge from the tests, children can illustrate ways that the material/s they tested should be used. Society and Environment / SOSE / HSIE: Children research how each of their chosen materials is made. English (Speaking and Listening): Students present talks to another class or another group about their tests, using the lesson worksheet as a guide.

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16


Lesson 5a

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A

Testing Materials

Natural & PProcessed rocessed Materials

Choose one property to test.

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. ‰ Hardness: test the hardness of each material by scratching it. ‰ Strength: test how strong each material is by tearing or breaking it. ‰ Flexibility: test how bendable each material is.

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Draw and label all the materials needed to do your test.

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Explain how you will test the materials.

B

C

What will you do to them? _________________________________________ _________________________________________ How will you rate them? _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________

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D

How will you keep the test fair? _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________

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E

Predict what you think the result will be.

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_________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ 17


Lesson 5b

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F

Testing Materials

Natural & PProcessed rocessed Materials

Carry out your investigation and record the results.

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. Test for: __________________________

Material

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G

Guess Rank

Tests

Rank

Comments

Interpreting Results

… What did your data show?

____________________________________________ ____________________________________________ † How accurate was your prediction?

_______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________

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‡ Suggest ways that the test could be improved.

_______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ 18


Lesson 6

Teachers’ Notes

Natural & PProcessed rocessed Materials

Processing (1) This is aFood Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. Learning Outcome:

• llustrates ways natural materials are processed and the consequences for humans and the environment.

Materials: • saucepan • frying pan • baking tin, cooking equipment • cooked foodstuffs (cold chicken, tin fruit, sausage, and so on) • posters/photos of cooked meals (from recipe books) • library books about ancient food preparation techniques • list of cooking methods on board/chart

Lesson Ideas: • Discuss cooking procedures and how the foods brought and displayed in the recipe books are cooked/processed. Children can provide the names of foodstuffs which use each of the various methods. • Discuss how food was preserved in ancient times. On the board list the three types of food processing methods on the worksheet (drying, smoking and salting). Discuss and give examples of the foods used and why certain methods were more appropriate for certain foods. • Students can research food processing methods using these Internet starting points: encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761560675/ Food_Processing_and_Preservation.html - Encarta en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Food_processing - Wikipedia www.foodtimeline.org/foodfaq3.html • For the second worksheet, brainstorm the reasons for why we preserve food. Some reasons include to preserve it for the future, to enhance its taste, to give us variety, to make food safe to eat, for convenience, and to make all the same foods taste the same (consistency).

Integration Ideas: The Arts: Collage - Children search magazines for pictures of foodstuffs and preservation tools (fridges, microwaves, salt, etc.) and make a collage. Health: Discuss healthy and safe methods of cooking. Students decide which methods are best and why.

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19


Lesson 6a

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A

Food Processing (1)

Natural & PProcessed rocessed Materials

Early Food Processing Methods

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. Food was dried, smoked and salted by ancient people.

… Draw food drying

Explain how food was DRIED by ancient people

Draw and label two dried foods.

_________________________ _________________________ _________________________ _________________________ _________________________ _________________________

† Draw food smoking

Explain how food was SMOKED by ancient people

Draw and label two smoked foods.

_________________________ _________________________ _________________________ _________________________ _________________________ _________________________

‡ Draw food salting

Explain how food was SALTED by ancient people

Draw and label two salted foods.

_________________________ _________________________ _________________________

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Lesson 6b

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B

Food Processing (1)

Natural & PProcessed rocessed Materials

Why do we process food? List five reasons.

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. • _________________________________

• _________________________________ • ______________________________ • _________________________________ • ______________________________

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C

Write a sentence describing each method of preparing food. List and draw an appliance or utensil that can be used for each method below.

… Roasting:

____________________

____________________

____________________

____________________

____________________

____________________

____________________

____________________

Appliance: ____________________

ˆ Barbecuing:

____________________

____________________

____________________

____________________

____________________

____________________

____________________

____________________

____________________

Appliance: ‰ Toasting:

____________________

____________________

Appliance: ‡ Frying:

† Grilling:

Appliance: ____________________

Š Boiling:

____________________

____________________

____________________

____________________

____________________

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Appliance:

____________________

____________________

____________________

____________________

Appliance:

21


Lesson 7

Teachers’ Notes

Natural & PProcessed rocessed Materials

Food Processing (2) This is a Ready-Ed Publications'

book preview.

Learning Outcomes:

• Illustrates ways natural materials are processed and the consequences for humans and the environment. • Identifies ways science is used responsibly in the community.

Materials: • examples of processed food (tins, frozen, dried food, pasteurised, etc.) • posters/pictures of food which has been processed

Lesson Ideas: • Discuss the different types of food processing and show examples of each. • Children can complete section A. Compare answers and make a list on the board of all the foods that fit into each category. • Discuss what a “natural” food is and show examples. Some children may have natural foods in their lunches (e.g. an apple). Children can write a definition of “natural” food. • Children decide on three natural foods to draw and show how each of these foods can be processed. • Discuss with the children and make a list of the advantages and disadvantages of processing food. Children can make their own selection from this list. • Use the foodstuffs and pictures to make a display and have some children design labels for the foodstuffs.

Integration Ideas: The Arts: Children make a poster called “Food Processing” and use the worksheet for a guide as to what to include. They may choose to focus on a particular aspect of food processing.

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22


Lesson 7a

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A

Food Processing (2)

Natural & PProcessed rocessed Materials

List two foods that are processed by each of the methods below.

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. … canned

• __________________ • _________________

† frozen

• __________________ • _________________

‡ smoked

• __________________ • _________________

ˆ brewed

• __________________ • _________________

‰ dried

• __________________ • _________________

Š pasteurised

• __________________ • _________________

‹ preserved with chemicals

• __________________ • _________________

Πrefined

• __________________ • _________________

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B

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C

Explain what a NATURAL food is. _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________

In the table below, draw the natural food, explain how it is processed and then draw the final product.

Natural food

Explain how it can be processed

Draw the processed food

…

†

‡

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Lesson 7b

Food Processing (2)

Natural & PProcessed rocessed Materials

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. When food is processed it is changed in some way. These changes, although good in some ways, are not so good in others. For instance, the taste of the food may be better but it may have less nutritional value.

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D

Explain and illustrate three more advantages of processing food and three more disadvantages.

Advantages of Processed Food

Disadvantages of Processed Food

… ____________________________

… ____________________________

____________________________

____________________________

____________________________

____________________________

† ____________________________

† ____________________________

____________________________

____________________________

____________________________

____________________________

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24

‡ ____________________________

‡ ____________________________

____________________________

____________________________

____________________________

____________________________


Lesson 8

Teachers’ Notes

Natural & PProcessed rocessed Materials

Bake Up

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. Materials: Learning Outcome:

• Demonstrates how the performance of common materials is altered by combining them with other materials.

The children will be cooking Anzac Biscuits and recording the process as they go.

Note: For a class of about 30 children, it is wise to double the quantities.

Anzac Biscuits Ingredients: • • • • •

1 cup of plain flour • 1 cup of coconut 1 cup of rolled oats • 1 cup of sugar 120 g butter • 1 tablespoon of golden syrup 2 tablespoons of boiling water (more water can be added if too dry) 1 teaspoon of bicarbonate of soda

It is a good idea to measure out the ingredients first and have them all ready to go for the lesson, however, you could combine this activity with a maths lesson and make the measuring a focus. To do this you will need some kitchen scales and also some measuring cups.

You will also need: • access to an oven and baking materials such as baking tray, grater, mixing bowls, spoons, flour sifter, cooling racks, etc.

Lesson Ideas: This activity can be done in small groups with a parent helper or with a whole class where selected children come out to help with each step of the recipe below. Recipe Method: 1. Grease biscuit tray and preheat oven to 180°C. 2. Combine dry ingredients in a large bowl. 3. Melt together butter and golden syrup in a microwave or using a saucepan on the stove. 4. Combine water and the bicarbonate of soda and add to butter mixture. 5. Mix butter mixture and dry ingredients together. 6. Drop teaspoons of mixture onto tray allowing room for spreading. 7. Bake for 10-15 minutes or until golden. Allow to cool on tray for a few minutes before transferring to cooling racks.

* Children should complete Section A and B of the worksheet before the cooking takes place. Afterwards they can complete the rest of the sheet. * Take photos of the steps to use in a display. * The worksheet can also be used to work through other cooking activities.

• Discuss with the children and make a list of the advantages and disadvantages of processing food. Children can make their own selection from this list. • Use the foodstuffs and pictures to make a display and have some children do labels for the foodstuffs.

Integration Ideas: English (Writing): Children write a recount of the lesson. Science: Relate this activity to the lesson on “Reversible and Irreversible Changes”. Maths: Explore units of measurement and measuring processes when preparing ingredients for the recipe. Ask students to work out how much of each ingredient should be used to double/triple the Anzac Biscuit recipe.

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25


Lesson 8

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A

Bake Up

Natural & PProcessed rocessed Materials

What are you making? ____________________________________

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. Draw and label the ingredients and materials needed for the recipe.

Predict what you think will happen when the ingredients are combined and heated (cooked). 12345678901 12345678901 12345678901 12345678901 12345678901 12345678901 12345678901 12345678901 12345678901 12345678901 12345678901

B

…

†

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C

_________________________________________________________ Draw and describe the four main steps of the cooking process. ____________________

‡

____________________

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____________________

____________________

____________________

____________________

____________________

____________________

ˆ

____________________

____________________

____________________

____________________

____________________

____________________

____________________

How did the cooking go? Rate each category.

… How hard was it to make?

† How did it taste?

0

0

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Easy–––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––Very tricky

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D

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Yucky–––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––Delicious

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Which step of the process produced the most noticeable change? Explain.

_________________________________________________________ 26


Answers

Natural & PProcessed rocessed Materials

Lesson 1 – Properties of Materials

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. A) … It can be twisted easily. † You can’t see through it. ‡ You can see through it easily. ˆ It breaks into small pieces easily. ‰ You can easily push your fingers into it. Š It stretches easily. ‹ It withstands banging. B) Teacher to check. C) … It spreads easily; is wet; has lots of colours. † It is flexible; lightweight; strong. ‡ Chalk: soft; leaves a mark; easily removed.

Lesson 2 – Reversible & Irreversible Changes A) Reversible: Describes a change that can be reversed, e.g. you can return the object back to the way it was before the change. Irreversible: When a material has been changed and cannot be returned to the way it was before. B) and C)Teacher to check.

Lesson 6a – Food Processing (1) A) DRIED: Hung out on racks in the sun or hung in a hot house. SMOKED: Hung in a smokehouse with a smoky fire burning inside. SALTED: Has had salt rubbed in or soaked in sea water then hung out.

Lesson 6b – Food Processing (1) B) Answers may include: to make it last longer, improve its taste, destroy bacteria, enhance appearance, add nutrients, helpful for people who can’t cook, variety of taste, less waste, saves time, easier to carry. C) Answers will vary.

Lesson 7a – Food Processing (2) A) Answers will vary. B) A “natural” food is one which has not been processed or changed. C) Answers will vary.

Lesson 7b – Food Processing (2) Advantages of Processed Food: Select from: •make it last longer, •improve its taste, •destroys bacteria, •looks better, •can add nutrients, •don’t have to be a good cook, •variety of taste, •less waste, •saves time, •easier to carry. Disadvantages of Processed Food: Select from:•taste can be lost, •more expensive, •less colour, •wasteful packages, •artificial additives, •may lose nutrients.

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27

Practical Science Series: Natural and Processed Materials, 8-10 year olds  

This book contains a set of practical lessons, ideas and worksheets to explore the strand of Natural and Processed Materials. Specific learn...

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