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Aligned with the Australian Curriculum Ready-Ed

Junior

Publications

Junior

Scientists

Scientists

Book 3

Ea

Junior Scientists Book 3 helps teachers of Year 3 meet the requirements of the Australian Curriculum in their science classes. The book provides students with the opportunity to learn about science by: experimenting with materials, asking questions, recording observations, investigating and reflecting, and devising new ideas/theories about how the world works.

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B io

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Physical Sciences

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Book 3

Ages 8-9 years

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Each activity page is paired with a page of notes for the teacher. These notes include: ideas for introducing each activity, background information, answers and possible student responses and extension activities. Junior Scientists Book 3 is the third book in a three part Science Series which explores four areas of science: biology, physics, chemistry and earth and space. It is a ‘must have’ resource for any Year 3 teacher.

Also available:

yed.n et Junior Scientists Book 3 ISBN 978 186 397 833 0

  

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By Yolanda Cool


Title: Junior Science Book 3 © 2012 Ready-Ed Publications Printed in Australia Author: Yolanda Cool Illustrator: Alison Mutton

Acknowledgements i. Clip art images have been obtained from Microsoft Design Gallery Live and are used under the terms of the End User License Agreement for Microsoft Word 2000. Please refer to www.microsoft.com/permission.

This is a Ready-Ed Publications Book Preview Copyright Notice The purchasing educational institution and its staff have the right to make copies of the whole or part of this book, beyond their rights under the Australian Copyright Act 1968 (the Act), provided that: 1.

The number of copies does not exceed the number reasonably required by the educational institution to satisfy its teaching purposes;

2.

Copies are made only by reprographic means (photocopying), not by electronic/digital means, and not stored or transmitted;

3.

Copies are not sold or lent;

4.

Every copy made clearly shows the footnote, ‘Ready-Ed Publications’.

educational institution (or the body that administers it) has given a remuneration notice to Copyright Agency Limited (CAL) under Act. For details of the CAL licence for educational institutions contact: Copyright Agency Limited Level 19, 157 Liverpool Street Sydney NSW 2000 Telephone: (02) 9394 7600 Facsimile: (02) 9394 7601 E-mail: info@copyright.com.au

© Ready-Ed Publications For preview purposes only.

Any copying of this book by an educational institution or its staff outside of this blackline master licence may fall within the educational statutory licence under the Act. The Act allows a maximum of one chapter or 10% of the pages of this book, whichever is the greater, to be reproduced and/or communicated by any educational institution for its educational purposes provided that

Reproduction and Communication by others Except as otherwise permitted by this blackline master licence or under the Act (for example, any fair dealing for the purposes of study, research, criticism or review) no part of this book may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, communicated or transmitted in any form or by any means without prior written permission. All inquiries should be made to the publisher at the address below.

www.readyed.net www.

ready e

d.net Published by: Ready-Ed Publications PO Box 276 Greenwood WA 6024 www.readyed.net info@readyed.com.au

ISBN: 978 186 397 833 0 2


Contents Teachers' Notes Curriculum Links

4 5

Teachers' Notes Student Activity 1 Student Activity 2

31 32 33

Section One: Biological This isScience a Ready-Ed Section Four: Physical Science Living Things Teachers' Notes Student Activity 1 Student Activity 2 Student Activity 3 Living, Once Living and Products of Living Things Teachers' Notes Student Activity

Publications 7 8 Book Preview 9 10

11 12

Section Two: Chemical Science Reversible and Irreversible Change Teachers' Notes Student Activity Changing States of Matter Teachers' Notes Student Activity 1 Student Activity 2 Heating Matter Teachers' Notes Student Activity 1 Student Activity 2

How is Heat Produced? Teachers' Notes Student Activity 1 Student Activity 2 Student Activity 3 Measuring Heat Teachers' Notes Student Activity The Transfer of Heat Teachers' Notes Student Activity 1 Student Activity 2 Heating and Cooling Teachers' Notes Student Activity

13-14Publications Š Ready-Ed 15 For preview 16purposes only. 17 18 19 20 21

39 40 41 42 43 44-45 46

Section Five: Human Endeavour: Nature and Development of Science Predicting Change Teachers' Notes Student Activity

48 49

Section Six: Human Endeavour: Use and Influence of Science

Section Three: Earth and Space Science

Science at Work Teachers' Notes Student Activity Safe and Dangerous Materials Teachers' Notes Student Activity Pollutants Teachers' Notes Student Activity 1 Student Activity 2a Student Activity 2b

www.readyed.net 23

The Rotating Earth - Night and Day Teachers' Notes Student Activity The Rotating Earth and Sun - Time Scales Teachers' Notes Student Activity 1 Student Activity 2 Student Activity 3 Solar Oven Teachers' Notes Student Activity Sheer Size

35 36 37 38

24 25 26 27 28 29 30

Answers

51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 3


Teachers’ Notes Junior Scientist Book 3 is the third book in a three part Science Series which helps teachers of Year 3 meet the requirements of the Australian Curriculum in their science classes. When teaching science it is important to recognise that science is interconnected. To answer one question in biology, we can use chemistry. To understand why in chemistry, we can use biology and so forth. This book helps students to make links between the four sciences by examining all four areas within one book.

This is a Ready-Ed Publications When using Book this book students will: Preview

• • • • • • •

experiment with materials ask scientific questions record observations investigate and reflect devise new ideas/theories develop problem-solving skills build confidence

© Ready-Ed Publications Support students’ learning by: For preview purposes only. • setting up a science centre. Include a variety of objects that students

• • •

4

can use to observe and measure: magnets, telescopes, prisms, scales, magnifying glasses, models, puppets, feeling boxes, theme-related books, puzzles, smelling jars, old mechanical objects, a water table and writing materials. Regularly change the objects displayed to keep things interesting. using your surroundings. Pick up seeds, feathers and leaves from the outdoors. Ask your local vet for feathers, and other animal items. People will save things for you once the word gets out that you’re collecting. displaying new words, meanings and pictures. displaying findings from class experiments. finding out about community resources that you can visit or use in your programs.

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Australian Curriculum Links Biological Sciences Living things can be grouped on the basis of observable features and can be distinguished from non-living things (ACSSU044). Chemical Sciences A change of state between solid and liquid can be caused by adding or removing heat (ACSSU046).

This is a Ready-Ed Publications Preview Earth andBook Space Sciences

Earth’s rotation on its axis causes regular changes, including night and day (ACSSU048). Physical Sciences Heat can be produced in many ways and can move from one object to another (ACSSU049).

Š Ready-Ed Publications For preview purposes only.

Human Endeavour: Nature and Development of Science Science involves making predictions and describing patterns and relationships (ACSHE050). Human Endeavour: Use and Influence of Science Science knowledge helps people to understand the effect of their actions (ACSHE051).

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5


This is a Ready-Ed Section One: Publications Biological Book Preview Science

Living things can be grouped on the basis of observable features Ready-Ed Publications and can be Š distinguished from non-living things (ACSSUO44).

For preview purposes only.

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6


 Teachers' Notes

Living Things

Curriculum links: recognising characteristics of living things such as growing, moving, sensitivity and reproducing. Recognising the range of different living things. Sorting living and non-living things based on characteristics.

Important Words: living, non-living, plant, animal, insect, characteristics, excrete, grow, reproduce, respire, water, air, wastes, eliminate.

This is a Ready-Ed Publications • Recognising how living things are different to non-living things. Book Preview Teaching Ideas – Sheet 1: Concept:

1. Explain that human beings, animals, plants and insects are all classed as living things. 2. Explain that all living things have six main common characteristics which are known as ‘life processes’ and form the study of biology: - They grow - They use air and water - They eliminate waste - They move - They digest food - They can reproduce 3. Instruct the class to complete the activity sheet. Create in-class charts of the characteristics of living things from the students’ examples. Example for chart: These living things can grow.

© Ready-Ed Publications For preview purposes only.

Teaching Ideas – Sheet 2: 1. Go for a walk around the school and get the students to complete the second activity. This activity reinforces the concept that living things share six characteristics.

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Teaching Ideas – Sheet 3: 1. As a class collect examples of living and non-living things from the local environment (school/home). Set up a display and use the collected objects to stimulate questioning and discussion. 2. Encourage the class to sort, classify and group the objects. Develop language skills by getting them in pairs to say, ”This is living because…” or “This is nonliving because...” 3. Students can complete the activity sheet. 7


Living Things 1  Write a sentence about living things: Living things _____________________________________________ _________________________________________________________

 Draw or paste a picture of living things: Growing This

is aTaking Ready-Ed in food Publications Book Preview

Using air and water

© Ready-Ed Publications For preview purposes only.  What are these living things doing?

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8


Living Things 2  Walk around the school. Observe different types of plants and animals.

 Write down three examples under each heading. Animals

Plants

1. ________________________ This is a Ready-Ed Publications ________________________ 2. ________________________ Book Preview

1. ________________________ 2.

3. ________________________

3. ________________________

 Answer Yes or No for each example you have found. Animal 1

Animal 2

Animal 3

Plant 2

Plant 3

© Ready-Ed Publications For preview purposes only. Do I reproduce? Do I grow?

Do I need water & air? Do I move? Do I eliminate waste? Do I take in food? Plant 1 www.readyed.net Do I grow? Do I reproduce? Do I need water & air? Do I move? Do I eliminate waste? Do I take in food? 9


Living Things 3  Cut out the pictures and arrange them under the headings.

Living Things

This is a Ready-Ed Publications Book Preview

Non-living Things

© Ready-Ed Publications For preview purposes only.

1

7

10

2

3

4

5

6

8

9

10

11

12

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 Teachers' Notes

Living, Once Living and Products of Living Things

Curriculum link: exploring differences between living, once living and products of living things.

Important Words:

This is a Ready-Ed Publications Concept: Book Preview living, once living, products of living things.

Understanding the difference between living, once living and products of living things.

Teaching Ideas: 1. As a class define ‘living’ (living things grow, use air and water, eliminate waste, move, digest food and can reproduce). 2. As a class define ‘once living’ (things that were once living but are now dead, e.g. fossils, dinosaurs, a branch and leaves fallen from a tree). 3.

© Ready-Ed Publications As a class defipreview ne ‘products of living things’ (things that are not living For purposes only. but have been made from living things, e.g. a timber desk, fabric from a cotton tree, etc.).

4. Display and discuss the following: Living Tree Rubber tree Plant Eucalyptus Calendula Animal

Once Living timber rubber cotton leaves flower fossil

Products of Living paper, flooring tyre fabric oil medicine research

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5. Put children in pairs and have them go into the school grounds and collect four objects. Back in class ask them to sort the objects into the categories: ‘living’, ‘non-living’ and ‘products of living’. 6. Display all of the items collected by the students at the front of the classroom. Students should choose some items to categorise on the activity sheet.

11


Living, Once Living and Products of

Living Things  Categorise some of the objects on display in the classroom.

Living

Once Living

Products of Living

This is a Ready-Ed Publications Book Preview

© Ready-Ed Publications For preview purposes only. three shops that sell products of living things. Show the types  Draw of products that they sell.

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12


This is a Ready-Ed Section 2: Publications Book Chemical Preview Science

A change of state between solid and liquid can be caused by Ready-Ed Publications adding orŠ removing heat (ACSSUO46).

For preview purposes only.

www.readyed.net

13


 Teachers' Notes

Reversible and Irreversible Change

Curriculum links: investigating how liquids and solids respond to changes in temperature, for example water changing to ice, or melting chocolate. Predicting the effect of heat on different materials.

This is a Ready-Ed Publications matter, state, reversible, irreversible, substance, liquid, solid, temperature, increase, decrease, freezing, heating, boil. Book Preview Important Words:

Concepts: • •

Recognising that matter can be changed. Understanding that some changes of matter are reversible and some are irreversible.

© Ready-Ed Publications As a class discuss safety rules when conducting experiments and handling For preview purposes only. certain equipment (such as bowls of hot water etc.). Write the rules up on

Teaching Ideas: 1.

a sheet and display. 2. Discuss with the class how a substance can change from one state of matter to another, e.g. when ice (solid water) melts, it changes to liquid water. When this happens, tell them that we can say that water changes state. 3. Discuss how the change happens - the temperature of the substance changes. As the temperature decreases the substance changes from a liquid to a solid - water turns to ice. As the temperature increases a solid turns back into a liquid – ice turns into water. Explain that these changes of state are also known as reversible changes, this means that substances can be changed back to their original state.

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4. The experiment can be done as a class or in small groups. By doing the experiment students should understand how water responds to changes in temperature.

14


Reversible and Irreversible Change Experiment: How water responds to changes in temperature. Materials: • ice cube • bowl of water at room temperature • hot cup of tea • thermometer Process:

This is a Ready-Ed 1. Predict the temperature of each matter. Publications Water at room Ice cube temperature Book Preview

Prediction:

Prediction:

Hot cup of tea Prediction:

2. Using a thermometer record the actual temperature of each matter.

© Ready-Ed Publications For preview purposes only.

Temperature:

Temperature:

Temperature:

3. Complete the table. What happens to each matter when kept at room temperature? Ice cube: Bowl of water: Cup of tea:

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How can each matter be changed back to its original state? Ice cube: Bowl of water: Cup of tea: 15


 Teachers' Notes

Changing States of Matter

Curriculum links: investigating how liquids and solids respond to changes in temperature, for example water changing to ice, or melting chocolate. Predicting the effect of heat on different materials.

Important Words: matter, state, reversible, irreversible, substance, liquid, solid, gas, temperature, increase, decrease, condensation, freezing, melting, heating, boil, evaporation.

This is a Ready-Ed Concepts: Publications • Recognising that matter can be changed. Book Preview • Understanding that some changes of matter are reversible and some are irreversible.

Teaching Ideas – Sheet 1: 1. Check that students understand key terms when talking about changing states of matter: -

Condensation means that a gas becomes a liquid through cooling. Freezing means a liquid turns into a solid through cooling. Evaporation is a change in state from a liquid to a gas by heating. Matter is anything that takes up space and has mass, so energy cannot be matter. Melting is when a solid changes into a liquid. Gas is anything that can move freely, its particles are not held together in any way. Gases do not have a definite shape or volume. Water vapour is an example of a gas. - Solids are different to gases in that their particles are held together and they have a definite shape and volume. Ice is a solid. - Liquids are free enough to move around but not as free as gases. Liquids have a definite volume and will change shape according to the container which they are held by. Water is an example of a liquid.

© Ready-Ed Publications For preview purposes only.

2. Students can now complete the first activity sheet.

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Teaching Ideas – Sheet 2:

1. Ask students to give examples of substances that go through irreversible (permanent) changes when responding to changes in temperature (e.g. wood turns to ask when it is burned.) Write up examples on the board. 2. Ask students to give examples of substances that go through reversible changes when responding to changes in temperature (e.g. water when turned into ice) Write up examples on the board. 3. Students can complete the experiment on the activity sheet.

16


Changing States of Matter 1  Write the correct word next to its meaning.

1. 2.

Boil

Liquid

Melting point

Substance

Container

Melt

Evaporation

Reversible

Gas

Solid

Condensation

Irreversible

Freeze

Freezing point

Matter

This is a Ready-Ed Publications Any object that can be used to hold things. Something Book that has a Preview definite shape and volume.

_____________________ _____________________

3. Something that doesn't have a definite shape or volume such as water vapour.

_____________________

4. To change a liquid into a gas.

_____________________

5. To change a liquid into a solid.

_____________________

6.

© Ready-Ed Publications Temperature at which liquid changes into a solid. _____________________ For preview purposes only.

7. Temperature at which solid changes into a liquid.

_____________________

8. Something that is free to move but has a definite volume.

_____________________

9. To change a solid into a liquid.

_____________________

10. To increase heat.

_____________________

11. When a gaswww.readyed.net changes into a liquid through cooling. _____________________ 12. Something that occupies space: A physical state - a solid, liquid or gas.

_____________________

13. What matter is made up of.

_____________________

14. Matter that is able to return to its original state.

_____________________

15. Matter that is unnable to return to its original state. _____________________ 17


Changing States of Matter 2 Experiment: How chocolate responds to temperature changes. Materials: • a bar of cooking chocolate • a spoon • some small molds • a small bowl • a big bowl This is •aa fridge Ready-Ed • a kettle of hot water Process:

Publications Book Preview

1. Wash hands. Break up chocolate into small bowl. 2. Ask adult to pour some hot water into a large bowl and stand the small bowl in the water. Watch the chocolate melt. 3. Once chocolate has melted, remove small bowl and place on bench, next to mold. 4. Use a warm spoon to pour melted chocolate carefully into the molds. © Ready-Ed Publications 5. Put the molds into the fridge until the chocolate sets hard. For preview purposes only. 6. Once the chocolate is set, turn upside down and tap out.

Complete the following:  Use the words in bold to complete the sentences below. melts

warm

solid

cooled

1. The chocolatewww.readyed.net _______________ when you _______________ it in the hot water. 2. When the chocolate _______________ down it became a _______________ again.  Is melting a change that is reversible or irreversible in this experiment? ______________________________________________________________ 18


 Teachers' Notes

Heating Matter

Curriculum link: predicting the effect of heat on different materials.

Important Words:

This is a Ready-Ed Publications Concept: Book Preview

matter, state, reversible, irreversible, substance, temperature, increase, decrease, heating.

Recognising that matter changes when heated.

Teaching Ideas – Sheets 1 and 2: 1. Discuss how heat affects different materials. (Heat turns bread to toast and changes its taste, colour and smell).) Ask the class for more examples. 2.

© Ready-Ed Publications Students can do the first activity. When the class come to write their For preview purposes only. secret message they could write, “ I like to drink (hot/cold) drinks” or ”I like (ice-cream/chocolate).”

3. Students should do the second activity which shows that heat moves up when students place their hands under the paper - the paper should fold out to demonstrate that heat rises. The paper fold should face down like a tent to capture the hot air rising.

Extension Activity: •

Bake some cookies or make a clay pot and fire it to show how heat affects different materials.

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19


Heating Matter 1 Experiment: How lemon juice responds to heat. Materials: • small container • lemon juice • a paintbrush This is a Ready-Ed • paper Publications • iron

Book Preview

Process: 1. Pour some lemon juice into the container. 2. Using the paintbrush, paint a secret message with the juice below.

Secret Message:

© Ready-Ed Publications For preview purposes only.

3. Leave the paper in a warm place to dry.

www.readyed.net 4. When the juice is dry - you will see nothing - it will be invisible. 5. Ask your teacher to reveal your message by ironing the paper with a hot iron.

FACT

20

Lemon juice when it dries is invisible. The heat from the iron cooks the lemon juice and turns it brown. The change is permanent, making it irreversible.


Heating Matter 2 Experiment: How heat moves.

Materials: • pencil (with a flat end) • big ball of Blue- Tak

This is a Ready-Ed Publications Book Preview Process: 1. Place ball of Blue-Tak on your desk and flatten slightly. 2. Stand the pencil upright with the pointy end down into the Blue-Tak. 3. Cut out the shape above and fold Ready-Ed Publications along the dotted line.

© Balance folded paper on the top of the pencil. For4.preview purposes only. 5. Rub your hands together for about 15 seconds (depending on how hot or cold the room is). 6. Now hold your hands under the paper. Record what happens below. What happened? ___________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ www.readyed.net __________________________________________________________  After writing, discuss the results with the class.

FACTS

• When you rub your hands together you create heat by friction. • Hot air rises. 21


This is a Ready-Ed Section 3: Publications EarthPreview and Space Science Book

Earth’s rotation on its axis causes regular changes, including © (ACSSU048). Ready-Ed Publications night and day

For preview purposes only.

www.readyed.net

22


 Teachers' Notes

The Rotating Earth – Night and Day

Curriculum link: recognising the Sun as a source of light.

Important Words: day, night, rotation, sunset, sunrise, shadow, light, spin, Sun, Earth, lightness, darkness, noon.

Concept: •

This is a Ready-Ed Publications Tell your class that they will be doing an activity to help them understand the concepts of day, night, sunset andPreview sunrise. Write these words on the board. Tell them that they Book are going to pretend to be the Earth. Explain to the class that the Earth is constantly Understanding how the Earth’s rotation creates day and night.

Teaching Ideas: 1.

spinning (rotating) around the Sun and because of this, some parts of the Earth are in light (day) and some in dark (night). Darken the room and place a lamp in the middle of the room and turn on the lamp. Explain that the lamp represents the Sun. Ask the students to be the Earth by standing in a circle around the lamp. Instruct the class to move counterclockwise around the lamp, just like the Earth as it spins around the Sun. The students should spin as they move so sometimes they have their backs towards the lamp. 2. Continue the demonstration by having one student stand near the lamp with a Post-it note stuck to their front saying Australia. Ask students to focus on the Post-it as the Earth rotates around the Sun. Ask the student to stand with his/her back to the lamp (night), so Australia is in darkness. Ask students if they think it is day or night where they live. Ask the student to rotate slowly counterclockwise, until his/her left arm is pointing to the Sun. Ask students if it is sunrise or still night. Ask the student to continue counterclockwise rotation until he/she directly faces the Sun. Ask students what time it is now in Australia. Students should see that we get the most light from the Sun, so it is midday. 3. As the student continues rotating, ask him/her to stop when his/her right arm is pointing toward the Sun. Ask students what time it is now. They should tell you it is sunset. Complete the day/night cycle by having the student return to the original position, with his/her back to the Sun. Students should tell you that it is night. Ask what time of day it is on the other side of Earth (it is noon as the student’s back is facing the Sun). Explain that one half of the Earth is always dark while the other is light. Tell them that it is the Earth's own shadow that makes the night side of the Earth dark. 4. Let others in the class have a go to experience the day/night cycle.

© Ready-Ed Publications For preview purposes only.

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Extension Activities: • Another way to reinforce the concept of the Earth rotating is by using a globe. Place a sticker on your city, state or country on the globe. Then using the lamp as the Sun, slowly rotate the globe and show students how the Earth rotates. Use the globe to identify which countries are in daylight while your country is in darkness/lightness. Emphasise that when there is light, there is darkness or shadows. • Read Dr. F Branley’s, 1999, What Makes Day and Night (Harper Collins Publishers. Illustrator A. Dorros).

23


The Rotating Earth – Night and Day

This is a Ready-Ed Publications Book Preview  Complete the following on the diagram. -

Colour the Sun yellow. Colour the night-time half of the Earth black. Colour the daytime half of the Earth green. Colour the© arrows in purple to Publications show the direction that the Earth Ready-Ed spins.

For preview purposes only.

 Circle to show if the statements are true or false. 1. The Earth spins counterclockwise.

True/ False

2. The Sun spins clockwise.

True/False

3. The Sun is bigger than the Earth.

True/False

4. The Earth rotates, resulting in day and night.

True/False

5. The Earth www.readyed.net orbits around the Sun every 365 days.

True/False

6. The Sun's energy is solar energy.

True/False

7. The Sun rotates around the Earth.

True/False

 What does the Earth’s shadow create?

24


 Teachers' Notes

The Rotating Earth and Sun - Time Scales

Curriculum links: describing time scales for the rotation of the Earth. Constructing sundials and investigating how they work.

Important Words: rotate, revolve, Earth, Sun, speed, equator, time scales, fast, slow, counterclockwise, orbit, revolution, solar system.

This is a Ready-Ed Concept: Publications • Understanding how long it takes the Earth and Sun to rotate. Book Preview Teaching Ideas – Sheets 1, 2 and 3:

1. Explain that it takes 24 hours for the Earth to rotate completely and it takes 365 days (one year) for the Earth to revolve around the Sun. 2. Go out to the playground to demonstrate these time scales. 3. Draw on the ground a 60 centimetre circle in yellow chalk to represent the Sun. Three metres out from the Sun, draw a blue circle around the Sun to represent the Earth’s orbit. Select one student to act as the Earth and another student to act as the Sun. The Sun is to walk on the outside line of the yellow circle. 4. Explain that the universe is made up of a Solar System and the Sun is at the center of the Solar System. Tell them that the Sun rotates in its own orbit once every 27 days. Ask the Sun, “Is this fast or slow?” 5. Slowly turn the “Sun” to demonstrate rotation in a counter-clockwise direction, while standing in one spot. 6. Explain that the Earth also rotates in a cycle. The rotation is once every 24 hours. Ask, “Is the Earth faster or slower than the Sun?” Turn the “Earth” as it moves along the lined orbit to demonstrate rotation and revolution in a counterclockwise direction. 7. Explain that it takes an entire year for the Earth to complete its orbit around the Sun. Ask, "How many times has the Earth revolved around the Sun since you were born?" 8. Assign the “Sun” and “Earth” roles to another set of students and repeat the rotation/revolution. 9. After the activity ask students, “Which role was the hardest/easiest to play, and why?" 10. When back in the classroom complete the activity sheets.

© Ready-Ed Publications For preview purposes only.

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25


The Rotating Earth and Sun

– Time Scales 1 Experiment: How a sundial maps the rotation of the Earth. Materials: This is a Ready-Ed • paper plate Publications • pencil • blue coloured pencil Book Preview

Process: 1. Push the pencil halfway into the centre of the paper plate. 2. At 11 am go to a grassed area and push the pencil into ©outside Ready-Ed Publications the ground.

For preview purposes only.

3. Mark on the dial (plate) where the pencil’s shadow is each hour. Record the time alongside the mark. 4. Do this until 1 pm and get the class to guess where the shadow will be at 2 pm, mark it in red. At 2 pm check your predictions. WHAT HAPPENS? The pencil’s shadow moves around the dial. This shows that the Earth spins atwww.readyed.net a steady speed. Shadows are long in the morning and in the afternoon. In the middle of the day, as the sun is highest in the sky, its shadow is the shortest.

FACTS • The Earth takes 24 hours to spin once around the sun. • The Earth spins at 1,600 kmph. 26


The Rotating Earth and Sun

– Time Scales 2 Experiment: How shadows map the rotation of the Earth. Materials: • 1 piece of chalk per pair • playground with solid ground • sunny day Process: This is a Ready-Ed 1. Get into pairs. Find a large space in the playground to Publications stand with piece of chalk. 2. One of you should Preview draw a cross on the ground. Book 3. The other should stand on the cross. 4. The person not standing on the cross should draw an outline from his/her partner’s feet to the tip (head) of his/her shadow. 5. Record the time at the top of the head and the name of your partner. © Ready-Ed 6. Repeat every hour during the Publications day. It is important that the same stands on the cross. Forperson preview purposes only. 7. Record the data on the next sheet (The Rotating Earth and Sun – Time Scales 3).

Questions:  What do you notice about your classmate's shadows? ______________________________________________________________  Why do you think some shadows are long and some are shorter? www.readyed.net ______________________________________________________________ Extension Activity: At different times of the year the Sun will be at different angles in the sky. This is as the Earth tilts, changing our seasons. If you do this activity in summer then try it again on a sunny day in winter at the same time, do you notice a difference in the shadows?

Warning: Never look at the Sun directly, as it is harmful to your eyes. 27


The Rotating Earth and Sun

– Time Scales 3 Time

Length of shadow

Sun in the sky

This is a Ready-Ed Publications Book Preview  Draw the results of your experiment.

© Ready-Ed Publications For preview purposes only.

www.readyed.net Questions: 1. At what time was your shadow the longest in the sundial? _____________________________________________________________ 2. At what time was your shadow the shortest in the sundial? ______________________________________________________________ 28


 Teachers' Notes

Solar Oven

Curriculum link: recognising the Sun as a source of light.

Important Words:

This is a Ready-Ed Publications Concept:Book Preview gas, energy, solar, dark, cold, hot.

Understanding that the Sun is a powerful source of light and heat.

Teaching Ideas: 1. Give the students some further background information about the Sun: The Sun is a giant ball of super hot gas. It is so hot that it glows, just like a bonfire does at night. Deep inside the Sun, it makes energy which makes its gases glow and hot. This energy works its way to the surface of the Sun as heat and light. The surface of the Sun is nearly 60 times hotter than boiling water. It is so hot that a spacecraft would melt if it flew near to it. The Sun is 149 668 992 kilometres from the Earth. Nothing on the Earth could live without the Sun as it would be a dark and cold place.

© Ready-Ed Publications For preview purposes only.

2. Tell the class that the energy from the Sun is solar energy. 3. Conduct the experiment as a class or in small groups, to demonstrate how the Sun is a powerful source of light and heat.

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29


Solar Oven Experiment: How the Sun is a source of heat. Materials: • black paper • 1 large yoghurt This is a Ready-Ed container • large sheet card Publications • 2 polystyrene cups • sticky tape • tissue paperBook Preview • sliced carrot or apple • aluminum foil • cling wrap Process: 1. Line one polystyrene cup with black paper and place food inside. Cover the top with cling wrap.

©cup Ready-Ed Publications 2. Place this inside the second polystyrene cup and place it all in the centre of the large yoghurt container. For preview purposes only. 3. Pack tissue paper into the gaps between the cup and the yoghurt container. 4. Wrap a large sheet of aluminium foil around the yoghurt container and place in the Sun. If the day is hot it should be cooked within half an hour. WHAT HAPPENS:

www.readyed.net The Sun’s heat is trapped in the solar oven. The aluminum foil reflects the sunlight like a mirror and directs the heat onto the food. The black inside of the inner cup soaks up the Sun’s heat and the cling wrap traps the heat inside the inner cup cooking the food.

30


 Teachers' Notes

Sheer Size

Curriculum link: modelling the relative sizes and movement of the Sun, Earth and Moon.

Important Words:

This is a Ready-Ed Publications Book Preview Concept:

size, diameter, more than, less than, kilometres, relative corona, Moon, solar flare, gas, Earth, sunspot, Sun.

Understanding the sizes of the Sun, Earth and Moon.

Teaching Ideas – Sheets 1 and 2: 1. Discuss the enormous size of the Sun in contrast to the Earth and the Moon. The Earth’s diameter is 12,755 kilometres and the Sun’s diameter is 1 392 726 kilometres. 2.

© Ready-Ed Publications For purposes only. Tell them that itpreview takes four Moons to cover the diameter of the Earth and 109 Earths to cover the diameter of the Sun.

3. Students should complete the activity sheets to help them process the relative sizes of the Sun, Earth and Moon.

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31


Sheer Size 1  Label the Sun, the Moon and the Earth on the diagram.

This is a Ready-Ed Publications Book Preview  Which is the biggest?

________________

 Which is the smallest?

________________

© moons. Ready-Ed Publications  Cut out the four Paste them side by side For preview purposes only. inside the Earth to show that it takes four moons to cover the diameter of the Earth. Moon

Moon

www.readyed.net Moon

FACT 32

Moon

• The Sun is so big that you could fit more than 1 million Earths inside of it. • The Sun measures more than a million kilometres across.


Sheer Size 2  Write four facts about the Sun inside the circle.  Draw the Sun's rays and colour in to show the Sun glowing brightly.  Draw arrows to show which direction the Sun rotates.

This is a Ready-Ed Publications Book Preview

© Ready-Ed Publications For preview purposes only. True or False?

> The Earth True The Earth > The Moon True The Sun www.readyed.net > The Moon True The Earth  True The Moon < The Sun  True The Moon < The Earth  True The Moon = The Sun = The Earth True The Sun

Key

 False  False

> < =

is bigger than is smaller than is equal to

 False  False  False  False  False 33


This is a Ready-Ed Section 4: Publications BookPhysical PreviewScience

Heat can be produced in many ways and can move from one Š Ready-Ed object to another (ACSSU049). Publications

For preview purposes only.

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34


 Teachers' Notes

How is Heat Produced?

Curriculum link: describing how heat can be produced such as through friction or motion, electricity or chemically (burning).

Important Words: mechanical, electrical, human activity, heat, motion, friction, stationary.

This is a Ready-Ed • Understanding that heat can be produced by human motion, electrically and Publications mechanically. Book Preview Teaching Ideas – Sheets 1 and 2: Concept:

1. Discuss with the class how heat is produced from human activities and from mechanical and electrical machines. Tell them that heat is produced almost anywhere. 2. Ask students to stand up and feel their hands. Ask: How do your hands feel right now? Then get them to rub their hands together for ten seconds. Then ask the following: How do your hands feel right now? Why? When would you most likely do something like this? Why? Why is rubbing your hands together useful or helpful? Discuss how rubbing their hands together creates friction which generates heat. 3. Instruct the students to jog on the spot for a minute. When they have stopped, discuss how they are “heat producers” when they are physically active. Ask them the same questions that you asked in step three. 4. Ask them what electrical and mechanical machines create heat. Make a list on the board. (Electrical: computer, overhead projector, lamp, flashlight, television. Mechanical: sharpening a pencil, spinning a spinning top, using roller blades.) Explain how the mechanical and electrical machines move to produce heat.

© Ready-Ed Publications For preview purposes only.

-

Electrical motors work by running on the supply of electricity, which is made by solar power or electricity generators in power stations carried to consumers by power lines Mechanical motors work by using levers, pulleys or gears. Every machine's purpose is to take energy from a source and use it to perform tasks. By doing this it transfers energy from the source to where it is required.

5. Students can complete the two activity sheets.

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Teaching Ideas – Sheet 3:

1. Students can carry out the experiment in small groups. 2. Students should discover that: Metal conducts and transfers heat faster than plastic. They should observe that: ice melts with the metal spoon faster than the plastic spoon. The heat produced is human.

35


How is Heat Produced? 1  Draw and label objects that give off heat inside the house below.

This is a Ready-Ed Publications Book Preview

© Ready-Ed Publications For preview purposes only.

Think about your bedroom:  Draw and label two objects that give off heat.

Electrical

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36

Mechanical


How is Heat Produced? 2  Cut out the pictures and paste them under the correct sources of heat. Electrical Sources of Heat

Mechanical Sources of Heat

This is a Ready-Ed Publications Book Preview

© Ready-Ed Publications For preview purposes only.

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37


How is Heat Produced? 3 Experiment: How heat can be produced through motion. Materials: • ice cube • metal spoon • plastic spoon • plate Process:

This is a Ready-Ed Publications Book Preview

1. Place the ice cube on the plate.

2. Press the metal spoon into the ice cube. 3. Hold for a few minutes. 4. Remove spoon. 5. Now try the experiment with the plastic spoon.

Results:

© Ready-Ed Publications For preview purposes only.

 What happened? ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________  Does it make a difference if the spoon is plastic or metal?

www.readyed.net ______________________________________________________________  Is the heat produced mechanical, electrical or human? ______________________________________________________________

FACTS 38

• The pressure of the metal spoon caused heat. • This heat melted the ice.


 Teachers' Notes

Measuring Heat

Curriculum links: recognising that we can feel heat and measure its effects using a thermometer. Describing how heat can be produced such as through friction or motion, electricity or chemically (burning).

Important Words: mechanical, electrical, human activity, heat, cool, thermometer, stationary.

This is a Ready-Ed Concept: Publications • Understanding that heat can be felt and measured. Book Preview Teaching Ideas:

1. Set up four 'centres' in the classroom: a human-based centre, an electrical centre, a mechanical centre and a stationary centre. 2. Divide the students up so there are a similar number of students at each centre. 3. Tell the students that they need to decide whether the objects in their centre produce heat and how (electrically, mechanically, or by human activity).

© Ready-Ed Publications For preview purposes only. Human Centre

4. Students should switch centres and record their results on the activity sheet. Materials needed: eraser, board, book, desk, metal buttons, coins, paper. At the human-based centre the students will need to erase the board, rub a book on a desk and rub metal buttons and coins on paper. They can decide whether each action creates heat by touching the board, desk and paper. Electrical Centre Materials needed: computer, overhead projector, lamp, flashlight, television. At the electrical centre students should measure the heat that each object produces using a thermometer.

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Mechanical Centre Materials needed: sharpener and pencil, spinning top, roller blades. At the mechanical centre the students will need to sharpen the pencil, spin the spinning top and roll the blades on the floor, then touch the objects to decide whether each action produces heat. Stationary Centre Materials needed: cardboard box, envelope, pencil. At the stationary centre the students should not move the objects and feel each one to test whether it produces heat.

39


Measuring Heat Prediction: Which centre do you think will produce the most heat? ___________________________________________________________

Record your results. Human-Based Centre

Mechanical-Based Centre

This is aby:Ready-Ed Tick if heat was produced Tick if heat was produced by: erasing board

Publications Book Preview

sharpening the pencil

rubbing book on desk

moving the spinning top

rubbing metal buttons on paper

rolling the roller blades

© Ready-Ed Publications Stationary-Based Centre For preview purposes only. Tick if the objects produced heat:

rubbing coins on paper

Electrical-Based Centre

cardboard box

Record temperature of: envelope

computer overhead projector lamp

pencil

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flashlight television

 In conclusion the most heat was produced by: _____________________________________________________________ 40


 Teachers' Notes

The Transfer of Heat

Curriculum link: exploring how heat can be transferred through conduction.

Important Words: conductor, conduction, transfer, insulator, heat, cool, equilibrium.

Concept:

This is a Ready-Ed Teaching Ideas – Sheet 1: Publications 1. Explain to the class that electricity flows from one thing to another and this Book Preview means that heat flows from one thing to another. •

Understanding that heat can sometimes be transferred.

2. Conductors allow electricity (heat) to pass though them, whereas insulators are things that don’t allow electricity (heat) to pass through them. 3. Heat always travels from the warmer object to the cooler object until equilibrium is reached. 4. Break the class up into groups to test which items are conductors of electricity (heat) and which are insulators of electricity (heat).

© Ready-Ed Teaching Ideas – Sheet 2:

1.

Publications preview only. ConductFor the experiment as a classpurposes as it involves boiling water.

2. The experiment measures the movement of heat between objects. When we say that something is “hot” or “cold,” we are talking about the molecules of a substance. Words like “hot” and “cold” describe how fast or slow the molecules are moving. Hot substances have fast moving molecules. Cold substances have slower moving molecules. Heating any substance makes the molecules of that substance move faster. Cooling any substance makes the molecules of that substance move slower.

Preparation for teacher: • • •

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Leave two beakers with water to stand for one hour at room temperature. Place three metal nuts on a small tray in the freezer. To heat the metal nuts: - Place three metal nuts into a small aluminum tray. - Prepare a pot of boiling water on the stove. - Using tongs place tray into the boiling water for a few moments.

41


The Transfer of Heat 1 Experiment: How some objects transfer heat. Materials: • 4.5 volt battery • 3 coloured clip leads • small light bulb in bulb holder • sticky tape

This is a Ready-Ed

• Test items: paper clip, coin, Publications aluminum foil, pen, elastic band, plastic spoon. Book Preview

Process: 1. Clip one end of lead (1) to the + end of battery and one end of lead (2) to the - end of battery. 2. Clip the free end of lead (1) to a screw terminal of the bulb holder. Note: make sure that it doesn’t touch the bottom of the bulb. Clip one end of lead (3) to the other screw terminal of bulb holder. © Ready-Ed Publications 3. Place a test item on the table and clip lead (2) from the battery For purposes only. and lead (3) frompreview the bulb, to the object. 4. Watch if the bulb lights up. If it lights up then the object conducts electricity (heat). If it doesn’t light up, it is an insulator (doesn’t allow electricity (heat) to pass through it). 5. Draw up a table like the one below and record your results. Item Tested

Conductor Insulator

www.readyed.net Which items are bad conductors of electricity? ______________________________________________________________ Are metal objects good or bad conductors of electricity? Explain. ______________________________________________________________ IMPORTANT: Never use electricity from a socket for any experiment as you will get an electrical shock and it may harm you. 42


The Transfer of Heat 2 Experiment: How heat travels. Materials: • 2 beakers of water at room • 3 hot metal nuts temperature ¾ filled • Safety gear: tongs with • thermometer rubber grip ends, clear goggles and gloves. • 3 cold metal nuts This is a Ready-Ed Process:

Publications

1. Record the temperature of the water in both beakers using a Book Preview thermometer. temperature:

Beaker 1

temperature:

Beaker 2

2. Keeping© theReady-Ed thermometer in Publications the beakers, use the tongs to place one hot For metal preview nut in beaker purposes 1. only. Watch the thermometer as the heat flows from the nut into the water. Add the other two metal nuts, one at a time, to the water and observe the thermometer. Record the temperature each time. 3. Repeat the experiment with cold metal nuts by adding one nut at a www.readyed.net time into beaker 2.

Temperature of Beaker 1 Adding Heated Metal Nuts +1

+2

+3

Temperature of Beaker 2 Adding Cold Metal Nuts +1

+2

+3

Conclusion: Do more nuts make the water hotter or colder; why do you think this is so? ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ 43


 Teachers' Notes 1 Heating and Cooling Curriculum link: identifying changes that occur in everyday situations due to heating and cooling.

Important Words:

This is a Ready-Ed Publications Book Preview

reversible, irreversible, melted, cooled, before, after.

Concept: •

Identifying how objects change when heated and cooled.

Teaching Ideas: 1. Discuss how heat affects small everyday items. List all student responses on the board (e.g. chocolate melts when heated, plastic melts, etc.).

© Ready-Ed Publications For preview purposes only.

2. Ask if heat affects all objects in the same way, like ice cream melting, an egg cooking, cookies baking, etc. Discuss how some items are reversible when heated and some are irreversible. For example, chocolate can be melted and then cooled to be brought back to its original state. When heat is applied to an egg, cooling it cannot turn it back to its original state. 3. Explain to the students that they are going to explore how heat affects various objects (chocolate chips, marshmallows, crayons, popcorn kernels, paper, metal paper clips). 4. Display each item. Ask the students to draw or describe the appearance of each item on the activity sheet (page 46), before it is heated. 5. Set up and conduct the experiment as a class on page 45.

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6. On the activity sheet (page 46) students should record each item’s appearance after heating and cooling.

44


 Teachers' Notes 2 Heating and Cooling Materials:

• • • • • • •

• timer chocolate chips • tongs with rubber handles marshmallows • hot plate crayons This • water popcorn kernelsis a Ready-Ed • saucepan paper Publications metal paper clips Preview • safety goggles (one per student) Book 7 small dishes (e.g. aluminum trays) • fridge

Process: 1. Display test items. Ask students to draw or describe the items before they are heated on the activity page.

© Ready-Ed Publications For purposes only. Place the first preview item into an aluminum tray.

2. Distribute safety goggles. Gather students at a safe distance around the hot plate, observing all safety precautions. 3.

4. Turn on the hot plate. 5. Place the saucepan with water on hot plate until it is boiling. 6. Use a pair of tongs to place the first tray into the boiling water (it should float on top). 7. Run the timer for five minutes. 8. After five minutes, remove the tray using the tongs. Set it down on a safe, flat surface and ask students to say how the item has changed.

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9. Instruct the students to record how the item differs in appearance on the activity sheet by drawing or writing. 10. Place the item in the fridge. 11. Run the timer for 10 minutes. 12. After 10 minutes, remove the item from the fridge and instruct the students to record how if it differs in appearance on the activity sheet by drawing or writing. 13. Repeat the experiment using the other items. 45


Heating and Cooling  Draw and/or describe each test item: before it is heated, after it is heated and when it is cooled. After Heated

Paper Metal Paper Clips 46

When Cooled

This is a Ready-Ed Publications Book Preview

© Ready-Ed Publications For preview purposes only.

Popcorn Kernels

Crayons

Marshmallows

Chocolate Chips

Before Heated

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This is a Ready-Ed Section 5: Publications BookHuman PreviewEndeavour:

Nature and Development of Science

Science involves making predictions and describing patterns and Š Ready-Ed Publications relationships (ACSHE050).

For preview purposes only.

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47


 Teachers' Notes

Predicting Change

Curriculum link: making predictions about change and events in our environment.

Important Words:

This is a Ready-Ed Publications Book Preview

environment, measure, observe, record, evidence, change, process, local, habitats, adapt, survive.

Concept: •

Understanding that observing and measuring change helps us to predict future change.

Teaching Ideas:

© Ready-Ed Publications For preview purposes only.

1. Discuss as a class how change is always taking place around us in our environment. Tell students that we don’t notice a lot of the changes that take place because they occur so slowly. Over time, small changes can result in big changes. Learning to observe, measure, and record change is an important step in predicting changes that happen in our environment. 2. Some changes are easy to predict and some are not. As humans we rely on patterns to help us predict changes. 3. In class discuss the difference between: -

The process of change (e.g. the breaking of a tree branch, which we can observe).

-

The evidence of change (e.g. a branch on the ground).

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4. Students can individually complete the activity sheet.

48


Predicting Change  Look at the pictures. Draw or describe what you think will happen next. A

B

C

This is a Ready-Ed Publications Book Preview

© Ready-Ed Publications For preview purposes only.

D

www.readyed.net E

49


This is a Ready-Ed Section 6: Publications Human Endeavour: Book Preview

Use and Influence of Science

Science knowledge helps people to understand the effect of Š(ACSHE051). Ready-Ed Publications their actions

For preview purposes only.

www.readyed.net

50


ď ˇ Teachers' Notes

Science at Work

Curriculum link: investigating how science helps people such as nurses, doctors, dentists, mechanics and gardeners.

Important Words: This is

a Ready-Ed workforce, profession, nurses, doctors, pilots, mechanics, gardeners, chefs. Publications Book Preview Concepts: â&#x20AC;˘

Understanding that people in many different jobs use science.

Teaching Ideas: 1. As a class discuss how science is used by:

Š Ready-Ed Publications For preview purposes only.

-

Nurses- taking the temperature of patients, recognising the symptoms of illness, recording progress, understanding of the human body, identifying body parts and muscles.

-

Doctors- diagnosis of illness, understanding medications, being able to identify body parts and muscles, understanding of human body.

-

Pilots- predicting weather patterns, having a knowledge of force, motion and mechanics.

-

Mechanics- knowing how motors, levers, pulleys and gears work.

-

Gardeners- understanding living and non-living things, soil types and weather conditions.

-

Chefs- testing the temperature of food, understanding how ingredients go together, food nutrition and how heat works.

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2. Record responses on the board.

3. Students can also consider other professions. 4. Individually, students can complete the activity sheet.

51


Science at Work  Identify the job of the person in each picture.  Describe how science is used in each job.

This is a Ready-Ed Publications Book Preview Job: ______________ Job: ______________

Job: ______________

How is science used:

How is science used:

How is science used:

_________________

_________________

_________________

_________________

_________________

_________________

© Ready-Ed Publications For preview purposes only.

Job: ______________

Job: ______________

Job: ______________

How is science used:

How is science used:

How is science used:

_________________ _________________ www.readyed.net

_________________

_________________

_________________

_________________

 Think of another job and say how people use science in this job. ______________________________________________________________ 52


 Teachers' Notes

Safe and Dangerous Materials

Curriculum link: considering how materials including solids and liquids affect the environment in different ways.

Important Words:

This is a Ready-Ed Publications Concept: Book Preview

safe, unsafe, dangerous, toxic, hazardous, chemicals, solids, liquids, materials.

Recognising the difference between safe and unsafe materials, solids and liquids.

Teaching Ideas: 1. Explain to the students that their homes contain both safe and dangerous (unsafe/toxic/hazardous) materials. Ask them to name some materials found in the home that can be dangerous when spilled, broken, ingested or misused. (Household cleaners like ammonia, bleach and turpentine. Electrical items like hair dryers or light bulbs.) 2. Ask them what could happen if they spilled bleach on to their clothes or skin or put water near a hair dryer. 3. Tell them that some dangerous materials can be classed as solids and some can be classed as liquids. 4. Collect images of potentially unsafe materials found in the home. See if the class can divide these into categories or groups (solids or liquids). 5. Ask them if their homes contain any toxic materials and ask where they are stored, how they are used and if they would recommend a safer way to store or use them. 6. Students can individually complete the activity sheet.

© Ready-Ed Publications For preview purposes only.

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53


Safe and Dangerous Materials  Label the dangerous materials. Tick whether they are solids or liquids.

This is a Ready-Ed Publications Book Preview  solid  liquid

 solid  liquid

 solid  liquid

© Ready-Ed Publications For preview purposes only.  solid  liquid

 solid  liquid

 Add three of your own dangerous materials.

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 solid  liquid

54

 solid  liquid

 solid  liquid


 Teachers' Notes

Pollutants

Curriculum links: considering how materials including solids and liquids affect the environment in different ways. Deciding what characteristics make a material a pollutant.

Important Words:

This is a Ready-Ed Publications Concept:Book Preview

safe, unsafe, dangerous, toxic, hazardous, chemicals, pollutant, solids, liquids, materials.

Understanding how materials can pollute our world.

Teaching Ideas – Sheet 1: 1. Introduce and define the word ‘pollutant’. (Anything that harms our surroundings: the air, water and land. Can appear in the form of litter, gases, liquids, etc.) 2. Explain that people cannot survive without clean air, clean water and a clean land. Stress that pollution is a responsibility and concern of all people in every community. 3. Look at pictures of water, air, and land pollution. As a class identify what the pollutant is in each picture. Students can write responses underneath each of the pictures. (Examples: a car polluting the air through the exhaust, a green pond with litter in, a site covered in debris.) 4. Students can complete the first activity sheet.

© Ready-Ed Publications For preview purposes only.

Teaching Ideas – Sheets 2a and 2b: 1. Students should conduct the experiment to show how pollutants affect plants and to be clear about the characteristics of pollutants. Characteristics of a pollutant are anything that harms our surroundings and people. As we cannot survive without clean air, water, and land.

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Extension Activities: •

Organise an excursion to a local company or to an industry that deals with pollution prevention.

Invite a guest speaker into the classroom to talk about pollution prevention and/or environmental safety.

55


Pollutants 1  What are pollutants? Draw and write.

This is a Ready-Ed Publications Pollutants Book Preview

© Ready-Ed Publications For preview purposes only.  Colour the pollutants in each picture and say whether the pollutants are liquids or gases.

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56


Pollutants 2a Experiment: How pollutants affect plant life. Materials: • 5 cm seedlings

• soil

• five jars

• water

• fertiliser

Process: 1. Plant a seedling of the five jars with soil and number the jars. This iniseach a Ready-Ed 2. In each jarPublications place:

Book Preview water and fertilizer

oil and water

soap and water

© Ready-Ed Publications For purposes only. Jar preview 1 Jar 2 Jar 3 salt and water

water

www.readyed.net Jar 4

Jar 5

3. Water the seedlings for two weeks. 4. Watch the growth of the plants over the two week period and graph their heights.

57


Pollutants 2b

Plant height (cm)

How pollutants affect plant life 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

This is a Ready-Ed Publications Book Preview Jar 1 fertilizer

Jar 2 oil

Jar 3 soap

Jar 4 salt

Jar 5 water

Answer these questions:  Which plant grew the most? ___________________________________ 

© Ready-Ed Publications Which plant grew least? ___________________________________ Forthepreview purposes only.

 What are the pollutants? _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________  Rank the pollutants in order of most dangerous.

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_____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________  In your own words explain how pollutants affect plants. _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 58


Answers Page 8 The kangaroo is moving. The hen is reproducing. The dog is eliminating waste. Page 10 Living Things: 1, 3, 5, 9, 10, 11, 12 Non-Living Things: 2, 4, 6, 7, 8

4. true 5. true 6. true 7. true 8. false The Earth’s shadow creates night-time. Page 27 Shadows get longer as the Sun moves across the sky. Shadows are shorter as the Sun is high in the sky. Shadows are longer as the Sun is closer to the Earth.

This is a Ready-Ed Publications Book Preview

Page 15 When kept at room temperature: The ice cube will melt. The water will stay at room temperature. The hot cup of tea will cool down.

To change back to original state, you must: Freeze the ice. Leave the water at room temperature. Heat the tea. Page 17 1. Container 2. Solid 3. Gas 4. Evaporation 5. Freeze 6. Freezing point 7. Melting point 8. Liquid 9. Melt 10. Boil 11. Condensation 12. Matter 13. Substance 14. Reversible 15. Irreversible

Page 32

© Ready-Ed Publications Earth Moon For preview purposes only.

Sun

The biggest is the Sun. The smallest is the Moon. Page 33 1.True 2.True 3.True 4.True 5.True 6.False 7.False

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Page 18 1. melts, warm 2. cooled, solid Melting chocolate is a reversible change. Page 24 1. true 2. false 3. false

Page 36 Electrical sources of heat: computer, iron, clock, torch, traffic lights, drill, mixer, fridge. Mechanical sources of heat: bike, car, lawn mower, skateboard, hammer, stapler, mouse trap. 59


Page 38 Students should find that the ice melts faster with the metal spoon than the plastic spoon because metal conducts and transfers heat faster than plastic. The heat produced is human.

medications, being able to identify body parts and muscles, understanding of human body. Nurse: taking temperature of patient, recognising symptoms of illness, recording progress, understanding of human body, identifying body parts and muscles.

Page 42 Students should discover that bad conductors of electricity are: the plastic spoon, elastic band and pen.

Chefs: understanding temperature, how ingredients go together, food nutrition and how heat works.

Page 43

Page 54

Students should discover that heat travels faster than cold.

Insect spray: liquid

The cold nuts slow the water molecules, slowly cooling the temperature.

Kerosene oil: liquid

Gardeners: understanding of living and This is a Ready-Ed Good conductors are: the paper clip, the coin non-living things, soil types and weather and the aluminum foil. Publications conditions. A good conductor of electricity is metal as it Mechanics: understanding how motors, Book allows heat to pass through it. Previewlevers, pulleys and gears work.

Light globe: solid Paint: liquid

Š Ready-Ed Publications Cleaners (bleach): liquid In Beaker 1 more hotFor nuts make the water purposes preview only. Page 56 The hot nuts speed up the water molecules, raising the temperature.

hotter as the heat is transfered from the nuts to the water

In Beaker 2 more cold nuts cool the water down, as the water temperature is transfered into the nuts the temperature in the water is cooled. Page 49 A. Plant will grow taller with more leaves/ buds. B. Plant life will be damaged along river edge. C. Damage to the bush as being trampled on. D. Tree will be split in half, branches fall off etc. E. Bush will be burnt and no animals will return.

The gases emitted from the car are pollutants. They are gases. The pollutant is the oil and it is a liquid. Page 58 The students should discover that the plant which grew the most was in Jar 1 because it contained no pollutant.

The students should discover that the plant www.readyed.net

Page 52 Doctor: diagnosis of illness, prescribing 60

which grew the least was either the one in Jar 2, 3 or 4 as all these jars contained pollutants. Jar 2 contains the worst pollutant. The pollutants are the oil, soap and salt.


Junior Scientists Book 3