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This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. Ready-Ed Title: Australian History Series – Book 6 Australia as a Nation

Publications

© 2011 Ready-Ed Publications Printed in Australia Author: Sharon Szczecinski Illustrator: Alison Mutton

Acknowledgements i. Clip art images have been obtained from Microsoft Design Gallery Live and are used under the terms of the End User License Agreement for Microsoft Word 2000. Please refer to www.microsoft.com/permission. ii. Corel Corporation collection, 1600 Carling Ave., Ottawa, Ontario, Canada K1Z 8R7. iii. Wikimedia iv. Front cover image: courtesy of National Library of Australia. Gold digging in Victoria nla.pic-an1026786650 PIC S4976-S5177 LOC NL shelves 1022. From a photograph of a New Rush, 1862. [engraver: Samuel Calvert] [picture]. Melbourne : The Commissioners, 1873. 1 of 1 album (232 prints) : engravings ; 42.5 x 29 cm. or smaller. Part of Wood engravings published in Victoria, Australia, exhibited by the Commissioners of the International Exhibition, 1873 [picture].

Copyright Notice The purchasing educational institution and its staff have the right to make copies of the whole or part of this book, beyond their rights under the Australian Copyright Act 1968 (the Act), provided that: 1.

The number of copies does not exceed the number reasonably required by the educational institution to satisfy its teaching purposes;

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Published by:

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ISBN: 978 1 86397 825 5 2


Contents

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. Teachers' Notes National Curriculum Links

Section 1: Australia's Federation Governments, Laws and Federation Student Notes Activity Page 1 Activity Page 2 Path to Federation Student Notes Activity Page Federalism Student Notes Activity Page The Federal Government Student Notes Activity Page The System Student Notes Activity Page Magna Carta Activity Page

Section 2: Australian Democracy and Citizenship Australian Democracy and Citizenship Student Notes Activity Page 1 Activity Page 2 Activity Page 3 Section 3: Australian Migrants Gold! Student Notes Activity Page Life on the Goldfields Student Notes Activity Page 1 Activity Page 2 Populate of Perish Student Notes Activity Page 1 Activity Page 2 Migration Policies Student Notes Activity Page 1 Activity Page 2

4 4

6 7 8

9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17

19 20 21 22

24 25

Changing Australian Migration Student Notes Activity Page 1 Activity Page 2 Stories of Migration to Australia Student Notes Student Notes Activity Page 1 Activity Page 2 Activity Page 3 Activity Page 4 Activity Page 5

Section 4: Contribution of Migrants Pearl Divers in Broome Student Notes Activity Page 1 Activity Page 2 Contributions to the Nation Student Notes Activity Page 1 Activity Page 2 Activity Page 3 The Snowy Mountains Scheme Student Notes Activity Page 1 Activity Page 2 Section 5: History Tells a Story History Tells a Story Student Notes Activity Page Answers

35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44

46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55

57 58 59-60

26 27 28 29 30 31

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Teachers’ Notes

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. Australia as a Nation has been written for Australian students who are studying History in Year 6. It contains five sections which link closely to the National Curriculum. •

The first section helps students to develop an understanding of Australian Federation.

The second section encourages students to explore the experiences of Australian democracy and citizenship for women, and asks students to research the experiences of another group further.

The third section is entitled Australian Migrants and looks at the stories of people who have migrated to Australia and examines the reasons why they migrated.

The fourth section explores the contributions that migrants have made to Australia and specifically focuses on the pearling industry and the Snowy Mountains Hydro-Electric Scheme.

The final section of the book contains tasks to develop students’ historical skills.

All of the activity sheets in Australia as a Nation have been written to engage students and maximise class participation. To make life easy for the teacher the answers are provided at the back of this book.

National Curriculum Links Historical Knowledge and Understanding ACHHK113 – Key figures and events that led to Australia’s Federation, including British and American influences on Australia’s system of law and government. ACHHK114 – Experiences of Australian democracy and citizenship, including the status and rights of Aboriginal people and/ or Torres Strait Islanders, migrants, and women. ACHHK115 – Stories of groups of people who migrated to Australia (including from ONE Asian country) and the reasons they migrated, such as World War II and Australian migration programs since the war.

ACHHK116 – The contribution of individuals and groups, including Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islanders and migrants, to the development of Australian society, for example in areas such as the economy, education, science, the arts and sport. Historical Skills ACHHS117 & ACHHS118 – Chronology, terms and concepts. ACHHS119 & ACHHS120 – Historical questions and research. ACHHS121 & ACHHS122 – Analysis and use of sources. ACHHS123 – Perspectives and interpretations.

Go to www.readyed.net ACHHS124 & ACHHS125 – Explanation and communication.

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This is a Ready-Ed Section 1:Publications' book preview. Australia’s Federation

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Governments, Laws and Federation

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. The first governments and laws in Australia were those of Indigenous Australians. Before the arrival of Europeans, indigenous laws worked through the kinship system. Problems were solved quickly and punishments were given to those who did the wrong thing.

When the British came to Botany Bay they regarded Australia as terra nullius. This term means that the new arrivals believed that nobody owned the land. The rights of Indigenous Australians already living in Australia were not recognised. Their governments and laws were ignored and the British implemented their own political and legal systems. Australia’s first European government system consisted of a number of Governors who were appointed by the British government and responsible for making decisions in each colony. Each colony had one Governor and was self-governed. Australia at that time operated as a collection of colonies rather than one united country. After federation, the joining of the colonies, in 1901, a new system of government was developed. It was known as the Westminster system and was based on the British model. The Australian system of government today is largely based upon this model. The word federation is used to describe the joining of separate states and colonies to form one nation. Federation did not take place easily, as each colony worried about losing its identity and wanted to keep many powers. A compromise had to be reached.

Arguments for federation: Protection against foreign threats/ national defence. Better trade between the states. National railway line.

A stronger Australia in world affairs. Resistance against nonEuropeans. The ability for Australia to govern itself.

Arguments against federation: Majority rule would favour the stronger states. Voting was seen as not fair and democratic. People wanted to spend time getting the constitution right. Loss of state power.

Some of the key players in the achievement of federation were: Henry Parkes: often called the ‘Father of Federation’ he made a famous speech in 1898 supporting federation; Sir Edmund Barton: who played an important role in developing Australia’s constitution and was Australia’s first Prime Minister; Alfred Deakin: who was a great supporter of federation and Prime Minister of Australia three times.

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Sir Edmund Barton and Alfred Deakin Wikimedia Commons

Section 1: Australia's Federation

Henry Parkes

Wikimedia Commons


Activity

Governments, Laws and Federation 1

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. RR Imagine one of two scenarios:

Federation has not taken place and is being discussed today. Does your state or territory think federation is beneficial? Think about the advantages and disadvantages of your state or territory joining with the rest of Australia. What resources does your state have? How well would the people of the state fare if some decisions were to be made by a government in Canberra?

OR

Federation has taken place but your state or territory has decided it wants to secede (separate) from the rest of Australia. Why do you believe moving away from a united Australia will help you?

RR In groups of four, complete a large eye-catching newspaper advertisement stating your case.

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Extra

RR Team up with another group of four who have taken a different opinion on federation than your group. Hold a debate. Use the back of the sheet to plan your points. Section 1: Australia's Federation

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Activity

Governments, Laws and Federation 2

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. RR You have been commissioned by Australia Post to design a set of four commemorative stamps recognising the contributions that Henry Parkes, Edmund Barton, Alfred Deakin and John Quick have made to Australian Federation. Design your stamps in the spaces below. You will need to undertake some research before you begin.

Henry Parkes

Edmund Barton

Go to www.readyed.net Alfred Deakin 8

John Quick Section 1: Australia's Federation


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Activity

Path to Federation

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. In order to make sense of the past it is important to develop a logical order or chronology of events. At home or school, for example, time is referred to by saying ‘after lunch’ or ‘in summer’. Historians also have ways to divide time. Time was previously referred to as BC or AD (before and after the death of Jesus Christ) but today is usually noted as CE (the Common Era). This is the period of measured time beginning with Year 1 (the traditional birth date of Jesus) to the present.

To understand Australian’s path to Federation look at the timeline below: 1860 – 1866 Laws for the British colonies in Australia are made in Britain. 1883

Australian colonies meet to discuss French and German interest in the South Seas and begin talking about joining together.

1885

Federation Council is established. New South Wales refuses to join.

1889

New South Wales’ Premier, Henry Parkes makes a famous speech known as the Tenterfield speech. In the speech he calls for serious consideration of federation.

1890

Australasian Federation Conference decides that the joining of the colonies is a good idea.

1891

The Federation Convention meet and a draft constitution is presented to the states.

1893

Formation of the Australasian Federation League in New South Wales. The People’s Convention in Corowa (New South Wales) – accepts the idea that people are to vote for delegates to the next convention to consider the constitution.

1895

Premiers meet in Hobart and agree to the Corowa Conference approach to achieving federation.

1897

Final draft constitution is sent to the state parliaments. Eventually a federation bill is presented and people in each colony vote for or against the federation. Referendums are held a number of times with varying results of yes and no votes from the colonies.

1898

Referendum vote result: yes vote in Victoria, Tasmania, South Australia and New South Wales but not the required majority in New South Wales.

1899

Secret Premiers' Conference to amend the constitution to satisfy New South Wales and Queensland. Referendum vote – all colonies except Western Australia vote yes.

Go to www.readyed.net 1900

Western Australia votes yes.

1901

The colonies become the Commonwealth of Australia and a new nation is born.

Section 1: Australia's Federation

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Path to Federation

Activity

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' 1893 1889 1890 1897 1900 1901 book preview. RR Match the dates with the events.

Six colonies become a nation.

Henry Parkes makes a speech promoting federation. The Australasia Federation Conference is held. The first referendums for people to vote are held. The result of Western Australia's referendum is yes. The Constitution Bill is amended at a secret conference. The People’s Convention is held. RR Draw lines to divide Australia into five separate colonies. RR Colour each colony's state government in a different colour. RR Write the year that each state agreed to become one nation inside the map. TT When did the colonies become the Commonwealth of Australia? 1901BC

1901AD

1901CE

TT Use your research skills to find a copy of Henry Parkes' Tenterfield speech. Copy the line that you think is the most persuasive here. ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________

Go to www.readyed.net

TT Read through the federation timeline on page 9. Why do you think Western Australia was initially reluctant to join the federation? ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ 10

Section 1: Australia's Federation


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Federalism

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. In 1901 when Australia became a federation, the new system of government was known as federalism. A federal system of government is one which has: • A national government; • State governments; • Division of powers between national and state governments. This means that although all states and territories are united they still remain independent. There are three levels of government in Australia:

Local

State

Federal

The roles and responsibilities of the various levels of government are quite different. Each state and territory also has its own government, which deals with issues specifically relating to the state. Elections are generally held every four years and the people of the state elect politicians to represent them in government. Many day-to-day issues are the responsibility of local government. A local government represents the residents of a local area. There are more than 800 councils throughout Australia. Your local government may be known as a shire, town or city. Some of the tasks of each type of government are shown in the table below. Local Government

State Government

Federal Government

Rubbish disposal

Schools

Taxation

Libraries

Hospitals

Immigration

Footpaths

Police

Trade

Parks and ovals

Public transport

Defence

Building approvals

Making roads

International relations

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Activity

Federalism

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. RR Examine the table on page 11. It outlines the responsibilities of the various levels of government. Decide which level of government takes responsibility for the situations shown below.

Passport

You apply for a passport to go on holiday to Bali.

A new children’s hospital is built in Western Australia.

A group of 200 asylum seekers arrive on Christmas Island.

The people of Australia are asked if they want to become a republic.

A water main bursts, flooding the central business district in Sydney.

The City of South Perth changes its rubbish collection day from Friday to Monday.

A national program encouraging parents to read to their children is started.

Police in Victoria are to receive new powers to tackle crime.

Bega Valley

The shire of Bega Valley increases car parking patrols during January.

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Section 1: Australia's Federation


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The Federal Government

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. Matters of importance to the nation as a whole are the responsibility of the national or federal government. This government is located in Canberra and the building itself is known as parliament. There are three parts to the federal government. The Queen is the first part. She is the head of state and is represented by the GovernorGeneral in Australia. Because Australia has a monarch as the head of state, Australia’s system of government is known as a constitutional monarchy. The other two parts are the two houses of parliament. They are: • The House of Representatives (or lower house); • The Senate (or upper house). Both houses have very different roles. Any parliament that is made up of two houses is known as a bicameral parliament. England and the USA also have two houses of parliament. In Australia the people elect each house.

The House of Representatives

The Senate

This house is traditionally the more powerful of the two. The Prime Minister must come from this house and its most important role is to form the government. The government is formed by the political party with the majority of members in the House of Representatives. Usually proposals for laws start in this house and it is this house (the lower house) that is responsible for laws to do with taxation and spending money. The 150 members of the House of Representatives represent the people who live in their electorate and they often spend a large part of their time in their electorate dealing with local issues. Members are elected for a period of three years. The decor in the House of Representatives is green.

This house is sometimes known as the State’s House. When the idea of federation (the joining of the colonies together) was proposed, many of the smaller states were worried that their interests would be overlooked and their concerns not listened to. The Senate was established as a ‘State’s House’ where each state would elect the same number of senators regardless of the size of their population. As political parties have grown over the years, the role of the Senate as a State’s House has changed, with senators often voting according to the views of their political party rather than their state. The Senate also operates as a house of review for proposed laws (called bills). For a bill to become law it must be voted for by a majority in both houses. There are 76 Senators (12 representing each of the six states and two Senators representing each of the two territories). Members are elected for six-year terms. The decor in the Senate is red.

Go to www.readyed.net Section 1: Australia's Federation

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Activity

The Federal Government

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. RR Write three interesting points about each house of parliament.

House of Representatives

The Senate

____________________________________

____________________________________

____________________________________

____________________________________

____________________________________

____________________________________

____________________________________

____________________________________

____________________________________

____________________________________

____________________________________

____________________________________

____________________________________

____________________________________

____________________________________

____________________________________

RR Many different people and organisations represent you at various levels of government in Australia. See if you can find out the following: Prime Minister of Australia: Federal Opposition Leader: Federal Education Minister: Federal Minister for the Environment: Premier of your state/territory: Deputy Premier: Leader of the Opposition: Minister for Education: Name of your local government organisation: Shire President or Mayor:

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Name of the electorate that you live in for federal elections: Name of the electorate that you live in for state elections: 14

Section 1: Australia's Federation


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The System

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. The federal system is sometimes called a 'Washminster system' because it combines parts of the Washington (US) and Westminster (UK) systems of government. Parts influenced by the US system:

• The division of powers between the Commonwealth and states; • Consists of an upper (Senate) and a lower house (Representatives) which is known as a bicameral parliament; • Has a court (the High Court) to settle disputes. Parts influenced by the UK system: • Has a responsible cabinet government; • Ministers are members of parliament; • Must obtain the majority of support from the lower house.

The Australian Constitution

Australia’s Legal System Today

The Australian Constitution was also introduced in 1901 with federalism. This sets out the rules for the system of government in Australia. It divides the responsibilities between the Commonwealth Government and the state governments. The three main roles of this important document are:

Law and government systems are very much intertwined. There are three functions of our legal system:

To create the Commonwealth of Australia;

To set up the Commonwealth parliament (the Constitution explains the powers and functions that parliament has and those of the states);

To set up the High Court as the highest court in the land.

The legislative function (laws being made);

The executive function (laws being carried out);

The judicial function (disputes about laws being resolved).

Laws are made both in parliament (known as statute law) and decided by the courts (known as common law). Everyone in Australia must obey local, state and federal laws.

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Activity

The System

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. The government that we have today is an amalgamation of many different ideas from two main nations – the United States of America and the United Kingdom.

TT Imagine that you are able to go back in time to the period of Australia’s federation. A debate is taking place between an Englishman and an American. Each is claiming that he has contributed the most to Australia’s system of government. Fill in the speech bubbles below to show what they might have said. Complete additional research if needed.

TT Questions. 1. In your own words explain what the Australian Constitution is.

__________________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________________

2. Give an example of a law that has been made and is carried out in Australia. For example: In Australia any person operating a vehicle must drive on the left-hand side of the road.

__________________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________________

3. Give an example of a law being disputed and resolved. For example: somebody disputing a speeding ticket.

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__________________________________________________________________________

TT Find a newspaper article that shows an example of our system of government. For example, a debate in the lower house of parliament or a legal case in the High Court. On the back of this sheet, write a short summary of the article and explain which part of Australia's government it refers to. 16

Section 1: Australia's Federation


Activity

Magna Carta

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. The Magna Carta (or Great Charter) is an English charter that has influenced many legal systems including the Australian legal system. It is considered one of the most important documents of all time.

TT Your task in your group of four is to find out about the Magna Carta.

-- Originally the Magna Carta was written in Latin. Use your research skills to find a copy of the plain English version of the document (the internet is a good place to start). -- Organise information from the document under categories in the space below. For example, what does the document say about land, punishment and/or religion? _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ -- Use these categories to write a summary of what the Magna Carta is saying in the space below. _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________

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Extra

RR Imagine that you are able to write your own Magna Carta for your classroom or school. What would be important to you? As a group write your own charter on a large piece of A3 paper. Section 1: Australia's Federation

Magna Carta

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This is a Ready-Ed Section 2: Publications' book preview. Australian Democracy and Citizenship

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Australian Democracy and Citizenship

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. Not all Australians have experienced democracy and citizenship in the same way. Australia’s first systems of European government only allowed men to be involved. In the early stages of representative democracy (voting for a representative to govern) voters had to be male and have a certain amount of property or wealth. Some of the groups who have had to argue for their right to be heard in government are Indigenous Australians, migrants and women.

Women and Politics Suffrage is the term used to describe the right to vote. Women, for example, were not granted the right to vote until 1902 following the lead of New Zealand who gave women this right in 1893. Indigenous women, however, were not granted suffrage until 1962. A woman who campaigned (fought) for the right to vote in elections was known as a suffragette. Suffragettes argued that government 'by the people' should also mean government by women because laws affected women as much as men. At the time it was considered that a woman’s place was in the home. Women were believed to be weak and emotional and it was thought that if women were given the vote then married men would get a double vote because they would tell their wives who to vote for. A number of organisations campaigned for women to be able to vote. The Australian Women’s Suffrage Society was formed in 1889 and aimed to get the same rights for women as men. The Women’s Christian Temperance Union was another organisation struggling for equal voting rights and social reforms for women. Women gained the right to vote in federal elections in 1902 but voting in state elections was different for each state. voting rights in state elections

State

Men

Women

South Australia

1856

1894

Western Australia

1893

1899

New South Wales

1858

1902

Tasmania

1900

1903

Queensland

1859

1905

Victoria

1857

1908

Right to Vote

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*Officially Indigenous Australians had the same rights as others, but from 1902, because they were denied the right to vote in federal elections they were often denied the right to vote in state elections.

Section 2: Australian Democracy and Citizenship

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Activity

Australian Democracy and Citizenship 1

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. Read page 19 and complete the Questions below.

1. Have all Australians always experienced democracy and citizenship in the same way?

____________________________________________________________________________ 2. Who was able to vote in early Australian governments?

____________________________________________________________________________ 3. What does the term suffrage mean? ____________________________________________________________________________ 4. What is a suffragette? ____________________________________________________________________________ 5. Examine the table on voting rights. Which state gave women the right to vote first? ____________________________________________________________________________ 6. Which state was the last to give women the right to vote? ____________________________________________________________________________ 7. When were indigenous women given the right to vote? ____________________________________________________________________________ 8. Use your research skills to find out if there are any countries which still deny women the right to vote.

Imagine Imagine that you are a suffragette trying to gain the right to vote in your state. List the reasons why you believe women should be given the same rights as men. •____________________________________________________________________________ •____________________________________________________________________________ •____________________________________________________________________________

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•____________________________________________________________________________ •____________________________________________________________________________

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Section 2: Australian Democracy and Citizenship


Activity

Australian Democracy and Citizenship 2

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. The women below have all played a very important role in the struggle for equal rights for women in the political process. Henrietta Dugdale

Maria Kirk

Louisa Lawson

Mary Lee

Catherine Helen Spence Vida Goldstein

Edith Cowan

Bessie Rischbieth

Ivy Weber

Enid Lyons

Dorothy Tangney

Beatrice Faust

Elizabeth Reid

Margaret Guilfoyle Pauline Toner

Joan Child

Janine Haines

Joan Kirner

Margaret Reid

Carmen Lawrence

TT Choose one of the women listed and in pairs complete some research to find out about the female's life and the contributions that she has made. TT In the space below write up her Facebook profile. Facebook

Search

Name:_______________________________________ Date of birth:_________________________________ Place of birth:_ _______________________________ Hometown: __________________________________

Profile Picture

Friends

Achievements: __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________

Employer:___________________________________

__________________________

Relationship status:___________________________

__________________________

Recent Activity:

Recent Comments:

Go to www.readyed.net Section 2: Australian Democracy and Citizenship

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Activity

Australian Democracy and Citizenship 3

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. You are a researcher working for a new documentary being produced about Australian democracy and citizenship. You have been asked to find out about how different groups experienced democracy in early Australia. Choose either Indigenous Australians or migrants.

TT Investigate what democracy and citizenship experiences were like for your chosen group. TT Complete a mind map about your group in the space below. When you have completed your mind map use the information to write an outline of what you would include in your documentary – write this up on a large piece of paper or cardboard.

Go to www.readyed.net 22

Section 2: Australian Democracy and Citizenship


This is a Ready-Ed Section 3:Publications' book preview. Australian Migrants

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Gold!

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. The era of gold discoveries in Australia encouraged many people to migrate to Australia.

The period of the great Australian gold rushes did not begin until 1851, however gold was discovered long before this. People were aware of the lure of gold and the effect it might have. In the same year that the First Fleet arrived a convict named James Daley reported finding gold in the hope of being sent home to England. Unfortunately Daley made up the story and was rewarded instead with 300 lashes.

Thirty five years later, in 1823, the first genuine discovery was made by a surveyor named James McBrien who found gold near Bathurst. Other discoveries were made in 1839, 1841 and 1848 before the beginning of the Australian gold rushes in 1851, with the discovery of gold near Bathurst in New South Wales. Historians believe the gold rushes did not start until 1851 for a number of possible reasons, including the authorities keeping the news secret and the fact that any gold found belonged to the government.

The Start of the Rush Edward Hargraves worked on the Californian goldfields. He has always been given the credit for finding gold in Australia. Historians, however, often debate whether Hargraves should be given this honour and the discovery of gold is a good example of conflicting historical evidence. Some sources suggest that Hargraves found gold at a place near Bathurst that he named Ophir. These sources maintain that Hargraves was able to find this gold because he knew where to look, after learning the technique in the USA. Other sources, however, believe it was not Hargraves at all who found gold but his assistants John Lister, James Tom and William Tom. Alternative sources even claim that Hargraves did not mention the people who had helped him. There also exists historical sources which state that Hargraves was not trying to find a large goldfield but just wanted to claim the government reward. Regardless of who was really responsible for the discovery of gold, Hargraves claimed the reward of more than 10,000 pounds and also received a pension of 250 pounds each year, a meeting with Queen Victoria and the right to be called the Commissioner for Crown Lands. The news of the discovery of gold swept through the colony like wildfire and within a few weeks 600 men had flocked to Summer Hill Creek in Ophir to try to make their fortune. Gold was later discovered in Victoria, Western Australia and Queensland.

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Section 3: Australian Migrants


Gold!

Activity

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. Read page 24 about the discovery of gold in Australia.

In order to understand the events surrounding the gold rush era in Australia, it is useful to put yourself in the position of the main historical figures involved. TT Imagine that you are Edward Hargraves and you have just discovered gold. Tweet (textbased post of up to 140 characters) on Twitter to announce your discovery. Twitter

Search

Name: Edward Hargraves Tweet:___________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________

TT Now imagine that you are John Lister (Hargraves’ partner). You are enraged that you are not getting any credit for your hard work. Post your own account of what happened on your Facebook page. Facebook

Search

Name: John Lister Wall Post:________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________

Go to www.readyed.net Extra

Use the back of this page to write a diary entry from the point of view of a migrant who has moved to Australia because of the discovery of gold. Section 3: Australian Migrants

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Life on the Goldfields

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. As news of the gold discoveries were made public, gold fever struck and dramatically changed Australian society. Australians from all colonies became crazy about gold, leaving their jobs and rushing to make their fortune on the goldfields. Word even spread overseas and Australia, previously perceived as an unattractive place to live, became a very popular destination for many to settle.

Gold Digging, National Library of Australia

The effect on Australia was immediate. 500,000 migrants poured into Australia by sea and those already in Australia went overland to the diggings. By the end of the decade the population had trebled. For the gold miners on the early Australian goldfields, living conditions were tough. Miners, and often their families, had to live in the heat in temporary accommodation such as tents, with minimal supplies of food and water. Most miners were inexperienced and had limited tools and equipment. As new discoveries of gold were made, miners often packed up their few belongings and headed to the next place to try their luck. The discovery of gold attracted many new migrants to Australia. Most of these new arrivals were British but also included Americans, French, Italian, German, Polish and Hungarians. The largest number of people from overseas were the 40,000 Chinese who came to work on the fields mostly for foreign businessmen. The Chinese were disliked by other miners for a number of reasons (essentially because they were different). Miners did not like the fact that the Chinese miners worked on Sundays, that they dressed differently, did not speak English, had different customs, sent most of their gold back to China, used more water in their mining of the gold and often worked on ‘tailings’ or ground that had been worked and then abandoned by other miners. The European miners also claimed that the Chinese were addicted to opium and gambling and spread diseases. European diggers often did not trust or understand the Chinese diggers. During this time racist attitudes, the belief that some people are better than others, began to surface.

Miners' Accommodation

We consider the Chinese very unsuitable as immigrants. As Christians we hate them working on the holy Sabbath (Sunday) and we are concerned that they gamble a great deal and are not very peaceful.

They are obviously an inferior race but they manage to find gold! We give up on a claim and they rummage around and find more. It is all very suspicious. We are calling a meeting to establish a plan of action.

Go to www.readyed.net Source 1

26

Source 2

Section 3: Australian Migrants


Activity

Life on the Goldfields 1

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. Read page 26 and then complete the QUESTIONS below.

1. How did the discovery of gold change Australian society?

____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ 2. In your own words describe what it would have been like to live on the goldfields. ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ 3. How would Europeans have seen the Chinese as different from themselves? ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ 4. What do the sources say about the nature of Chinese people on the goldfields? Who do you think they are written by? What type of sources are they? Source 1:______________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ Source 2:______________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ 5. What effect do you think the arrival of the Chinese on the goldfields would have had on Australian society? ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________

Go to www.readyed.net

____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________

Section 3: Australian Migrants

27


Activity

Life on the Goldfields 2

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. Use all of the information that you have learnt about the gold rush period in Australia, and do some of your own research, to complete the task below.

TT Imagine that you are a historian wanting to find out about how the discovery of gold developed Australia into a diverse country. Design or locate three sources of evidence that would be useful to you. For example, you might find/create a government report that shows the increase in the number of people who came to Australia or a picture that shows the Chinese on the goldfields. Write, draw or paste your sources in the spaces below.

Source 1

Source 2

Source 3

Go to www.readyed.net 28

Section 3: Australian Migrants


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Populate or Perish

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. Before World War II was over, people in Australia were beginning to think about what a post war country would look like. World War II finished in 1945 but the year 1942, with the Japanese conquering islands to the north of Australia, frightened many people who believed that the next Japanese target was Australia itself. At the time Australia had a population of only seven million and Australia’s leaders were concerned that there were not enough people living in it. The slogan “populate or perish” became a popular saying used by people who supported the idea of bringing in more people from overseas countries to increase the population. At the time, the Australian Minister for Immigration, Arthur Caldwell, said, "Australia wants, and will welcome, new healthy citizens who are determined to become good Australians".

Arthur Caldwell welcoming 100 000th British migrant, 1949 National Library of Australia

Reasons for Migration Immigration refers to the settling of people from one place into another. After World War II, Australia introduced an immigration policy to bring more people from Britain and Europe into Australia. Australians supported immigration for a number of reasons including: Defence of the country – the slogan 'populate or perish' meant it was important to fill the empty country of Australia with more people to prevent it being taken over by foreign powers; Workers – more migrants could provide more labour for new industry such as factories and farms; Economy – the more people living in Australia, the more people there would be to buy goods, which would better the economy; Links to Britain – the British people who were already in Australia, thought that if they brought over more British people then they might not feel so isolated; Refugees - millions of refugees were suffering as a result of World War II. Australia was able to take some of these migrants.

Where Migrants Came From After World War II, many migrants came to Australia from countries in Europe that had been devastated by the war. Bombings had greatly affected the economies of these countries and left many people displaced in these war-torn areas. People from countries such as Britain, Italy, Poland and Yugoslavia came to Australia to make a new life for themselves and their families. Between 1945 and 2011, seven million migrants made their way to Australia. Following the European migrants were people from Asia and then other parts of the world.

Go to www.readyed.net Section 3: Australian Migrants

29


Activity

Populate or Perish 1

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. Use the information on page 29 to complete the questions below.

1. Explain the term ‘populate or perish’.

____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ 2. Why did Australians want migration? ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ 3. What was the main region that migrants immigrated from after the introduction of the immigration policy? ____________________________________________________________________________

4. What do you think Arthur Caldwell meant by, "… new healthy citizens who are determined to become good Australians"? ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ 5. Do you think there are any immigrants that Caldwell would not have welcomed? Why? __________________________________ __________________________________ __________________________________ __________________________________ __________________________________

Go to www.readyed.net Migrants arriving in Australia

Extra 30

National Library of Australia

Use the back of this sheet to create a drawing to match the slogan ‘populate or perish’. Section 3: Australian Migrants


Activity

Populate or Perish 2

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. You are working for a national immigration museum and your role is to gather stories of migrant experiences for a new display. Imagine that you are able to interview a migrant who came to Australia after World War II. In pairs develop the questions that you would like to ask, keeping in mind the information that you want to gather.

national museum

Chosen migrant:_ ________________________________________

Question 1:________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ Question 2:________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ Question 3:________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ Question 4:________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ Question 5:________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ Question 6:________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ Question 7:________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ Question 8:________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________

Go to www.readyed.net

Extra

RR Write the answers to these questions on the back of this sheet, then role play the interview in front of the class. Section 3: Australian Migrants

31


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Migration Policies

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. The White Australia Policy

The Immigration Restriction Act or White Australia Policy, as it came to be known, was passed in the new federal parliament in 1901. It had its origins in the gold rush era when white miners resented Chinese diggers working on the goldfields. Later, labourers from the Pacific Islands (known as Kanakas) were also targeted by white Australians who felt their jobs might be threatened. One of the significant features of the immigration policy was that applicants were required to pass a written test in any language chosen by an immigration officer. Usually the person trying to immigrate to Australia had to take the test in a language that they didn’t know!

World War II Following the end of the war, the government actively encouraged migrants to settle in Australia. In 1945 a federal immigration portfolio was set up and after the war, a number of different agreements were reached with the United Kingdom, some European countries and the International Refugee Organisation. The first Immigration Minister, Arthur Calwell, wanted to deport non-white refugees who had entered Australia during the war but by then opinion was changing and many people protested. By 1958 the controversial dictation test was disgarded and in March 1966 the White Australia Policy was abolished altogether.

Ten Pound Poms The ‘Ten Pound Pom’ scheme is the colloquial (or informal) name for an assisted migration scheme that operated in Australia after World War II. Assisted migration meant that the government paid some, or all, of the cost of a migrant's travel to Australia on a boat. The word 'pom' meant English people, but migrants did not only come from the United Kingdom and the scheme was open to citizens of all Commonwealth countries. Adult migrants were charged just £10 for their fare and children travelled for free. The aim of the scheme was to attract people to Australia and increase the population. Many migrants made the trip because they were looking for a better climate and lifestyle and were promised employment and housing. For many migrants the new lifestyle didn’t turn out as planned. When they first arrived migrants stayed in governmentrun hostels where privacy was minimal and food was mass produced and ordinary! Migrants found it difficult to get bank loans to buy houses and were often unable to get suitable jobs.

Go to www.readyed.net 32

Section 3: Australian Migrants


Activity

Migration Policies 1

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. Julia Gillard, Australia’s first female Prime Minister, is just one of many famous people who migrated through the Ten Pound Pom scheme. Find out what you can about Ms Gillard and then write two diary entries from her point of view.

TT The first entry should adopt the voice of the young Julia on her way to Australia from Wales. Try to imagine what it would be like for a migrant to be packing up all of his/her belongings and moving to a country that he/she has never seen on the other side of the world. __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________

TT In your second entry adopt the voice of Julia today and express the opportunities that Australia has given to her. __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________

Challenge Use the information on page 32 and additional research, to create a poster on the back of this sheet which advertises the Ten Pound Pom scheme to migrants overseas. Make sure that you explain why Australia is attracting new people and what benefits migrants will get from coming to Australia.

Go to www.readyed.net

Extra

In your exercise books write out a 30 second speech in favour of abolishing the White Australia Policy. Section 3: Australian Migrants

33


Migration Policies 2

Activity

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. A famous saying states that, ‘a picture is worth a thousand words’. This is often true in regards to historical sources.

TT Conduct some research to find a picture about immigration to Australia in the years after World War II. Paste a copy of your picture below.

1. Explain what the picture is about. ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ 2. Explain how the picture could be used as a historical source. Is it reliable? ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ 3. What does the picture tell us about migration to Australia following the end of World War II? ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________

Go to www.readyed.net

____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ 34

Section 3: Australian Migrants


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Changing Australian Migration

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. By the 1970s the attitudes of people in Australia were changing and the White Australia Policy did not seem appropriate. It was no longer socially acceptable to categorise people by the colour of their skin or where they came from. Eventually this program was scrapped altogether. The policy of assimilation (making migrants give up their own way of life to become a ‘typical Australian’) was changed to multiculturalism. Multiculturalism is the belief that differences in cultures are okay and that migrants should not be forced to abandon their own views and beliefs. Many changes took place in the 1970s. British migrants, for example, lost their special treatment and needed a visa to enter Australia. Australia continued to take in people fleeing their own countries due to corrupt political systems. These people were known as political refugees. This migration started after World War II and by 1975 the first of those who would become known as ‘boat people’ arrived in Darwin. Many of these people came from Vietnam. The Vietnamese were trying to escape their communist government which had taken over following the Vietnam War. Between 1975 and 1985 approximately 90,000 Vietnamese people immigrated to Australia. Today Australia is a very multicultural nation and the rules are the same for anyone in the world wanting to live here. Migrants in Australia today have come from more than 185 countries. At the 2006 Australian census the greatest numbers came from these countries of birth: 1. UK

6. India

2. NZ

7. Philippines

3. China

8. Greece

4. Italy

9. Germany

5. Vietnam

10. South Africa

Go to www.readyed.net Source, Department of Foreign Affairs

Section 3: Australian Migrants

35


Activity

Changing Australian Migration 1

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. Use the information on page 35 to complete the questions below.

1. Why was the White Australia Policy scrapped?

_____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ 2. Provide a definition of assimilation. _____________________________________________________________________________ 3. Provide a definition of multiculturalism. _____________________________________________________________________________ 4. Why did Vietnamese refugees come to Australia in the 1970s and 80s? _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________

Class Survey TT Conduct a survey in your class (or year group) to find out if there are any students who have migrated to Australia. Ask where they have come from, why they came to Australia and what they have found different. When you have completed your survey, record your information in the table below and then in graph form.

Multicultural Australia Name and country of origin

Why came to Australia/what found different?

Go to www.readyed.net 36

Section 3: Australian Migrants


Activity

Changing Australian Migration 2

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. TT Use your research skills and the information that you have gained so far, to create a timeline which traces migration to Australia since 1851.

1851

1901

1942

1945

1958

1966

1975

Go to www.readyed.net 2011

Section 3: Australian Migrants

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Stories of Migration to Australia

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. ‘Boat people’ is a term that began being used during the 1990s in Australia to describe people who arrived in boats without permission. The issue of boat people has made headlines throughout the world and is still discussed today. Many boat people seeking asylum in Australia after the Vietnam War were Vietnamese. The Australian government agreed to accept Vietnamese refugees in 1975 and between 1975 and 1982, 65,000 Vietnamese were accepted into Australia. Below is Giao’s story.

Giao’s Story I was born in a small village in the north of Vietnam where I lived with my mother and father and my two brothers and little sister. My family had a business, a shop selling groceries. In 1946 a war broke out in our country which made life very difficult for my parents and many other people. When the north defeated the south, people did not have any freedom and the economy went down day after day. In 1978 my family decided to escape the communist government and we travelled to Australia in a small boat. We were very worried about robbers when we were in the boat and the ocean was very rough causing many people to be sick. I was only very young (perhaps 5 or 6 years old) but I still remember the feeling of arriving in Australia. After everything that had happened in Vietnam, I remember feeling very relieved to be able to step on safe land. At first we stayed in a refugee camp. We had nothing when we arrived, we had to leave everything behind and start all over again. The first few months were particularly hard. My brothers and sister and I found the food so different from what we were used to, and we had upset tummies for some time. Australia was a huge culture shock. My dad had to learn English and we kids learnt English at school. Mum and dad started a plant nursery and after school and on the weekends I remember helping to pot plants. I know a lot about gardening now but I got very sick of it when I was growing up. My parents have worked extremely hard and have built up a very successful life here in Australia. As a result, all of us children have been able to go to university and have good careers. Coming from an Asian country was difficult as many people were prejudiced against us at first. Slowly we came to understand our new country and we have always been so grateful for being able to live here. For me, being Australian means having a safe environment and a great lifestyle to bring up my own children.

Go to www.readyed.net Giao Nguyen, taken from Previous Diary Entries, 2009.

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Section 3: Australian Migrants


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Stories of Migration to Australia

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. Mike’s story

I wasn’t born when the Ten Pound Pom scheme was operating in Australia but I remember my parents talking about it. They had thought of moving to Australia for a better life but felt too worried about leaving my grandmother who was very ill at the time. They hadn’t been to Australia but the way they spoke about it, the country sounded just perfect to me. I was born in the south of England in a village not far from the city of Southampton. It was a lovely area and I remember as a kid watching the big ships dock in the port and all of the passengers come aboard to explore. I wondered what it would be like to be able to travel, but our family was not wealthy and our rare holidays were always to places like Butlin holiday camps in the seaside town of Bognor Regis, certainly nothing flash!

After I finished school I got a scholarship to study teaching and I eventually got a job teaching at a school not far from where I grew up. I still thought about travel and saved up to go on a six week holiday to Australia. I explored Sydney and Melbourne because I had read so much about them and then went to Perth to visit a friend who had moved there. I went back to England but I couldn’t stop thinking about Australia and, in particular, Perth. After my wife and I divorced and the school I was teaching at closed due to falling numbers I started investigating how I could get back down under. When Western Australian schools began advertising in England for teachers and police officers I took the chance and applied. In 2005 I was offered a job as a Maths teacher at a school in rural Kalgoorlie, Western Australia. I have to admit Kalgoorlie was quite a culture shock. I arrived for the start of Term 4 and I couldn’t believe how red the soil was and how hot it was already. So many people helped me settle in and invited me over for dinner and I soon made friends. In England I really enjoyed cycling and I brought my bike to Australia. I joined a local bike club and still have to pinch myself when I see the long expanse of roads I can ride on without the traffic I was used to near Southampton. Kalgoorlie certainly doesn't offer the white beaches I had thought of when I investigated immigrating and sometimes I miss my family back in England but there is no way I would move back. Australia, for me, offers me much more of the life I want.

Go to www.readyed.net Mike Colley, Interview 2006.

Section 3: Australian Migrants

39


Activity

Stories of Migration to Australia 1

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. Use Giao’s and Mike’s stories on pages 38 and 39 to complete the QUESTIONS below.

1. Are the sources primary or secondary? Give reasons to support your response.

____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ 2. In your own words describe how Giao came to be in Australia. ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ 3. What was the inspiration for Mike moving to Australia? ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ 4. Would you say the sources contain fact or opinion? Explain your answer. ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ 5. Is either source likely to be more reliable than the other? Explain. ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ 6. If you were a historian studying migrant experiences of Australia, would both, one, or neither of the sources be useful to you? Explain. ____________________________________________________________________________

Go to www.readyed.net

____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ 40

Section 3: Australian Migrants


Activity

Stories of Migration to Australia 2

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' Brainstorm book preview. TT As a pair your role is to interview a migrant living in Australia to find out his/her experiences. In the space below, individually brainstorm to identify some possible subjects to interview. Put your brainstorms together and make a choice about who to interview.

Once you have chosen the person you will interview, you will need to tell him/her what the interview is about, what it will be used for and get his/her permission to be interviewed. If you plan to record sound or vision of the interview, it is important to make sure your interviewee is happy for this to occur. Before your interview it is important to arrange a date and time that the meeting is to take place. Next it is important to develop a list of questions or topics that you want to discuss with your interviewee. It is best to write open-ended questions. This means that it is harder for the interviewee to answer either yes or no. For example, a closed question is, "Do you like living in Australia?" An open-ended question is, "What is it that you like about living in Australia?" TT Individually make a list of four questions that you would like to ask your interviewee. Write them down below.

Question 1:________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ Question 2:________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ Question 3:________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ Question 4:________________________________________________

Go to www.readyed.net

__________________________________________________________

TT Put your questions together to make a combined list of questions that you will ask. Section 3: Australian Migrants

41


Stories of Migration to Australia 3

Activity

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' Fact File book preview. TT Record the information about your chosen migrant below.

Name of migrant:

qMale

qFemale

Migrated from:

Year of birth: Insert/draw picture:

(Indicate on map)

Three facts about the country this person migrated from:

Fact 1

Fact 2

Fact 3

Why did they migrate to Australia?

Go to www.readyed.net Extra 42

Imagine you are a migrant living in Australia. On the back of this sheet write three things you like about Australia. Section 3: Australian Migrants


Activity

Stories of Migration to Australia 4

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. TT Your pair has been chosen to write an information board for a new immigration museum. The museum is to show the different periods of immigration in Australia’s history and recognise the experiences of migrants. Use the information from your interview to write an information board about the migrant who you have interviewed.

Museum

Go to www.readyed.net Section 3: Australian Migrants

43


Activity

Stories of Migration to Australia 5

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. Australia could be described as a 'melting pot of people' and a 'nation of migrants'. The first Australians were Indigenous Australians, then came the Europeans, and then at various times throughout history many others have migrated to Australia. Each time new people arrive in Australia they bring with them new languages, new foods and new ideas and ways of doing things. Draw a picture which depicts Australia as a nation of migrants.

Your Own Family History Think about your own family history and where you descend from. What has been passed down to you from your own family? What is your cultural inheritance? Write down three ideas below. For example, we speak Vietnamese at home but we use English at school. •_ __________________________________________________________________ •_ __________________________________________________________________ •_ __________________________________________________________________ TT How multicultural is your classroom? Walk around your classroom to try to find a different person for each of the statements in the table below. Find someone who...

Name

has a parent born overseas: brings sushi for lunch: has a passport other than an Australian one: can say hello in another language: plays a sport that comes from England: has been to New Zealand:

Go to www.readyed.net

comes from an island in the Pacific: knows three different Italian foods: can describe what Pad Thai is: can list two African nations: 44

Section 3: Australian Migrants


This is a Ready-Ed Section 4:Publications' book preview. Contribution of Migrants

Go to www.readyed.net 45


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Pearl Divers in Broome

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. Some of the earliest new arrivals came to Australia for two very different precious resources – gold and pearls! Pearling began in Western Australia in the 1850s and in the Torres Strait in 1868. The colony of Queensland annexed (or claimed) the islands in 1879 to make sure that they were able to benefit from the pearling industry. By 1910, nearly 400 pearling luggers (ships) and more than 3,500 people were fishing for pearl shell around Broome.

Pearl shell was mostly used for buttons and buckles on clothing, for hair combs and to decorate furniture. This early boom brought many new people to Australia from Europe, the South Sea Islands and Asia. In 1861 a new species of pearl shell, the Pinctada maxima, was discovered in Roebuck Bay in Broome. This was an important year in Broome’s history because the pearl shell turned out to be the largest in the world and produced a superb pearl. Within three years the pearl shell industry in Broome was supplying three quarters of the world with this valuable resource. By the late 1880s Broome was the pearl capital of the world and had a mixed society of cultures from various European and Asian locations. The largest group of people to come to Broome for pearling were the Japanese. Pearling luggers were run by crews from Asia and the Japanese were considered the best helmet divers in the world. Broome’s population in 1910 was so exotic that the oriental town was called a microcosm of the universe. The architecture, including Chinatown and a cemetery with both Chinese and Japanese sections and the population of Broome are unique in Australia. Pearling was a dangerous job to do and the divers and crews faced many hazards. The bends, illness and shark attacks certainly took their toll on many divers. Some sources say up to 50% of divers were killed during the course of their work. This was in addition to the regular threat of cyclones which wrecked whole lugging fleets. Divers were paid by the amount of shell that they collected and often worked for no wages but to pay off a debt (usually their trip to Australia). The mixing of people from different cultures did not take place peacefully in Broome in the early days of the pearling industry. Broome was segregated with certain racial groups living in segregated areas and at least three race riots taking place.

Go to www.readyed.net

46

Section 4: Contribution of Migrants


Activity

Pearl Divers in Broome 1

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. 1. When did pearling begin in Broome?

_______________________________________________

TT Locate Broome on the map of Australia.

2. What was pearl shell used for?

_______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ 3. Where did the largest group of divers come from? _______________________________________________

4. What were some of the dangers that pearl divers faced? ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ 5. Did the various groups of people get along and live together in Broome? Explain. ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ TT Read the text on page 46 and complete the timeline.

1850s 1861 1868 1879 1880s

Go to www.readyed.net

1910

Extra

On the back of this sheet, draw three items that pearl shell was used for. Section 4: Contribution of Migrants

47


Activity

Pearl Divers in Broome 2

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. TT You are a website designer and have been commissioned to help produce an interactive website that will be used in a Broome museum. You have been asked to design a web page outlining the contributions that the Japanese made to the development of Broome and the pearling industry. Complete some further research and then draw and write your design in the space below. Try to include source material as well.

Welcome to the

Broome Museum

Search

Go to www.readyed.net 48

Section 4: Contribution of Migrants


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Contributions to the Nation

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. Migrants have contributed to Australian society in many different ways. After more than 200 years of migration, Australia has become a very multicultural society. The 2006 census, for example, indicated that nearly one in every four people of the nearly 20 million people living in Australia were born overseas. The largest number of those born overseas, were born in the United Kingdom, followed by New Zealand, China and Italy. All of these people have had an effect on the makeup (or composition) of Australia’s population, bringing with them different foods, religions, languages and ideas.

Migrants have also helped Australia’s economy by not only spending on items such as food and housing, but also starting and expanding businesses, bringing new ideas on technology and boosting the workforce in Australia. While English is still the common language in Australia, more than 100 languages have been introduced into Australian life. In the 50 years following the end of World War II, approximately 5.3 million migrants have arrived. As a result of so many different migrants coming to Australia from so many nations, laws have been established to protect all Australians. It is against the law for anyone to be discriminated against on the basis of their ethnicity. One group of migrants who came to Australia in the mid 1800s were the South Sea Islanders. From 1863 to 1904 about 60,000 South Sea Islanders came to work in Australia. Many worked on sugar cane farms located in Queensland, however some South Sea Islanders contributed to the development of other industries such as: timber, railway, mining and pearling. Between 1870 and 1900, approximately 2,000 cameleers from Afghan and India came to Australia and developed many Australian industries using camels as the main method of transportation. The mining, wool and railway industries all benefitted from this migrant group.

Go to www.readyed.net Section 4: Contribution of Migrants

49


Contributions to the Nation 1

Activity

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. Use the information on page 49 to complete the questions and tasks below.

1. Roughly how many people were living in Australia in 2006 according to the census?

____________________________________________________________________________ 2. Of these, how many people were born overseas?

____________________________________________________________________________ 3. Where were the largest overseas group born? ____________________________________________________________________________ 4. What does 'composition' mean? ____________________________________________________________________________ 5. List some of the ways in which migrants have contributed to Australia. ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ Migrants brought with them more than 100 different languages and today there are more than 200 languages, including many indigenous languages, spoken in Australia. TT Examine the list of words below and see if you can match the word with the language. Ciao

English

Ni Hao

German

Sawa dee ka

Malaysia

Konnichi wa

Chinese

Hola

Italian

G’day

Japanese

Guten Tag

Thai

Selamat datang

Spanish

Go to www.readyed.net Extra 50

Find out if there are any children in your class/school who speak another language. Can you write 1 – 10 in another language on the back of this page? Section 4: Contribution of Migrants


Activity

Contributions to the Nation 2

TT Migrants coming to Australia have made many contributions to Australian life, in the areas of education, science, the arts and sport. Australia could be likened to a pizza and each culture could be compared to a new topping. On the pizza pieces below write some contributions that cultures have made to Australia.

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview.

Go to www.readyed.net Extra

TT Choose one of the contributions from the activity. Conduct some research to find out about it in more detail. Create a travel brochure to promote your chosen culture. Section 4: Contribution of Migrants

51


A Nation of Immigrants 3

Activity

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. The current Australian flag reflects our British heritage, our position in the world and our states and territories.

TT Colour in the Australian flag and annotate the flag to show what each part represents.

Design a New Flag TT A nationwide competition has been announced to design a new flag. Design yours in the space below and annotate the symbols to explain why you have included them.

Go to www.readyed.net Extra 52

Use the back of this sheet to draw and colour the flag(s) which connect to your descent. Section 4: Contribution of Migrants


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The Snowy Mountains Scheme

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. The Snowy Mountains Scheme is an important event in the history of immigration to Australia. The Scheme brought together workers from more than 30 different countries and is often regarded as the beginning of multiculturalism in Australia.

What was the Scheme? The Snowy Mountains Hydro-Electric Scheme was built in the Kosciusko National Park in New South Wales. It was built to collect water from the melting snow and rain in the Snowy Mountains. The water was then stored in dams and through power stations and eventually used to create electricity. The Scheme was made up of 16 major dams, 7 power stations, 1 pumping station, 145 kilometres of underground tunnels and pipeline and 80 kilometres of aqueducts. The main storage lake could hold nine times the volume of water in Sydney Harbour! The construction of the Snowy Mountains Scheme began in 1949 and finished in 1974. It cost more than $820 million and is an important source of water and electricity for the eastern states of Australia today. The Scheme is one of the largest and most complex hydro-electric schemes in the world.

A Multicultural Project More than 100,000 people worked on the construction of the Scheme with two thirds of them migrant workers. Workers came from countries such as Austria, Finland, Russia, the USA, Scotland, Wales, England, Germany, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Poland, France, Italy and Greece to name only a few. The newcomers who came to work on the Snowy Mountains Scheme brought with them new ideas, new customs and new cuisines, changing the Anglo-Saxon (or English ancestry) foundation of Australian society. Working together on the Scheme, they became part of the Snowy Mountains family, with former enemies and allies working together, side by side.

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53


Activity

The Snowy Mountains Scheme 1

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. Use the information on page 53 to complete the tasks below.

TT Create a fact file on the Snowy Mountains Hydro-Electric Scheme.

Fact File

TT Create a job advertisement to attract migrant workers to the Snowy Mountains HydroElectric Scheme. Explain the job required and what the benefits would be of living in Australia and working on the Scheme. Draw your advertisement below.

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Section 4: Contribution of Migrants


Activity

The Snowy Mountains Scheme 2

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. TT Complete some further research on the Snowy Mountains Hydro-Electricity Scheme. Write a letter back home from a migrant worker explaining what your life is like working on the Scheme. Use historical evidence to support the content of your letter.

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Section 4: Contribution of Migrants

55


This is a Ready-Ed Section 5: Publications' book preview. History Tells a Story

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stud e nt N o t e s

History Tells a Story

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. Learning from the Past

Being a historian is a bit like being a detective. Detectives usually open a case by examining the scene of the crime in search of clues or evidence which will lead to someone being convicted of the crime. They may also interview eye witnesses or other people who may be involved in some way. By asking many questions detectives are able to gather information which may be useful in eliminating possible suspects and help to build up a picture of the events that have happened. In essence they are piecing together a story. Coming from the ancient Greek word ‘istoria’, the word history means an inquiry or investigation. History is an inquiry about groups and individuals and what they have done, believed and felt. History tries to tell stories and interpret past human experiences.

History, is not just about studying famous people. In fact, history is about the life of every person in the society being studied and the various events which cause changes as time passes. By learning about people and events from the past, we are better able to understand the way in which our society works in the present.

The Past The skills needed to find out about the past include: historical questioning and research, using and analysing sources, identifying other points of view and comprehensions and communication of historical events.

Sources of Information A source is something that survives from the past or that describes the past. From sources historians select evidence useful to their investigation. The two main types of sources are: Primary: a source that comes from the time being investigated. For example if you were investigating primary school students in the year 2010 and you found a student report. Secondary: This type of source is made after the time being investigated. These sources may also include people’s views of events. An example would be an interview with a primary school student conducted in 2030, twenty years after the time being studied.

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History Tells a Story

Activity

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. Look around your classroom at the items that you see everyday.

TT Imagine that it is now 30 years into the future. A box has been found with five items from your classroom. List them or draw them in the space below.

TT What do you think historians could learn from the classroom items they have found? Write your ideas below. An example has been completed to help you. Item

What Historians Could Learn

Year 6 History text book

This could help explain what students were studying at the time

TT Write your items below and then decide if each is a primary or secondary source of evidence. Write ‘S’ for secondary or ‘P’ for primary. Item

Primary or Secondary

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Section 5: History Tells a Story


Answers P10

1901 – Six colonies become a nation. 1889 – Henry Parkes makes a speech promoting federation. 1890 – The Australasia Federation Conference is held. 1897 – The first referendums for people to vote are held. 1900 – The result of Western Australia’s referendum is yes. 1899 – The Constitution Bill is amended at a secret conference. 1893 – The People’s Convention is held.

4) Both sources seem to be written from a white Australian or white migrant’s perspective and they are primary sources as they have been written at the time of the incident that they are describing. Source 1 describes the Chinese as inappropriate migrants, unchristian, rowdy and as gamblers. Source 2 describes them as people whose methods of finding gold were unethical. 5) The arrival of the Chinese on the goldfields changed Australia because it created racial tensions between the Chinese and the non-Chinese. The practice of segregating people because of physical and cultural differences would have emerged.

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. P29

WA – 1900 SA – 1889 NSW – 1899 Vic – 1889

Tas – 1889 The colonies became the Commonwealth of Australia in 1901. Possible answer: because Western Australia is one of the most isolated states and it is rich in resources.

P12

Federal, state, federal, federal, local, local, local, state, state.

P20

1) No, Indigenous Australians, migrants and women have had to argue their right to be heard in government. 2) Only men. 3) Suffrage means the right to vote. 4) A suffragette is someone who campaigned for the right to vote in elections. 5) South Australia. 6) Victoria. 7) Indigenous women were given the vote in 1962.

P27

1) The population of Australia grew and became multicultural and racial tension ensued. People already living in Australia left their jobs in search of gold. 2) Tough because there was limited supplies of food, water and equipment. It also would have been hot. 3) They would have seen the Chinese as physically and culturally different than themselves. Physically because they were not white and wore different clothes and culturally because they did not speak English, worked on Sundays, sent their gold back to China, used more water when mining and worked on ‘tailings’.

1) The term means that if Australia doesn’t increase its population through migration, it will be subject to foreign attack and therefore ‘perish’. 2) Australians wanted migration so that they could defend themselves against foreign attack, fill job shortages for new industries, improve the economy, strengthen their ties with Britain and help refugees. 3) Europe. 4) People who want to and are fit enough to work, and people who are willing to obey the law.

P36

1) The White Australia Policy was scrapped in the 1970s because attitudes towards people from different cultural backgrounds had changed and racism was no longer socially accepted. 2) Assimilation means the process of forcing someone to live in the same way as another culture and expecting them to discard their own cultural practices and beliefs. 3) Multiculturalism refers to the process of valuing all cultures’ values and beliefs and allowing people to live side by side differently. 4) Vietnamese refugees came to Australia in the 70s and 80s to escape the communist government which ruled in their country.

P37

1851 – The gold rush era began which attracted many migrants to Australia. 1901 – The Immigration Restriction Act or White Australia Policy was passed in the new federal parliament. 1942 – Australia felt threatened by Japan and doubted its ability to defend itself against foreign attack because of its small population. The slogan ‘populate or perish’ was coined. Arthur Caldwell advertised Australia to potential immigrants. 1945 – People began to protest against the White Australia Policy. 1958 – The diction test which was in English was abolished, so that people from non-English speaking backgrounds were not disadvantaged. 1966 – The White Australia Policy was abolished. 1975 – The first ‘boat people’ arrived in Darwin. Between 1975 and 1985 approximately 90,000 Vietnamese people immigrated to Australia. 2011 - Between 1945 and 2011 seven million people had migrated to Australia.

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P40

1) The sources are primary because they are written by the people involved in the incident being described and at the same time as the incident being described. 2) Giao came to Australia after a war broke out in his own country in 1946. He travelled to Australia with his family on a small boat when he was about 5 years old to escape the communist government in Vietnam. 3) He lived near a port in England and the sight of the ships docking made him want to travel. He had heard his parents talk about Australia when he was young. He went there for a holiday first. 4) The sources contain both fact and opinion. An example of fact in Giao’s story is, “In 1946 a war broke out in our country”. An example of opinion in Giao’s story is, “The ocean was very rough”. An example of fact in Mike’s story is, “I wasn’t born when the Ten Pound Pom scheme was operating in Australia”. An example of opinion is, “It was a lovely area”. 5) One source is not more reliable than the other as they are both primary sources and both contain fact and opinion. 6) Both sources would be useful if studying migrant experiences of Australia as both are first hand accounts from two migrants who have travelled from different countries for different reasons and had different experiences of settling in Australia.

cameleers helped to develop the mining, wool and railway industries. Many other migrants have contributed to Australia in different ways and students may mention these. 6) Ciao – Italian, Ni Hao - Chinese , Sawa dee ka - Thai, Konnichi wa – Japanese, Hola – Spanish, G’day – English, Guten Tag – German, Selamat dating – Malaysia.

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. P52

The Union Jack represents Australia’s history of British colonisation. The Southern Cross represents Australia’s geographical position, as this constellation can only be seen from the Southern Hemisphere. The six points of the Commonwealth Star represent the six different states and the seventh point represents the two territories.

P47

1) Pearling began in the 1850s in Broome. 2) Pearl shell was used for buttons and buckles on clothing, hair combs and to decorate furniture. 3) Japan. 4) The bends, illness, shark attacks and cyclones. 5) The groups did not mix well in the early days of the pearling industry. Many groups were segregated from others and at least three race riots took place. 1850s - Pearling began in Broome. 1861 - A new species of pearl shell, the Pinctada macima was discovered in Roebuck Bay, Broome. 1868 - Pearling began in the Torres Strait. 1879 - The colony of Queensland claimed the Torres Strait Islands to ensure that they benefited from the industry. 1880s - Broome was the pearl capital of the world and had a mixed society of cultures from various European and Asian locations. 1910 - Broome’s population was so exotic that the oriental town was called a microcosm of the universe. The multicultural architecture was unique.

P50

1) The 2006 census states that 20 million people were living in Australia at this time. 2) One in every four people. 3) The United Kingdom. 4) Makeup. 5) The South Sea Islanders helped to develop the sugar cane, timber, railway, mining and pearling industries. The Japanese were largely responsible for the development of the pearling industry in Broome. Afghan and Indian

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Australian History Series: Book 6 - Australai as a Nation  

Australia as a Nation has been written for Australian students who are studying History in Year 6. It contains five sections which link clos...