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This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. Ready-Ed Publications

Acknowledgements i. Clip art images have been obtained from Microsoft Title: Design Gallery Live and are used under the terms of Australian History Series the End User License Agreement for Microsoft Word – Book 5 2000. Please refer to www.microsoft.com/permission. The Australian Colonies ii. Corel Corporation collection, 1600 Carling Ave., Ottawa, Ontario, Canada K1Z 8R7. © 2011 Ready-Ed Publications

Printed in Australia Author: Lisa Craig Illustrator: Alison Mutton

iii. Wikimedia Commons. Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.2 or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation; with no Invariant Sections, no Front-Cover Texts, and no Back-Cover Texts. A copy of the license is included in the section entitled “GNU Free Documentation License”. iv. Front cover image: courtesy of National Library of Australia. Portrait of four children, possibly of the Brabyn family, carrying toys [picture] / painted by N.[?] Smith by Smith, N., fl. 1845.

Copyright Notice The purchasing educational institution and its staff have the right to make copies of the whole or part of this book, beyond their rights under the Australian Copyright Act 1968 (the Act), provided that: 1.

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Any copying of this book by an educational institution or its staff outside of this blackline master licence may fall within the educational statutory licence under the Act. The Act allows a maximum of one chapter or 10% of the pages of this book, whichever is the greater, to be reproduced and/or communicated by any educational institution for its educational purposes provided that

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ISBN: 978 1 86397 824 8 2


Contents

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. Teachers' Notes National Curriculum Links

Section 1: Establishment of British Colonies British Penal Colonies Student Information Page Activity Page Van Diemen’s Land – The Sister Colony Student Information Page Activity Page Macquarie Harbour Student Information Page Activity Page 1 Activity Page 2 Moreton Bay, Brisbane Student Information Page Activity Page

4 4

6 7 8 9

10 11 12 13 14

Section 2: colonial life and patterns of settlement Inland Settlements Student Information Page 16 Activity Page 17 A New Life at Bathurst Student Information Page 18 Activity Page 19 Daily Life in Bathurst Student Information Page 20 Activity Page 21 The Wiradjuri of Bathurst Student Information Page 22 Activity Page 23 Bathurst Settlement and the Environment Student Information Page 24 Activity Page 25 Gold Fever Hits Bathurst! Student Information Page 26 Activity Page 27 Section 3: Events That Affected Colonies Frontier Conflicts – The Pinjarra Battle Student Information Page Activity Page Expansion of the Colonies Student Information Page Activity Page Charles Sturt and Internal Exploration Student Information Page Activity Page

29 30 31 32

Ludwig Leichhardt and Internal Exploration Student Information Page Activity Page Development of the Sheep Industry Student Information Page Activity Page The Economy and the Sheep Industry Student Information Page Activity Page The Shearers' Strike Student Information Page Activity Page 1 Activity Page 2 Section 4: Australian Migrants Assisted Passengers Student Information Page Activity Page 1 Activity Page 2 Indentured Labourers Student Information Page Activity Page Muslim Cameleers Student Information Page Activity Page Australian Migrants Student Information Page and Activity Page Section 5: Great Australians Caroline Chisholm (1808-1877) Student Information Page Activity Page 1 Activity Page 2 Louisa Lawson (1848-1920) Student Information Page Activity Page 1 Activity Page 2 Indigenous Guides and Trackers Student Information Page Activity Page 1 Activity Page 2 Answers

35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43

45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52

54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63-64

33 34

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Teachers’ Notes

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. The Australian Colonies has been written for students who are living in Australia and are studying History in Year 5. It contains five sections which relate closely to the National Curriculum.

The first section helps students to develop an understanding of the reasons why Britain decided to establish colonies in Australia after 1800. The second section of the book encourages students to investigate daily life in colonial Australia for Indigenous Australians and convicts, and explores the affect of colonialism on the environment. It also looks closely at the reasons behind the location of various settlements. Events That Affected Colonies is the title of the third section of the book. It examines frontier conflict, internal exploration of Australia and the expansion of farming.

The fourth section provides students with the opportunity to share the experiences of different Australian migrants, such as assisted passengers, indentured labourers and those escaping the Irish Potato Famine and the Highland Clearances. It also examines the contributions of particular migrants in Australia. The final section of the book looks at the contributions that Caroline Chisholm, Louise Lawson and indigenous guides and trackers made to shaping colonies. The activity sheets have been written to extend students' historical knowledge and understanding. To make life easy for the teacher the answers are provided at the back of the book.

National Curriculum Links Historical Knowledge and Understanding ACHHK093 – Reasons (economical, political and social) for the establishment of British colonies in Australia after 1800. ACHHK094 – The nature of a convict or colonial settlement in Australia, including the factors that influenced patterns of settlement, aspects of the daily life of its different inhabitants, and how they changed the environment. ACHHK095 – The impact of a significant development or event on a colony. ACHHK096 – The reasons people migrated to Australia from Europe and Asia, and the experiences and contributions of a particular migrant group within a colony.

Historical Skills ACHHS098 & ACHHS099 – Chronology, terms and concepts. ACHHS100 & ACHHS101 – Historical questions and research. ACHHS102 & ACHHS103 – Analysis and use of sources. ACHHS104 – Perspectives and interpretations. ACHHS105 & ACHHS106 – Explanation and communication.

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ACHHK097 – The role that a significant individual or group played in shaping a colony.

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This is a Ready-Ed Section 1:Publications' book preview. Establishment of British Colonies

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Student Information Page

British Penal Colonies

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. In the 17th and 18th centuries, convicted criminals in Britain were transported to far-off penal colonies in different parts of Britain’s Empire. The British government wanted to separate criminals from law-abiding citizens in society. It was hoped that the harsh punishment of being transported would make people think twice before committing crimes, even petty ones such as stealing food or clothes. During the 17th and 18th centuries, penal colonies had been set up in Georgia in North America, Bermuda, Ghana, the Andaman Islands and Singapore. New South Wales became a British penal colony in 1788.

Fleet of transports under convoy c. 1788 National Library of Australia

Transportation was also a way of dealing with the problem of overcrowding in prisons. This problem was so serious that old ships, called hulks, were converted into floating prisons. Once convicts had been transported, they were forbidden to step foot in the Old Country again, even after serving out their sentences. Petty criminals were not the only ones marked for transportation. Political opponents, Tolpuddle Martyrs, Irish rebel leaders, orphans, mutineers and pirates found themselves bound for Botany Bay. Other reasons for setting up penal colonies in Australia after 1800: • The North American colonies refused to accept British convicts after the Declaration of Independence in 1776. Britain needed a remote place to keep sending its convicts. • To gain control over the huge Australian territory and prevent other European powers, in particular France, from establishing colonies on the continent. • To use Australia’s location to promote trade with Asian nations like China. • Cheap convict labour could build infrastructures that the colony needed, such as: roads, bridges and public buildings. Convicts could be assigned to settlers to work on farms. • Britain could benefit economically from the industries developed in the Australian colonies with convict labour. New South Wales was already producing fine wool from merino sheep and quality wine, and a thriving whaling and sealing industry was operating around Bass Strait.

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Between 1788 and 1868 more than 165,000 convicts were transported to the Australian colonies.

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Section 1: Establishment of British Colonies


Activity

British Penal Colonies

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. Locate

Colour the places where Britain set up penal colonies. Page 6 will help you. Draw lines to connect these colonies to Britain.

Britain

Andaman Islands

1. Which penal colony was the furthest away from Britain? ____________________________________________________________________ 2. Why did Britain want to send its criminals to far-away places in the 19th century? _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ 3. How did the transportation of convicts to the Australian colonies help Britain in the 1800s? _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________

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4. Why do you think orphans were transported along with convicts to New South Wales? _______________________________________________________________________ Section 1: Establishment of British Colonies

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Student Information Page

Van Diemen’s Land – The Sister Colony

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. By 1803 there were more convicts than free settlers in the colony of New South Wales. Keeping law and order was a major concern for Governor King. He decided that another penal colony should be established in Van Diemen’s Land (Tasmania), where hardened criminals could be sent to separate them from the general convict population in Sydney. Van Diemen’s Land was considered a “sister colony” of Sydney. In 1804 Governor King gave LieutenantTown Governor David Collins the task of establishing Hobart Town as the new penal colony (see map right).

The French Threat There was another reason for King’s decision to set up a penal colony rapidly in Van Diemen’s Land. The British wanted to make it clear to the French that they were not welcome on Australian shores. French explorers had been on mapping expeditions around the Australian coastline shortly after the first landing at Botany Bay in 1788. Like the British, the French were empire builders in search of new territories with resources to exploit. The French had also established penal colonies in remote places, but their interest in Van Diemen’s Land seemed to be more of a scientific nature. In 1793 Bruni D’Entrecasteaux, a French navigator, spent five weeks exploring the Derwent River and Huon Valley area of Tasmania. Scientists made contact with local Indigenous Australians to learn about their way of life. They mapped the area and sketched fauna and flora. The French even left behind a walled vegetable and herb garden that they had cultivated at Recherche Bay.

Risdon Cove In 1803 Britain and France were at war. Napoleon’s navy was active in the Pacific Ocean and Governor King wanted to prevent the French from setting up a military base in Van Diemen’s Land, so he put the young Lieutenant John Bowen in charge of preparing Risdon Cove on the Derwent River for a penal settlement. Almost immediately, Bowen ran into difficulties: • Crops could not be grown in the poor soil and water was in short supply. • Free settlers disagreed with Bowen’s administration of the colony. • Dangerous convicts stole a boat and escaped from Risdon Cove. Lieutenant Governor David Collins arrived in 1804 and ordered the Risdon Cove site to be closed. The first penal colony would be at Hobart Town under his command.

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Section 1: Establishment of British Colonies


Activity

Van Diemen’s Land – The Sister Colony

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. Write

RR Write Governor King’s reasons for setting up a penal colony in the space around him.

We need a penal colony in Van Diemen's land because …

Wikimedia Commons

RR Do you think any one reason was more important than the others? Circle the reason that you think is the most important and share your choice with classmates. 1. Explain why the first attempt to set up a penal settlement at Risdon Cove failed. _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ 2. How did French explorers increase their knowledge about Van Diemen’s Land during their expeditions to the island? _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________

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3. Why might the French explorers have created a walled vegetable garden at Recherche Bay? _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ Section 1: Establishment of British Colonies

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Student Information Page

Macquarie Harbour

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. The penal settlement at Macquarie Harbour, Macquarie Harbour jailers lock situated on the west coast of Van Diemen’s the sullen gates no more … Land, had earned the reputation of being a but lash-strokes sound in every shock place of horror. Its inmates were “some of the of ocean on the dismal rocks most incorrigible criminals of the Kingdom”. along that barren shore. During the 11 years that Macquarie Harbour By Rex Ingamell operated as a penal station (1822-1833), 1,150 men and 30 women served out their sentences behind its “sullen gates”.

A Perfect Place For a Prison The main part of the Macquarie Harbour prison was situated on Sarah Island with other facilities on nearby islands. The prisons could only be reached by sea through a passage called “Hell’s Gate”. This route was dangerous due to the strong currents and rocks. The site was surrounded by rugged wilderness and was 240 kilometres away from the nearest settlement at Hobart Town. The British claimed that Macquarie Harbour was escape-proof. Convicts at Macquarie Harbour were there to work and be reformed. The Huon pine forests near the colony provided timber to build more than 120 ships of all sizes for the British government. The diagram below shows other types of convict work carried out at the penal station.

Convict Work Hard labour • • • • •

Chain gang with leg irons Cutting and hauling trees Road building Crushing rocks Ploughing land without oxen

Skilled • • • • •

Blacksmiths Carpenters Gardeners Ship builders Overseers

Females • • • • •

Servants to officers Laundry work Seamstresses Nurses in prison hospital Cooks, bakers

Punishment If convicts behaved well and worked hard during their time at Macquarie Harbour, they could earn rewards like conditional pardons or paid work from settlers. For those who would not be disciplined, the punishments were severe – floggings of more than 50 lashes and solitary confinement in a tiny windowless cell for a month at a time with reduced rations of food. Convict women were also flogged and had their heads shaved.

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Section 1: Establishment of British Colonies


Macquarie Harbour 1

Activity

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. 1. Read the verse from Rex Ingamell’s poem Macquarie Harbour on page 10. Look up the meanings of 'sullen', 'lash', 'dismal' and 'barren'. Describe the atmosphere that the poet wanted to create about Macquarie Harbour. _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ 2. Why was Macquarie Harbour an ideal site for establishing penal stations? _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________

Convicts

RR Answer the questions below using the information on page 10 and the image below by Lempriere, showing convicts on Philip’s Island in Macquarie Harbour (c. 1828).

Allport Library and Museum of Fine Arts, Tasmanian Archive and Heritage Office

3. Do you think these convicts had committed serious crimes? What evidence do you have for your answer? __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ 4. Why would it have been difficult to escape from the Philip’s Island penal site? __________________________________________________________________

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__________________________________________________________________ Use an internet mapping tool to visit the Sarah Island penal site. The coordinates are: 42.387889°S 145.448611°E. Section 1: Establishment of British Colonies

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Macquarie Harbour 2

Activity

RR Read about the amazing and bloodcurdling escape from the Sarah Island penal station in 1822 by the Irish convict Alexander Pearce.

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' New York Chronicle book preview. November 25th 1824

Shocking news has reached our shores from Hobart in Van Diemen’s Land. Our journalist has chilling details about the capture and execution of the “cannibal convict” Alexander Pearce.

There was nothing to indicate that the young Irishman standing in the docks of the Supreme Court in Hobart had “banqueted on human flesh.” Pearce was an ordinary looking man of 34 years with brown hair, hazel eyes, skin pockpitted, and a mere 5 foot 3¼ inches tall. Two years ago, Pearce escaped with seven other convicts from the Sarah Island penal station, whose reputation as a hellhole is known to all in the civilised world. For nine weeks Pearce and his companions tackled the harsh terrain of cool rainforests and mountains on their escape route towards Hobart Town. Not used to living off the land, the starving convicts turned on each other.

One by one, weaker convicts were killed as they slept and their flesh devoured. Finally it came down to just Greenhill and Pearce. After eight sleepless nights, Pearce found Greenhill napping and killed him with an axe.

Pearce stumbled upon a settled area and was taken in by an ex-convict who knew nothing of Pearce’s murderous ways. Pearce soon returned to his life of petty crime and stole sheep and robbed farms on the outskirts of Hobart. When captured by police, no-one believed that Pearce had stayed alive by eating his companions! The convict was simply returned to Macquarie Harbour. A few months later Pearce made another bid for freedom with Thomas Cox, but it only lasted 11 days. When Pearce was recaptured he had human remains in his pocket and confessed to killing Cox. On July 19th this year, Pearce was hanged in the yard of Hobart Town Gaol. His body was given to doctors for medical dissection.

1. Why do you think it would have been hard for the convict escapees to find food? _______________________________________________________________________ 2. Why wasn’t Pearce hanged after his first escape from Sarah Island in 1822? _______________________________________________________________________ 3. Why do you think that this event made the news in the New York Chronicle in 1824?

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_______________________________________________________________________

Extra 12

Create a WANTED poster for Pearce on the back of this sheet, based on the description in the news article. Police offered a £10 reward for his capture. Section 1: Establishment of British Colonies


Student Information Page

Moreton Bay, Brisbane

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. The Jaggera and Turrbal Aboriginal clans had made the river, creeks, mangroves and islands of Moreton Bay their traditional home for over 10,000 years. They Moreton Bay lived well off the shellfish, fish and birds that flourished Redcliffe in its waterways. Captain Cook and Matthew Flinders had observed the presence of Indigenous Australians in the area during their voyages of exploration along Australia’s east coast in the late 18th century. In 1824, Brisbane the surveyor John Oxley explored more than 80 kilometres of the Brisbane River. Oxley proposed that Brisbane River the fertile soil, ready supply of timber for building and abundance of fresh water would make Moreton Bay an ideal place for a convict colony. Redcliffe was the first site chosen for the colony (see map), but it was abandoned in 1825 for the more reliable water supply found at Brisbane.

The Moreton Bay Penal Establishment The Brisbane penal colony was offlimits to free settlers. It was forbidden to come within 80 kilometres of the walled prison. Like Macquarie Harbour, Moreton Bay was the destination for convicts from Sydney who had repeatedly committed crimes. From 1825 to 1839 about 2,200 men and 135 women were transported to Moreton Bay.

Convict Barracks, Moreton Bay 1832 Wikimedia Commons

The early commanding officers of Moreton Bay did not make much progress and were soon replaced. In 1826 Captain Patrick Logan took charge and declared that under his command convicts would be well-disciplined. He was known to have ordered floggings with 150 lashes for convicts who did not want to work. Logan quickly developed the penal site by: • planting acres of cornfields to supply food for the penal colony; • building a commissariat store and windmill, which are still in use today. On October 17th 1830, Captain Logan was killed by Indigenous Australians as he was exploring the upper reaches of the Brisbane River. His party had been warned to leave the area by Indigenous Australians because they were trespassing on traditional hunting grounds.

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Activity

Moreton Bay, Brisbane

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. RR Highlight the different penal stations mentioned in the poem.

MORETON BAY

1. What did the convict miss about his homeland?

One Sunday morning as I went walking by Brisbane waters I chanced to stray, I heard a convict his fate bewailing as on the sunny river bank I lay. I am a native from Erin's island but banished now from my native shore, they stole me from my aged parents and from the maiden I do adore.

_____________________________________ _____________________________________ 2. Make a list of the cruel punishments this convict received at Moreton Bay.

I've been a prisoner at Port Macquarie, at Norfolk Island and Emu Plains, at Castle Hill and at cursed Toongabbie, at all these settlements I've been in chains. But of all places of condemnation and penal stations in New South Wales, to Moreton Bay I have found no equal, excessive tyranny each day prevails.

_____________________________________ _____________________________________ RR Use the information on page 13 to answer these questions.

For three long years I was beastly treated, and heavy irons on my legs I wore, my back from flogging was lacerated and oft times painted with my crimson gore. And many a man from downright starvation lies mouldering now underneath the clay and Captain Logan he had us mangled all at the triangles of Moreton Bay. Like the Egyptians and ancient Hebrews we were oppressed under Logan's yoke, till a native black lying there in ambush did deal this tyrant his mortal stroke. My fellow prisoners be exhilarated that all such monsters such a death may find and when from bondage we are liberated our former sufferings will fade from mind.

3. Why was Moreton Bay a good site for a penal colony? _____________________________________ _____________________________________ _____________________________________ _____________________________________ _____________________________________ 4. Why were settlers forbidden to come within 80 kilometres of the penal site? _____________________________________ _____________________________________

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HOLD A DEBATE 14

Was Captain Logan a “cruel tyrant� or was he simply doing a difficult job?

Section 1: Establishment of British Colonies


This is a Ready-Ed Publications' Section 2: book preview. Colonial Life and Patterns of Settlements

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Student Information Page

Inland Settlements

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. The penal colony at Sydney expanded rapidly in the 1800s as more free settlers boarded ships in Europe to make a new life in the wilds of Australia. Land grants, free convict labour and adventure were the big attractions. Free settlers, merchants and pardoned convicts formed a society that soon wanted to have more say in the way that the colony was being administered by its military governors. The increase in population also meant that more food had to be produced. Settlers and ex-convicts wanted to find good farming land further away from the Port Jackson area, but the steep cliffs of the Blue Mountains to the Scene in the Blue Mountains west were an impassable barrier. No European National Library of Australia explorer had been able to find a way over the Blue Mountains, which formed part of the Great Dividing Range. On the 11th May 1813, Gregory Blaxland, William Lawson and William Wentworth set out from St Marys in Sydney’s west, to find a way over the Blue Mountains (with the permission of Governor Lachlan Macquarie). They were better prepared than earlier explorers for the task and took an indigenous guide with them and a six-week supply of food. After 21 days, the party reached the top of Mount Blaxland. From there, the explorers found what they had been searching for. Blaxland wrote in his journal in 1823, “All around, forest or grass land, sufficient in extent … to support the stock of the colony for the next thirty years”. The colony’s settlers celebrated when they heard the good news. The crossing of the Blue Mountains allowed settlers to move into the western plains of New South Wales. In 1815, Governor Macquarie declared that Bathurst would be the first inland settlement and ordered a road to be built with convict labour through the mountains. Macquarie described the Bathurst site as, “One of the finest landscapes I have ever visited … the soil is uncommonly good and fertile fit for every purpose of cultivation and pasture, being extremely well-watered and thinly wooded”. The explorer William George Evans was amazed at, “the exceedingly large fish that are caught in the river”.

Bathurst Blue Mountains

St Mary's Parramatta

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Section 2: Colonial Life and Patterns of Settlement

Sydney


Activity

Inland Settlements

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. 1. Why did the settlers in the Port Jackson area celebrate when they heard that Blaxland, Wentworth and Lawson had crossed the Blue Mountains?

_______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ 2. How do you think the indigenous guide helped the explorers on the crossing?

_______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ 3. The Sydney Gazette newspaper published proclamations (or announcements) from Governor Macquarie that informed settlers of important events in the colony. Write Macquarie’s proclamation declaring Bathurst as the first inland settlement of New South Wales. Your proclamation should include Macquarie’s reasons for choosing Bathurst and the advantages that the area offered for settlers.

Sydney Gazette   Proclamation by his excellency Lachlan Macquarie  __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________

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__________________________________________________________________

God save the King. Section 2: Colonial Life and Patterns of Settlement

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Student Information Page

A New Life at Bathurst

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. Houses

Many of the free settlers who made their way to Bathurst and the western plains of New South Wales already had farms in the Sydney area. They were looking for opportunities to expand their farming ventures. The wide open plains were ideal for growing grain and raising sheep and cattle. Convict labour was used to clear land, build roads and erect houses for the pastoralists and their farm workers and servants. Wealthy landowners constructed Georgian style homes in brick, stone or hardwood timber with wide verandahs as shown in the image above. Settlers with smaller land grants, many of whom were exconvicts, built their one or two-roomed homes from what natural materials they could find in the area. Their simple huts were made using the wattle and daub technique. A wooden frame was built and the walls were latticed with acacia sticks. Mud mixed with dry straw was then plastered on the walls. The floor consisted of slabs of stone or flattened earth.

What Did the Settlers Eat? It took four days to travel by horse from Bathurst to Sydney Town in the 1830s and longer by ox and cart over the rough-cut mountain roads. Settlers had to depend on the food that they could grow on their farms and the plants and animals available in the region. Food produced or bought by farmers • beef, mutton and pork (salted or dried to preserve the meat) • flour to make damper, potatoes • tea, honey, sugar • rum, wine, beer made from locally grown hops

Local fauna and flora • black swans, ducks, geese, pigeons • kangaroos, emus, possums • fish, eels, freshwater crayfish • quandong, native cherry, wild tomato

In the 1850s rabbits, hares and fallow deer were introduced into the Australian environment. They thrived living in the woodlands and grain-growing pastures of Bathurst. Settlers enjoyed hunting these animals as it reminded them of their life in the Old Country and added a different flavour to the cooking pot.

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Section 2: Colonial Life and Patterns of Settlement


A New Life at Bathurst

Activity

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. 1. How did assigned convict labour help the early settlers at Bathurst?

_______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ 2. Compare a wealthy landowner’s house with the house of a small farm owner. Draw sketches of the houses under the headings. Wealthy Landowner

Farmer

Description of house

Description of house

__________________________________ __________________________________ __________________________________ __________________________________ __________________________________ __________________________________ TT Imagine that you are a wealthy settler hosting a dinner party for an important public figure from Sydney Town. Prepare a menu to impress your guest based on the food resources produced on your farm and those available from the Bathurst district.

Menu

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Student Information Page

Daily Life in Bathurst

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. Settlers set about building a future on the land for themselves and their children. After a day’s hard work in the fields, making clothes or preserving fruits, there was some time left for leisure activities. The Bathurst countryside provided pastimes such as collecting butterflies and moths, collecting rocks that contained gems and fossils and going for a dip in a local waterhole. Children in the 1800s loved toys, nursery rhymes and games just as much as children do today. People believed at this time though that games should be educational. This is why board games often focused on teaching science, history, geography and religion. Books were still quite rare in the colony and would have only been found in the homes of wealthy free settlers. Poorer settlers may not have known how to read and education was not compulsory for children. Other Popular Games and Pastimes • Card games and jigsaw puzzles • Hopscotch and follow the leader

• Playing quoits and skittles • Making scrapbooks • Playing jacks (knucklebones)

• Playing with tin and clockwork toys • Skipping, hula-hoops • Making wooden pullalong toys

Clothing Women on homesteads had the job of making clothes for the family. Hard-wearing fabrics like calico, denim and muslin were used so that clothes lasted longer. The Bathurst climate meant that farmers had to work outdoors in the hot, dry summer and the cold, icy conditions of winter. Cotton shirts and trousers kept them cool in summer and for winter a woollen jacket and hat were added.

National Library of Australia

In the 19th century, children’s clothing was a miniature version of what their parents wore. Boys and girls wore frocks with pantaloons underneath. Wealthier settlers could afford to order items from Sydney Town such as silk and cotton stockings, fancy vests and wool frock coats with tails. Women wore long skirts, blouses and lace-up boots. They would carry parasols to protect them from the hot sun and wore bonnets for church and decorated hats for social occasions.

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Section 2: Colonial Life and Patterns of Settlement


Activity

Daily Life in Bathurst

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. Games and Pastimes

RR Look at the games and pastimes on page 20 that were popular with the Bathurst settlers in the 1800s and complete the following.

1. Make a list of the activities that are still popular today. Use a dictionary to help you with unfamiliar words. Leisure activities that are still popular today

2. How have games and pastimes changed over the last 200 years? Give some examples to support your answer. __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ 3. Suggest two reasons for settlers’ clothes being made out of long-lasting fabrics. •_______________________________________________________________________ •_______________________________________________________________________ 4. Study the image of the children (right). In what ways are they dressed to look like small adults? __________________________________________ __________________________________________ __________________________________________ __________________________________________ National Library of Australia 5. Do you think that the clothing of the early settlers was suited to the climate and environment of Bathurst?

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_______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ Section 2: Colonial Life and Patterns of Settlement

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Student Information Page

The Wiradjuri of Bathurst

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. The Wiradjuri people have lived in the “Badri” area, which is now known as Bathurst, for over 40,000 years. Their totem is the goanna. Wiradjuri territory is the largest in New South Wales and is bordered by three rivers: the Macquarie, the Lachlan and the Murrumbidgee. When Europeans began settling at Bathurst, an estimated 12,000 Wiradjuri were living in the wide territory.

The Wiradjuri built simple huts from the softened bark of trees. When they moved on to another part of their territory to hunt, they constructed new shelters. The name “Badri” means “a cold, frosty place”. During winter months people would seek shelter in the various caves and overhanging rock ledges Simple bush shelter found around Bathurst. European settlers marvelled at the possum-skin coats that the Wiradjuri wore to keep them warm. The Wiradjuri feasted on a varied diet provided by their surroundings. The rivers, creeks and billabongs teemed with fish and water fowl. Nutritious tubers and lilies grew in the waterways. Kangaroos and emus grazed on the grassy plains and the many species of eucalyptus and acacia trees supplied flowers filled with nectar. Honeycombs were the Wiradjuri’s special treat. The plants and trees also produced natural bush medicines like ground bark for toothaches and ferns to relieve stings. Food was cooked by roasting on hot coals and shared in a family group around the campfire. Wiradjuri children spent part of their day learning Dreaming stories and bushcrafts from their Elders. They were given different responsibilities such as fetching water, digging for yams or looking for ant larvae. They enjoyed playing games made from objects near their campsite. Balls made from sewn kangaroo skins were thrown and kicked in team games. Ropes made from fibres were used for skipping. Hide and seek was played with a special object such as an animal claw. To prepare boys for their role as hunters, spear and boomerang throwing competitions were held. Bathurst and its plains were the life-blood of the Wiradjuri. The people had a deep knowledge of the land and managed its resources for future generations. The Bathurst settlers’ first encounters with the Wiradjuri were friendly and soon Wiradjuri words made their way into Australian English. Among the borrowed words are:

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kookaburra kookaburra

22

corella cockatoo

boggi blue-tongue skink

Section 2: Colonial Life and Patterns of Settlement

billabong waterhole

quandong native peach


The Wiradjuri of Bathurst

Activity

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. 1. How was the lifestyle of the Wiradjuri different to the settlers? Complete the table with notes. Settlers

Leisure

Diet

Shelter

Wiradjuri

2. Apart from food, give three examples of things from the environment that the Wiradjuri used in their daily lives.

3. What did the Wiradjuri Elders teach their children? ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________

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________________________________________________ ________________________________________________

________________________________________________ Section 2: Colonial Life and Patterns of Settlement

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Student Information Page

Bathurst Settlement and the Environment

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. From 1815 to 1824 an area of 100 kilometres by 200 kilometres was cleared for pastures around Bathurst. The early settlers built fences around their properties to keep their livestock from straying. Farms covered traditional Wiradjuri hunting grounds and cattle and sheep used the watering holes. Carved trees that marked the burial sites of Wiradjuri ancestors were also chopped down or destroyed in bushfires. Some settlers found it difficult to understand that sacred sites on their farms had to be visited by Wiradjuri people for clan meetings and ceremonies. It was not long before violent conflicts occurred.

How Settlement Changed the Bathurst Landscape With the increase in settlers in the Bathurst region, the ancient Wiradjuri practices of managing the land through fire-stick farming began to die out. Fire-stick farming was useful for two reasons: • After setting fires, the grasses grew back quickly and more abundantly. New shoots appeared on plants and seeds opened to generate more trees. This new plant growth provided food for people, animals and birds. • The practice of fire-stick farming helped to prevent bushfires. The settlers were quick to put out fires caused by lightning strikes and to stop the Wiradjuri from practicing fire-stick farming. They were afraid of losing their homes, crops and livestock. However, one result of this decrease in fires was the dying out of trees along the floodplains of rivers and an increase in soil erosion.

Other Changes to the Bathurst Environment • Settlers introduced species such as rabbits, hares, foxes and domestic cats and dogs. Cats, dogs and foxes preyed on native animals such as wallabies, possums and bilbies. • European species of trees and plants like willow, poplar and blackberry were planted on farms and along riverbanks as windbreaks. These species pushed out native trees so habitats for native animals and birds were lost as well as fruit, seeds and bush medicines. Matted willow roots along riverbanks caused problems for platypuses trying to build burrows.

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• The hard hooves of sheep and cattle trampled the delicate plant life at watering holes and creeks, destroying the habitats of small animals, insects and reptiles. • Hunting native animals and birds for sport led to a decrease in their numbers.

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Section 2: Colonial Life and Patterns of Settlement


Activity

Settlement and the Environment

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' Consequences book preview. RR Complete the flow diagrams to show the consequences of the development of the Bathurst area in the 1800s. An example has been done for you.

Large flocks of sheep competed with kangaroos for food.

Kangaroos moved away to live in more thickly forested areas.

The kangaroos were more difficult for the Wiradjuri to hunt.

Settlers planted willows as windbreaks on farms. Cattle gathered in large numbers around billabongs to drink. The practice of firestick farming was stopped by settlers.

1. Why did the Wiradjuri ignore fences around settlers’ properties? _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ 2. What lessons can we learn today from the experience at Bathurst in the 1800s about looking after our environment? _______________________________________________________________________

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_______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ Section 2: Colonial Life and Patterns of Settlement

25


Student Information Page

Gold Fever Hits Bathurst!

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. The first rumours about gold finds near Bathurst began circulating in the colony in 1823 when James O’Brien found tiny flecks of gold in the Fish River. Governor Thomas Brisbane kept this news from the general population because he feared that there would be a convict revolt. Gold rushes sent huge numbers of people flocking to an area to make their fortune. This gold frenzy often resulted in lawlessness that was difficult for authorities to control.

Edward Hargraves Edward Hargraves had recently returned from the gold rushes in California and learned various methods of prospecting for gold such as panning, cradling and excavation. He made comparisons between the Californian and Bathurst landforms and believed that gold could be found in the region’s rivers. On February 12th 1851, Hargraves was prospecting around the Lewis Pond Creek area with John Lister and James Tom. He found a few nuggets of gold and named the site Ophir. Within days, news of the gold find attracted people to the Ophir area. In June 1851 more than 2,000 diggers camped along creeks and the road over the Blue Mountains was packed with cartloads of miners on their way to Ophir. People from How did Bathurst develop all walks of life were willing to live in tents after the discovery of gold? or sleep in the open to strike it rich. • Bathurst became the national Most people returned home emptyheadquarters of the Cobb & handed from Ophir. Some disappointed Co. coach transport company diggers insulted Edward Hargraves and in 1862. tried to mob him. Hargraves did not find much gold either, but he had been given a handsome £10,000 reward for his discovery. Finding gold at Bathurst began the rush to find gold in other parts of Australia. Diggers with gold fever soon bundled up their tents to race southwards to the goldrush towns of Bendigo and Ballarat in Victoria.

• The Main Western Railway from Sydney was extended to Bathurst in 1876. • A coal-mining industry developed.

• People decided to stay in the Bathurst area and new towns were established with better roads. Private and public schools were built.

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26

Section 2: Colonial Life and Patterns of Settlement


Activity

Gold Fever Hits Bathurst!

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. RR Read this letter printed in the Maitland News in August 1851. Highlight the difficulties that Mr. Smith faced on the goldfields at Turon River.

Mr. Smith, of the Falls writes to his wife as follows: "Turon River, Bathurst August 17th. I take this opportunity to send a letter to you, and send you a little of the produce which gold digging yields. You say you would come here; what do you think I could do with you in such a place? I know you could not get up at two o'clock in the morning, and climb the rocks before day-light with me, which we are obliged to do in order to find more profitable places to dig in. You have no idea what this place is like, or you would not for a moment think of such a thing. I am very well contented with what I am doing. I am getting from £1 to £3 per week, and more, and I see others who are running about from place to place doing nothing, while some are making £2 per day. But as long as I can get what I do at present, neither cold, wet weather, or the hard work, will drive me away. We expect to leave this place soon for a new digging, forty miles distant, which is just found out. If we do go I will write from there as soon as possible. Our reason for shifting is this; there are so many coming here from the upper diggings and from all parts that there is no room to move…”

1. Was Mr. Smith disappointed with the amount of gold that he had found? Quote from the letter to support your answer. _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ 2. Finish this sentence with your opinion. Mr. Smith had / did not have gold fever because … _ ______________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ 3. Read the information on page 26. Why were earlier reports of gold finds in the Bathurst region kept a secret from the public? _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________

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4. How did transport improve in Bathurst after the discovery of gold in the 1850s? _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ Section 2: Colonial Life and Patterns of Settlement

27


This is a Ready-Ed Publications' Section 3: book preview. Events That Affected Colonies

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Student Information Page

Frontier Conflicts – The Pinjarra Battle

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. From the first years of European settlement in Australia, clashes had broken out between Indigenous Australians and colonists. At the heart of the conflicts was the land and its resources. When the Swan River colony of Western Australia was founded in 1829, the Nyungar people saw colonists moving into their ancient territory with cattle and sheep (see map right). Led by Yagan, the Nyungar began to fight for their land and the resources that they needed to survive.

Perth

Swan River

Canning River

Pinjarra Territory

Growing Tensions From 1830 to 1834 reaction

Colonists hunted wildlife for food. Colonists built fences and farm buildings. Soldiers issued flour rations to Nyungars. Three Nyungars arrested for theft. Sent to Fremantle for trial. Found guilty and flogged in public.

Nyungar hunted farm animals. reaction Nyungar used firestick farming. Crops and farm buildings destroyed. Nyungar men stole 445 kilograms of flour from reaction Shenton Mill. Calyute plans revenge for flogging by trying to reaction ambush Thomas Peel, an influential colonist. Killed Nesbitt, a soldier instead. Nyungar people go into hiding..

Thomas Peel wanted to develop fertile land deep in Nyungar territory at Pinjarra. Governor Stirling, with mounted police, accompanied Peel to survey this land. Captain Ellis was sent with troopers to talk to a group of Indigenous Australians spotted near a river bank. Ellis recognised some of the Nyungars involved in Nesbitt’s death. Stirling surrounded the Nyungar campsite with troopers and on hearing Ellis’ signal that they were indeed Nyungar, opened fire. The exact death toll on the 28th October 1834 is not known. Stirling’s report to the British authorities stated that about 15 warriors were killed, but no women and children. Ellis was to die two weeks later from a spear wound. Nyungar people maintain that many more people lost their lives that day, including women and children.

Consequences of the Pinjarra Battle • The death of so many Nyungar people meant that the totem animals and plants of these people could not be eaten for a year so food sources were limited. Rival clans challenged the weakened Nyungar.

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• The Nyungars came to a truce with the colonists. Both sides agreed not to provoke or harm each other. After some time, the Nyungar began to work for colonists on the land that once belonged to them.

• Section 3: Events That Affected Colonies

29


Activity

Frontier Conflicts – The Pinjarra Battle

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview.  Put the needs of the Nyungar and the British settlers in the Venn diagram. Nyungar

Settlers

Shade on the diagram the needs that the Nyungar and settlers had in common. RR Use the Venn diagram above and the information on page 29 to help you answer the questions. 1. What caused the conflicts between the Nyungar and the Swan River colonists? _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ 2. Complete the sentence with your opinion on the punishment given to the Nyungar men after the Shenton Mill incident. I think / don’t think that the Nyungar men were punished fairly because … _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ 3. Why did Governor Stirling’s troopers open fire on the Nyungar at Pinjarra?

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_______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ 30

Section 3: Events That Affected Colonies


Student Information Page

Expansion of the Colonies

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. By 1820 most of the available land within a 250 kilometre reach of Sydney had been taken up for farming and grazing. Governor Darling tried to stop settlers occupying land beyond the 250 kilometre boundary because it was almost impossible to police these areas. Settlers in remote places could be attacked by Indigenous Australians or menaced by escaped convicts and bushrangers. Darling’s efforts to control new settlements outside the set boundary, however, were not successful.

Influential and well-respected pastoralists pushed further into the interior of the country in search of more land to claim for their sheep-runs and cattle. Squatters established cattle stations on Crown Land without any legal right to own the property. Darling knew it would be difficult to remove these pastoralists. In 1836 the government passed the “Squatting Act,” which gave squatters the opportunity to settle on land beyond the boundaries for an annual licence fee of £10.

Why Was Colonisation Expanding Throughout Australia? After the 1820s, settlers were moving into new areas of the colony of New South Wales at a rapid rate. News had reached Britain and other European nations that Australia was the land of opportunity for “hardworking men”. Ships regularly arrived at Australian ports with assisted and non-assisted migrants, who hoped to start a new life away from the social and political problems in Europe at the time. There was also a call to end the “hateful lash” of convict transportation to the Australian colonies. Migrants were attracted to the Australian colonies because of: • the exploration of the interior of the Australian continent which opened up new areas for settlement; • the growth of new settlements at Port Phillip Bay in Victoria, the Swan River in Western Australia and Adelaide in South Australia; • the development of the sheep-grazing industry, which was booming in the low-rainfall regions of the colony. The colony had already earned the reputation of producing first-class fine merino wool;

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• the discovery of gold and other valuable minerals.

Section 3: Events That Affected Colonies

31


Expansion of the Colonies

Activity

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. Settlement

 Complete the annotations on this map using information about settlement patterns in the 1820s and 1830s on page 31.

It was dangerous to settle outside the 250km limit because …

For 10 pounds squatters could …

t le

_____________________

rea gh R

_____________________

Da

rlin gR

s Ca

an R

eR uari

Bog

_____________________

Maq

_____________________

_____________________ Lachlan R

_____________________ Settlers moved further inland because …

Murrumbidgee R

Mur

ray R

Sydney

_____________________ _____________________ Most of Sydney's farming land …

_____________________

_____________________

_____________________

_____________________

_____________________

_____________________

_____________________

_____________________

1. Why couldn’t Governor Darling stop pastoralists settling outside the boundaries that he had set? _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ 2. What attracted people to migrate to the Australian colonies in the 1800s? _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ 3. Why was the sheep-grazing industry growing in the new colony? _______________________________________________________________________

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_______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ 32

Section 3: Events That Affected Colonies


Student Information Page

Charles Sturt and Internal Exploration

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. John Oxley, the surveyor-general of New South Wales, was convinced that a huge inland sea existed in the heart of the continent. In 1818 he tried to navigate the Macquarie River to its source. His journey ended in an impassable sea of reeds that was named the Macquarie Marshes. Captain Charles Sturt (see image right) was given the task by Governor Darling to finish Oxley’s work. Between 1828 and 1846, Sturt led expeditions into the interior of Australia with the aim of solving two mysteries:

National Library • Did an inland sea really exist in the heart of the of Australia Australian continent? • Where did the western rivers of New South Wales flow into the sea?

Timeline for Sturt’s Expeditions 1828-1829 Followed the Macquarie River to the Macquarie Marshes. Headed north, then west to cross the Castlereagh and Bogan rivers. Explored a flowing river (The Darling) for 64 kilometres until it turned into a dry riverbed. 1829-1830 Traced the Murrumbidgee River until it joined with the Murray River. Discovered that the Murray flowed into the ocean at Lake Alexandrina. Sturt and his party had rowed over 2,900 kilometres along the rivers. 1838

Sturt trekked overland from Sydney to Adelaide with 300 head of cattle in 40 days. He proved that the “Hume” River was actually the Murray River.

1844-1846 Last attempt to find inland sea. Followed the Darling River to Milparinka to head into central Australia. Discovered the Grey, Stokes and Barrier Ranges, the Diamantina River and Eyre and Cooper Creeks. Pressed on to the Stony (now Sturt) Desert and reached the Simpson Desert. Could not pass the nine-metre high sand hills so Sturt was forced to turn back to Adelaide.

Sturt’s Contribution to Australian Exploration Sturt’s expeditions added greatly to the geographical knowledge of Australia. He settled the question once and for all that there was no inland sea, only immense inland deserts. He found that the Darling and Murrumbidgee both ran into the Murray River and that the Murray emptied into the Southern Ocean at Lake Alexandrina. He navigated the rivers by boat and demonstrated that people and goods could be transported on these waterways. Sturt loved exploring but he paid a high price for his discoveries. He almost lost his sight and suffered illhealth for the rest of his life. He also witnessed the death of his right-hand man and friend, James Poole, from scurvy on the trek back from the heart of Australia.

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33


Activity

Charles Sturt and Internal Exploration

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. Sturt's Expeditions

t le rea gh

Da

R

an R

eR uari

Bog

rlin gR

s Ca

Maq

 Using different coloured pencils: -- Trace the route of Sturt’s first expedition 18281829. -- Label and shade the Macquarie Marshes. -- Trace the route of Sturt’s second expedition 18291830. -- Label Lake Alexandrina.

Bathurst Lachlan R

Sydney

Murrumbidgee R

Mur

ray R

1. Why was it important for the colony that the western rivers could be navigated? _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ Sturt used a notebook to record what he observed each day, for example: “Great heat. Seldom under 100 °F (38° C) at noon. Relays of natives still following". 2. Study the painting by J. Macfarlane, then write Sturt’s notes about this day’s events. __________________________________ __________________________________ __________________________________ __________________________________

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__________________________________

Sturt threatened by Aborigines at the junction of the Murray and Darling (c.1890).

__________________________________ __________________________________

National Library of Australia

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Section 3: Events That Affected Colonies


Student Information Page

Ludwig Leichhardt and Internal Exploration

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. The Colonial Office would not give Ludwig Leichhardt the authorisation that he needed for an expedition from Brisbane to Port Essington, near Darwin. The determined explorer decided that he would organise and fund his own expedition. Leichhardt departed from the Darling Downs on October 1st 1844 with a nine-man team, 17 horses, 16 bullocks and enough flour, tea and sugar to hopefully last them during the trek. Leichhardt’s inexperience as a bushman and explorer soon had disastrous results. Among the difficulties the party faced were: -- not enough food supplies for all to complete the journey; two men had to turn back to Brisbane; -- the party was frequently getting lost; -- Leichhardt had two teeth knocked out in a fight; -- horses drowned after crossing Roper River and research and specimens were lost; -- Indigenous Australians attacked the party, badly wounding two men and killing John Gilbert. After 15 gruelling months, Leichhardt crossed Arnhem Land and headed towards Port Essington. On the 16th December 1845, the 4,827 kilometre journey was over for the six remaining men. Leichhardt was thankful “the Almighty had enabled me to perform such a long journey...”

Explorer profile

Name: Friedrich Wilhem Ludwig Leichhardt.

Birth: a farmer’s son born in 1813 in Trebatsch, Prussia. Education: studied languages and natural sciences at universities in Berlin, Paris and London. Reason for migration: did not want to do military service. Came to Australia in 1842 to continue his research in natural sciences. Interests: collecting rocks, studying plants and fish, learning about indigenous culture, the sheep industry. Ambition: to find an inland route from New South Wales to Darwin (Port Essington).

Leichhardt’s Achievement National Library of Australia

Despite the hardships Leichhardt’s expedition experienced, the discoveries made on the trek were valuable for the future development of the Gulf Country of northern Australia. Leichhardt opened up a line of communication between the east coast of Australia and the Gulf of Carpentaria. He described many of the region’s rivers, which would provide water for settlements, and declared the land, “an excellent country, available, almost in its whole extent, for pastoral purposes”. In 1848 Leichhardt vanished during a third expedition on the Darling Downs.

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35


Activity

Ludwig Leichhardt and Internal Exploration 2

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. 1. Look at Leichhardt’s Explorer Profile on page 35. Makes notes in this plus and minus table about Leichhardt’s qualifications to be an expedition leader to the Gulf of Carpentaria.

Plus

Minus

2. Choose two problems that Leichhardt faced on the expedition. Explain how Leichhardt’s inexperience as an explorer might have contributed to the problems. Problem 1:_________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ Problem 2:_________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ Read Leichhardt’s own words about the importance of his trek to the Gulf of Carpentaria.

“Should a harbour be found at the head of the Gulf of Carpentaria, which might allow ships to approach and moor in safety, it would not only open this fine country to colonisation, but would allow the produce of the high land of the York Peninsula to be brought down to the Gulf of Carpentaria as well as to the east coast. Cattle and horses could be easily driven from coast to coast, and they would even fatten, as water and feed are everywhere abundant”. 3. Highlight in the text the benefits a good harbour would bring to the Gulf Country. 4. Leichhardt’s disappearance in 1848 is an unsolved mystery. Discuss with a partner what you think might have happened to him. Write your theory below.

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_______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ 36

Section 3: Events That Affected Colonies


Student Information Page

Development of the Sheep Industry

The first flocks of sheep in the colony were used for meat and not for their fleece. In 1797 John Macarthur and other landowners introduced Spanish merino sheep into New South Wales. By 1805 Macarthur was the biggest landowner in the colony and his 5,000-acre property at Camden Park on the Nepean River had over 4,000 almost pure merino sheep. The sheep had adapted well to the hot climate and produced exceptional wool that was exported to Europe. Elizabeth Macarthur (see image right) had always taken a keen interest in the flocks and ran the sheep farms capably when her husband John was absent for lengthy periods from the colony and after his death in 1834.

Wikimedia Commons

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview.

Inland explorers such as Hume, Hovell, Oxley, Sturt and Mitchell reported back to the Colonial Office about the new areas of pastoral land that they had discovered. Settlers and squatters reacted to the news by quickly occupying large tracts of land for sheep grazing. By the end of the 1830s, the sheep industry had been established in every Australian colony (see timeline).

Transporting Wool to the Market

Growth of the Sheep Industry

After shearing, farmers had to transport their fleece in bales to markets. This was made easier 1788 Port Jackson, Sydney as transport systems began to improve in the 1803 Van Diemen’s Land colonies. Firstly, the bales were loaded on to 1815 Bathurst district bullock drays and driven over rough roads to a wharf on the Murray River. The bales were kept 1824 Moreton Bay, Brisbane in wool stores until paddle steamers transported 1829 Swan River, Perth them along the river to the ports of Adelaide 1837 Port Phillip Bay, and Melbourne. The river boats picked up bales, Melbourne transported passengers and delivered supplies 1838 Adelaide and mail to people waiting at wharves along the river. This system was so efficient that many of the wool producers of New South Wales preferred to ship their bales via the Murray to Melbourne, rather than by bullock dray to Sydney. In 1874 there were 240 boats using the port at Echuca each week. The wool was then shipped to European markets on “clippers.” These ships were faster than other sailing ships. A voyage to England could take as little as ten weeks, instead of seven months.

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The first steam railways began operating in New South Wales and Victoria in the late 1850s. This was important for the sheep industry because rail transport was faster. It also meant the beginning of the end for Murray River boat trade.

Section 3: Events That Affected Colonies

37


Activity

Development of the Sheep Industry

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview.  Use the information on page 37 to sequence the process of transporting wool to the markets. The first one has been done for you. Bales were stacked in wool stores near the wharf until the boat’s arrival. Clippers transported the wool to overseas markets. Steam railways were to provide a faster way of transporting wool bales. The fleece was sorted and pressed into wool bales of about 110 kilograms.

1

River boats transported the wool bales along the river to shipping ports. Bullocks, horses or camels transported the wool by drays to river ports.

Echuca Wharf

 Look at the image of Echuca Wharf (1864), then answer the questions. 1. How were wool bales loaded onto the river boats? ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________

State Library Of Victoria

2. Why can the wharf’s pylons be easily seen in this image?

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___________________________________________________________________ 3. Who else might be waiting at the Echuca Wharf and why?

___________________________________________________________________ 38

Section 3: Events That Affected Colonies


Student Information Page

The Economy and the Sheep Industry

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. The wool produced in the Australian colonies was bought in increasing volume by Britain. The first auction of Australian wool took place at Garraway’s Coffee House in London in 1821. These auctions attracted buyers from as far away as Japan. In 1843 Thomas Sutcliffe Mort held the first regular wool auctions in Sydney. Demand for the fine merino wool was so great that manufacturers of textiles from France and Belgium set up permanent offices in the colony so that they could buy directly from the wool producers.

The Courier, Hobart 1856

FOR SALE extensive sheeprun on Fiery Creek known as YALLA-Y-PORRA. 65,000 acres and 29,000 sheep and capable of carrying double that number. As a proof of the quality of the wool clipped this season, the Agents are authorised to state that it has been sold at l shilling 6 pence per lb. Terms. £10,000 cash.

The wool was manufactured into goods in British factories and sold all over the world. This was very profitable for Britain. The Australian colonies prospered economically as well and important decisions concerning their future began to be made.

Changes in Colonial Life in the Late 19th Century -- In 1852 self-government was granted to the colonies. There was a general feeling that if the colonies co-operated more with each other, services like the post, transport and trade could be improved for all colonists. -- British troops left the colonies and convict transportation ended in 1868. -- The colonies advertised for migrants. Australia’s population grew from 430,000 in 1851 to 1.7 million in 1871. Rural towns sprang up with impressive colonial buildings. Universities were established in Sydney and Melbourne. -- The Suez Canal was opened in 1872. Wool and other colonial products could be shipped faster to Europe. It also made migration easier and safer. The expression “riding on the sheep’s back” describes how the wool industry supported the economy of the new colonies. In a short time, people saw a big improvement in their standard of living. Sheep grazing was to expand steadily in the 19th century despite the effects of devastating droughts, floods and economic recessions.

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39


Activity

The Economy and the Sheep Industry

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' Benefits of the colonies' book preview. sheep-grazing industry ď ą Complete the diagram with bullet-point notes.

for Britain

for the Australian colonies

________________________________

________________________________

________________________________

________________________________

________________________________

________________________________

________________________________

________________________________

________________________________

________________________________

1. What evidence is there in the advertisement for the sale of the Yalla-Y-Porra sheep farm near Hobart, that it was a valuable property? _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ 2. How do we know that wool produced in Australia was of very high quality? _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ 3. In your own words explain what the expression "riding on the sheep's back" means.

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_______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________

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Section 3: Events That Affected Colonies


Student Information Page

The Shearers’ Strike

As the sheep industry boomed so did the number of shearers. The image of a swagman tramping along a bush track and sleeping under the stars has become an icon of Australian culture. Being a shearer was not always easy. They had to travel from station to station to find work. Woolsheds could be noisy, suffocating places, particularly during the summer heat that could reach 50ºC. Sheds were often infested with A shearer lice as was the basic lodging given to the men. To earn £1, a shearer had to take the fleece off 100 sheep. He had to obey the boss’s woolshed rules or he risked not receiving his wages. A shearer’s day was spent bent over sheep for hours with clippers in hand. As many as 80 men could be on a shearing floor at one time.

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In 1890 the Shearers’ Union had many thousands of members and was negotiating for better pay and conditions. When shearers from the Jondaryan woolshed in Queensland went on strike, employers called in non-union labour to do the job. Dock workers from the Rockhampton wharves supported their fellow unionists and refused to load the wool from Jondaryan. However, pastoralists did not give up. They formed the Pastoralists’ Federal Council and continued with their push for a contract of “free labour”. This gave the employers the freedom to select their own workers. The Shearer’s Union wanted only union workers in the woolsheds. WOOLSHED RULES

-- Working hours to be mutually agreed on. -- Employers will choose their own shearers. -- Ewes are to be carried from the pens to the shed. -- No swearing or singing during working hours. Smoking at intervals only. -- Cut or nicked sheep are to be treated immediately. -- Dismissed shearers will pay back £1 per week for food and board.

During 1891 shearers on various sheep stations put down their shears and went on strike. Clashes occurred between shearers and non-union labour that had been called in to work by pastoralists. Angry shearers set fire to grazing pastures, tore down fences and torched woolsheds and houses. It was feared that a civil war could break out after shearers and unionists were arrested and jailed. Many striking shearers were penniless and hungry. In August 1891, the Shearer’s Union and Pastoralists’ Union signed an agreement. Surprisingly, the agreement permitted pastoralists to employ the workers they wanted – union or non-union. From this struggle, however, the Australian Labor Party took root. The workers felt their rights could only be protected through political representation.

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-- Shearers’ tallies to be posted each morning. Any objections must be made at this time only.

Section 3: Events That Affected Colonies

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Activity

The Shearers’ Strike 1

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview.  Imagine that you are a young shearer working on a sheep station in the 19th century. Write “a postcard from the woolshed” to your family. Use the information on page 41 and your senses to describe what a shearer’s life was like.

 What were the causes of the Shearer’s Strike in 1891? Write down arguments from both the shearers’ and the pastoralists’ points of view. Read the “Woolshed Rules” on page 41 to help you.

Pastoralists' case

Shearers' case

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Section 3: Events That Affected Colonies


Activity

The Shearers’ Strike 2

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. 1. Were the “Woolshed Rules” fair in your opinion? Choose two examples to justify your answer.

Example 1_ __________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ Example 2_ __________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________

2. Why do you suppose the Shearers’ Union finally agreed to the demands of the pastoralists for a free labour contract? ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________  Discuss this question with a partner: What if the Shearers’ Union had not signed an agreement to end the strike in 1891? Fill in the possible consequences with the ideas that you have discussed.

If the shearers had continued their strike . . .

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This is a Ready-Ed Publications' Section 4: book preview. Australian Migrants

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Student Information Page

Assisted Passengers

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. From 1830 to 1850 there were various schemes that assisted European citizens to migrate to the Australian colonies. The majority of these migrants were British so strong links could be preserved with the mother country, but the schemes also included people from Ireland. By the end of the 1850s more than 188,000 settlers had migrated to Australia under the assisted passage scheme (see poster right).

Assisted Migration Migrants were searching for a better life outside of Europe. The Industrial Revolution and its new technologies such as steam powered machinery did not require as much manual labour. This left many rural workers without jobs. Unemployed labourers drifted from the countryside into large manufacturing cities like Manchester and Birmingham to find poorly paid work in factories. The workers lived in slums that were often riddled with disease. Crime and poverty ruled people’s lives. There were also events that forced people from their homes, sometimes in desperate circumstances. Some of these events were: -- the Irish Potato Famine (1845-1852) was caused by a potato disease. It led to mass migration from Ireland and a million deaths from starvation; -- the Highland Clearances in Scotland saw farmers (crofters) evicted from their lands so that wealthy landowners could expand their sheep farms; -- Lutherans from Prussia looking for the freedom to practice their religion migrated to the United States and Australia. Many of Australia’s future migrants could not afford to pay their passage on ships. It had worried the Colonial Office for some time that good farming land in New South Wales was being granted or occupied by squatters without any payment. In 1831 Lord Goderich decided that land could be sold by auction and that half the proceeds would be used to pay for “suitable” poorer migrants on assisted passages. Shipping agents in Europe were paid a bounty for every skilled man or woman they brought to employers in the Australian colonies. Migration posters advertised the type of people wanted in the colonies: “...they must be of good character, honest, sober and industrious men…real labourers going out to work in the Colony, of sound mind and body…not less than fifteen and not more than thirty and married…the sisters of married applicants are allowed to go free, if they are of good character”.

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Activity

Assisted Passengers 1

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. Sabrina

ď ą Read the following news item about the assisted migrant ship Sabrina docked at Moreton Bay in 1865.

Moreton Bay, November 28th

The SABRINA left Liverpool on the 9th August with 278 Government Immigrants. Throughout the voyage there has been much sickness on board. There have been ten deaths in all, four children and six adults. Four of the deaths were from typhus fever, and one from smallpox of a virulent character. There were three cases of typhus fever reported to be still on board and the vessel of course, has been quarantined. Fresh provisions, vegetables and fruit have been sent down to the ship. There seems to have been some complaints of bad provisions on board ‌

1. Use a dictionary to look up the underlined words in the news item. Why was the Sabrina put into quarantine when it arrived at Moreton Bay? ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ 2. What were conditions like on board the migrant ship Sabrina? ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________

Use the information on page 45 to answer the questions.

3. Why were assisted migrants willing to risk the long voyage to Australia? _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________

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4. How did the Australian colonies raise money for the assisted migrant scheme? _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ 46

Section 4: Australian Migrants


Activity

Assisted Passengers 2

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview.  Look at this list of people from Ireland who were affected by the Potato Famine. Consult an atlas to find the locations of the Irish counties. Name Age Patrick Deegan 24 Michael Dillan 36 John O’Neill 23 Patrick Scullion 15 Bridget Kelly 34 Eliza Payne 20 Mary Yates 31

County Galway Clare Wicklow Clare Louth Kilkenny Wexford

Marital status Single Married, 6 children Single Single Widow, 3 children Single Married

Occupation Labourer Carpenter Herdsman Labourer Servant Servant Servant

 Write a letter from one of the people on the list applying to migrate to Australia under the assisted migrant scheme. Convince Mr Truro, the employers’ agent in London, that you are a good candidate for assisted migration. Read the descriptions of the types of people colonial employers were looking for on page 45 to help you. ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________

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___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________

Section 4: Australian Migrants

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Student Information Page

Indentured Labourers

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. Queensland became a separate colony from New South Wales in 1859. The new colony needed to develop industries to help it grow economically. Sugar cane had been produced successfully in northern New South Wales for some time so the Queensland government supplied large tracts of land to farmers for sugar cane production.

INDENTURED LABOUR An indentured worker was brought to Australia under contract to work for an employer for a set period of time, usually one to three years, they then had to return to their islands. The South Sea Islanders were paid about 10 shillings a month. They were given food rations and basic lodgings on the cane farms.

Even before transportation to the Australian colonies ended in 1868, pastoralists were finding it difficult to find labourers to work on their properties. Farmers proposed that convict transportation should be brought back. It was first suggested that Indians could be brought in to work. Then a solution much closer to home was found - South Sea Islanders from Vanuatu, Samoa, Papua New Guinea and the Torres Strait would be employed as indentured labourers to clear land and cut the cane. A group of sugar cane farmers took it upon themselves to bring South Sea Islanders to the colony to work. There were concerns about how some sugar cane growers had contracted the South Sea Islanders. It was known that slavetraders operated in the South Pacific. They obtained workers by luring them aboard ships and kidnapping them. To stop kidnapping, the Polynesian Labour Act became law in 1868. This required ships’ captains to carry a document signed by a British consul stating that the South Sea Islanders had come to work of their own free will. From 1863 to 1904 about 60,000 South Sea Islanders were brought to the Australian colonies. The Islanders soon became expert in all areas of sugar production. The introduction of mechanical cane cutters at the end of the 19th century put an end to the need for indentured workers. Most of the South Sea Islanders returned to their island homes, but some decided to stay and make a new life in Australia. The South Sea Islanders’ Contribution to Australian Life Indentured workers from the South Sea Islands played an important role in the development of Queensland in the 1800s. South Sea Islanders contributed to: -----

48

the establishment of a prosperous sugar cane industry in Queensland; the development of the grazing, timber, mining and pearling industries; the building of railway and telegraph networks; the multicultural heritage of Australia.

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Activity

Indentured Labourers

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. 1. How were working conditions for an “indentured worker” different to those of other workers in the Australian colonies? _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ 2. Why was the Polynesian Labour Act of 1868 passed into law in Queensland? _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________  Read this extract from a letter by J.F. Kelsey to the editor of the Sydney Morning Herald (March 16th 1869). Answer the questions. "….the South Seas’ natives are admirably adapted for farm labour; they work with comfort and profit to themselves and to the satisfaction of their employers. I would not stay a month in this country if I did not have this labour and I know this is the feeling of many others who are farming in North Queensland. I have always found the white men in my service pleased with the natives and the assistance given by them in the more tedious and laborious parts of the work. I never keep either “crawlers” or “skulkers” on my grounds as I know that class of man is opposed to the employment of the island boys. I hear that many of the natives who returned to their islands have come back to Queensland. That in itself speaks volumes.”

3. According to Mr. Kelsey, what were the South Sea Islanders like as workers? ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ 4. Why did the author say, “I would not stay a month in this country if I did not have this labour”? ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ 5. Who did not approve of the South Sea Islanders working in Queensland? Suggest a reason why. ___________________________________

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___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________

Section 4: Australian Migrants

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Student Information Page

Muslim Cameleers

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. Early inland explorers like Edward John Eyre, Robert Burke and William Wills experienced problems in crossing Australia’s huge interior. Horses and mules were not ideally suited to carry supplies for explorers over the pebbled plains and high sand dunes. They needed water regularly and became easily exhausted in the intense heat.

It was suggested that camels could be the key to unlocking the secrets and fortunes of Australia’s inland. In 1840 camels brought from Afghanistan and British India were given a trial in desert expeditions. This trial was so successful that between 1870 and 1900, more than 15,000 camels were imported. To look after the camels, 2,000 Afghan and British Indian cameleers were offered three-year contracts to train and work with Australia’s new desert transport. The cameleers spoke different languages from their home regions but they shared the Islam religion.

Making Progress in Australia Camel transport helped to develop the Australian colonies in many ways. Camel trains carried supplies for: -- exploration expeditions – explorers using camel transport discovered large inland areas suitable for agriculture and farming; -- the Overland Telegraph – completed in 1872, the telegraph line connected Port Augusta in South Australia with Darwin. The telegraph line made it faster for Australia to contact the rest of the world; -- railway construction – The Ghan railway, named in honour of the cameleers, ran from Port Augusta to Alice Springs, making it easier to transport people and goods; -- mining and wool companies – transported ore and wool to markets; -- stations and indigenous communities – cameleers transported supplies and brought news to people living in remote communities and livestock stations. When the railway network across Australia improved, camel transport was phased out. The majority of cameleers returned home to their families. Some married Indigenous Australians and European colonists and remained in Australia. The cameleers were Muslims. Australia’s oldest mosque was built by Afghans and Indians around 1891 in Broken Hill, New South Wales.

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Section 4: Australian Migrants


Activity

Muslim Cameleers

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. 1. Why were cameleers offered contracts to work in Australia?

_______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ 2. How did the Muslim cameleers help to improve communications in Australia?

_______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ ď ą Use the image of cameleers visiting a remote property (about 1885) and the information on page 50 to answer the questions.

State Library Of Victoria

3. Describe what the people are doing in this scene. How do the different people react to the cameleers’ visit? __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ 4. Did the cameleers adapt well to outback life? Give a reason for your answer. __________________________________________________________________

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__________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ Section 4: Australian Migrants

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Activity

Australian Migrants

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. RR Read the poem by Henry Lawson entitled An Australian Advertisement. It’s about the type of migrant Lawson felt Australia needed. Then answer the questions. WE WANT the man who will lead the van, the man who will pioneer. We have no use for the gentleman, or the cheating Cheap-Jack here. We have no room for the men who shirk the sweat of the brow. Condemn the men who are frightened to look for work and funk when it looks for them. We’ll honour the man who can’t afford to wait for a job that suits, but sticks a swag on his shoulders broad and his feet in blucher boots, and tramps away o’er the ridges far and over the burning sand to look for work where the stations are in the lonely Western land.

1. Highlight in the poem the positive qualities a man migrating to Australia should have. In a different colour highlight the type of man that Australia has “no room for”.

2. Write down words or phrases from the poem that suggest Australia can be a tough place in which to live. __________________________________ __________________________________ __________________________________

He’ll brave the drought and he’ll brave the rain, and fight his sorrows down, and help to garden the inland plain and build the inland town. And he’ll be found in the coming years with a heart as firm and stout, an honoured man with the pioneers who lead the people out.

__________________________________ __________________________________ 3. What kinds of jobs are mentioned in the poem? __________________________________ __________________________________ __________________________________ __________________________________ __________________________________

4. The poet didn’t mention the type of women that Australia needed in the 1800s. What qualities do you think pioneer women would have needed?

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Section 4: Australian Migrants


This is a Ready-Ed Publications' Section 5: book preview. Great Australians

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Student Information Page

Caroline Chisholm (1808-1877)

Caroline Jones was born in England in 1808. She could have had a comfortable life after marrying Captain Archibald Chisholm in 1832. Instead, she wanted to right wrongs wherever she found them. When Archibald and Caroline were stationed in Madras, India, they set up a school for the daughters of European soldiers.

During the voyage to New South Wales in 1838, Mrs Chisholm experienced first-hand Portrait of Caroline Chisholm the appalling conditions on board for young girls migrating to Australia. Things did not improve after arriving in the colony – many of the girls had nowhere to live, no employment and no prospects for the future. Caroline took girls into her own home and rolled up her sleeves to raise support and funds to establish a Female Immigrants’ Home. In the short space of two years, Caroline had found jobs for more than 1,000 young women. Her employment agency also demanded contracts for the girls with agreed working conditions and pay so that they could not be mistreated by employers. Caroline and Archibald were the parents of nine children. In Mrs Chisholm’s mind, family and faith were the base of a civilised society. Thousands of men had migrated or been transported to the Australian colonies without their families. The Chisholms returned to England in 1846 to find a way to reunite families of former convicts and promote Australia as an ideal destination for hard-working people.

Chisholms’ Other Achievements -- In 1849 Caroline helped to set up the Family Colonisation Loan Society in England. The Society provided loans to enable families to migrate to Australia. Help was also given to find employment. -- By the 1850s, the Chisholms had helped thousands of poorer migrants, mostly from Ireland, to make new lives in Australia. She campaigned to get cheap farming land for these migrants. This did not please the powerful squatters, who did not want to share their land holdings. -- Caroline fought tirelessly for the improvement of conditions on migrant ships. Her efforts saw the passing of the Passenger Act of 1852 into British law. -- In 1857 Caroline arranged shelters to be built for gold miners in Victoria. Caroline Chisholm died in England in 1877. Her work to give opportunities and hope to women and migrants has been commemorated on bank notes and stamps and in the many institutions in Britain and Australia which bear her name.

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Section 5: Great Australians

National Library of Australia

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview.


Activity

Caroline Chisholm 1

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. 1. Study the image of Caroline Chisholm on page 54. What impression do you get of Mrs Chisholm’s feelings toward Australia and her work?

_______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ 2. Use the information on page 54 to construct and annotate a timeline for Caroline’s life’s work.

3. Give two examples of how the Chisholms’ religious faith and love of family might have influenced the work that they did in the Australian colonies. Example 1________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________

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Example 2________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ Section 5: Great Australians

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Activity

Caroline Chisholm 2

RR Read this letter that Mrs Chisholm wrote to the Sydney Morning Herald in 1843.

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. Gentlemen, Having no funds to pay for advertisements, I rely on your usual courtesy to me to give this letter publicity. The office conducted by me in Bent Street will re-open on Monday next, the 25th, the hours of attendance will be from 10a.m to 4p.m. On each engagement a charge of one shilling will be made to the employer; no fee will be charged to the servant. I need not state that my efforts to introduce labour into the interior of the colony will be of no use if I cannot obtain free transport for all servants who may be employed, and I must, therefore request that the country settlers will have the goodness to permit me to send a few persons by each of their return drays. I have to further request that all parties writing to me for servants will be particular in paying the postage of their letters as well as giving an accurate description of the sort of servants required and the wages they will give. In conclusion, I beg to state that I shall spare neither time nor trouble, and that both employment offices will be kept open as long as they appear to be necessary. Your obedient servant, Caroline Chisholm

1. Why did Mrs Chisholm write to the editor of the Sydney Morning Herald? _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ 2. Fill in the table with evidence in the letter that tells you that: Mrs Chisholm did not have much money

Mrs Chisholm was asking for help

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Section 5: Great Australians


Student Information Page

Louisa Lawson (1848-1920)

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. Against the Odds in Sydney

Louisa was determined to provide a better life for her children in Sydney. As well as running a boarding house, Louisa washed and sewed for other people to make ends meet. Life turned out to be a struggle in Sydney. However, Louisa’s world was changing. She met people from all walks of life and became interested in politics, the role of women in society and fighting poverty. She continued to write poetry and prose – a passion which she shared with her eldest son, the poet Henry Lawson.

LIFE IN THE BUSH

Louisa Albury was born on a farm near Mudgee New South Wales in 1848. She loved school but often stayed at home to look after the 10 younger children in the family. When she was 18 she married Peter Lawson. Louisa spent the next few years on the goldfields at Grenfell with her husband.

Peter Lawson was often away from home. He worked as a station hand and travelled around. At times he returned to the goldfields to try his luck. Louisa was left to raise four children on a small farm with little money or help. To support her family, Louisa looked after cattle, opened a store and ran a post office at Eurunderee.

With the little money she had saved, Louisa bought shares in a small newspaper called Republican that supported federation of the Australian After a severe drought, Louisa made a colonies. Louisa and Henry wrote articles decision. She would take her children to for the paper and learned about the Sydney and start a new life away from publishing business. In 1888 Louisa the bush and its hardships. In 1883 Peter launched her own women’s magazine and Louisa went their separate ways. The Dawn using only female labour. She said her magazine would fight for women’s rights, particularly the right for women to vote. It was a very successful magazine that ran for 17 years and was sold not only in Australia, but also overseas.

Louisa Lawson’s Other Achievements National Library of Australia

-- Louisa was interested in women’s health and held meetings in her house to educate women about healthy lifestyles. -- She was a keen supporter of the temperance movement, which campaigned for moderation in alcohol consumption. Drunkenness was seen as a threat to the family and the development of society. -- Louisa Lawson has been called the “mother of suffrage (the Portrait of Louisa Lawson, ca. 1880 right to vote) in New South Wales.” When the vote was granted to Australian women in 1902, Louisa had seen one of her life-long dreams come true – women taking a more active and independent role in Australian society.

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Activity

Louisa Lawson 1

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' Question 1  book preview. 1. Write down four questions that you would like to ask Louisa Lawson about her early life in the bush. _ ______________________________________________________

Question 2 _______________________________________________________ Question 3 _ ______________________________________________________ Question 4 _______________________________________________________ Interview “Louisa Lawson” on the hot seat with your questions. Take notes on Louisa’s answers on the back of this sheet. 2. Find two events in Louisa’s early life in the bush that show she cared deeply for her family. Event 1_ _________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ Event 2_ _________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ 3. Louisa Lawson worked hard to bring changes to the lives of women in Australian society. Choose two of Louisa’s actions and explain how these actions show that she had leadership qualities. Example 1________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________

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Example 2________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ 58

Section 5: Great Australians


Activity

Louisa Lawson 2

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. RR Read the poem Sunset written by Louisa Lawson, then complete the tasks below. 1. Check the meaning of the underlined words in the poem with a dictionary.

2. Take turns reading the poem aloud to a partner then discuss your opinions about the poem. I love at eve to wander alone upon the hills, while nature, with her myst’ries, my soul with wonder fills. A king in robes of crimson and ermine seeking rest, the sun in golden splendour, sinks in the solemn west. His grandeur awes and thrills me. I kneel upon the sod, bow down my head and worship his mighty Maker – God.

3. What is the sunset compared to? _________________________________________ _________________________________________ 4. How does the sunset make the poet feel? _________________________________________ _________________________________________ _________________________________________

RR Read Louisa’s views on women’s health printed in The Dawn (July 1889). “It has come to be believed that corsets are really necessary due to the support and bracing together of a woman; are women when grown so limp and invertebrate? If anyone is unable to remain perpendicular without a steel waistcoat it is clear that the muscles responsible for her natural support have had no opportunity to develop.” “If husbands when they return home ask their wives what they have had to eat in their absence, ninety in every hundred replies would be – “tea and bread-and-butter.” This may tend towards spirituality and the maintenance of that “dear delicate little woman” variety of the “clinging” species so prized by some men, but the world would be none the worse, for a more robust, healthier, stronger type of woman, nor should we be sorry if we could see the tea merchants transformed into market gardeners and the milliners driven into the food supply trade.” Copyright poem + article : http://setis.

library.usyd.edu.au (Lawson Np00062)

Wikimedia Commons

What advice was Louisa offering to her female readers?

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__________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ Section 5: Great Australians

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Student Information Page

Indigenous Guides and Trackers

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. The early settlers in Australia found themselves in a place that was very different to the European continent. It was a place, according to Adam Lindsay Gordon, where, “bright blossoms are scentless and songless birds bright". The bush could be a dangerous place filled with strange animals and dark silence. Settlers observed the remarkable bush knowledge and skills of Indigenous Australians. Their ability to find water and food in the desert and track missing people in the rugged country became legendary in Australia.

Indigenous Guides The First Australians had a deep knowledge of the land, built up over many hundreds of generations. When the colonists arrived, they wanted to explore the continent to discover agricultural land and mineral deposits. Explorers soon realised that they could not do this without the help of Indigenous Australian guides.

Successful Expeditions -- Mokare was a Nyungar man who accompanied various explorers in the early days of settlement in the Albany area of Western Australia. In 1821, Mokare guided Phillip Parker King on his expedition to King George Sound. Mokare informed the military garrison in Albany about indigenous customs and beliefs. This resulted in a peaceful relationship between the groups. -- Edward John Eyre and Wylie, his indigenous guide, made an epic trek across the Nullabor Plain from Fowler’s Bay to Albany (1840-41). Both men almost died from starvation and heat in the desert, but Wylie’s bush skills were an important factor in keeping them alive to complete this incredible journey.

Indigenous Trackers The bush skills of Indigenous Australians were also put to use in tracking fugitive convicts, criminals and bushrangers. Trackers were called in to search for people who had become lost in the bush. On many occasions, trackers were able to locate missing people in a few hours by reading the “signs” in the forest or desert. Some famous trackers in the 1800s were: -- Mogo and Mollydobbin, who, in 1834 tracked various missing persons in the Fremantle area of Western Australia. -- Djungadjinganook or “King Richard” who tracked the missing Duff children in 1864 near Natimuk in western Victoria. He found them safe after 9 days. -- Wannamutta and Werannabe who were instrumental in tracking Ned Kelly to the final showdown at Glenrowan in 1880.

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Section 5: Great Australians


Activity

Indigenous Guides and Trackers 1

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. RR Read page 60 and answer the following questions:

1. Explain why the Australian bush for the first settlers was a place where, “blossoms are scentless and songless birds bright”.

_______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ 2. Discuss this question with a partner then make a list. Why might it have been easy for early settlers to become lost in the bush? _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ 3. Use your knowledge of Indigenous Australians to help you complete this table of bush skills that would have been useful to early explorers. Some examples have been given to start you off. Finding Water

Obtaining Food

• Observed the flight of birds

Making Shelters

Using Bush Resources • Tea tree oil for antiseptic

4. Why did indigenous guides and trackers have such a thorough knowledge of the territory in which they lived?

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_______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ Section 5: Great Australians

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Activity

Indigenous Guides and Trackers 2

This is a Ready-Ed Publications' book preview. RR Study the illustration by Samuel Calvert (1891) and read the extract from Edward John Eyre’s journal about his trek with Wylie to Albany in 1840.

State Library of Victoria

May 18th - THIS morning we had to travel upon a soft heavy beach, and moved slowly and with difficulty along, and three of the horses were continually attempting to lie down on the road. At twelve miles, we found some nice green grass, and although we could not procure water here, I determined to halt for the sake of the horses. The weather was cool and pleasant. Having seen some large kangaroos near our camp, I sent Wylie with the rifle to try and get one. At dark he returned bringing home a young one, Eyre’s Journey to Albany large enough for two good meals; upon this we feasted at night, and for once Wylie admitted that his belly was full. He commenced by eating a pound and a half of horse-flesh, and a little bread, he then ate the entrails, paunch, liver, lights, tail, and two hind legs of the young kangaroo, next followed a penguin, that he had found dead upon the beach, upon this he forced down the whole of the hide of the kangaroo after singeing the hair off, and wound up this meal by swallowing the tough skin of the penguin; he then made a little fire, and laid down to sleep, and dream of the pleasures of eating, nor do I think he was ever happier in his life than at that moment.

1. How does the artist show that the journey to Albany had been hard on Eyre and Wylie? _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ 2. What problems were the explorers experiencing at this stage of their journey? _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ 3. Do you think that Eyre could have completed this journey without Wylie? Give reasons with your answer. _______________________________________________________________________

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_______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________

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Section 5: Great Australians


Answers

p.7 Teacher to check map: Georgia in North America, Bermuda, Ghana, the Andaman Islands and Singapore. 1. New South Wales 2. To separate criminals from the general population; transportation was a deterrent to committing crimes; so convicts would not return to Britain. 3. Convict labour helped to develop the Australian colonies; Britain could use the colony’s resources. 4. Orphans would not be an economic burden on the state; they could build a better life in Australia. p.9 Convict numbers were rapidly increasing in Sydney; repeat offenders could be separated; to stop the French from establishing a colony in the south; to use timber resources to build ships. 1. Poor soils would not grow crops; convicts escaped; free settlers had no confidence in the young Lt. Bowen. 2. The French observed indigenous culture and sketched the fauna and flora. 3. To provide fresh food for other visiting sailors; as a legacy to the local indigenous people. p.11 1. The words that the poet uses create an atmosphere of cruelty and misery and paint Macquarie Harbour as a grey, lifeless place. 2. It was isolated from the mainland and difficult to reach; surrounded by rugged bush land. 3. No. The convicts are gardening and are not sentenced to hard labour in chain gangs. 4. The penal stations were on small islands – convicts would have to swim through rough waters (with sharks). p.12 1. Animals in the rugged mountains would have been difficult to catch or hunt. The convicts would not know if plants were edible. 2. The police did not believe that he was a cannibal. 3. It was a shocking, sensational story about an isolated, little known part of the world. p.14 Penal stations: Port Macquarie, Norfolk Island, Emu Plains, Toongabbie, Castle Hill, Moreton Bay. 1. His parents and girlfriend. 2. Wore leg irons, flogged until his back bled. 3. Plentiful food supply, fresh water supply, good farming land, isolated from civil population. 4. Criminals sent to Moreton Bay were dangerous. p.17 1. More farming land meant more food production and opportunities to establish farms over the Blue Mountains. 2. He could have guided the party on tracks that Indigenous Australians used to regularly cross the mountains; helped to find food; could have helped prevent attacks from other Indigenous Australians. 3. Proclamation should include: good farming land, plentiful water, thinly wooded (less clearing); supply of convict labour; road built over the mountains. p.19 1. Convicts built roads, houses and cleared lands for pastures. 2. Wealthy landowner: Georgian-style built from quality materials, roomy, shady verandah, servants’ quarters, workers’ cottages. Farmer: built from local materials (wattle and daub), small, earthen floors. p.21 1. Student’s opinion. Most of the games mentioned are still played in one form or another today. 2. Student’s opinion. Modern toys are more intricate, interactive and not home-made. 3. Clothes were handmade which took time; cloth was imported and was quite expensive. Clothes needed to last a long time. 4. Children’s clothes were smaller versions of adult clothing. Children were dressed formally. Boys wore suits and girls wore tight-fitting long dresses. 5. Student’s opinion. Formal dress would not be well-suited to an outdoor, pioneer life in a warm climate. p.23

2. Fur from animals for blankets, clothes; caves and ledges for shelter; plants for bush medicines. 3. Bushcraft skills including hunting and gathering food, Dreaming stories, giving children responsibilities in the community. p. 25 Settlers planted willows as windbreaks on farms; willow roots matted along river banks; platypus couldn’t build burrows; cattle gathered in large numbers around billabongs to drink; plants and small trees trampled; loss of habitat for insects, animals and birds; the practice of fire-stick farming was stopped by settlers; bush grew more thickly; dry bush burnt during bush fires. 1. The Wiradjuri did not recognise the settlers’ ownership of the land. Sacred sites were on settlers’ properties. 2. Introduced species of plants and animals can harm the environment and upset the ecological balance; controlled burning and clearing of bush can prevent bush fires. p.27 Difficulties: getting up at two in the morning to go to work; climbing over rocks; working in cold, wet weather; crowded conditions. 1. No. “I am very well contented with what I am doing.” 2. Student’s opinion. 3. Gold fever drove people to frenzy and the governor was afraid the convicts would revolt and head off to the goldfields. 4. The Cobb & Co. Coach company made its headquarters in Bathurst; the railway was extended to Bathurst. p.30 Nyungar needs: food, shelter, access to fresh water, access to sacred sites, freedom to move around territory. Settlers' needs: land to grow food, materials to build homes, pasture and water for livestock, fences to keep livestock from straying. 1. The root of the problem was the dislocation of the Nyungar from their ancient home that provided their daily needs. 2. Student’s opinion. 3. Retaliation for the attack on Nesbitt; to force the Nyungar from the Pinjarra area so it could be occupied by Thomas Peel and other settlers. p.32 Annotation: most of Sydney’s farming land had been occupied by settlers by 1820; it was dangerous to settle outside the 250 kilometre limit because settlers could be attacked by convicts, bushrangers or Indigenous Australians; settlers moved further inland to claim large areas of land for their cattle and sheep; for £10 squatters could buy a licence that gave them permission to settle outside the limit. 1. The pastoralists were wealthy, influential citizens who wanted more free land; there were not enough police to stop people. 2. The new settlements in Victoria and South and Western Australia; the discovery of gold and other precious metals; the success of the sheep industry. 3. The merino sheep adapted well to the low-rainfall country; availability of large tracts of land at no cost. p.34

Diet

gR rlin Da

R

R

Leisure

gh rea

Reading, playing board games, making wooden toys, gem and rock collecting, swimming.

tle

Listening to Dreaming stories, playing games with natural objects from the environment.

s Ca

Preserved meat, bread, tea and sugar, alcohol, hunted wildlife.

an R

Varied fresh food hunted and collected from local area.

1829-1830

Bog

Settlers Permanent dwellings made from timber, stone or brick / Farmers also used local materials.

1828-1829

uarie

Wiradjuri Temporary huts made from branches and bark; caves and over-hanging rock ledges.

Macquarie Marshes Maq

Shelter

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Bathurst Lachlan R

Sydney

Murrumbidgee R

Mur

ray R

Lake Alexandrina

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1. The waterways provided an important transport system for the goods produced in remote areas. 2. Student’s interpretation. p.36 1. PLUS: interest in natural sciences, interest in indigenous culture, spoke various languages. MINUS: no experience in leading expeditions, young, had only been in Australia for two years. 2. Poor orientation and map skills meant he frequently got

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lost; horses drowned in river; inexperience with river crossings. Indigenous Australians attacked party for trespassing on sacred sites or hunting grounds. 3. Open the country to colonisation; produce from York Peninsula could be transported from Darwin; cattle could be driven to Darwin for export and be fattened in the Gulf Country. 4. Student’s theory might include attack from Indigenous Australians, mutiny by expedition members, accident. p.38 (1) The fleece was sorted into 110 kilogram bales. (2) Transported to rivers ports by drays. (3) Bales stacked in wool stores until boat’s arrival. (4) River boats transported bales to ports. (5) Clippers transported wool overseas. (6) Steam railways were to become a faster form of transportation. 1. With cranes (pulleys). 2. The water level of the river is quite low. 3. People waiting for mail, to pick up visitors or boat passengers. p.40 BRITAIN: fleece from Australia was made into goods that were sold all over the world; provided factory jobs for the British. AUSTRALIA: provided money to develop the colonies (roads, bridges, schools, transport networks); provided jobs; attracted more people to migrate. 1. The farm had the capacity to double its production; wool was sold at a good price; cash sale only. 2. Buyers came from as far away as Japan; Europeans set up offices to buy wool in Australia. 3.  The expression means that the Australian economy relied heavily on the wool industry. p.42 Pastoralists’ case: freedom to choose shearers; to dismiss workers not up to employers’ standards; shearers to negotiate working hours. Shearers’ case: employment of union labour only; better pay; better working conditions in the shearing sheds. p.43 1. Student’s opinion. 2. Many striking shearers were hungry and penniless; pastoralists found non-union labour to do the shearing. Possible consequences: civil war might have broken out; the strikers could have been arrested; more properties might have been destroyed; the growth of the wool industry could have been affected. p.46 1. To prevent the typhus and smallpox from spreading into the general population. 2. Cramped conditions (278 people); complaints of poor food; existence of contagious diseases (possibly from contaminated water). 3. To flee from the problems in Europe and to make a better life for themselves in Australia. 4. By auctioning Crown Land. p.49 1. Indentured workers were employed for a set time then they were expected to return home. Pay was particularly low and they usually lived on their employer’s farm. 2. To try to stamp out the practice of kidnapping South Sea Islanders to work on sugar cane farms. 3. The South Sea Islanders adapted well to the work and employers were satisfied. 4. Farmers could not find other workers to labour on the sugar farms and therefore, the farms would fail. 5. The author suggests that lazy men resented the hard working Islanders. p.51 1. To handle and train the camels brought to Australia for inland exploration. 2. They helped to build telegraph and railway networks. The camels transported supplies and materials to remote areas. 3. The station owner seems to be listening to news, another man is interested in the goods the cameleer is selling, the indigenous child appears a little wary of the visitors (as does the horse). 4. The homelands of the cameleers had similar hot, dry climates. The cameleers probably enjoyed the freedom of travelling by camel from place to place. p.52 1. Positive qualities: lead the van, pioneer, can’t afford to wait for a job that suits, to look for work where stations are, he’ll brave the drought..and rains, help to garden … and build, with a heart as firm and stout. Negative qualities: gentlemen, Cheap-Jack, men who shirk the sweat of the brow, condemned men who are frightened to look for work. 2. “tramps over the ridges,” "over the burning sands", “in the lonely Western land,” brave the drought and rain..” 3. Farmers, labourers, builders. 4. Student’s opinion.

p.55 1. Sitting at her desk with the map of Australia in the background, Caroline Chisholm appears content as she works. 2. Timeline to include: 1838-arrived in New South Wales and set up employment agency for women. 1846-returned to England to promote Australia as a migrant destination. 1849-Family Colonisation Loan Society. 1852-Passenger Act. 1857-shelters for miners on Victorian goldfields. 3. Chisholm wanted young women to have opportunities in New South Wales and protect them from employers who might exploit them; Chisholm wanted to reunite families in Australia. p.56 1. Caroline Chisholm wanted the editor to publish her letter because she could not afford to pay for advertisements. The editor had helped her in the past. 2. Mrs Chisholm did not have much money: could not afford to pay for advertisements; could not afford to pay for postage on letters. Mrs Chisholm was asking for help: she asked for free transport on drays for servants travelling to the country areas to take up work; she wanted accurate descriptions of the sort of servants required and the wages they would be paid; she wanted to keep her employment office free of charge for servants seeking work. p.58 2. Louisa Lawson looked after her family when her husband was away looking for work; she raised cattle, ran a store and a post office to support her family; she looked after her 10 younger brothers and sisters before she married. 3. Lawson founded her own magazine and employed only women to run it; she held meetings at her house to inform women about health issues; she campaigned for the right to vote for women in a society dominated by men. p.59 3. A king in crimson robes 4. The poet feels thrilled and in awe of the beautiful sunset and gives thanks to God. ADVICE: don’t wear corsets because they stop the muscles from developing properly; eat more; strong, healthy women are what is needed in this world, not “dear, delicate” little ones. p.61 1. The Australian plants and animals were different to those of Europe. Flowers had no smell and brightly coloured birds did not sing sweetly, but squawked. 2. There were wide open spaces without roads or settlements; the bush was thick and dark; people wandered deep into the bush to explore and became lost. 3. Finding water: followed animal tracks, looked where vegetation grew, carried digging sticks. Obtaining food: hunting and collecting skills, knowledge of edible bush tucker, use of hunting tools. Making shelters: building simple bark huts, knowledge of location of caves, rock ledges. Using bush resources: making artefacts for carrying food and water, making blankets, clothes from animal fur, making string or rope from fibres. 4.  Indigenous Australians were taught from an early age about the landscape of their territories. The Dreaming stories passed on vital information about how to survive in harsh conditions. p.62 1. The explorers’ clothes are tattered and they are quite thin. The horses appear exhausted. 2. The horses were tired and wanted to lie down; the soft sand on the beach made walking heavy-going. 3. Student’s opinion. Wylie was instrumental in obtaining food and keeping Eyre’s spirits up.

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Australian History Series: Book 5 - The Australian Colonies  

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