LiVing May/June 2015
Life . Art . Music . People
War in west Georgia Chief McIntosh
How Douglas got its name Saving our history Plus ... Mystery trees Killer tomatoes 'Talking service' with vets
... And much more!
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Li Ving Volume 5 . Issue 3 May/June 2015 Publisher Marvin Enderle firstname.lastname@example.org
Editor Ken Denney email@example.com
Advertising Melissa Wilson firstname.lastname@example.org
Photographer Ricky Stilley email@example.com
Design Richard Swihart firstname.lastname@example.org
Contributors Keri Adams, W. Jeff Bishop,Taylor Boltz, Lisa Land Cooper,Bob Coval, Rob Duvé, Rebecca Leftwich, Ann McCleary, Blynne Olivieri, Josh Sewell, Marilyn Van Pelt
F r om the E d itor Dear Readers: This issue focuses on the incredible and diverse history of west Georgia, from the Creek and Cherokee nations, to the Civil War and the development of our region into an industrial powerhouse. Those who live here, whether we are recent arrivals or descendants of pioneer families, are the shared inheritors of how previous generations shaped west Georgia’s history. There is much to celebrate about the past, even as we look to the future. We are proud of the stories we have gathered for you this issue, because some of the best experts in our community have written them. For example, Jeff Bishop is one of our area’s leading experts on American Indian history, and he tells us the gripping story of the assassination of William McIntosh, a Creek leader who was punished by his own people. Ann McCleary and Keri Adams of the Center for Public History at the University of West Georgia have spent years looking at Haralson County’s textile history, and they tell the story of our region’s clothing industry, with a special focus on a family named Sewell. Also, Lisa Land Cooper, who blogs about Douglas County history, reveals some hidden stories about Douglas’ past – including how a fistfight helped determine the location of the county seat!
But that’s not all. Blynne Olivieri, head of special collections at UWG, tells how the university library locates and preserves precious artifacts of our past. Also, Rebecca Leftwich takes a look at Tanner Grocery, one of the oldest businesses in Carroll County, still run by the original family. And of course we tell the story of west Georgia’s role in the Civil War, including the four times that federal cavalry raided into our region. There was a skirmish fought on the Coweta-Carroll county border, and women factory workers near modern Douglasville were exiled to the north.. And Ricky Stilley takes us along to Chickamauga battlefield in northwest Georgia, where history was made on a bloody afternoon in September, 1863. There’s plenty more in this issue even if you’re not a history buff. Rob Duvé prepares us for the arrival of tomato season with some taste-tempting recipes. And we continue our look at the great churches of west Georgia with a look at Tallapoosa Presbyterian Church. So ease back into your chair and settle in for a good, comfortable read. Sincerely,
To advertise in West Georgia Living, call Melissa Wilson at 770-834-6631. West Georgia Living is a bi-monthly publication of the Times-Georgian. Submissions, photography and ideas may be submitted to Ken Denney c/o The Times-Georgian, 901 Hays Mill Rd., Carrollton, GA 30117. Submissions will not be returned unless requested and accompanied with a self-addressed, stamped envelope. West Georgia Living reserves the right to edit any submission. Direct mail subscriptions to West Georgia Living are available for $24 a year. Copyright 2015 by the Times-Georgian
West Georgia Living
Marvin Enderle is Publisher of West Georgia Living, the Times-Georgian and the Douglas County Sentinel.
Melissa Wilson is the Advertising Director for West Georgia Living, the Times-Georgian and the Douglas County Sentinel.
Ken Denney is editor of the West Georgia Living
Ricky Stilley is the Photographer for West Georgia Living and IT Director for the TimesGeorgian.
ǡ At Southwire, we believe education is the key to success. Through partnerships with the University of West Georgia (Southwire Sustainable Business Honors Program), West Georgia Technical College (Southwire Center for Manufacturing Excellence), Carroll County Schools (12 for Life) and Carrollton High School (Southwire Engineering Academy), we are helping students build brighter futures. It’s another way we deliver power...responsibly.
C o ntents 26
48 Photos and Cover Art by Ricky Stilley. On the Cover: The early morning calm of Chickamauga battlefield in northwest Georgia is in contrast to the epic Civil War battle waged there in September, 1863
F eatures 26 You never know what surprises await when you're
40 A hero in the eyes of some, the story of Chief Mc-
34 The Civil War in west Georgia
55 Despite changing times and new technology, Tan-
saving west Georgia's past
Intosh is a little more nuanced
ner Grocery just keeps on delivering the goods
D epartments Cinema
Based on a True Story - REALLY! 11
Spring means "Killer Tomatoes"
West Georgia Living
Women Spies in the Civil War
44 Take 5
Teresa Rosche Ott
Your March - April calendar
Come By and Visit Us!
HOW DOES YOUR LAWN AND GARDEN GROW? Let’s make it better, WE CAN HELP…….
Once again Spring is upon us, the days are getting longer and on Sunday March 8th be sure to turn your clocks forward as Daylight Savings time begins, Spring Ahead! Easter is considered by many as the start date for successful planting, and Easter is a full 2 weeks earlier this year, so waiting for the soil to warm up is always a good idea for best results. Whether you are working in the garden, the yard, or on your lawn you should know the PH level of your soil and the requirements of what you are planting. This one step will have the greatest effect on saving you time, money and improving overall results. Lime, fertilizer, compost, weed control and insect prevention are basics to enhancing garden yields and the appearance of your yard and lawn. We have what you need to make the job easier and the results even better, we can help! When it comes to lawn care, here are 10 basic points to a healthy lawn: 1. Get a soil test or test on your own – the ideal PH for most grasses in Georgia is 6.5. If the PH is low, add lime. This will enhance root growth and good worms. If PH is high, add sulfur. 2. Top dress with compost; most soils are lacking organic matter needed for cycling nutrients, and helping to hold moisture. 3. Over seed liberally – most lawns never get the chance to go to seed due to frequent mowing, lawns get old, tired and thin providing the perfect opportunity for weeds to take over. 4 er 4. Water responsibly – over watering can cause root rot, most grasses can survive on less water at one time, water more frequently, monitor the amount, ideally 1/2 inch each time, at least 1 inch per week. 5 5. Mow high – depending on your type of grass, set the mower higher than lower. Cutting low causes lots of problems. 6 n 6. Aerate – an annual aeration reduces compaction; increases air, water and nutrient infiltration in to the soil. Aerating, then seeding, then top dressing is the trifecta of having a great lawn. Don’t forget to water – small amounts frequently. 7. Weeds – take care of weeds early before they germinate. Pre-‐emergent herbicides, weed and feeds or organic-‐corn gluten meal are safe around children and pets. 8. Mulch lawn clippings and leaves – mulching has two benefits – adds organic matter back to o the soil and saves time and money by not bagging or hauling away. 9. Seeding – know your soil, know the setting and select what will be best for your region. 10 10. Alternatives – if grass just won’t grow, consider ground cover plants – there are many more options to consider for tough growing areas. We invite you to come by and visit our ever-‐expanding Lawn & Garden Center. Talk with our knowledgeable staff – Cathy, Lyle, Janet, Carol, and Carl Brack. They are all eager to help you with your lawn and garden ideas and questions. We carry a wide selection of garden seeds and Burpee garden plants. Our indoor and outdoor assortments continue to grow along with our gardening, lawn care and pond care products from names you know and trust including Miracle-‐Gro, High Yield, Fertilome, Espoma, Scotts and many more. In addition, we are now your local Southern States brand dealer carrying a full line of lime, fertilizers, grass seeds, and pest control products and supplies for your home, farm or ranch. Come on by, new plants and products are arriving daily. If we don’t have what you are looking for, tell us, we will do our best to find it for you! The newness of Spring is happening here! We hope to see you soon. Your friends at Southern Home & Ranch…………
Southern HomeHome & Ranch Garden Center Southern & Ranch Center 1110 NORTH PARK STREET • CARROLLTON, GEORGIA • 770-832-0114
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HISTORY: the STORY of US
don’t teach histor y, but I have tried to explain my interest in history to others. I have seen my friends' eyes glaze over when I start to talk, a look that gradually shifts to furrowed-brow desperation, as if hoping for a fire or an earthquake – anything – that will make me stop talking. School kids first confronted with history lessons don’t have the social graces to hide what they’re really thinking. The heavy sighs of kids on the first day of a history class in west Georgia probably causes typhoons in Indonesia. “History is boring.” “Who cares about those olden times?” “Those geezers have got nothing to do with me.” That’s the mindset. That’s the reaction of most people when the subject of the past comes up. And not always the historic past, either – like what happened in World War II or the Great Depression. Start telling your kids or grandkids about the bell bottoms and platform shoes you wore back in the day, and you'll hear clacking sounds of eyes rolling around in heads. I used to be one of those kids. I remember my sixth grade geography class at Central High School in Carrollton, away back in the previous century. I remember one day when we were talking about some guy named Balboa, blah, blah, blah, who blah, blah Pacific Ocean in blah. There was a picture of him in the textbook: a real weirdo, I thought, standing in the ocean with an armored chestplate, plumed hat and some kind of funny short pants. How do you teach an 11-year-old kid about Vasco Núñez de Balboa? Do you just teach the fact that he was the first European to reach the Pacific from the New World? That’s how I
was taught. Maybe that explains why I always confused him with that “other” Vasco, Vasco de Gama, the first European to reach India by sea.
Teaching history in high school is an impossible task. Human beings have been doing things on this planet for thousands of years – how do you cram all that history into a school year already packed with other subjects? Where does it fit in with more important things, like the fact that Jacob likes Emily, who really likes Ethan? Kids are too busy with their today; they aren’t worried about what happened in someone else’s yesteryear. I think history should be taught differently in schools. Instead of focusing on key people and key dates and key events, perhaps kids should be taught the stories behind those people, dates and events. History is not so much fact as it is a story, and we all love a story. When I was in school and learned about World War II, I knew that my father and uncles had been in that war. Because those guys were much older than me, I could not help but think that the war was fought by a bunch of old guys, and so I found it very difficult to relate to them. But in later years, I started watching movies about the war – realistic movies, I mean; not the ones in which John Wayne wins the war all by himself. The actors in those films were all young, exactly the same age as my dad had been, back in the day. I realized then that people my own age had shaped those historic events.
Maybe, I began to think, I could make a little history myself someday.
Here’s the thing: history isn’t history until it is. No one knows whether something they do, or witness, is going to be important until some time has passed. And here’s another thing: history doesn’t have to shake the world. It only needs to shake you. My father was in the Navy during World War II and came home to a west Georgia that had been utterly transformed by a war fought thousands of miles away. Gone were the farms of his youth; instead he worked in the mills that replaced them. These post-war factories created a steady economy. No one here had to face disaster just because disease or a storm wiped out a crop. A steady income and a steady wage meant my father could provide a better life for his family than he had known as a child. That meant his kid – me – could go to college and earn a degree. My history would be different from his, but only because of the way history had shaped his life. All of us were either born in the United States, or we moved here. None of us had anything to do with the Declaration of Independence, the Revolution, or the founding of our nation. But our own personal history is wrapped up in the history of this country, or the history of whatever country we came from. The way we live now is a consequence of a chain of events set in motion long ago, in a direction no one then could have predicted. History isn’t the past, it is the present – and it is also the future. It is the only part of our story we can know. WGL
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Left to right: Tom Wilkinson plays President Lyndon B. Johnson and David Oyelowo plays Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. in SELMA, from Paramount Pictures, Pathé, and Harpo Films
“Based on a True Story” doesn't mean what you think S
ince the beginning of cinema, storytellers guys in a time before color film or close-ups have used movies to depict important on characters’ faces. Meanwhile, some moments in history. Australian politicians and police believed the film was dangerous because it glorified As an English teacher, I usually tell my stu- criminals. dents to avoid clichéd opening sentences like that one, but in this case it happens to be In other words, as long as the term “based true. 1906’s “The Story of the Kelly Gang,” on a true story” has been around, people credited as the world’s first surviving full- have complained about the relationship length feature, is an Australian film depicting between film and “truth.” I don’t put that word in quotation marks to get all artsy the exploits of real-life convict Ned Kelly. and philosophical, but because people’s So before there was even a film industry, expectations about biopics or historical epics directors were using the medium to convey are often flawed. their interpretations of true events. And “interpretation” is the key word; after “The Devin Faraci, one of my favorite film writers, Story of the Kelly Gang” screened in a handful recently discussed this concept. He basically of country towns, producers were forced to argues that “facts and truth are not always apologize for taking creative liberties with one and the same. In fact, facts and truth police officers’ uniforms. may sometimes be completely at odds.” If you watch a film, whether it’s a dramatized Historian Viola Tait explains this change was necessary so the audience could tell the JOSH SEWELL difference between the good guys and the bad
narrative or a documentary, you have to understand that it can never be a presentation of all the facts. That’s why the average running time of a movie isn’t 47 hours long. When a screenwriter chooses which elements in a real person’s life to depict on screen, she’s filtering out some of the facts. When a director hires an actor to portray a real person, he’s already straying away from the strictly factual. But does that affect the “truth” that the film is presenting? Not necessarily. Faraci argues that’s the definition of filmmaking. He astutely points out that “it’s all illusion. Every time the camera cuts, the truth is being manipulated.” We don’t see what people say before the crew starts rolling or after the director yells cut. But we’re trusting that filmmaker to get us through “a thicket of facts and events to arrive at a place of truth.” The same process applies to any non-fiction May/June 2015
West Georgia Living
novel you’ve ever read, from Truman Capote’s “In Cold Blood” to David McCullough’s “John Adams,” but this impossibly high standard of sticking strictly to the facts only seems to rile people up when it pertains to film. Sometimes when we place our trust in a filmmaker, he or she proves we made the right call. That’s certainly the case with Ava DuVernay and her modern classic “Selma.” The historical drama manages to entertain as well as educate, even if it does take a few liberties for dramatic effect, like depicting Martin Luther King Jr. and Lyndon Johnson’s relationship as more antagonistic than it actually was. Other times, our trust is misplaced and a filmmaker ends up damaging a person he claims to revere, even if it’s inadvertent. That’s what happens with Morten Tyldum’s “The Imitation Game.” It’s a standard, well-meaning biopic about war hero Alan Turing, but screenwriter Andrew Hodges somehow decided it was a good idea to invent fictional tension between the protagonist and a Soviet spy. He’s blackmailed into keeping the spy’s identity a secret, which might ramp up the drama, but it also means Turing commits treason. Probably not what Hodges was going for. If you kept up with awards season over the last few months, you saw how these artistic liberties affect a movie’s Oscar chances. People whose livelihoods entail understanding and interpreting film suddenly decide that they’re not playing make believe anymore and they need to stand up for capital-T truth. Granted, a lot of industry insiders clutching their pearls have agendas at play to help the particular horses they’ve got in the race. That’s why a lot of folks who were “outraged” about LBJ’s depiction in “Selma” seemed to have no problem with how Turing was portrayed in “The Imitation Game.” Or how “Foxcatcher” implied a sexual relationship between two characters that, in real life, didn’t have one. Or how “The Theory of Everything” left out some of the nastier elements of Stephen and Jane Hawking’s eventual divorce and his new marriage. “American Sniper” might’ve gotten the biggest pass of all (ridicule over that awful doll notwithstanding). It suggests that Chris Kyle’s PTSD was a quick problem, easily overcome. The film goes no further into the issue than Kyle staring at a blank television screen, or almost hurting a dog at his son’s birthday party. What might be the most fascinating element of the Navy SEAL’s story – how he ultimately overcame years of trauma and tragically died trying to help 12
West Georgia Living
"The Theory of Everything," starring Eddie Redmayne and Felicity Jones, leaves out some of the facts about the marriage of Stephen and Jane Hawking. From Focus Features. other veterans through similar circumstances – is reduced to him talking to a doctor for a few minutes and then everything’s okay. In short, “based on a true story” rarely means what you think it means. Most of the time, filmmakers aren’t journalists – they have different goals in mind with the project they’re tackling, usually revolving around the idea of telling a story in the most dramatic and entertaining way possible. And if they
need to fictionalize a few characters or tweak a timeline to help achieve that goal? Well, as Mark Twain so succinctly put it: “get your facts first, and then you can distort them as much as you please.” WGL E-mail: email@example.com Twitter: @IAmJoshSewell Facebook: facebook.com/josh8199
The Furniture House Difference... “Quaility Furniture at Affordable Prices” For over the last thirty years residents of the west Georgia area have known Scottie Jennings' familiar face at The Furniture House of Carrollton on Bankhead highway. Scottie was the owner of the local furniture store and has helped furnish many homes from lake Wedowee to Athens and especially those here in Carroll County. I, Corey Faust, have worked with Scottie for the past six years. Anything from delivery and assembling furniture to selling it, Scottie has shown me the ins and outs of what she did to run the store. Both Scottie and her husband Steve are considered family to me. Not only have they seen me grow from a college student to college graduate but also into a husband and father. Over the last year Scottie, Steve, my wife Leah and I have thrown around the idea of me buying the business. With careful consideration, we have decided to give it a go. On February second I became the owner of The Furniture House of Carrollton and on February sixth Leah and I experienced the birth of our first child. It was quite a week to say the least. We have been blessed to be able to have such a great relationship with the Jennings that would allow my family and the staff to continue to grow this company while allowing Scottie the much deserved retirement and time with her family. Scottie set the precedent with her slogan "quality furniture at affordable prices" and we are here to carry on that motto for years to come. So, even if you just bought furniture and want to look around, or if you have been sitting on that old recliner that you've just had enough of, feel free to come to our store and experience the difference. Our staff members are eager to meet and help new customers and to continue helping already formed relationships with previous customers. With this being said, I personally, along with my staff, invite everyone to come and experience The Furniture House difference. From new upholstery lines, such as Klaussner and Paula Deen, to our new Americas mattress gallery, we are looking forward to providing the greater Carrollton area with great furniture at affordable prices. Come let us fill your house at the furniture house with the local small town customer service on quality furniture at great prices. - Written in his own words - Corey Faust / The Furniture House
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hurches OF West Georgia
TALLAPOOSA PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH
West Georgia Living
The sanctuary of Tallapoosa Presbyterian Church was built in January 1892, but church members found its location inconvenient. So, in December 1905, the building was moved to its present site at the interstection of Head Avenue and Taliaferro Street. The sanctuary has seen a few additions over the years, including beautiful stained glass windows.
PHOTOS BY RICKY STILLEY May/June 2015
West Georgia Living
y r o t s i H
ave you ever wondered about the origin of the name “Douglas” in Douglas County and Douglasville? As it turns out, that is a really good question – one of many surrounding this history of this suburban county.
Both the Carl Vinson Institute of Government at the University of West Georgia, and the historical marker in front of the old Douglas County Courthouse on Broad Street, say the county was named for U.S. Senator Stephen Douglas, who ran against Abraham Lincoln in the 1860 presidential campaign. “Celebrate Douglas,” the web portal for Douglas County’s government, has another story, stating: “Douglas County … was first named for Fredrick Douglass … due to the Republican/military control of the Georgia General Assembly, and later changed to honor Stephen A. Douglas … when local control of the General Assembly was re-established when Reconstruction ended.”
J.M. Roberts' Store is home to Precedence, Inc., today. Photo courtesy of City Archives. egation was formed to petition the General Assembly for a new county. That delegation included Ephraim Pray, John C. Bowden, and John A. Wilson, and they managed to get Dr. W.S. Zellers, the representative from Campbell County, to prepare a bill regarding the new county’s organization. The tricky part would be what to name it.
So, which is it? Was there an enclave of strong Unionists west of Atlanta who chose to make a stance by naming a Reconstruction-era county after Frederick Douglass, the The pro-county delegation wanted to honor African-American spokesman for Abolition? Stephan A. Douglas, who had led a very fractured Democratic party in the 1860 presidential election, opposing Republican Since I started researching and writing candidate Abraham Lincoln. Yet during the about Douglas County, I have discovered many interesting stories. The story of Doug- Reconstruction era of the 1870s, the Georgia Legislature had a Republican majority, conlas’ name is the most interesting by far. sisting of a large number of carefully placed Northern “carpetbaggers” and former slaves. The delegation knew it would be easier for The Ruse to Name a County Zellers’ bill to pass if they let the General Assembly think the new county would be Prior to 1870, Douglas County was part of named for Frederick Douglass. Campbell County, the county seat of which was Fairburn, located south of the ChatThe ruse worked. On October 17, 1870, the tahoochee River. To do any town business, folks on the north side of the river would have to travel 20 miles or more by horseback LISA LAND COOPER or wagon, which they disliked – so a del16
West Georgia Living
Legislature issued an act creating Douglas County from a portion of Campbell, and named former delegates Pray and Bowden, along with John M. James, W.N. McGouirk, and J.H. Winn as the first commissioners. Over the next few years, as Reconstruction ended and the General Assembly returned to Democratic hands, officials in Douglas County would quietly remove the extra “S” from the county’s name and state publically the connection with Stephen Douglas. For many years, the only documentation cited in backing up the “ruse story” has been a letter written in 1930 by Moses McKoy Smith, and which Fannie Mae Davis refers to in her book “Douglas County: From Indian Trail to Interstate 20.” Smith served as mayor of Douglasville in 1882, as state representative from 1884-1885, and had practiced law in the community for over 30 years. His father had first-hand knowledge of the delegation’s intent. I’ve not seen the letter myself, but everything I have found through over five years’ research makes the story plausible. Recently, I happened upon a very short article pub-
lished in the January, 1873 editions of the “Atlanta Weekly Sun” and “Atlanta Daily Sun” newspapers, which said:
Young Vansant with his wife, Nancy. Photo courtesy of Douglas County Museum of History and Art.
“When this new county was organized in 1870, it was intended to be named in honor of Stephen A. Douglas; but when it came before the Legislature it was recorded in the journals of both houses as ‘Douglass’ after Fred Douglass, the negro orator and politician, instead of Douglas. It is hoped that this new county shall be known by its proper name. It … should be explicitly known that the county was named for Stephen A. Douglas and not Fred. Douglass.”
Electioneering a County Seat The Act creating the county had directed the county commissioners to hold an election on the first Monday of November, 1870 to choose an ordinary, a sheriff, a clerk of superior court – but most importantly to create a county seat. a very prosperous community with several influential citizens. This takes us to another great story about historic Douglas County: the creation of A second group wanted the geographic centhe place where its new government would ter of the county to be the seat. The place meet. Almost as soon as discussions began these “center people” favored was the area over potential locations, there were disaround Pray’s Mill Baptist Church, at the agreements. intersection of today’s Bill Arp and Banks Mill roads; a location that would have been Many residents thought it was a foregone an equal distance for all citizens to travel. conclusion that Chapel Hill would be the One of the supporters, Moses Smith, thought seat. In 1870, Chapel Hill contained a genthe railroads could be persuaded to run a eral store and a few other businesses. There line through the area; an idea others thought was both a Baptist and Methodist church, doubtful. and three different schools. The area was Still another group preferred an area up on the ridge known as Skint Chestnut, and not just because an ancient chestnut tree, skinned of its bark by indigenous American Indians, had long been a landmark there. The main reason was because of the route of the Georgia Western Railroad, as it was then called.
arbitrarily ruled that any write-in votes that didn’t refer to the “center” of the county would be counted as votes in the Skint Chestnut column. Of course, Skint Chestnut came out on top.
A Fistfight and a New Election After the election, the “center” folks were upset, and so were other voters who felt it was wrong for the Board of Commissioners to wield that much power. Moses Smith, The 1896 Douglas County Courthouse burned to the ground in January, 1956. Photo courtesy of Douglas County Archives.
The 1870s was a time when attitudes in Georgia were changing. Many citizens of the new county, mostly ex-Confederates, understood the new ‘farm-to-factory movement’ would result in new business and industry, and that an established rail line was one of the necessary ingredients for a town to thrive.
During March, 1874, a notice ran in the Atlanta papers to encourage people to visit Douglasville and purchase lots. Photo courtesy of Judge Robert James.
Election Day, Monday, November 7, 1870 arrived. The commissioners prepared a ballot with only two potential county seat locations, leaving Chapel Hill out and giving voters only the choice between the “center” and Skint Chestnut. Events took a murky turn when voters ignored the two choices and wrote in other locations. When the votes were counted, the board of commissioners May/June 2015
West Georgia Living
Looking west up Broad Street in 1945 when Douglas County was getting ready to celebrate its 75th birthday. Photo courtesy of City Archives.
The Douglasville Bank opened in 1891. Photo courtesy of City Archives. Ephraim Pray and other prominent “center” people filed a petition of protest against the commissioners, giving the newly elected Clerk of Superior Court his first case to enter into his brand new docket book. It would take four years of legal wrangling until things were worked out, but the Skint Chestnut people didn’t wait. They simply proceeded with their plans. The Vansant brothers – Young and Rueben – owned land at Skint Chestnut that happened to be along the proposed Georgia Western Railroad (today’s Norfolk Southern route). They couldn’t decide which brother would donate the land, so in perfect pioneer fashion, they had a fistfight to decide the matter.
An early Fourth of July parade up Broad Street. The building to the left is J.L. Selman Drugs, location of the Irish Bred Pub today. Photo courtesy of City Archives
Young won the fight, so he had the honor of donating 40 acres along the ridge at Skint Chestnut for the county seat. Vansant deeded the property over on January 9, 1871, although the deed was not recorded until April 9, 1874. Soon after the deed was signed county officials and volunteers helped erect a building east of the store at Skint Chestnut that would serve as a temporary courthouse for the next few years. The lawsuit regarding the botched county seat election went all the way to the Georgia Supreme Court. The result was that the Georgia General Assembly finally ordered a second election in 1874, with the stipulation that the two choices for county seat should be along the proposed railroad route. Voters could choose between Skint Chestnut where county business had been transacted for the past four years, or they could vote for Rueben Vansant Crossroads, a spot further up the rail line about 3 miles, about where today’s Bright Star Road and Bankhead Highway intersect. The fact that Skint Chestnut already had a few buildings, a courthouse and the pending rail line, made the village the voter’s choice 18
West Georgia Living
once again. Things were finally formalized on February 25, 1875 which the Georgia General Assembly established the county seat of Douglas County with its new name Douglasville. The rest, we can safely say, is history. WGL
Lisa Cooper writes stories of Douglas County each Sunday in her column for the Douglas County Sentinel. You can find her Facebook page for Douglas County history under the name “Every Now and Then” Her book, “Douglasville” was released this past July and can be found at her website LisaLandCooper.com
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The Sewell Companies’ Factory Store entrance, 2013. Photographed by Rachel Opolka. Courtesy of the Center for Public History, University of West Georgia
“The Clothing Center of the South” I
Bremen’s Apparel History
n 1882, the Haralson County town of Bremen didn’t exist. Instead, there was a railroad village named Kramer, a stop along the Georgia Pacific named after Carrollton businessman Ernest G. Kramer. When Kramer began investing in the construction of a new town at the site, he requested that it be named Bremen, for the port city in his native Germany. Within five years, another rail line, the Chattanooga, Rome and Columbus Railroad, later
West Georgia Living
known as the Central of Georgia, built a line that intersected with the Georgia Pacific at Bremen, turning the town into a major depot. The crossing of the two rail lines provided access to regional and national markets and made Bremen an attractive location. Many industries have operated in Bremen over the years, but during the 20th Century, the city gained a national reputation as “The Clothing Center of the South.” The industry changed
KERI ADAMS AND ANN MCCLEARY
The Sewell businesses became very successful, and these Sewell entrepreneurs invested in new companies started by friends and family, including the Hubbard Pants Company (1935), the Ray Sewell Company (1955), and Worley Sewell Company (1963). Bremen quickly became recognized as a leader in all types of apparel production, but it remained best known for its highquality tailored men’s suits.
Original Sewell Manufacturing Company sign, 2013. Photographed by Rachel Opolka. Courtesy of the Center for Public History, UWG
the fortunes of entrepreneurs and employees alike, and today many west Georgia families have ancestors who worked there. A clothing industry began to develop in Bremen in the late 1920s, when Bremen Looms, built at the site of the Mandeville Oil plant on South Buchanan Street, began producing men’s shirts. Renamed Bremen Mills in 1929, the company operated through 1931. A subsidiary of Cluett, Peabody, & Company purchased the plant in 1933 and began manufacturing the well-known Arrow shirt. Yet Bremen did not really become associated with the clothing industry until after 1928, when the Sewell brothers – Roy, Robert and Warren - moved their Sewell Manufacturing Company from Atlanta to Bremen. In 1945, Warren Sewell created his own company after “crossing the railroad tracks” to establish the Warren Sewell Clothing Company on Hamilton Avenue. These two companies operated their sales and marketing business in Bremen, but manufactured most of the apparel in Bowdon and other nearby small towns. The Sewell businesses became very successful, and these Sewell entrepreneurs invested in new companies started by friends and family, including the Hubbard Pants Company (1935), the Ray Sewell Company (1955), and Worley Sewell Company (1963). Bremen quickly became recognized as a leader in all types of apparel production, but it remained best known for its high-quality tailored men’s suits. Bremen was not a textile mill village like
Sewell Manufacturing Company
efore establishing Sewell Manufacturing Company in the mid1920s, brothers Warren and Robert Sewell, along with business partner George Longino, were independently distributing men’s pants to retailers in the South.
Founded in 1918 in Atlanta, the SewellLongino Company contracted the manufacturing of men’s pants in New York then sold the finished products to Atlanta-area retailers. After bringing their brother Roy into the business, Logino sold his shares. The Sewell brothers moved their Sewell Manufacturing Company to Bremen in 1928 and began to manufacture men’s apparel for themselves. The Sewells invested in many other apparel industries in Bremen, such as Warren’s son-in-law’s Worley Sewell Company and Roy and Warren’s nephew’s the Ray Sewell Company. The companies enjoyed the friendly competition and each business found a niche in the men’s apparel market.
When Warren Sewell sold his majority shares in Sewell Manufacturing in 1945 to start his own business, the Warren Sewell Clothing Company, his brother Roy became the president of the Sewell Manufacturing and the business continued to grow. Sewell Manufacturing had five manufacturing plants in total: two in Bremen, one in Bowdon that Warren gained during the split, one in Temple, one in Bowdon Junction, and one in Heflin, Ala. Today, the Heflin plant is still manufacturing, and the original plant and offices on Pacific Avenue serves as the company headquarters and packaging and shipping facility, with a small manufacturing operation as well. In 2008, Warren Sewell Clothing Company merged with Sewell Manufacturing Company to form The Sewell Companies, bringing the two family companies once again under one business. Warren Sewell’s grandson, Robin Worley, became the CEO of the new company. May/June 2015
West Georgia Living
Mandeville Mills in Carrollton or Fullerville in Villa Rica, but its business leaders took pride in investing in their community and workforce. The companies offered a variety of amenities to their workers. They also created opportunities for fellowship and for improving the life of the community. A group known as the Sewell Singers performed on WLBB, the Carrollton radio station, and the Sewell Gospel Quartet played at churches throughout the region. Mrs. (Aurelia) Phillip’s Opportunity School provided an education for local residents who wanted it, and several emerging businessmen, including Ray Sewell, Sr., took advantage of that opportunity.
During the 1970s, when the industry peaked in Bremen, over 2,500-area residents, mostly women, worked in the city’s apparel plants. Employees created a strong sense of community because they lived near one another, shopped at the same downtown stores, attended church and other social functions together, and even took their breaks at the same lunch counters. Iona “Onie” Baxter, who worked for the Sewell Manufacturing Company for over forty years, remembered the sense of shared community, “Even though we have worked for different companies, it was just like one big family, because people cared about what happened to each other and what happened to each company.”
By the 1990s, many of the Bremen’s clothing manufacturers had begun to close. Increased foreign competition and the passage of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) contributed to the decline in prices for American-made goods. Some companies transitioned to offshore production, others closed entirely, but a few have continued to manufacture some apparel, especially military uniforms, in the region.
Bremen preserves its legacy Today, the Art Deco styled facade of the Sewell Manufacturing Company, and the fashionable turquoise sign on the former
Hubbard Pants Company
n 1935, Sam Hubbard, a former salesman for Stanley Pants Company in Chicago, and Warren Sewell opened the Hubbard Pants Company in Bremen. Hubbard and Sewell had been friends as salesmen traveling in the same territories for many years. During World War II, Hubbard Pants manufactured uniforms for American troops. The plant ran two eight-hour shifts daily throughout the war to produce over 100,000 pairs of khaki slacks. After the war, the company began to manufacture men’s pants again, and by the late 1960s, Hubbard was producing both men’s slacks and jackets.
Southside of the Hubbard Pants building facing Atlantic Avenue, 2013. Photographed by Rachel Opolka. Courtesy of the Center for Public History.
West Georgia Living
By the 1960s, as Hubbard found his own success in the apparel industry, he bought out all of his partners, including Warren Sewell, and the
Hubbard Pants Company line expanded to suits and coats, as well as pants. Like many Bremen business owners, Sam Hubbard was generous in the community. In 1972, Hubbard’s donations allowed Bremen High School to build the Sam Hubbard Field House, an athletic facility attached to the school’s football stadium, which is still used today. The Hubbard Pants Company sold millions of pairs of men’s and children’s slacks and employed hundreds of Bremen-area residents from 1935 to 2002, After 80 years of manufacturing high-quality slacks and suits, the Hubbard Pants Company was sold to the Tom James Company, but many of the Hubbard Pants employees went to work for the Bremen Trousers Company.
Warren Sewell Clothing Company
fter selling his majority shares in Sewell Manufacturing Company, a business he started with his brothers Roy and Robert, Warren P. Sewell started the Warren Sewell Clothing Company in 1945.
Jack Worley and Lamar Plunkett, traveled to small towns throughout the country, marketing the suits to hometown clothing stores. By the 1980s, Belk, a regional department store, was selling Sewell suits.
He began his new business in an old cotton warehouse building on Hamilton Avenue, now called The Sewell Mill, which served as the sales and marketing headquarters for Warren Sewell Clothing Company. Manufacturing operations were carried out at a separate company called the Bremen-Bowdon Investment Company, established in nearby Bowdon .
The company produced suits under several labels with the in-stock program, including Cotton Brothers Sportswear, Zino, and LaCrosse. The company marketed and styled each label differently to appeal to a broad base of customers. The Sewell Companies still produce under some of these same labels.
The Warren Sewell Clothing Company designed and manufactured tailored men’s suits. A team of traveling salesmen, including Sewell himself, his son Warren Sewell, Jr, and his sons-in-law 1913 Arrow Collar Ad
In 2002, Warren Sewell executives secured a $100 million contract with the U.S. Navy to manufacture pea coats. This five-year government contract saved 500 jobs for the company. The company is still producing military uniforms under the merged company, The Sewell Companies.
Warren Sewell Clothing Company advertisement for retailers, 1950s. Courtesy of Robin Sewell Worley
Cluett, Peabody & Company T
he New York-based men’s shirt manufacturer, Cluett, Peabody & Co., purchased the closed men’s shirt industry of Bremen Mills and opened the Arrow shirt plant in 1933.
from women all across the country.
In the 1920s, the company had featured a new style of men’s dress shirts that featured stiff, white neck collars. These shirts were featured in popular advertisements that created the sophisticated Arrow Collar Man. The dapper figure of the advertisements received fan mail
The employees of Bremen’s Arrow shirt plant unionized with the Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America in 1944, one of the few apparel plants in Bremen to do so. The company closed its Bremen plant in the early 1990s.
During the 1930s, the white collared shirt had become so popular that Cluett, Peabody expanded its line of products under the Arrow brand.
West Georgia Living
Hubbard Slacks Company building still exude the high fashion of the industry. The Sewell Companies still has its sales and marketing operations in the original Sewell Manufacturing Company on Pacific Avenue, where it operates a store on the lower level and has now begun manufacturing clothing again. The Warren Sewell Clothing Company building on Hamilton Avenue has been transformed into Sewell Mill, a community event facility, which features an interactive exhibit on the textile industry. Here, visitors and local residents can get a glimpse into the work of an apparel company salesman, view equipment used in the plants, and try on tailored suit coats still made today. The city is developing outdoor kiosks and wayside signage that will tell the community’s rich history, with funds from the Appalachian Regional Commission, These signs will be placed at many of the former apparel company buildings that remain along the downtown roads.
Sport coats hanging in The Sewell Company's stock room on Pacific Avenue, Bremen, 2013. Photographed by Rachel Opolka. Courtesy of the Center for Public History, UWG
While Bremen’s downtown streets are no longer filled with textile workers coming and going to work, the legacy created by those who built “the Clothing Center of the South” lives on. WGL
The Ray Sewell Company R
ay Sewell Sr. joined the growing numbers of men’s apparel manufactures in Bremen in 1955. He started the Ray Sewell Company in his own home when he was 27 years old. Sewell had learned about the industry from his family. As the nephew of both Roy and Warren Sewell, Ray began as a salesman for the Sewell Manufacturing Company from 1945 through 1948. Roy and Warren treated Ray “like a son,” watching him rise in the company through hard work to become one of Sewell Manufacturing Company’s leading salesmen.
The Ray Sewell Company building on Alabama Avenue, 2013. Photographed by Rachel Opolka. Courtesy of the Center for Public History, UWG 24
West Georgia Living
Like other Sewell businesses, the Ray Sewell Company specialized in men’s dress suits, sports coats, and pants. In the late 1970s, as demand for traditional
business attire declined and the demand for casual men’s wear rose, Sewell adjusted to changing consumer demand by producing leisure suits. Ray Sewell expanded his business to include manufacturing plants in Buchanan, Ga., and Wedowee, Ala. The company shipped its goods to stores nationwide with its largest markets in the Southeast. Much like his uncles’ apparel businesses, Sewell sold to small, often locally-owned stores and shops. The Ray Sewell Company closed in 1988 due to the increasing foreign competition that preceded the North American Free Trade Agreement of 1994. Sewell took great pride in ensuring that all of his employees found other jobs in the region.
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SAVING THE HISTORY You never know what you will find in Special Collections
hen I opened up the black garbage bag containing the papers of an illustrious musician, there it was. A dead mouse.
We often get more than we expect when we receive personal papers at Special Collections. The squashed critter was unceremoniously tossed in the outside trash bin, and the rest of the papers were sorted through: annotated musical scores, correspondence with famous conductors, and documents about the founding of a local symphony orchestra. Such priceless materials from a historical perspective frequently arrive here mixed in with an (unhealthy) dose of used tissues, pain relieving pills, receipts, laundry dryer sheets, and grocery store shopping lists. Fortunately, only one mouse in this particular case. At Special Collections at the University of West Georgia’s Ingram Library, we hold rare books, maps, photographs, and materials from those who have shaped a region’s history and culture. We acquire, preserve, provide public access to, and promote the use of a wide range of primary resource materials in their original formats. This can include letters, meeting minutes, audio recordings, videos, scrapbooks, photographs, digital files, and more. In short, we deal with a slice of the “stuff of life.” In the big picture of our work, special collections are part of a larger group of “cultural heritage institutions” including museums, libraries, archives, and historical societies. The work we share is to select physical artifacts or informational sources, preserve them, and provide enduring public access to them.
Northern Alabama and Georgia map, 1864. This United States Coast survey map, mounted on linen and meant to be folded to fit into a saddlebag or pocket, contains ink annotations marking Sherman’s March to the Sea. Special Collections, Ingram Library, University of West Georgia. specific topical areas of our interests, including regional history, Georgia’s political heritage, the University’s archives, and the specialty academic fields of paranormal and humanistic psychology.
I have mentioned the word “public” a couple So, how does an academic library collect of times. This is important. It is for you and for these types of primary sources? We start by identifying those items that will meet the needs of those we serve: the University’s STORY BY BLYNNE OLIVIERI students and faculty, and the public. Here PHOTOS BY RICKY STILLEY in UWG’s Special Collections, we have a “collection development policy” which outlines 26
West Georgia Living
future generations that we strive to preserve these historical documents. In the last couple of years, 40 percent of the users of Special Collections have been members of the public. Students at UWG are 35 percent of our users, and UWG faculty and staff make up the rest of the pie at 25 percent. People use UWG’s Special Collections because it provides them with the primary evidence needed for research, teaching, and learning. We provide access to these materials in a secure reading room and are open regular
hours. All are welcome. We even provide free parking. Two items currently in UWG’s Special Collections demonstrate how materials are acquired and what makes them historically interesting.
The first are the papers of Leroy Almon, a Tallapoosa preacher and artist. Mr. Almon, you might already know, was such an outstanding folk artist that one of his pieces, titled “Hell,” is in the collection of the Smithsonian American Art Museum. The House of Blues commissioned Mr. Almon to create several pieces, including one that hangs in the House of Blues in New Orleans. We have had, and continue to have, so many great artists who live and work in this region. Our region is ripe with creativity (just see the May-June 2015 issue ofWest Georgia Living if you need further evidence). Special Collections documents this phenomenon by collecting the papers of artists, arts organizations, and arts patrons, too! Artists’ papers contain all sorts of materials: contracts, commissions, correspondence with other artists and gallery owners; loose drawings, sketchbooks, exhibition catalogues, clippings from art show
coverage in local newspapers, photographs, and more. Sure, people could find citations to newspaper articles about the artist and their exhibitions, but in Special Collections we get to show more of who the real person was, and how their creative minds worked.
Almon’s family generously donated his papers, and that is the way that most materials about the west Georgia region come to Special Collections. There are a few occasions, however, when I purchase items for the collection – such as when scarce items like old maps come on the market. One example of this is the Northern Alabama and Georgia map from 1864. There are a couple of interesting things about this map: it is printed on paper, yet mounted on linen for the express purpose of being folded to fit into a saddlebag or pocket. Can you guess the purpose of this map based on that description and the date? This was meant for travel, and meant to be used out in the field. Another clue: there are handwritten annotations on the map starting in Chattanooga and drifting southeast to Atlanta. Yes, this map shows the route of Sherman’s Atlanta Campaign, and while we don’t know who made the marks, it is
“The Injustice of Poll Taxes,” broadside written by Henry P. Farrow for the Georgia State Convention, 1867-1868. Special Collections, Ingram Library, University of West Georgia.
The Farrow Broadside: A Snapshot in Time
Carroll County Board of Education, circa 1910s-1920s. The gentleman with the number 12 was J. W. Barrow, Chairman of the Board. Frances Barrow Jackson Collection, Special Collections, Ingram Library, University of West Georgia.
In 1796, Georgia adopted a poll tax to replace the property tax requirement for voting, enabling many poor white citizens the right to vote. After the Civil War, Georgia state delegates drafted a new state constitution that reinstated the poll tax system to fund public education. Henry P. Farrow, a Republican, argued that “thousands upon thousands of the honest, industrious, and hard-working men of our state both white and colored will be forever disfranchised” by the unjust poll tax. Farrow was correct in predicting the economic burden of the cumulative poll tax upon voter participation. Georgia finally abolished the poll tax in 1945. - Cody Doegg May/June 2015
West Georgia Living
possible that it was a Union officer involved in military planning of the campaign. Also, the map shows Carrollton in the geographic context of the Civil War and marks the lost or renamed locales of Laurel Hill, Bowenville, Dark Corner, and Owen’s Mine. There is another item in Special Collections that we’re really excited about. It is a broadside, or poster, by Henry P. Farrow which dates from 1867 to 1868. The document, titled, "The Injustice of Poll Taxes," was purchased because it enhances Special Collections’ holdings on Georgia’s political history; in this case, a time in our past when taxes were used to restrict participation in elections. This document is a prime example of how broadsides have been used throughout time in America as medium for political, cultural, and social commentary. Broadsides like these were not necessarily meant to last for the ages, only to pinned or pasted up for public viewing, and for a brief time. That is why we were so desperate to save this and other ephemera, like Above, a rare edition of Shakespeare. Below left, a document relating to the expulsion of American mimeographed announcements of meetings Indians from Georgia. Special Collections, Ingram Library, University of West Georgia. and organizational brochures. These items are often the only surviving trace of an event or a gathering – or something else – that was, for that moment, deemed worthy to distribute to a crowd. Key purchases of particularly scarce printed documents, like maps or the Farrow broadside, help to round out the collection so that we can best meet the research needs of our users. However, the diversity of the research collections at UWG is overwhelmingly due to the generosity of private donors across west Georgia. You have given your father’s World War II letters and photographs; you have donated books; you have donated your church records; and you have donated the records of your civic organization. These materials are critically important in providing evidence in how the people from our region have changed the world, and how the world has changed the lives of people in our region. Thank you for donating these materials to UWG so we can preserve them and make them available to the public. While you are in the process of creating, of writing, of changing history—save your files. Try not to let mice get to them. WGL Blynne Olivieri is Head of Special Collections at the Irvine Sullivan Ingram Library, the University of West Georgia. 28
West Georgia Living
Above, “Assassination,” silkscreen on burlap, number 59, by Leroy Almon, 1991; and brochure titled, “Folk Art,” 1992. Leroy Almon Papers, Special Collections, Ingram Library, University of West Georgia.
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One of several monuments to the Second Regiment Minnesota Infantry, this statue, on Snodgrass Hill, marks the unt's position between 8 -10 a.m. on the second day of battle, Sept. 20, 1863, when they held out against repeated assaults by Confederate forces.
West Georgia Living
A recreation of the cabin occupied by the family of George and Mary Brotherton stands at the scene of the massive breakthrough by Confederate soldiers that was the turning point of the November, 1863 Battle of Chickamauga
ickamauga May/June 2015
West Georgia Living
The field beside the Brotherton Cabin at Chickamauga and Chattanooga National Military Park is almost exactly as it was on the monring of September 20, 1863
After sweeping through the Union lines at the Brotherton Cabin, Confederate forces advanced across Dyer Field under a barrage of cannon fire. 32
West Georgia Living
March/April May/June 2015 2015
Chickamauga and Chattanooga National Military Park is located only two hours from west Georgia, near the Tennessee border, in the northwestern part of the state. In September, 1863, only two months after the pivotal Battle of Gettysburg, Union and Confederate soldiers fought a two-day battle at Chickamauga, which resulted in a short-lived victory for the South. The Union troops were commanded by Gen. William S. Rosecrans; Confederate forces were led by Gen. Braxton Bragg, whom Rosecrans had forced south of Chattanooga, to LaFayette Ga. Bragg struck out against Rosecrans on Sept. 19 1863, with little success. On Sept. 20, he tried again - but this time, a gap appeared in the Union lines near the pioneer cabin of George and Mary Brotherton. Confederate troops led by Gen. James Longstreet, fresh from Gettysburg, pushed through that gap as the Union forces fled in disarray. Only Union Gen. George Thomas, rallying troops atop Snodgrass Hill, prevented a total rout. The Confederates had beaten the federal forces, but it was not to last. Reinforcements, including Gen. William T. Sherman, arrived and Gen. Ulysses S. Grant took overall command. Between Nov. 23 and Nov. 25, the Union forces won a series of battles that ended in victory, setting the stage for Sherman's march to Atlanta the next spring. The Chickamauga battlefield is preserved today in a 9,000-acre park that lovers of both history and nature can appreciate.
PHOTOS BY RICKY STILLEY May/June 2015 West Georgia Living
The CIVIL WAR
t the opening of Ken Burns’ epic miniseries, we are told that the Civil War was “fought in over 10,000 places,” from the far west to the far north. Yet it was in the South that the war burned fiercest, and although west Georgia was far from the major action, the war reached here as well.
The region might have escaped entirely. There were few factories to make the area a target for armies to attack or defend. Despite being patriotic Confederates after the fact, the counties of west Georgia had generally opposed secession. And while over 4,000 human beings were enslaved here, the majority of the farms were family affairs, the owners uninterested in the politics of a slave economy. Nevertheless, for a simple accident of geography, the war came here. In the spring of 1864, the federal armies under William T. Sherman began moving southward from northwest Georgia. His goal was to capture Atlanta and destroy the Confederate armies set in his way. Atlanta was important because it was major manufacturing center for Confederate forces throughout the South, and this included Robert E. Lee’s army, then fighting U.S. forces in Virginia. Atlanta supplied those armies over the railroads that met there, and Sherman’s plan for Atlanta meant breaking those supply lines. West Georgia got involved in the war because it was on the Chattahoochee River; thus, it was located between Sherman and Atlanta, and between Sherman and the Atlanta and West Point Railroad, which ran through Newnan. Sherman needed to move through west Georgia 34
West Georgia Living
Federal cavalry crisscrossed the region four times, skirmishing, raiding farms and bringing war to our backyard
There were only two bridges across the Chattahoochee below Smyrna; but there were several ferries and one or two shoals to cross. Confederates, determined to protect Atlanta from Sherman, had heavily defended all of these.
In early July, 1864, U.S. cavalry commander Gen. George Stoneman had been sent by Sherman to find find someplace to cross the Chattahoochee and attack the West Point and Atlanta Railroad. In the process, his troops had come across to bypass the Confederate defenses of the New Manchester Manufacturing Co., Atlanta and to cut off the rail supplies that a giant cotton cloth mill in operation on kept the city’s defenders fed. He needed a Sweetwater Creek and better known as place to cross the river, and west Georgia Sweetwater Factory. offered those crossings. While the massive battles between foot soldiers raged far away from west Georgia, it would be troops of U.S. cavalry who ultimately would bring war here, in four separate raids between July 1864 and April 1865, the last one only days after Lee surrendered to Grant. Those troopers would burn factories, exile women, rob farms and generally raise hell, bringing the horror of war to the quiet west Georgia countryside.
Women were operating the mill, as millwork was one of the few employment opportunities for Victoria-era women. The soldiers found the New Manchester mill at about the same time other cavalry troops had found a larger complex at Roswell, a mill also operated by women. Outraged that two factories had kept on churning out Confederate goods even as his armies approached, Sherman ordered all the women from both factories to be exiled to points north. Many of them never saw their homes in Georgia again.
The First Raid: Sweetwater Factory and Moore’s Bridge
The two factories were destroyed. Troopers set fire to New Manchester on July 9 and its ruin is now at the center of SweetTo 21st Century folks, west Georgia during water Creek State Park. the Civil War would seem as strange as an alien planet. There was, for example, Knowing there was a bridge at Franklin, no Douglas County; instead, there was in Heard County, Stoneman’s troops now Campbell County to the east, and muchheaded in that direction, hoping to find a differently shaped Carroll and Haralson crossing that was nearer federal troops. counties to the north (Douglas would be On the way, they heard of one: Moore’s carved out of Campbell and Carroll in Bridge, located below the Carroll County 1870.) While today we easily drive along mill village of Bowenville, near modernpaved highways, Civil War soldiers had day Whitesburg. to travel along narrow, often rutted trails that were roads in name only. Moore’s Bridge was a 480-foot, covered
wood structure that had been built almost 10 years earlier by the remarkable former slave, Horace King, whose home was
nearby. Confederate troops from the 1st Tennessee, part of the cavalry division commanded by Gen. William Humes, were guarding the bridge. But Stoneman’s riders came upon the Alabama troops suddenly and took possession of the bridge. They camped, preparing to cross over in the morning – however they never got the chance. As Stoneman’s troops had been moving down the west side of the river, a Mississippi cavalry troop led by Confederate Gen. Frank Armstrong had been moving down the east side, and arrived at the bridge just at daylight on July 14. Armstrong had two 3-inch rifled guns (cannon) with him, and opened up on the federals occupying the bridge. The sharp skirmish that followed convinced Stoneman to give up the crossing, but to prevent the bridge being used by Confederate troops, the federal officer had the structure set on fire. Soon, it was a pile of smoking ruin sitting in the Chattahoochee.
Stoneman had decided by now to pull back toward Sweetwater, but before he did so, he sent several units out into the countryside to find fresh mounts for the troops and other supplies. At daylight on July 15, the 8th Michigan rode into Carrollton and camped for the night at the site of the present-day courthouse. Local citizens welcomed them, although the troopers did appropriate some supplies from nearby homes and stores. Meanwhile, the 14th Illinois had headed up toward Villa Rica, passing the farm of P.H. Chesterly. They told Chesterly they would only take what they needed, but it seemed they needed everything he had – including his tobacco, pocket watch and two quarts of castor oil. Eventually, Stoneman’s troops returned to the area around modern-day Six Flags. His mission had failed, at least so far as breaking the railroad. But Sherman was happy Stoneman had drawn the Confederates’ attention away from Sherman's crossing of the Chattahoochee near Roswell, and his unhindered advance to Atlanta.
The Second Raid: Rousseau Sweeps in from Alabama When Sherman had begun his campaign into Georgia, he had sent Gen. Lovell Rousseau and five federal cavalry regiments down into Alabama, to break up the railroads there, and to smash factories making goods for Confederate troops. Rousseau had a much more successful mission than Stoneman. He had done considerable damage to the railroads and destroyed numerous factories and warehouses. On July 19, five days after Stoneman’s skirmish at Moore’s Bridge, Rousseau was headed for the railroad town of West Point where he planned to break the railroad that Stoneman had failed to attack. But Stoneman’s earlier raid had stirred up Confederate troopers like fire ants. News of Stoneman’s movement had drawn them down from Atlanta to defend all the points on the West Point railroad, including
Illustration by Ken Denney May/June 2015 West Georgia Living
Newnan, as well as the important manufacturing town of Columbus. They knew Rousseau was coming, and had prepared a warm welcome for him.
Maj. Gen. George Stoneman Jr.
Maj. Gen. Lovell H. Rousseau
When Rousseau arrived at Lafayette, Ala., only 15 miles from West Point, he learned that the Confederates were massing in front of him. He then sensibly turned northward, skirting the Georgia-Alabama border, and on the night of July 20, he entered the Peach State and camped somewhere in Heard County, possibly near Ephesus. The next morning, Rousseau’s cavalry was on the move, intending to reach Carrollton and the road network that would take them to the safety of Sherman’s troops at Marietta. At 9 a.m. they arrived at the farm of William L. Bell at Laurel Hill (near Tyus) and proceeded to relieve Bell of his horses and mules, as well as food and other supplies. Moving up the road, they did the same at the farm of James Thomason. At around 2 p.m. on July 21, Rousseau’s lead regiment, the 8th Indiana, trooped into Carrollton, followed closely the other units. Arriving only six days after Stoneman’s force, Rousseau’s men did not stay in town long; instead they passed right through, moving toward Villa Rica. Along the way, they stopped off at the farm of the unlucky P.H. Chesterly, where, once again, federal troopers helped themselves to more of his property.
Nothing, however, went as planned. Although McCook did attack the railroad at Lovejoy, Stoneman failed to show up. He had decided to go to Andersonville on his own, got stranded on the wrong side of the Ocmulgee River, and he and his command were captured. Ironically, many of Stoneman’s men wound up at Andersonville.
Crossing the lower part of Heard County, McCook entered Alabama and made his way up to Wedowee, intending to move west of there and attack an iron mill in Talledega. But when he got word of an approaching Confederate force, he was convinced to abandon his entire mission.
On August 2, McCook crossed the Tallapoosa River and proceeded along the For his part, McCook found himself outmost direct route to federal lines, passing numbered as a host of Confederate cavalry through the sleepy village of Buchanan in At around 8 p.m., Rousseau’s force under command of Gen. Joseph Wheeler, Haralson County, then onto Draketown, entered Villa Rica and captured two or until he wreached the safety of Marietta. three Confederate soldiers, who told them bore down on him. McCook sought to that Union pickets were nearby in Powder escape by heading toward Newnan, but as he did so, he risked numerous ConfederThe failure of both of Stoneman’s raids, as Springs. By noon on July 22, Rousseau well as that of McCook, to break Atlanta’s was safely within federal lines, his mission ate patrols still swarming the area in the supply lines convinced Sherman to give up a success. He had done considerable dam- wake of Stoneman’s July 10-18 raid. the effort all together. Instead, he would age to the Confederate supply line and had On July 30, McCook’s luck ran out at lay siege to the city. In the long run, that evaded the Confederates sent after him. Brown’s Mill, three miles south of Newntactic succeeded, enabling him to capture an, where Wheeler, reinforced by still Atlanta on September 2, 1864. more troops, attacked and engulfed the The Third Raid: federal force. Overwhelmed and apparMcCook’s Narrow Escape The Fourth Raid: ently surrounded, McCook wanted to surA Bonfire in Carrollton render, but instead allowed his officers to A few weeks later, Sherman was plantry to break out separately and escape. ning a second raid on Atlanta’s supply Although most people believe the Civil lines, this one against the Macon and War ended with Lee’s surrender to Grant The divided forces scattered in different Western Railroad near Lovejoy. He chose in Virginia, in reality the war continued Gen. Edward M. McCook and his division directions, their mission at a sudden and for several months afterward. There were ignominious end. McCook and the balof cavalry for the job. Stoneman would still armies on both sides still active, and ance of his command made their way to go with him, sweeping southeast before no way to get word quickly to every unit. Philpot’s Ferry, on the border of Heard meeting McCook at Lovejoy, from which County and about 7 miles below Franklin. Such was the case with a column of Union point both commands would head to Crossing over in darkness late on July 31, cavalry men commanded by Gen. John Andersonville on a daring mission to resMcCook began to figure out how best to cue the 32,000 federal prisoners there. T. Croxton. Croxton had been one of salvage his mission. McCook’s brigade commanders who had 36
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Brig. Gen. John T. Croxton
were in no mood to stop. In Bowdon, they ransacked the dry goods store owned by John H. Word, who had returned home from the front in 1863 after losing a leg in a POW camp. Croxton’s men then moved on, camping near Carrollton at about the intersection of today’s Highway 166 and Tyus-Carrollton Road. The next day, April 26, it was on to Carrollton, but the troops stopped long enough to raid the farm of Thomas Bonner, which was located where Mandeville Hall is today on the campus of the University of West Georgia. Moving on into Carrollton, the troops displayed a malicious character wholly unlike previous visits by federal troops. Croxton set fire to a warehouse on the northwest corner of the square, where it intersects with Rome Street, possibly because provisions for Confederate troops were stored there. Historian James Bonner says a cordon of troopers
prevented local residents from fighting the fire, which spread to other buildings. Afterwards, Croxton was on the move again, headed south to re-connect with the rest of Wilson’s command. As he neared the rebuilt Moore’s Bridge, he encountered a group of Confederate cavalry carrying a flag of truce and reporting an armistice had been declared since Lee’s surrender 17 days earlier. Croxton promised to “trouble nobody who kept out of my way” and proceeded to march in the direction of Newnan. ** The Civil War was only a chapter in the long history of the counties of west Georgia and its traces have mostly gone from our landscape. Although the region played only a small role on the huge stage of the conflict, it’s worth remembering – if for no other reason than to learn from the past, or to appreciate what it took to build the American civilization. WGL
escaped capture near Newnan in July 1864. Now, in April 1865, Croxton was part of another raid, this one led by Gen. James H. Wilson. Wilson and his troops had been attacking rail lines and manufacturing facilities throughout northern Alabama since March. They had a pretty easy job of it, since by then Confederate forces – most led by Nathan B. Forrest – had been so whittled down by war they could offer only a token, but stubborn resistance. After attacking Forrest’s troops at Selma on April 2, 1865, Wilson’s raiders proceeded down toward West Point, which they would capture after a fierce battle on April 16. But during the march to the Georgia border, Croxton and his regiments broke off from the main body to strike out eastward on their own. The surrender at Appomattox had taken place on April 9, but Croxton was unaware and moving toward west Georgia, destroying everything he could. On April 19, he destroyed a foundry north of Birmingham; on April 22 he reached Talladega, where he wreaked havoc on factories, bridges and depots. On April 25, he reached the small Cleburne County village of Arbacoochee. From there, it was a quick 15-mile march to Bowdon in Carroll County.
A modern view of the area of Moore's Bridge, on the Chattahoochee River, at the CarrollCoweta county border. It was the scene of a cavalry skirmish on July 14, 1864, the only Civil War battle of note in west Georgia. Carroll County is at work developing the area into a park. Photo by Ricky Stilley
After having a relatively easy time rampaging across Alabama, Croxton’s men May/June 2015 West Georgia Living
Horace King The builder of Moore’s Bridge was one of the most remarkable people in west Georgia history: a master craftsman, born a slave, who bought his own freedom
n July 14, 1864, the only true Civil War battle that occurred in west Georgia took place at Moore’s Bridge, a 480-foot covered bridge across the Chattahoochee River, located near the modern Carroll County town of Whitesburg. That skirmish, however, is not what makes Moore’s Bridge significant to west Georgia history. The person who designed the bridge was one of the most interesting men who ever lived here, and his story is all the more remarkable for the fact that so few people know about him. Horace King was an African-American, a “free person of color” in 19th Century language. He was also one of the most talented and respected bridge builders in the Southeast; a man who bought his own freedom in 1846, and whose remarkable life captures at once all the nuances and complications of the racial divide at the heart of the Civil War.
designed and built. Having been allowed an income from his work, King purchased his freedom. King’s relationship with Godwin had begun as one of master and slave, but it had evolved into both a business and personal rapport. When Godwin died in 1859, King purchased an expensive monument to stand over his grave. King had also purchased land near Godwin. In 1855, King and two other partners built Moore’s Bridge. The finished bridge was a privately run toll bridge, with fees being charged to those who wanted to cross the Chattahoochee. Instead of a fee for his work, King accepted shares in the bridge and moved his family to the site in 1858. The income from the bridge provided a steady income as he continued to work across the South; in fact, he was away on such work when the bridge was attacked in July 1864.
In an era in which African AmeriKing (1807-1885) was born a cans and other people of color were mixed-blood slave in South Carolibought and sold, their labor exploitna, and despite the laws of the day, ed for others, King achieved a level received an education. By his teenof independence almost unheard of. age years he had become a master But his life also reflected the social Photo Used Courtesy of Troup County Archives carpenter and mechanic and first and political complications of the learned about bridge construction times. King briefly owned his own around 1824. A bridge contractor slave, and, despite being a Unionist, named John Godwin purchased King in 1830, and the two moved did construction projects for the Confederate government; in fact, to Columbus, Ga., for the first of many bridge projects they would he was “drafted” by the CSA Navy to build gunboats. do together across the South and elsewhere. After the war, King continued to lead a remarkable life for the By 1840, King was being publicly acknowledged as Godwin’s time, serving as a representative for Russell County, Ala., in the “co-builder,” and Godwin sanctioned King’s marriage to Frances state legislature. In 1872, he and his family moved to LaGrange Thomas, a free woman of color – both actions that were almost and his five children took over the business. When he died on May unheard of during the slavery era. Throughout the rest of the 28, 1885, his obituary was carried in each of Georgia’s major newsdecade, King’s reputation continued to grow with every bridge he papers, yet another rare event in an extraordinary life. WGL
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A re-creation of McIntosh's home and his gravesite are maintained at McIntosh Reserve Park, along the Chattahoochee River in Carroll County
The Assassination of
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moke rises on the western bank of the Chattahoochee River. It’s April 30, 1825 and the Creek leader, William McIntosh, has been executed by his own people.
The event was described in vivid detail a few days later by McIntosh’s two widows, Peggy and Susannah, after they had reached a place of safety near the border of Georgia and the Creek Nation: “At daylight, on Saturday morning last, hundreds of the hostiles surrounded our house, and instantly murdered General McIntosh and Tome Tustunnuggee (another Creek leader), by shooting near one hundred (musket rounds) into them.” Peggy McIntosh also reported that her son, William Chillicothe “Chilly” McIntosh and another man had escaped the attack by jumping out a window. The attackers “then Commenced burning and plundering in the most unprincipalled (sic) way,” the widow wrote to some of McIntosh’s white friends, “so that here I am driven from the Ashes of my smoking dwelling, left with nothing but my poor
Naked hungry Children. “When you see this letter stained with the blood of my husband (the last drop of which is now spilt for the friendship he has shown for your people), I know you will remember your pledge to us in behalf of your Nation, that in the worst of events, you wou’d assist, and protect us.” The assassination of McIntosh was the brutal result of his signing of the Second Treaty of Indian Springs, a fateful deal by which he had sold land that had been claimed by the Creek Nation on behalf of himself and a few supporters. The murder was condemned at the time by Georgia Gov. George M. Troup – a first cousin to McIntosh – as an act by “infuriated monsters” and has since become legend, and for some the slain man has become a martyr. But historian Michael D. Green, in “The Politics of
STORY AND PHOTOS BY W. JEFF BISHOP
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McIntosh Reserve Park, Carroll County
Indian Removal,” argues that McIntosh was far from a heroic figure. And Green called the Treaty of Indian Springs “fraudulent by the standards of any society” and “riddled with bribery, chicanery, and deceit.” McIntosh and his fellow signers knew full well their “lives would be forfeit” if they signed such a treaty, Green said. The “extreme act” of execution, he said, fit the nature of the “extreme crime” that was committed. “Much more than real estate changed hands,” said Green. “McIntosh sold the Nation.”
A Politically Connected Leader Little remains to testify to the events of that spring night 190 years ago near Whitesburg in Carroll County. The log dogtrot home that sits at the McIntosh Reserve Park is actually from a Cherokee town in Alabama. The old path of the McIntosh Trail still runs through 42
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March/April 2015 May/June2015
the park, and there is a grave there, bearing McIntosh’s name. McIntosh had come from a long line of frontier traders and military men. His ancestors included John Mohr McIntosh, a Scotsman and a highlander recruited by an agent of General James Edward Oglethorpe to protect the southern frontier against the Spanish and their American Indian allies. Captain John McIntosh, a cousin of John Mohr , established his branch of the family on McIntosh’s Bluff, on the Tombigbee River in what later became a part of Alabama. His son, William McIntosh, became an Indian Agent for the British government and a captain in the British Army. The family grew even more politically connected when McIntosh’s sister, Catherine, became the mother of future Georgia governor George M. Troup, who would eventually play a central role in the
state’s Indian removal. And it would be McIntosh’s son, Creek Chief William McIntosh, whose connections with his first cousin, Gov. Troup, would lead him to some successes, many pressures, and eventually to an untimely and bloody demise on the banks of the Chattahoochee.
A Fateful Treaty “From the Oconee River to the Tallapoosa in Alabama, (McIntosh) controlled every ferry crossing,” said local historian Doug Mabry. “Every ferry, every overnight lodging – there was no way you could cross Creek country at that time without paying him money. And you had to do it numerous times.” Most of that travel was made along the McIntosh Trail, which connected McIntosh’s holdings on the Chattahoochee River with his various other places of business - including the Indian Springs hotel. Since the Creek War of 1813-14, the Lower
Creek people had suffered famine and deprivation. McIntosh had control over the distribution of U.S. government supplies to the Creek through his influence with Indian agent David Mitchell. But when Mitchell was replaced in 1821 by John Crowell, McIntosh’s influence over the Lower Creek was eroded. The Creeks were compelled to sell some of their land to settle debts and buy supplies, and in 1821 negotiated a treaty at Indian Springs to do so. McIntosh received 1,000 acres of land at Indian Springs for his role in negotiating that treaty. When McIntosh’s cousin was elected governor, Troup pushed forward an aggressive program to extinguish all Indian titles to Georgia land. Assured of Troup’s protection, McIntosh helped negotiate a second Treaty of Indian Springs in 1825, by which virtually all remaining Creek land would be ceded for $200,000 in cash. Only six leaders, including McIntosh, signed the document, which included additional money for the land McIntosh received in the previous treaty. A Creek law that McIntosh himself had supported required the death of any Creek leader who ceded land to the United States without the permission of the entire Creek Nation. By signing the new treaty, McIntosh had also signed his death warrant. An attack squad of some 200 Creek warriors was dispatched with an order to execute McIntosh. At dawn on April 30, 1825, they came out of the woods and surrounded the farmhouse where several people, including McIntosh and his family, were living. Francis Flournoy, a white witness to the murders, said in a sworn statement on May 16 that “as soon as they had closely surrounded the general’s dwelling-house, and fixed a guard round the house which I was in, set fire to the dwelling-house, and immediately shot the general.” McIntosh instantly fell and the attackers dragged him out of the house, and then continued to fire their muskets at him, leaving his corpse riddled and bloody. Flournoy wrote that afterward, the “banditti were busily engaged, from the commencement of the horrid scene until a late hour of the morning, in plundering and destroying every thing (sic) valuable, as well the property of the white men who were present as the property of the general.” McIntosh’s daughter, Jane Hawkins, later wrote that her brother, “Chilly” McIntosh, escaped into the darkness during the attack, but her own husband, Col. Samuel
By signing the new Treaty of Indian Springs, McIntosh had also signed his death warrant. Hawkins, had been caught. The attackers tied him up and then awaited the arrival of the three commanders of the raid, who ordered Hawkins’ execution later in the day. “And these barbarous men, not content with spilling the blood of both my husband and father, … refused my hands the painful privilege of covering up his body … and drove me from my home stripped of my two best friends in one day; stripped of all my property, my provision, and my clothing.”
A U.S. Connection? Although Creeks had carried out the attack, there were indications that the assassination had the foreknowledge of U.S. Indian agent John Crowell. Flournoy reported that Peggy McIntosh had gone to the attacker’s camp to beg from them a “suit of white” in which to bury McIntosh. The request was denied,
but Peggy told Flournoy that “those Indians said they were ordered to do what they had done by those who ruled the nation since the Big Warrior’s death … and they were supported and encouraged by the agent,” Crowell. Flournoy said he did not believe that a representative of the U.S. government would incite the murder. “She replied, they would not tell a lie on the agent, for they must know it would come to his ears, and they would have to answer for it,” he said. Flournoy reported that he later spoke to one of the older men who had participated in the attack and asked them what had provoked it. “He replied, he did not love to kill them, but the heads of the nation said so,” said Flournoy. Hadn’t those leaders promised Gov. Troup that McIntosh and his allies would not be harmed, Flournoy asked the man. “He answered that at first they did send that word to the Governor, and then it was so; but since that, the agent had altered it, and told the council that the only way to get their land back, and keep it, was to kill all that had any hand in selling it, and burn and destroy all they had which they could not carry away; and after that, other chiefs never would attempt to sell their land, for fear of being treated in the same way.” The only thing that kept further murders from occurring that day on what is now the Coweta County side of the Chattahoochee was “a great Freshett (flood) in the Chatahoocheethey,” the widows said. ** So was McIntosh a hero or a traitor? McIntosh was a complicated man living in uncertain times, acting for what he saw as the good of his people on some occasions - and for his own personal profit at others. A marker erected at the gravesite by the Daughters of the American Revolution in 1921 says McIntosh was a man whose “devotion was heroic, whose friendship unselfish, and whose service was valiant.” “The DAR really made him into an American hero,” said historian Mabry. “I don’t think I’d go that far.” WGL May/June 2015
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Majestic survivors still direct wanderers
ho doesn’t love mysteries and treasure hunts?
My brother used to find arrowheads in secret places in rural Carroll County. A lot of people like to explore and dig around in the outdoors looking for such relics of the past. But what if I were to tell you there may be other legacies of our earliest people hiding in plain sight in your own backyard? And they are actually alive. While exploring their deep woods in Cleburne County, Ala., my grandchildren one day came upon a tree they nicknamed the “antelope tree.” I was intrigued enough to hike through the forest with my camera to see it. What I saw was quite a strange looking tree, twisted into an odd shape that did not seem caused by nature or disease – in fact, it looked as if someone had deliberately bent it into the shape of an animal. I took pictures and showed them to some friends. One of them suggested it might be a Trail Marker tree.
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So what are these trees? Imagine a scene back in time when a young Cherokee might be found walking through a forest. He might be in search of water, hunting a deer, or perhaps seeking a specific kind of medicinal plant. Around 400 years ago, American Indians were traveling on trails all over this country. Not having maps, they used marker trees (also called trail, signal, or yoke trees) that were bent as saplings and tied down to eventually create pointers to indicate important landmarks. I sent a picture and coordinates of the “antelope tree” to Don Wells who, with his wife, Diane, wrote
STORY BY MARILYN VAN PELT PHOTOS COURTESY MOUNTAIN STEWARDS
“Mystery of the Trees,” a book about these trail markings. He told me that the tree in Cleburne County is about 1.3 miles north of the McIntosh Trading Path, an ancient trail that begins on the Ocmulgee River in Georgia and goes all the way to Talladega, Alabama. In Carroll County, the trail crosses the Chattahoochee at the McIntosh Reserve Park and then goes due west from there. In 2002, a group of retired men began hiking together once a week in the Southern Appalachian Mountains and started finding old, scenic trails it seemed nobody knew about. They decided to revive these trails and make them available to the public, first forming a nonprofit group called Mountain Stewards. With the help of grants and private donations, the group, with Wells as its president, has refurbished and interconnected more than 70 miles of hiking and water trails in Georgia, and constructed a number of bridges and canoe launch sites Today, Mountain Stewards, Wild South, and people from five other states, have created the Indian Trail Tree Project and Indian Trails Mapping Program, both of which document trail trees, not only in Georgia but across the country. This database now includes 2,034 trees in 40 states. The list is confidential, because national preservation laws do not protect the trees. That means they are at risk from people who might steal or damage them. The Trail of Tears was the collective name given to the forced relocation of American Indian nations from southeastern parts of the United States following the Indian Removal Act of 1830. The removal included many members of the Cherokee, Muscogee (Creek), Seminole, Chickasaw, and Choctaw nations, among others in the United States, from their homelands to Indian Territory in eastern sections of Oklahoma. Indian removal also took place in Northern states. The Black Hawk War in Illinois and Wisconsin in 1832 gave millions of acres of land that had belonged to the Sauk, Fox and
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other native nations to white settlers. The most known of these routes was the route followed by the Cherokee in north Georgia. An estimated 4,000 of the 15,000 Cherokees who traveled the route died from disease, hunger and exhaustion. The many uniquely shaped trees these people left in the forests they once hunted is a sad reminder of this event. This network of trail markers may have directed to animal migration routes, water supplies and other areas important to the Indians’ survival. The Indians bent young trees in unnatural position, the direction of the bends indicating the routes to be followed. They then fastened those bends into place, allowing the trees to continue to grow in a shape that would make them easily distinguished from the other trees in the forest. The bark of these trees were usually carved with an individual or clan insignia. A line of similarly bent trees established a continuous uninterrupted route of travel that could be followed. If the trail crossed a non-wooded area, some other system of marking
had to be resorted to, such as the placing of stone pile, planting of poles, some other means. Untrained people find it difficult to differentiate between Trail Trees and those that have grown in an odd shape due to natural causes. But a careful examination will show whether the tree has sustained a disease, or met with an accident – like having a larger tree fall upon it, pinning it down. One positive sign that a tree is a Trail Tree is its age. Because of the longevity of trees, many of these old trail markers, now gnarled with age, still stand as living reminders of the time when this country was peopled by the Creek and Cherokee people. Unless they are documented and protected, these symbols of the past may be gone forever. If you think you know where one is located, you can submit the information online at the Mountain Stewards’ website, mountainstewards.org. WGL Marilyn Van Pelt is a Carroll County Master Gardener Extension Volunteer
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PHOTOS BY RICKY STILLEY 48
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t’s springtime. That means farmers markets are opening and fresh and locally grown foods are becoming available. It also means tomatoes are just coming into season.
this point, you’re going to want to use either a blender or a stick blender (my choice) and blend the mixture to break up the meat of the tomatoes. If you’re using a stand blender, pulse it instead of setting it on puree. The point here it is to break up the meat enough to pass through a medium sieve, leaving the seeds. The seeds will eventually cook out, or you could leave them in – but they will leave a bitter, metallic aftertaste that is the sure sign of someone who was in a hurry with their tomatoes. Of course, you can always use a food mill that has a medium screen.
I look forward at this time of year to replenish my stock of sauce and tomato products. During the last weeks of winter, most people have been looking forward to fresh, light salads and the scores of early season vegetables. That’s fine for them, but I am looking forward to meatballs that have been heavily browned with chewy Once the puree has been sieved, return to the pot, noodles, and a tangy, slightly spicy sauce. The great thing about working with tomatoes is just how easy it is. Although you do have to pay attention to a few things to make sure these recipes go properly, all you really need is patience. Some of these recipes take time, and in some cases a lot of time.
turn on a medium setting and begin to reduce, stirring very often. As the tomatoes begin to reduce and thicken, turn the heat down but stir just as often. This is more of a project of love than it is something you can check back on from time to time. Remember, this is definitely not a lazy day project. After a few hours, it will begin to thicken more until the point at which it can no longer be stirred, but simply “piles up” around the spoon as you try.
Since these first recipes are from scratch, it would be well to explain the blanching of tomatoes. This may sound elementary to the seaTwelve pounds of tomatoes should yield about soned cook, but there are many who have never 2-2 1/2 cups of super tomato concentrate. When done this themselves. It’s really quite simple: cooled, you can either can it, place it in zip top bags Set a large pot of water to boil with enough water to fully submerge your largest tomato, and then put out a container of ice water and an empty bowl large enough to hold all of the blanched tomatoes. Simply (and carefully) submerge one or two tomatoes at a time in the boiling water until the skin begins to split, then immediately dunk them in the ice bath to stop the cooking process. Place the cooled tomatoes in the extra bowl. When ready, cut the top of the tomato and the rest of the meat should pop right out. If not, it should be very easy to peel.
Tomato Paste and Conserva A ton of recipes call for tomato paste and I always buy the stuff in the toothpaste style tube. This year, I decided to make my own supply and, although I ended up with less than I thought, I still have a wonderful, flavorful tomato paste that beats the store bought stuff by far. 12 pounds very ripe paste or Roma tomatoes, blanched 2 bay leaves 2 teaspoons coarse sea salt 5-7 hours of your life that you’re not going to get back Place all tomatoes in a heavy bottom pot large enough to hold them, then crush them with your hands. Add salt and bay leaves, and simmer, covered, for about 30-45 minutes. Remove the bay leaves. At
and freeze it (my method), or you can place it in a sterilized jar while very hot and cover it with about 3/4 inch of olive oil. I’ve tried this method before with other high acid foods, and it seems to preserve them for long periods of time in the fridge.
Tomato Conserva This is a semi-simple method to take your paste just a little farther. Simply spread the paste on a cookie sheet and place in an oven at around 200 degrees or lower and let dry/concentrate for another 30-60 minutes, of course while watching it closely. When the edges start to caramelize and turn a dark brown you’re about done. Again, the above storage methods work fine for keeping the conserva.
Tomato Sauce (Marinara)
Instead of breaking up the tomatoes with your hands, cut them in half and try to remove as much of the seeds and middle liquid as possible. If a little bit of either gets in the sauce, it’s no problem. Once cut, you can break up the tomatoes with your hands in the pot.
Just my simple little recipe for a knockout marinara: In a large skillet, sauté all the aromatics (garlic, 20-25 large, very ripe tomatoes, blanched 1 cup carrot, finely diced 1 1/2 cups sweet onions, finely diced 1 1/2 cups celery, finely diced 1 1/2 cups green pepper, finely diced 5-6 cloves garlic, finely diced 1 cup dry red wine 1 teaspoon each, oregano, thyme, basil 1/2 teaspoon red pepper flakes sea salt and pepper to taste
onions, pepper, and carrots) until translucent and the edges are just starting to turn brown. Deglaze the skillet with the red wine, being very careful to avoid flare-ups, and reduce until almost evaporated. Add this to the pot and simmer until thickened. If your sauce doesn’t really have that rich depth of tomato flavor, add about 2 tablespoons of the paste that you just made. This base recipe has a thousand and more variations. Add browned ground beef, pork, or lamb (or all three) and simmer until the meat disappears and May/June 2015
West Georgia Living
Meatballs and marinara sauce Tablecloth by west Georgia artist Jason Sudduth
QUICK TIPS If you don’t have time to blanch tomatoes, a great time saver is to freeze them. I usually try to buy large quantities of tomatoes when they are overly ripe and about to go over to the “Dark Side” I freeze them until I’m ready for them and then run them under some warm water. The skins peel right off.
you have a simple ragù. Cook the base marinara or the ragù down until quite thick and you have a top notch pizza sauce. One way or another, this little recipe can go far, and if you make very large batches, it will can or freeze well.
A Simple Meatball Recipe I tinkered with meatballs for years and never could seem to get them right. I either over-handled them, didn’t season them quite right, or they were dry, dry, dry. However, repeated trial and error, coupled with a little research, led me to my standard meatball recipe: 1 pound ground beef 1 pound ground pork 1/2 cup Italian breadcrumbs 1/4 cup heavy cream 1/4 cup sweet onion, very finely diced 2 cloves garlic, very finely diced 1 egg sea salt and pepper to taste
Start by allowing the breadcrumbs to soak in heavy cream until completely absorbed. Season the onions and garlic with the salt and pepper, and sauté the onions until they just begin to brown and caramelize. Remove from heat and allow to cool. Blend all the ingredients just until combined, being very careful not to over handle. Form into 1 1/2” balls and brown in a frying pan, turning to brown as much of the meatball as possible. Don’t worry about cooking them all the way through; you can either finish them in the oven at about 325 degrees for 10-15 minutes, or do as I do and let them finish cooking in marinara sauce. Serve over a nice homemade pasta.
I would like to add something about the Italian tradition of Sunday gravy. I had the good fortune to enjoy this custom many years ago when I was with the military in Italy. A Sunday gravy is not just a dish; it’s an opportunity for family to gather on a Sunday, and spend
the day eating many courses and enjoying the day. All you do is take a large pot of marinara and add a heavily browned lamb shank or leg, then cook, slowly and lovingly, over a medium low heat for many hours. The first course is a chewy pasta, much like penne but thicker, with the sauce that has been simmering for hours. The second course is the meat, which is now fall-apart tender, served with bread and seasonal vegetables. The food is wonderful, but even better is the tradition of gathering family together, which is something we could all use a little more of. As always .... .
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The Forgotten Artist "Hygeia"
Julian Hoke Harris Created Art for the Ages
hen they tore down the old terminal to make way for the new Hartsfield airport in 1983, something more was lost than a prime example of mid-century, jet-age architecture. Also gone was a sculpture evocative of its era, a style pioneered by a west Georgia sculptor whose name, like much of his art, has been lost to time. The piece was called â€œPhoenixâ€? after the symbol for Atlanta, a bird rising to new life out of the ashes. Consisting of a series of metal panels resembling
STORY BY KEN DENNEY PHOTOS BY RICKY STILLEY
West Georgia Living
feathers, it hung over the lobby of the Atlanta Municipal Airport. The avant-garde mobile, moving in currents of air, was suited for the 1961 terminal, a building designed for a new, futuristic era of sleek passenger jets. However, to self-appointed guardians of Atlanta’s image, it stuck out like a sore thumb. They did not like the modern style, and derided it with nicknames like “thingamajig” and the “flaming rooster.” Mayor William Hartsfield himself came to the defense of its creator, Julian Hoke Harris, and so the sculpture remained in place.
Brittain Dining Hall, Georgia Tech
Until, that is, the building came down for the much bigger airport that followed. That is when Harris’ sculpture disappeared. Though reportedly put in storage, a spokesman for the airport says no one today knows where it is. The piece has completely vanished, remembered now only in old postcard photographs, a sad loss shared by the name of an artist now consigned to obscurity. Julian Harris (1906-1987) was from west Georgia – from Carrollton, specifically. Along with many artistic works such as “Phoenix,” he created decorations for buildings across the Southeast and the nation. Those buildings still exist, and so does Harris’ art – but no one goes out of their way to identify him as the artist. Passersby, intent on their business, may only notice them out of the corner of their eye; art-deco designs – some in metal, many in stone that seem quaint in a modern world. But this was the man who was offered the job of finishing the gigantic sculpture on Stone Mountain, after the original artist – the man who created Mount Rushmore – quit that job. Harris designed the medal struck for Jimmy Carter’s presidential inauguration. He also worked in stained glass, and his mammoth installation daily beams colored light onto students at Brittain Dining Hall at Georgia Tech. It’s sad, then, that he is not better remembered.
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Harris was born in Carrollton on Aug. 22, 1906. He was given the middle name Hoke because Harris’ father was a supporter of Hoke Smith, who at that time was running for governor of Georgia. Around town, Harris had the nickname “Little Hoke.” Harris is connected with another Carrollton artist, someone who achieved his own level of fame: Ed Dodd, who created the “Mark Trail” comic strip in 1946. Dodd and Harris were childhood neighbors and both of them were intensely interested in art. They pooled their modest financial resources for a $5 cartooning course, and Dodd’s mother cleaned up the attic of the Dodd home to create a studio for
Grady Memorial Hospital the two boys.
decided to devote himself to art. He became proficient with the “stripped classical” style while attending the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts between 1930 and 1933. Returning to Atlanta he opened his own studio, but in 1936 accepted a post to teach at Georgia Tech, where he remained for the next 36 years. The salary he collected was enough to support his wife and two daughters, but he also had time to create his own artwork and accept commissions.
Harris attended Carrollton High School in the years just after World War I and was voted “best dressed, most popular and the biggest flirt.” His study in art remained strong and he had hoped to go from Carrollton to New York and study illustration. His father, however, vetoed that idea, perhaps insisting that he looked for steadier financial prospects. Thus, Harris arrived on the campus of Georgia Institute of Technology where he studied architecture. It was there he found a way to combine building with a love for art. The 1920s was the heyday of architectural sculpture, in which decorative sculptural elements are made part of the building itself. The Greeks did this with friezes added to such buildings as the Parthenon, but it did not happen much in America until the Art Deco period. One of the leading influences of the time was Lee Oscar Lawrie, who created works for Rockefeller Center in New York. There were many styles of architectural sculpture floating around at the end of the Jazz Age, and Harris was soaking up these influences wherever he could. Shortly after graduating from Tech in 1928, Harris toured Europe’s museums and art centers and then travelled in Egypt, where the ancients had first developed bas-relief sculpture as a high art.
Harris was a master of many forms of art, but the style of virtually every piece harkens back to the styles he learned in his youth.
the smoothed surface of the stone. The simple and stylized human figures he found on Egyptian monuments echoed the “stripped classicism” artistic movement that was then current. These carved figures were reminiscent of classical statues, but more abstract and geometric, in keeping with Art Deco. During the Great Depression, artists with the Works Progress Administration incorporated these styles in many public buildings.
Bas-relief is a type of stone sculpture in which the shapes that form the outline of a figure are After a short stint as a draftsman with one of carved so that they are only slightly higher than the state’s leading architectural firms, Harris
One of the first pieces he did was commissioned for Georgia Tech as a gift from the Classes of 1929 and 1930: a large stained glass window for Brittain Dining Hall, a building straight out of Hogwarts located across the street from Bobby Dodd Stadium. Each morning, today’s students eat breakfast bathed in the multicolored light cast from this huge window, the panels of which represent branches of engineering, technological achievements and campus life. Harris also worked in metal, and a good many of these works are medallions – including his design for a bronze medal made for the inauguration of Jimmy Carter as 39th President of the United States. Other sculptures were bronzes, and one of his favorite subjects was St. Francis of Assisi. A tall, minimalist bronze called “Saint Francis” is one of several of his sculptures on display at Brookgreen Gardens in Murrells Inlet, S.C. Closer to home, “The Cross,” a May/June 2015
West Georgia Living
metal plaque depicting St. Francis showing a cross to a multitude of animals, is at the World of Reptiles exhibit at Zoo Atlanta.
face of the mountain. In 1925, however, Borglum abandoned the project and went on to create the carving at Mount Rushmore. Plans for the memorial were in flux for several decades, and it was Harris who was selected twice to complete the work, both times by the State of Georgia. Ultimately, however, another artist completed the project.
For every piece worked in metal, Harris seems also to have produced a piece in stone. Many of his works are bas-reliefs incorporated into the design of Art Deco buildings. In Cedartown, for example, two large figures flank the main entrance of the historic Anyone from west Georgia who West Theater, one of the last remain- wants to see examples of his work ing such theaters in the country. can do so - if you know where to look. At the State Capitol in Atlanta, The smooth, chisel-free lines of these Harris’ works decorate several state works were often done with the aid office buildings. Many of these, of of a powerful, industrial grade gas jet course, reflect what goes on in those – a device not unlike a flamethrower buildings. on steroids. The intense heat generated by these torches literally melts Two of them can be found flanking away stone. the south entrance of the Agriculture Department headquarters at 19 MarThis was the technique ultimately tin Luther King Jr. Drive. Put there used to create images of three Conin 1954, the two figures represent federate heroes carved into the face “Animal Husbandry” and “Farming,” but being male and female some visiof Stone Mountain. Its owners had tors have nicknamed them “Adam” commissioned Gutzon Borglum to create such a memorial on the north and “Eve.”
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Another example is at Grady Memorial Hospital, where two large figures represent the medical profession. Originally on the outside of the building, they have since been enclosed by a new lobby entrance that also serves as a kind of museum for the hospital. The two figures from Greek myth and history are “Hygeia,” the personification (and namesake) of hygiene, and “Hippocrates,” considered the founder of Western medicine. Harris passed away in 1987. During his lifetime, he achieved honors and awards as was well known among a small circle of architectural sculptors, medalists and workers in metal and bronze. That he is not better known among art patrons – as well as west Georgians – is a shame. But perhaps it is enough that his works live on. Carved in stone or cast in metal, they will survive through centuries, a testament to Harris’ time and place in the universe. WGL
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Tanner Grocery An ancient building still serves an old business, well into the 21st century
istoric buildings can be renovated, repurposed, retrofitted, restored and, on occasion, razed.
Others â€“ like C.M. Tanner Grocery Co. in Carrollton â€“ simply remain. Workdays start early at the 122-yearold, family-owned wholesale grocery. At 6:30 a.m. on a busy Tuesday, employees already have begun meticulously arranging customer orders inside the delivery trucks that line the loading
STORY BY REBECCA LEFTWICH PHOTOS BY RICKY STILLEY
John Tanner III and his mother, Barbara Tanner, on the warehouse floor. John has been running the business since 1988; his mother helps keep the accounts. May/June 2015
West Georgia Living
Above left: Patrick Ashley, warehouse manager, coordinates incoming orders. Above: Daniel Scott unloads the conveyor belt. docks. There’s still a Tanner in charge tures whose stories have been lost to both here, and he’s balancing a cup of coffee time and practicality. and a stack of paperwork as he weaves his way through the throng, wishing everyone Every now and then, however, Tanner gets a good morning. the satisfaction of solving a tiny mystery. The nails in the mortar, for example, that Johnny Tanner grew up working in the have puzzled him since his youth. warehouse on Maple Street and became manager in 1988. He knows every aspect “There must be 10,000 nails out there, and of the business side of Tanner Grocery, but I never could figure out why,” he said. But admits that the old building itself - built in one of the “old-timers” recently explained it 1905 - still holds some mysteries. to him. His great-great grandfather, C.M. Tanner, originally opened the grocery on the other side of the railroad tracks, in a spot now occupied by Maple Street school’s parking lot. When his booming business outgrew the original general mercantile building, C.M. called on his friend Leroy C. Mandeville. Tanner served on the board of the cotton mill Mandeville had founded, and Tanner’s store was across the street from property Mandeville owned. “There wasn’t room to expand on that side of the tracks, so (Mandeville) agreed to sell him this land,” Tanner said. By daylight, it’s not difficult to see the physical marks of time’s passing on the “new” location. As with many historic structures, the evolution of changing uses and shifting needs has given Tanner Grocery the appearance of a near-living structure.
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Brick patchwork covers the loading docks on the side of the building where rail tracks once ran. Bits of curious history dot the entire exterior of the warehouse – a closed-off chute here, a bricked-up window there – and there are many other fea-
“He said it was from placards,” Tanner said. “It was the way we advertised. Every time we got a new product in, we nailed another placard to the building.” Inside the rambling warehouse, the business of 2015 blends seamlessly with pieces of the past. Office space sits beneath an old country store-type “grocery” sign. Just inside the loading area, a board shelf holds a metal hoop cheese wheel/cutter, a CocaCola syrup barrel and an ancient can of Leadway Crushed Pineapple, over which Tanner briefly pauses. “My grandfather designed this label in the 1930s,” he said, proudly hoisting the can for a closer look. The business once sold all its merchandise under the family name, and Tanner has partnered with a chemist friend to develop environmentally friendly cleaning products. But such private lines of products have been scaled back over the years. Once upon a time, Georgia retailers of Tanner Grocery’s size used to depend on momand-pop stores for 70-80 percent of their
business. The decline of those stores has led to dwindling numbers of wholesalers in the state, and keeping his historic family business afloat requires Tanner to stay a step or two ahead of the game. “You always have to keep thinking,” Tanner said. “You can’t just jump into new things. You have to do it gradually.” Concession stands, convenience stores and a few large companies make up the bulk of Tanner Grocery’s clientele these days, one of the gradual changes that has kept the business in business. It’s just another tick on the ever-lengthening Tanner timeline. Trains gave way to trucks, and rail-side docks moved street-side. Manual roller conveyors and conveyor belts replaced hand dollies. The street-level chute was permanently sealed decades ago after an unfortunate incident in which a thief used it to gain access to the building to steal a brand new panel truck loaded with goods. There used to be a whole section of the warehouse devoted to the storage of cigarettes. With the decline of smoking, John Stallings Architectural Woodwork has transformed that room into a workout facility for Tanner’s 20-plus employees. The most recent addition to the warehouse is a cold storage room for cheeses. It is one of the few climate-controlled rooms in the building and serves as a holding area for both clients and popular three-pound wheels of cheddar cheese that Tanner sells at a special rate during the Christmas season. In spite of the upgrades, some areas of the building remain untouched. Down the steps and at the back of “The Dungeon,” as it’s jokingly called, is a pitch-black, cellar-like area with high, hardy beams and a rich dirt floor. Evidence would suggest that mules were housed there at some point, as Tanner said several horseshoes and what appears to be a mule collar have been discovered in
that area. It is a theory yet to be confirmed. Other mysteries lurk in corners and back rooms, like the vintage cans of green-andwhite-labeled Quaker State motor oil that Tanner has no memory of stocking. And what of the dozens of brown, gallon-sized apothecary bottles – empty, unstoppered and shrink-wrapped – marked “Elixir: Phenobarbital (Nonofficial)?” Perhaps at some point they were intended to be recycled; sterilized and reused like old Coke bottles.
Above: Tyree Salaam moves product. Below: Salaam and Willie Norman load up for a delivery.
While he admits he’s curious about such things, Tanner’s daily work keeps him too busy making new history to dwell for long on the past. The youngster who once worked for his father, stacking bags of sugar to the rafters of a sweltering warehouse, has matured into a savvy business manager. A husband and father, he also is raising another generation of Tanners. Someday they may add to the legacy of C.M. Tanner Grocery Company. WGL
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A Novel Approach to History:
Four Women in the Civil War Abbott, Karen. Liar, Temptress, Soldier, Spy: Four Women Undercover in the Civil War. NY: HarperCollins, 2014.
ecrets whispered in furtive pillow talk; encrypted messages carried behind enemy lines in disguise; risks of disgrace, imprisonment - or death. Karen Abbottâ€™s nonfiction book on Civil War espionage reads like an action-packed spy novel. Decades before the career of femme fatale Mata Hari, the four women in Abbottâ€™s historical account took incredible risks to gather intelligence and transmit it to political and military leaders during the American Civil War. These women defied social conventions and risked their freedom, even their lives. Abbott blurs the line between nonfiction and fiction as she weaves the stories of these women through the tapestry of the conflict between the North and the South, providing a unique view of the events of the war, both on May/June 2015
West Georgia Living
the battlefield and behind the lines.
At the age of 43 and unmarried, Elizabeth Van Lew lived with her father, a wealthy businessman and slave owner in Richmond, Virginia, the capital city of the Confederacy. Her activities as a Union supporter scandalized the women of her social class. She enticed General John Winder, 18 years her senior, to permit her visits to Union prisoners, and allow her to take them gifts of food, books and clothing, all actions criticized in the press. But no one in Richmond society knew Van Lew was also a spy who collected intelligence about Confederate battle plans – information she encoded with a cipher and concealed in her clothing. And in a brazen act worthy of 007, she planted one of own servants, a freed slave named Mary Jane Bowser, within the home of Confederate President Jefferson Davis. With access to invaluable military intelligence directly from the president’s desk, Bowser was able to code the data and pass it along to other operatives. Throughout the war, both women constantly risked their lives through their espionage activities. Another Virginian, Belle Boyd, was a Confederate spy. As Abbott observes, Belle had the reputation of being “the fastest girl in Virginia, or anywhere else for that matter.” Also the daughter of a wealthy slave owner, she lived up to the image of a Southern Belle, with a headstrong reckless streak worthy of Scarlett O’Hara. Throughout the war as a spy and a courier, Belle carried food, medication, and weapons, as well as information, behind enemy lines, risking her life and freedom through her activities. She had direct contact with General Thomas “Stonewall” Jackson, whom she idolized, and often passed her information to him personally. Eventually, Belle’s espionage led to her arrest, and she was confined to Old Capital Prison. Belle was eventually released, and lived to write a successful memoir about her exciting
Eventually freed, Greenhow traveled to Europe to solicit support for the Confederate cause, even meeting with Napoleon III. After the war, Rose O’Neal Greenhow’s memoir was also immensely popular, and after her death, she was compared to Joan of Arc. Perhaps the most fascinating character in Abbott’s book is Emma Edmonds, who supported the Northern cause by actually fighting in the war, passing as man and adopting the name Frank Thompson.
Robert C. Covel, a retired university and high school English teacher, received his Ph.D. in English from Georgia State University. He has published two books of poetry and he is also writing a novel. When not reading and writing, he enjoys playing trivia. He lives with his wife Deloris and his dog Monet in West Georgia. and often reckless exploits during the war. She later went on the lecture circuit and further exploited her notoriety for the remainder of her life. While Boyd was in the Old Capital prison, another prisoner was Rose O’Neal Greenhow, a Confederate spy who, like Boyd, had a wild reputation, and, like Elizabeth Van Lew, moved in the highest social circles. South Carolina senator and ardent secessionist John C. Calhoun was her mentor, and she had met both Martin Van Buren and Jefferson Davis in social situations. In her role as a spy, the famous detective Allen Pinkerton pursued her personally. Eventually arrested and imprisoned in 1862, she shared her cell with her nineyear-old daughter, little Rose. Abbott includes a photograph of the two of them, taken by famed Civil War photographer Mathew Brady.
Before the war, Emma had fooled her own family by appearing on the doorstep dressed as a man in military uniform, sharing a meal with them for an hour without being recognized. During the war, she fought and lived alongside men for over two years without anyone guessing her true gender. She revealed her secret to only two men, both of whom kept quiet. Abbott gives many vivid details of the battles in which Edmonds fought, including seeing men being killed as she fought beside them. General George McClellan, commander of the Army of the Potomac, recruited her to be an undercover spy, and on one occasion, she disguised herself as a slave, changing her skin color. She even dressed as a female Irish peddler – a woman playing a man, playing a woman! In a novel, the details of Edmond’s real-life adventures would seem unbelievable. After the war, her memoir sold 175,000 copies, an almost unbelievable literary success, rivaling the sale of “Uncle Tom’s Cabin,” the topselling book of the 19th Century Karen Abbott’s study of these four women is as dramatic and complicated as their lives. At times the stories of espionage, of near misses, and the unfailing courage of the four women seem to blur the line between fact and fiction; while the book’s photographs and maps help ground the book in reality. Though not a historical novel, Abbott’s book is a novel approach to history, and certainly a worthwhile read. WGL
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Teresa Rosche Ott The Simpler Web
I never dreamed I’d … Do half the things I’ve done, and I’m just getting started. If you had told me a few years ago, when I was driving into Atlanta every day, that I’d be running my own business out of an über-cool co-working spot in downtown Douglasville, I wouldn’t have believed it. My best friend is … My husband, Brian. He can’t replace my girlfriends because he’ll never tell me when an outfit makes me look bad, but he’s my rock, and the one who comes to mind first when I think and write about small business. If stranded on a desert island, I’d want this book with me … “’Tis,” by Frank McCourt, a funny but sometimes heartbreaking tale about McCourt’s journey from poverty to teacher and writer. I love any well-written story about people overcoming obstacles through persistence and hard work, but this one holds a special place in my heart. I’d love to share a cup of coffee with … Almost any independent entrepreneur who’s turned a skill or passion into a successful business. My hero is … (U.S. Rep.) Justin Amash (R-Mich.) He uses social media to share and explain his votes, and he’s not afraid to go against the flow if he thinks it’s the right thing to do. People probably don’t know that I … Was once a high school dropout. I did eventually finish, and have since graduated with honors from a four-year university. But when I was 17 all of that seemed impossible. When I have 10 minutes alone I like to … Crank up the music and dance! My parents taught me ... A lot that I’ve had to unlearn, to be honest. But while I’d never volunteer for the kinds of experiences they provided, they gave me strengths I couldn’t have developed any other way. My personal motto is ... Think bigger. Start simpler. Or, have grander possibilities in mind while appreciating the power of that single step that gets you inside a challenge. My favorite childhood memory is ... Running wild through Disneyland with my girlfriend Kelly, after her parents told us where to meet them at closing time, then cut us loose. Surprisingly we were never thrown out of the park. WGL May/June 2015
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ROAD TO HEALING Getting the Mental Health Assistance You Need W
hen your life spins out of control, asking for help is a sign of strength, not weakness, according to Nakeya Gore, LCSW, CAADC, the admissions manager at Willowbrooke at Tanner, an 82-bed inpatient and outpatient behavioral health facility in Villa Rica that provides care for adults, adolescents and children age five and up.
When to Seek Mental Health Care Gore recommends that you seek the help of a trained mental health professional if: you constantly worry; you feel trapped; you aren’t getting any better with self-help; you feel as if you can’t handle things alone; you’ve begun using alcohol or drugs; your feelings are affecting your job, relationships or sleep or eating habits; or someone who knows you well has suggested that you need counseling. “These are only some of the symptoms that may warrant seeking help. You may have others that concern you,” said Gore, who is one of 23 master’s-level clinicians at Willowbrooke at Tanner who work in shifts around the clock, seven days a week, to admit or refer patients for mental, behavioral or substance abuse issues. “Our lives have become more and more demanding and stressful. And we place more and more expectations on ourselves and our loved ones.” According to Gore, many people don’t seek help, not just because they see it as a sign of weakness but because they see it as a stigma. “I chose my profession because I was passionate about reducing the stigma of having a mental, behavioral or substance abuse issue. I want people to know: you’re not alone. We perform more than a thousand assessments per month at Willowbrooke at Tanner,” said Gore. “Not everything can be managed in your home with your family and the limited resources you have. The first and best thing that you need to do is seek professional advice.” Before establishing a relationship with any mental health professional, Gore advises that you make certain the person or facility is licensed and/or accredited, and has training and experience in your area of concern.
4 Ways to Get Mental Health Assistance
According to Gore, getting the help you need is as simple as a making a quick phone call:
1. Consult your primary care provider. Your primary care physician often can help you determine if your symptoms could be caused by medical conditions. Your physician may then refer you to Willowbrooke at Tanner, another mental health facility, a free clinic or even a private practice. 2. Consult your employer’s employee assistance program (EAP). Whether you want advice for relationship problems, financial difficulties or even drug addiction, an EAP can connect you with services you need. 3. Call your health insurance carrier. Your health plan may have a special phone number you can call to find out if you have mental health or substance abuse treatment coverage, as well as what services are covered and any limit on the amount the plan will pay. There may be restrictions on where you get services. 4. Call Willowbrooke at Tanner at 770.812.3995 or 770.812.3266 for a free, confidential assessment. According to Gore, you can make an appointment for a free assessment on a day and at a time that’s convenient to you in Villa Rica, Carrollton or Cartersville — even right away in a crisis situation. An inoffice assessment involves meeting with a master’s-level therapist. “Georgia has made it easier to access mental health services, but people are having more distress and issues that cause them to seek counseling and treatment,” said Gore. “There is a great need for the kind of — Paid Advertorial —
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services and continuum of care that Willowbrooke at Tanner provides.”
In addition to its separate inpatient units for adults, adolescents and children, Willowbrooke at Tanner has a 10,000-squarefoot outpatient services building, which provides a range of outpatient behavioral health services, including state-approved Core services for children and adolescents, partial hospitalization programs, group therapy and expressive therapy programs and more. Willowbrooke at Tanner also has office locations that provide outpatient services in Carrollton and Cartersville. “My team’s goal is to connect clients with the resources they need as soon as possible. We try our best to get people the services and help they need — whatever that facility or program might be,” said Gore. “A couple of things really set Willowbrooke at Tanner apart. One is that we offer a lower level of care at the Tanner Center for Behavioral Health (CBH), which is a combination of the outpatient resources of Willowbrooke at Tanner and therapists who can see patients whether they have commercial insurance or Medicaid, Medicare, etc. Additionally, we pride ourselves on treating children. We just opened a 30-bed inpatient unit specifically for children earlier this year, but we also try to get families involved in home services, where a therapist goes into the home to work with the family and children so that we can help solve issues before situations become a crisis.” Whatever may be causing your distress or the distress of a family member, the first step is just to make a phone call. For a free, confidential assessment at Willowbrooke at Tanner call 770.812.3995. To learn more, visit www.WillowbrookeAtTanner.org.
STANDING UP WITH “STANDING DOWN”
he transition from the world of the warrior to the world of the civilian is a difficult one, a difficulty often exacerbated by an inability to talk about the experience. So where does one put those experiences?
Literature has often been the answer for soldiers in writing about war, and books can also help returning veterans.
This is the premise behind a unique program recently held in west Georgia that allowed a group of veterans to come together and talk, while using an anthology of other warriors’ stories as a catalyst for that conversation. It’s a conversation that war vets find difficult to have with civilians, who seem to expect warriors to easily transition back to a world of 9-to-5 jobs, mortgages and queuing up in the supermarket. “(Civilians at home) want to say ‘welcome home, thank you for your service, now don’t bother us with (your experiences) anymore; Get adjusted, don’t have any problems,’” said Dr. Randy Hendricks,
STORY BY TAYLOR BOLTZ PHOTOS BY RICKY STILLEY
Top: Johnnie Perkins, right, listens as John Frevert, a counselor at the University of West Georgia, talks about the book "Standing Down". May/June 2015
West Georgia Living
who helped lead the program. “Reading about the same experiences offers recognition; an understanding that they’re not alone in it.”
state form of the National Endowment, and $10,000 came to Georgia to support this program,” Hendricks explained. “Only six of the state humanity councils selected this program, almost all of them are in the South, which says something interesting about what the South is thinking about right now.”
The program is called “Talking Service” and was created by the Great Books Foundation, a nonprofit educational organization. Veterans gather at meeting places in towns and communities across the country, where, in discussions led by facilitators such as Hendricks, they begin to share their experiences in coming home from war.
The group, not Hendricks, controlled what was read and discussed. “They’re the experts,” Hendricks said. He only led the conversations, starting with Hemingway’s “Soldiers Home” and a series of short articles by Ernie Pyle, a World War II correspondent.
These talks are centered on an anthology collection published by Great Books and called “Standing Down: From Warrior to Civilian,” edited by Donald Whitfield. The book features essays covering everything from Homer to contemporary memoirs and poems by veterans of Iraq and Afghanistan on their experience of leaving the battlefield behind.
In order to create buzz about the group, Hendricks went on the radio, placed notices in the community calendar, sent emails, placed fliers and talked it up with everyone he met. Even so, there was a fear that there might not be enough response, so he asked first-year English graduate student Ryan Silver to help.
“(Whitfield) himself is a veteran and works for the Great Books Foundation, which provides the text free,” said Hendricks, who is Dean of the College of Arts and Humanities at the University of West Georgia.
“Ryan’s a veteran himself, so he was a big help in spreading the word,” Hendricks said. Silver first heard about the program when taking a fiction writing class with Hendricks last fall. “Talking Service” is neither an academic exercise nor therapy session, but helps to recreate the strong, sustaining bonds that former soldiers had with their service units. “What I noticed in the first meeting, was that even those who hadn’t gotten to do the reading contributed to the conversation because they recognized the experiences that were being talked about.” The program has been held in many cities across Georgia, including LaGrange, Atlanta, and Gainesville, and most recently in Carrollton. Held in four sessions at the Neva Lomason Memorial Library, the program was open to veterans, spouses, and family members; however, the majority of those enrolled were veterans. “(We) had lots of really interesting people,” said Hendricks. “In our program, we had about 15 folks … All but two (were) veterans of Iraq and Afghanistan; two (were) from Vietnam.” The program derived from an idea by the Great Books Foundation, which began in 1947 and focuses on adult education through producing reading groups around specific subjects, utilizing classic texts. “They got some support through the National Endowment for the Humanities and the Georgia Humanities Council, which is the
West Georgia Living
Left: Ryan Silver is a grad student and and a veteran of the Iraqi war.
“I didn’t know it was a reading group. (Hendricks) just mentioned a program for veterans,” Silver said. Silver served in Iraq from 2003 to 2004 and again from 2005 to 2006, and he had connections to the Veterans Affairs Center and other people he knew around town. “We were looking for Afghanistan and Iraq
“(Civilians at home) want to say ‘welcome home, thank you for your service, now don’t bother us with (your experiences) anymore; Get adjusted, don’t have any problems.” — Dr. Randy Hendricks program assistant leader veterans,” Silver said. “It’s hard to get (them) to do anything and connect (with people).” “The suicide rate (for veterans) is about 22 (veterans) a day,” Silver said. “(We wanted to) let the text talk to (the veterans) rather than them talking in general.” The military, Silver explained, is about community as a whole. “When you get out, it’s very individualistic,” Silver said. “You don’t have anyone telling you what to do. It’s full of Catch 22’s and double standards.” But by becoming involved in the reading group, Silver noted that the group has helped him as well.
“It’s helped me in the fact that I’m helping others,” he said. “We may keep meeting after this. (Many participants) really like it.” This project is one of several that the University of West Georgia’s College of Arts and Humanities has done with the Georgia Humanities Council over the years, but nothing like this specific program has been done before. “I’d really like to try to do a repeat of the program in Newnan,” Hendricks said. “I just want to keep it going.” Hendricks hopes that “this will be a jumpstart and the group will continue to grow,” adding that “if a community is really a community, they won’t need a facilitator.” WGL
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Amy Brown, Agent 119 S. Candler Street Villa Rica, GA 30180 Bus: 678-840-5000 email@example.com
Calendar of Events
Liberty Church Road in Carrollton. Information: Rick Cowan, 404-783-7061.
Saturday, May 2
Hot Rods on Main: 5-9 p.m., downtown Douglasville. Free. Hot rods, live music, and vendors. Information: April McKown, 678449-3102.
Amy Grant in Concert: 8 p.m., Mill Town Music Hall, 1031 Alabama Ave. in Bremen. $40-50. Information: 770-5376455. MayFest Arts and Crafts Festival: 9:30-4:30 p.m., Adamson Square in Carrollton. Free. Handmade arts and crafts, food vendors, children’s village, Teen Idol and the annual WestFest concert. Information: 770-832-6901. K e e p H a r a l s o n B e a u t if u l R iv e r Cleanup: 9 a.m., Dub Denham Canoe Trail Site, 70 Murphy Campus Blvd. in Waco. Information: 678-821-1600. Buchanan Car Cruise: 5-8 p.m., downtown Buchanan. Free. Antique cars, trucks, motorcycles and tractors; music, concessions and prizes. Information: 404-550-3475. Fishing for Freedom: A day of free fishing for Wounded Warriors and Gold Star Family Members who have lost a military son, daughter or spouse in recent wars. The Park at Georgia Power’s Plant Wansley, 1371 68
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Tuesday, May 5 Free Concert: Pride of Temple Band, Temple High School, 5:30 p.m. at The AMP, 119 Bradley St. in Carrollton. Information: 770-832-6901. Financial Strategies for Successful Retirement: 6-9 p.m., University of West Georgia’s Carrollton campus. Cost: $69, which includes a second session Thursday, May 7 from 6-9 at UWG Carrollton. Information: Erika McClain, emcclain@westga. edu.
Town Road in Villa Rica. Serving Bremen, Temple, Carrollton and Villa Rica, the club organizes park days, field trips tours, crafts, a book club and a monthly moms night out. Information: www.villaricamomsclub@ yahoo.com.
Saturday, May 9 Charlie Daniels Band in Concert: 7:30 p.m., Mill Town Music Hall, 1031 Alabama Ave. in Bremen. $50-65. Information: 770537-6455. High School Art Exhibit: 10 a.m. to noon, third floor of the Douglas County Courthouse, 8700 Hospital Drive in Douglasville. Free. Opening of Congressman David Scott’s High School Art Competition exhibit, featuring the work of high school students in Scott’s district. Information: Wes Tallon, 770-920-7593.
National Day of Prayer Rally: 6-8 p.m. at The AMP, 119 Bradley St. in Carrollton. Information: 770-832-6901.
Haralson County Trout Fishing Rodeo: 8 a.m. to 4 p.m., Smith Farm, 2587 Corinth-Poseyville Road in Bremen. Children 15-under, seniors 65-older and handicapped persons may participate. Free. Information: Danny Crook, 770-646-3875.
MOMS Club of Villa Rica: 10 a.m. to noon, Fullerville Baptist Church, 423 Old
Bremen Car Cruise: 5 p.m., downtown Bremen on Tallapoosa Street. Antique cars,
Thursday, May 7
trucks and motorcycles. Food, music and nostalgia. Information: 770-301-8782. Rock Ranch Field Trip: “From Pilgrims to Pioneers.” Activity, lunch and transportation free to students on free/reduced lunch and $25 for all others. Information: Kascia Lipford, 404-408-6448 or firstname.lastname@example.org.
Friday, May 15 Free Concert: Carroll County Wind Ensemble, 7:30 p.m. at The AMP, 119 Bradley St. in Carrollton. Information: 770-832-6901.
Saturday, May 16 Nathan Stanley in Concert: 7:30 p.m., Mill Town Music Hall, 1031 Alabama Ave. in Bremen. $40-50. Information: 770-537-6455. Spring Fair on the Square: 8 a.m. to 4 p.m., Courthouse Square in Buchanan. Arts, crafts, food and live entertainment. Information: 770-646-8978. Free Concert: Ghost Town Band, 8:00 p.m. at The AMP, 119 Bradley St. in Carrollton. Information: 770-832-6901. Red Beard Brew Bash and VeteranMade Exposition: Noon to 5 p.m., White Crest Farm, 1184 Farmers High Road in Carrollton. Food trucks, craft beer, original handcrafted items from veterans, activeduty and military spouses. Tickets: $20$30. Information: www.redbeardpostexchange.com/brew-bash. Golden City Cruisers Cruise-In: 5-8 p.m., The MILL Amphitheater, 106 Temple St. in Villa Rica. Information: Kimberly Stovall, 678-840-1160.
Monday, May 18 Chat with the Chairman: 6-7 p.m., Fire Station No. 5, Chapel Hill Road at Central Church Road. Douglas County Commission Chairman Tom Worthan will hold oneon-one discussions with citizens on topics of their choice. Information: Kim Watters, 770-920-7269.
Thursday, May 21 Free Family Movie: “Toy Story 3,” 8:00 p.m. at The AMP, 119 Bradley St. in Carrollton. Information: 770-832-6901. Carroll County Tea Party: 7-9 p.m.,
Stallings Community Center, 118 White St. in Carrollton. Information: 770-668-4942
Saturday, May 23 Possum Pickin’ Bluegrass Concert Series: 7-9:30 p.m., Head Avenue in Tallapoosa. Free. Live bands from West Georgia and East Alabama. Information: Lowell White at 770-574-2929 or Johnny Moss at 770-789-5985.
Saturday, May 30 Haralson County Veterans Association Barbecue and Car Show: 9 a.m. to 2 p.m., 245 Robertson Ave. in Tallapoosa. Information: Rick, 770-301-1400 or Sam, 678-416-1401.
A JUNE Tuesday, June 2 “French Twist” Art Exhibit: 4:30-6 p.m., third floor of the Douglas County Courthouse, 8700 Hospital Drive in Douglasville. Opening reception for an exhibit featuring the work of Douglas County artists. Information: Wes Tallon, 770-920-7593.
Thursday, June 4 Free Family Movie: “Muppets From Space,” 8 p.m. at The AMP, 119 Bradley Street in Carrollton. Information: 770-832-6901. MOMS Club of Villa Rica: 10 a.m. to noon, Fullerville Baptist Church, 423 Old Town Road in Villa Rica. Serving Bremen, Temple, Carrollton and Villa Rica, the club organizes park days, field trips, tours, crafts, a book club and a monthly moms night out. Information: www.villaricamomsclub@ yahoo.com.
in Carrollton. Information: 770-832-6901.
Saturday, June 13 Bremen Car Cruise: 5 p.m., downtown Bremen on Tallapoosa Street. Antique cars, trucks and motorcycles. Food, music and nostalgia. Information: 770-3018782. Tubing Field Trip: Two-hour tubing trip on the Chattahoochee River through the alpine village of Helen. Activity, lunch and transportation free to students on free/ reduced lunch and $25 for all others. Information: Kascia Lipford, 404-408-6448 or email@example.com.
Monday, June 15 Chat with the Chairman: 6-7 p.m., Fire Station No. 6, New Manchester/Tributary, Riverside Parkway. Douglas County Commission Chairman Tom Worthan will hold one-on-one discussions with citizens on topics of their choice. Information: Kim Watters, 770-920-7269.
Thursday, June 18 Free Family Movie: “The Mighty Ducks,” 8 p.m. at The AMP, 119 Bradley St. in Carrollton. Information: 770-832-6901. Booth Brothers/Diplomats in Concert: 7 p.m., Mill Town Music Hall, 1031 Alabama Ave. in Bremen. $20-30. Information: 770-537-6455. Carroll County Tea Party: 7-9 p.m., Stallings Community Center, 118 White St. in Carrollton. Information: 770-668-4942.
Friday, June 19 Free Concert: The Molly Ringwalds, 8 p.m. at The AMP, 119 Bradley St. in Carrollton. Information: 770-832-6901.
Saturday, June 6
Saturday, June 20
Buchanan Car Cruise: 5-8 p.m., downtown Buchanan. Free. Antique cars, trucks, motorcycles and tractors; music, concessions and prizes. Information: 404-5503475.
Possum Pickin’ Bluegrass Concert Series: 7-9:30 p.m., Head Avenue in Tallapoosa. Free. Live bands from West Georgia and East Alabama. Information: Lowell White at 770-574-2929 or Johnny Moss at 770-789-5985.
Thursday, June 11
Golden City Cruisers Cruise-In: 5-8 p.m., The MILL Amphitheater, 106 Temple St. in Villa Rica. Information: Kimberly Stovall, 678-840-1160.
Free Family Movie: “Planes: Fire and Rescue,” 8 p.m. at The AMP, 119 Bradley St.
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Ask the Ex ert What every West Georgian should know about...
An Award Winning Dealership
Diabetic Pets and Insurance
Walker Cadillac, Buick, GMC, Inc. ............72 Carroll County Animal Hospital ........... .....76
The Value of An Obituary
NG Turf ........................................................73 Ellen Wynn McBrayer/ Jones Wynn Funeral Home .........................................................77
A Value- Added Proposition Oak Mountain Academy ...........................74
Banking for Small to Medium Businesses American Commerce Bank .................... 78
Going For 30 Tanner Health System................................ 75
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What every West Georgian should know about... An Award Winning Dealership
You say Walker Cadillac Buick GMC is an Award Winning Dealership; what does that mean?
We have been a GM Mark of Excellence award winning dealership since the program’s inception. To receive this prestigious award, we must maintain high levels of Customer Satisfaction and increase sales year over year. Only the finest dealers who commit to unsurpassed performance and customer satisfaction are named Mark of Excellence dealerships.
Mark Foster General Manager Walker Cadillac, Buick, GMC Inc.
Qualifications Mark has a Dual BBA in Automotive Marketing/Automotive Management from Northwood University and Certification in Dealership Successorship through the NADA. Mark has 15 years experience in the automotive industry and is a community visionary who has a passion for exceptional customer service.
And you sell award winning vehicles; what exactly is that?
Once again, Buick has claimed the top spot for Customer Service Satisfaction across all mass-market brands! This means Buick dealers just locked in position as the backto-back reigning champions of this coveted
award. As a Buick GMC Dealer, we can confidently call this our J.D. Power “3Peat” with GMC winning in 2013 and Buick in both 2014 and 2015. For 2015, GMC came in a commendable fourth place position in the mass market brands.
How does Walker Cadillac Buick GMC work to maintain these levels?
We Dare ourselves to be Different. We challenge each co-worker to do more, better, faster. Mr. Walker makes it very clear for us to focus on “What is right for the customer” before we make any decision. It is his ultimate goal for us to stand out in the crowd as the best of the best. LEARN MORE www.walkergmauto.com• 770.832.9602
1492 N Park St. • Carrollton
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What every west Georgian should know about... CURB APPEAL
It’s the time of year when many homeowners get the “fix-up” bug. If you want to get the most bang for your home improvement buck, you should probably focus on your home’s curb appeal. Dollar for dollar, investing in your home’s landscaping provides the best returns – often increasing your home’s value by twice what you spend on the improvements.
Helen Albrightson Business Manager
Q Why Is Curb Appeal So Important? Curb appeal is a hot topic among real estate professionals A for good reason. Details like a well-manicured lawn,
neatly trimmed bushes, and attractive planting beds often decide whether or not a prospective buyer even takes the time to look at the inside. Investing in your home’s curb appeal is a good idea even if you’re not planning on selling any time soon. A well-planned landscape can increase your home’s value by up to 15%!
Qualifications A native of Wisconsin, Helen joined NG Turf in 2001. Her responsibilities include oversight of internal functions including accounting, sales, marketing and human resources. Helen has been a Certified Turfgrass Professional since 2005.
Q What role does turfgrass play in curb A
Your lawn is like the canvas onto which you paint a
colorful view with shrubs, flowers, trees, and hardscape elements. This canvas should have both uniform color and a pleasing texture to build the foundation for winning curb appeal. The easiest way to ensure your lawn is up to the task is by installing locally grown, farm-fresh sod. Installing sod is a moderate do-it-yourself project that
creates nearly instant curb appeal. Be sure to invest in a certified variety of turfgrass so you get a perfect match if you decide to expand your lawn later on.
Q Can I make a big impact in just one A
Absolutely! Start with a thorough yard clean up. Trim up your bushes and remove dead, damaged, and low hanging branches from your trees. Spread fresh mulch over your planting beds and add some seasonal annuals for a splash of color. Finish off with a fresh mow and edge trimming. If your lawn is in particularly poor condition, it may be wise to replace it with fresh sod. With a little help from a professional landscaper, you can install a beautiful sod lawn in one weekend, too.
Q How do I know when I’m done? As with just about any home improvement project, there A always seems to be “one more thing” you can add to your
landscape. When it comes to curb appeal, however, less
is probably best. Strive for a tidy look, relying on healthy, high quality materials and a simple color palette.
LEARN MORE www.NGTurf.com 770-832-8608
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What every west Georgian should know about... A Value-Added Proposition
Head of School Oak Mountain Academy, Carroll County’s only independent, college-preparatory, faith-based, day schoo
Qualifications Earning her graduate degree in Educational Leadership and Administration from The George Washington University in Washington, DC, Paula is a lifetime educator in her fifth year as Head of School at Oak Mountain Academy. Professionally, she chairs Accreditation Teams for the Southern Association of Independent Schools, is a member of the Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, National Council of Teachers of English, the International Reading Association, and Phi Delta Kappa. Additionally, she serves on the Board of Trustees of the Georgia Independent School Association. Paula is a member of the Carrollton Dawnbreakers Rotary and Kiwanis clubs, and she serves on the Board of the Carroll County Chamber of Commerce.
What are the most prevalent reasons for choosing and remaining in an independent school such as Oak Mountain Academy? In a recent study, four important reasons were presented for choosing independent schools: 4) Rigor of the academic program and skill of faculty, 3) the role of the school as a powerful counter-cultural influence, 2) relationships students have with teachers as they engage, encourage, and motivate them, and 1) safety – kids feel safe emotionally, socially, and physically. Creating an environment where students enjoy learning is essential. The rigor of an independent, college-preparatory school such as Oak Mountain Academy is expected and provided. Students learn to balance time and talents as they are guided and strive to become successful learners. Dr. Doug Lyons of the Connecticut Independent School Association notes that research in neuroscience indicates there are two “particularly important” factors when creating environments for learners: the role of emotions in learning and the impact of the total school experience in developing life-long learners. Research also
OAK MOUNTAIN ACADEMY
indicates that life-long learning is more important than ever for success in the workforce. Students will find they must continue to learn to sustain jobs in the future. Dr. Lyons indicates that the “future will not be about earning a living; it will be about learning a living” – making it more important than ever that life-long learners are the result of educating our children. Through the mission-driven, non-bureaucratic nature of independent schools, much more than content is taught in the day-to-day school experience. The learned behaviors of a child’s disposition such as curiosity, optimism, independence, charitability, resourcefulness, and happiness are equally important and are part of the essential expectations. Creating a safe environment where students enjoy learning and close relationships is paramount – an environment that is socially, emotionally, academically, and physically safe. Ultimately, students are able to dream about the person they want to be, strive to achieve that end, and ultimately become a “responsible citizen who is prepared to be a leader in tomorrow’s global community.” Learn more at: www.oakmountain.us 770-834-6651 firstname.lastname@example.org
W ELCOME W EDNESDAY Come experience us in action!
Please join us each Wednesday. 10:00 a.m.—12:00 p.m.
I am a Warrior!
Can’t make it on Wednesday? Please call 770-834-6651 to schedule your personal weekday visit!
We can’t wait to see you “on the Mountain.” Nʝɦ acȪʑpʤʖnɒ ʋʠɿʙicaʤiʝnɡ fʝɠ ʃȱɏ 2015-2016 sɭhoɼɗ Ɇeʋɠ. Pȵeaȿɏ cɪɸɗ ʝɠ stʝɞ ʍɨ ƵƳA!
Come see what it means to be a Warrior.
. . . . . . . . .
ADMISSIONS OPEN H OUSE EACH W EDNESDAY 1 0 : 0 0 A. M. — 1 2 : 0 0 P. M.
O AK M OUNTAIN A CADEMY 222 Cross Plains Road ~ Carrollton, GA 30116 www.oakmountain.us Oak Mountain Academy admits qualified students without regard to race, color, ethnic origin, national origin, handicapped status, or religion.
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What every west Georgian should know about... Going for 30
Why is it important to get 30 minutes of exercise a day?
Physical activity is essential to lowering your risk for heart disease and stroke, controlling your weight and your blood pressure, reducing your cholesterol and more. That’s why Get Healthy, Live Well encourages people to get at least 30 minutes of exercise five or more times a week.
Q Chesley Large, CWWS, SET A Health Coach Tanner Health System
Q Chesley Large, CWWS, SET, is a health coach at Tanner Health System A with more than five years’ experience in health coaching and developing health and wellness programs. She is a certified worksite wellness specialist and a specialist in exercise therapy.
Do I have get 30 minutes at the same time? No. Even if you have to break down your exercise time into 10- or 15-minute increments, you still benefit. So you can take a quick stroll on your lunch break or jog a few quick laps around the parking lot after work to help you toward your 30-a-day goal.
allowing extra time for you to reach your destination. A backpack can help you pack some work clothes to change into after you arrive, along with your laptop or other gear you may need for work, while keeping your hands free and helping you stay comfortable during your commute.
What should I know before I start exercising?
If you’re new to exercising, talk to your primary care provider to see if he or she recommends any tests or tips for your routine. Some providers may want to perform an electrocardiogram (EKG) to ensure that your heart is healthy enough for exercise, or evaluate your medications to make sure they’re safe.
What do I do if I don’t have time to exercise? If you don’t have time, you’ll have to make time. Getting active while watching TV is a great example. Spread out your yoga mat and strike some poses or keep some free weights next to the couch for a little impromptu lifting. You can also jump on a stationary bike or a treadmill while you watch TV. Also, consider becoming an “active commuter.” Look for opportunities to walk or bike to work,
Also, you should stretch before and after your workout. Stretch all your major muscle groups, including your arms, shoulders, back, hips and legs. When you hold a stretch, keep your body relaxed and breathe slowly. You should feel pulling but no pain. Don’t bounce; you could injure your muscles. And hold the stretch for 10 to 30 seconds, then relax and repeat at least four times.
LEARN MORE: www.GetHealthyLiveWell.org | 770.812.9871
Go for 30
GET HEALTHY LIVE WELL
minutes of exercise every day. m
Get your healthy on step after step. Taking a brisk 30 minute walk, ﬁve times a week, is all it takes for most people to keep ﬁt. Not only that, going for 30 can lower your blood pressure, cholesterol and reduce your risks for diabetes, heart disease and some cancers. You can also experience these beneﬁts even if you divide your time into two or three segments of 10 to 15 minutes a day. Even if you’ve been sedentary for years, you can start now. If you don’t think you’ll make it for 30 minutes, that’s OK: work your way up as you get stronger. Get your healthy on by just taking a walk.
Easy ways to get your 30: 1. Take the stairs. 2. Park in the farthest spots. 3. Have “walk-and-talk” meetings. 4. Jog in place while watching TV. 5. Get up and stretch throughout the day
Learn more ways at
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What every west Georgian should know about... DIABETIC PETS AND INSURANCE
Q My pet has been drinking lots of
Q I have seen advertisements for
pet insurance more frequently, water and urinating a lot. And my should I have this for my pet? neighbor said my dog might have diabetes, can that happen? A It depends. If you are a family who
A Certainly it can. Almost all of the
Jason P. Harden, DVM
Veterinarian at Carroll County Animal Hospital
Qualifications Dr. Jason Harden is a native of Carrollton, GA. He graduated from Oak Mountain Academy and continued on to the University of Georgia where he received his degree in Biology and his doctorate in veterinary medicine. His interest in veterinary medicine include surgery, exotic medicine, and ophthalmology. Dr. Harden is married to Chloe Harden, and they have 2 children, Maggie and Reese. He is a member of the American Veterinary Medical Association, the Georgia Veterinary Medical Association, and the American Animal Hospital Association. He is the chairman of the Oak Mountain Academy school board, a member of the Carrollton Lions Club, and on the board of directors of the Carroll County Chamber of Commerce.
diseases that humans can develop we will treat them in pets as well, and in most cases use the exact same medications. Generally speaking we see what would be considered Type 2 diabetes in humans. In this scenario, the pancreas exhausts its production of insulin and stops producing this vital hormone. Without insulin, your petâ€™s blood sugar will remain too high, and the classic symptoms of diabetes in dogs and cats are: 1) drinking too much water, 2) urinating more frequently, 3) an increased appetite, 4) losing weight. There are other diseases that can cause these symptoms as well, and we can perform tests to determine if your pet has this disease.
likes to budget or are on a fixed income then yes. Pet insurance will allow you to pay a small monthly premium (most plans $15-$30) and in return if something happens to your pet you would only be responsible for a deductible (generally $25-$50) and 10% of the bill. Pet insurance is a relationship between the owner and the insurance company. Most animal hospitals do not file the insurance for you. There is a form that the veterinarian fills out so that the insurance company will reimburse you for the money you paid to the animal hospital. LEARN MORE www.carrollcountyah.com 770-832-2475
Animal Hospital Because Emergencies canâ€™t be scheduled....
We now offer extended staffed hours!
Regular Office Hours: Mon. - Sun. 8am - 6pm Extended Emergency Medical and Surgical Hours 6pm - MIDNIGHT
#OLUMBIA $R s #ARROLLTON 'A Across from Sony Music
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What every West Georgian should know about... The Value of an Obituary
What is an Obituary?
A person’s obituary is so much more than just information, facts, and dates about your loved one. An obituary tells the reader an array of information about a person’s family members and loved ones, as well as the hobbies and activities that meant the most to them. Recently I read a lady’s obituary that she actually wrote herself before she died. It was such a beautiful tribute about her life and had even more meaning because she took the time to tell her own story.
Who writes an obituary?
A person’s family and/or funeral directors and/or even the person before they pass away. As funeral directors, we have found that even the process of a family’s involvement in writing an obituary for their loved one is a form of healing in its own way. This
Ellen Wynn McBrayer
Jones-Wynn Funeral Home & Crematory and Meadowbrook Memory Gardens As always, we remain “A Family Serving Families®....Since 1950”
Jones-Wynn Funeral Homes & Crematory has served our community for over 64 years. We keep our funeral home synonymous with its name & reputation of serving & caring for families. We are three generations carrying on one tradition. We offer the highest quality service with the most affordable options.
process brings many different emotions that allow families to take a break from totally focusing on the death and allowing them to take part in writing a tribute about the loved one’s life. But the fact remains that in the time of a loss, there are so many decisions that have to be made during such an emotional time that even the smallest task can be overwhelming. So we believe that this is such a very important part of what we do, because helping a family and guiding them during this process seems to always release a weight from their shoulders. A person’s obit now goes beyond just the pages of the local newspapers. Now many of our families share their loved one’s obit online. Th is allows the opportunity for their friends and loves ones to share wonderful stories on social media sites. An obituary is a meaningful summary of a person’s life and legacy.
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What every west Georgian should know about.... Banking for Small and Medium Businesses
Larry Mathews has 32 years of senior banking experience in community banks, having led successful turnarounds, recapitalizations and mergers. He was President and CEO of $1.5 billion The Bank, $570 million Heritage Bank, $167 million Alabama Bancorp and $240 million Colonial Bank of Alabama.
Yes. There are receivable-based financing programs out there that will give you money today for services you will be paid on in the future. It is a great way to grow your service-based business without depending on traditional loans.
I need to get equipment for my business. Can I lease equipment or do I need to buy it?
It may be more cost effective for your business to lease than own. There are a variety of leasing options available in the banking world. Ask your banking representative about leasing options.
Larry Mathews President of American Commerce Bank
I have a contract to deliver services, but I need money now in order to provide these services. Can I get a loan for that?
Do I have to have a lot of equity or a large down payment to purchase a building for my business? No. With an SBA (Small Business Administration) backed loan, you can purchase a building for as little as 10% equity or down payment. Plus, you would be able to finance the purchase on extended terms that would make your mortgage payment likely less than your lease payment previously was.
Look to the Star for ALL Your Business Needs!
Wren’s Body Shop 602 Atlantic Ave Bremen, GA 30110
400 US Highway 27 Bypass Bremen, GA 30110 770-537-2265 www.AmericanCommerceBank.com
Jeff Reid, M.D. Joseph Jellicorse, M.D. Mandi Del Pozo, PA-C Lindsey Roenigk, M.D. Shawna Berg, NP-C Hermogenes Pagsisihan, M.D.
Because you use the pills to help the pain. Because you think comfort comes by the glass. Because you need a nudge to get you through your day.
Regain at Willowbrooke is a conﬁdential, outpatient substance abuse rehabilitation program tailored for the working professional.
Regain at Willowbrooke treats a wide variety of substance abuse, including:
Willowbrooke at Tanner understands the psychology of substance abuse and the challenges of the working professional. First and foremost, Regain at Willowbrooke is an outpatient program. Our recovery program enables you to continue working during recovery while providing you with exceptional treatment in a discreet and private environment.
Treatment is offered three evenings a week, with innovative approaches that integrate the latest behavioral health therapies and primary care to ensure emotional and physical wellbeing. Psychiatrists and licensed professional counselors are part of a multidisciplinary patient care team that works to address your unique needs, helping you move toward recovery.
• Benzodiazepines • Marijuana • Methamphetamine • Narcotics • Opiates • Synthetic drugs
Learn more about how Regain at Willowbrooke can help you by calling 770.812.6300. To learn more, visit RegainAtWillowbrooke.org.
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20 Herrell Road Villa Rica, GA 30180 770.812.6300
West Georgia's most popular living and lifestyle magazine.