to make to build to educate
house home family
RESEARCH BOOK II JUNE 5, 2014
TIMOTHY DUDLEY PROFESSOR: HAJO NEIS, PhD.
(RE)GENERATIVE DESIGN | UNIVERSITY OF OREGON PORTLAND – DEPT OF ARCHITECTURE INSTRUCTORS: JOSHUA HILTON + VANESSA CASS | ADVISORS: LLOYD LINDLEY + JIM PETTINARI
Contents Restatement of Problem
Restatement of Program
Materiality + Sustainability
Context Analysis Design Language Parti + Plan Concept Diagrams Building Plans Building Sections 3D
Map credit: Wikimedia Commons.
RE-GENERATIVE DESIGN: Redesigning and Rebuilding Cities, Towns, Neighborhoods, Streets, Buildings and Gardens, Destroyed by Natural Disaster, or Catastrophic Human Failure.
Problem: Global A FAILURE OF ENVIRONMENT China is growing physically, demographically, and economically at a scale and pace never before seen in human history. Between 1990 and 2012, the percentage of Chinese living in urban areas grew from 26% to 52%, with over 700 million people currently living in cities. As young people continue to flock to cities for better job opportunities, this proportion is expected to rise to around 70% by 2035, an additional increase of over 300 million. This astronomical rise has been accompanied by an equally unprecedented rise in environmental destruction and air pollution. In addition to air quality issues, China is also suffering from massive water shortages, water contamination, deforestation, and rapid desertification as a result of its unchecked industrial expansion. Furthermore, the effects of Chinese pollution are beginning to be felt in neighboring countries such as Japan and Korea, and have been detected as far away as Los Angeles.
How can we continue to accommodate Chinaâ€™s economic growth and rapid urbanization while lowering the pollution that results from this growth?
Regional A FAILURE OF TYPE Urban housing projects in Chinese cities have been hastily planned and poorly built. In attempting to accommodate a population boom, Chinese designers and builders have sacrificed resource efficiency, material quality, and public life. Because of substandard material use and lack of quality control, buildings constructed less than twenty years ago are literally crumbling back into the ground. â€œTower in the Parkâ€? style development ignores the long history of Chinese dwelling culture / neighborhood based community. Additionally, many areas are overly car dependent and lack the vibrant neighborhood character and pedestrian activity typically found in areas of similar density.
How can we quickly build housing for an exploding urban population without sacrificing a sense of place, community, and ownership?
Local A FAILURE OF SITE The riverfront site of the former Shanghai Expo 2010 sits just a few miles from Lujiazui, the largest and most prosperous business district in China and one of the great financial centers of the World. The Expo site was built on nearly 6 km2 that was previously a mix of industrial sites and working class housing. Over 18,000 families were displaced to clear the site for construction. After such a massive relocation of residents, and a government investment in the tens of billions of dollars, the site was only in full operation for six months. Currently, nearly four years after the Expo’s closing ceremony, much of the site sits abandoned.
How can we redevelop the derelict Expo site in a way that reengages the city context to re-grow, re-densify, and re-generate a vibrant urban neighborhood as a prototype + catalyst for future similar development? How can this new city embrace the Expo theme of “Better City, Better Life”?
Pe r s o n a l A FAILURE OF WORKER The Chinese ‘Hukou” (户口) system of household registration severely restricts movement from rural to urban areas in China. In many cases, most commonly among the lower classes, the ability to become a resident of a Chinese city (and therefore purchase a house, settle, etc.) has been tied to employers. This has created a culture of “Internal Migrants” within China – Chinese nationals from rural areas who temporarily live elsewhere in the country (often in substandard conditions with very low pay) while they are performing unskilled labor. This is especially true in the construction industry. Many of China’s world class buildings are built by rural farmer migrants who leave their families and communities behind, live in temporary shanty towns, receive very little pay and fewer rights than locals, and typically never set foot in the completed building they helped construct.
How can we create a place for laborers to work-in-place? How can we reform the practice of construction to encourage permanence, community, individual agency, and a sense of ‘ownership’ / pride?
Proposal: A ‘ Living Building, for producing Living Buildings’ A modular system that can come together piece-meal over time as demand calls is a better solution for urbanizing China than the current method of ‘all-at-once,’ top-down, ‘towers in the park’ style development. Rather than simply designing modular units, I am proposing a design for an assembly facility to be located on-site. The methods for designing and constructing housing with little to no active operational energy are well-established. However, as the level of operating energy in a building approaches zero, the embodied energy from raw material extraction, transport, manufacture, and construction - becomes a larger and larger proportion of a building’s total energy impact. This design addresses primarily issues of embodied energy, material sourcing, and supply chains. This facility will also have a corresponding educational component to attract the general public and raise awareness of sustainability / environmental solutions.
“A REGENERATION OF THE WORKER” Early industrial facilities were located far from population centers because of the pollution and disease that they created. In the 21st century, many of China’s largest industries are no longer “dirty.” Prefabricated construction is especially suited to a low-emissions factory, as most of the labor is hand fabrication using electric or air-powered tools. Manufactured housing produces no dangerous byproducts, and by the nature of its scale-based production model is almost entirely waste free. Such a factory can be easily located close to urban population centers, re-integrating the practice of industrial production with the increasingly ‘white collar ’ modern city. By centralizing production and shipping finished products, this factory also seeks to subvert the practice of migrant labor and Hukou registration. Providing a permanent job will allow many poor rural workers to relocate legally (rather than the illegal and/or temporary relocation currently taking place) Rather than moving en masse from build to build, Chinese construction workers can regain a sense of permanence, a sense of agency, and a personal reinvestment in their families and neighborhoods. Additionally, by using the manufactured units to rebuild the surrounding neighborhood, the workers will be able to see, and in some cases inhabit, the product of their labor. The laborer gains a sense of pride in their work, and the neighborhood gains a sense of pride in the factory.
Urban Design SITE CONTEXT
The former Expo2010 site covers nearly 6km2 on both banks of the Huangpu River. It sits just a few miles upstream from the Shanghai’s original historic walled city, The Bund - a major public attraction, and Lujiazui - the financial hub of Asia. The site is also just southwest of People’s Square and south of the French Concession. It is surrounded on all sides by dense urban development. Prior to 2004, the Expo site was a mix of riverfront industry and working class housing. Before its rdevelopment, this area was home to over 18.000 families and several large factories, incluiding the Jiangnan Shipyard, one of China’s most significant and historic shipbuilding facilities. These industries and families were relocated to make space for the Expo. Much of the industry was moved to Eastern Shanghai, along the Yangtze Delta. The former residents were moved to various high-rise apartment complexes throughout the city. Many of the relocated residents have complained of a lack of community in their new homes. Currently, aside from a few reused buildings along the ‘Expo Axis’, the majority of the site sits derelict and unused. However, the site is very well connected via highways, pedestrian paths, and subway.
SITE OF SHANGHAI EXPO2010 LUJIAZUI BUSINESS DISTRICT OLD CITY YANGTZE RIVER DELTA THE BUND
CENTURY PARK PUDONG INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT
URBAN ANALYSIS Roads, pedestrian ways, and transit connections were all constructed for the Expo, and in most cases this transportation network is still in good condition. I propose using this existing network as a frame upon which to bring density back into the area. This urban analysis involves a survey of the major thoroughfares â€“ both new and former â€“ and transit nodes to identify areas of importance that can serve as centers in the future neighborhood. These areas will be developed first. For my detailed Urban Design, I chose to focus on the northern section of the expo site, nearest to my proposed factory
Remaining Pavilions: Red = In-use Orange = Slated for Development Yellow = Abandoned
U R B A N A N A LYS I S This comparison of figure ground density between five areas in Shanghai shows a stark contrast between new and old. From top to bottom: The French Concession, built largley in the late 1800’s, features narrow, tree-lined streets and a pedestrian friendly scale. Most streets are lined with buildings against the sidewalk, forming a line of mostly commercial development that spills into the street. Lower-class housing in Shanghai’s Old City is very dense and chaotic, with house walls pushing up to the edge of narrow alleys, often wide enough for only pedestrian + bicycle traffic. Commercial activity takes place in the streets, and occasionally in street level rooms of residences. A typical Lilong district, built in the earlly 1900’s, is much more organized than the Old City, but features similar density and street character. Two modern high-rise developments claim to increase density and open green space within the city. However, these towers create a disconnect between the residents and the street. Avenues are wide, designed for rapid auto traffic, and hostile to pedestrians. Very little activity takes place on these boulevards, and the greenspaces are typically gated and rarely populated. This new urban proposal seeks to find a balance between these approaches. Blending the density and modernity offered by high-rise towers with the vibrant street life that is inherent in Shanghai’s city culture.
URBAN DESIGN L ANGUAGE Unprogrammed Open Space
An area for citizens to fill with their own events, culture, and desires. Whether thatâ€™s a concert, a market, or a protest, the intent is to provide a space that instills a sense of mass ownership (versus government ownership). Currently in Shanghai, most public space is heavily curated, with fenced off greenspace, direct paths, narrow gathering areas, and massive civic buildings (instead of open space). I believe this is an intentional choice to restrict the ability for public gathering and protest, and I hope to subvert this oppression through my urban spaces.
One of the best urban traits of Shanghai is the sidewalks. Regardless of size, most sidewalks are filled with a dense and chaotic blend of pedestrians, cyclists, residents sitting in front of their homes, open storefronts with goods for sale on the street, and small carts selling anything from produce to clothing to bootleg movies. Food stands dominate in the early morning and late night, where commuters can get a quick meal on their way to/from work, or coming home from the bar. This results in streets that feel constantly â€˜aliveâ€™, however they can become cramped and potentially dangerous as these activities spill into the busy roadway. Rather than attempt to control this activity, it would be a boon to the community to create sidewalks that embrace and accommodate for the life that already exists. This typifies the values of integrity and reality in order to increase community and connectivity.
Scattered throughout the larger urban plan, These nodes will vary in scale, location, aesthetic, and specific use, but will all serve the same basic function of providing a local center around which a sense of neighborhood differentiation can emerge. Larger nodes will exist to serve larger civic functions (a city museum or major performance hall, for example), but the subnodes are for daily use. Restaurants, grocery stores, pocket parks, and so on, are perfect features of these centers.
URBAN DESIGN L ANGUAGE Layered Privacy
Understanding the cultural and spatial differences between the Chinese Jia (ĺŽś) and the American House is crucial to creating a successful design. The most important aspect of a Chinese dwelling is that of layered privacy. A walled courtyard distingushes the greater public from the space shared only by the family. Similarly, central rooms with private wings add a layer between family space, semi-private space, and totally private space. These differentiations begin at the scale of an individual unit, but carry through to the scale of building, complex, neighbrhood, and city.
These are areas that are intentionally undesigned. Restored wetlands are a major part of my urban plan, and rather than creating tightly regulated retention ponds and public pathways, these greenbelts are treated as â€˜urban wilds.â€™ Once the boundary is established, these areas will be left to grow and evolve in the way they might if humans had never existed. Over the years, these spaces will change in ways that we may not anticipate. This represents a certain irreverence toward the controlling mindset of many architects and planners by dictating a space off-limits to human intervention. It also brings the sense of wonder and inspiration (and chaos) that many find in nature into the fold of a very dense urban environment. For people living in mega cities like Shanghai, especially poorer people, the chance to encounter untamed nature is a rarity at best and a fantasy at worst. Even a small wild such as this can provide a unique experience for the urban population, one that I hope is restorative.
URBAN PARTI + PL AN This design is prescriptive, not formal. That is, by establishing a set of rules and a simple parti, this design merely creates the framework in which an urban community can manifest organically (but not chaotically). The design examples on the following pages are simply a single instance of a number of possible outcomes.
URBAN PARTI + PL AN â€œA REGENERATION OF THE SITEâ€?
UNPROGRAMMED OPEN SPACE
In this example, an oversized linear walkway between a line of residences and the north bank of the Huangpu serves as an unprogrammed open space. In normal conditions, it is a path along the river. When empty, it is still a pleasant green space. However, it is large enough to acommodate markets, performances, or other large public gatherings.
Here, a large avenue adjacent to the new World Expo Museum is partially re-greened to provide for pedestrian commercial activity. In other areas, small plazas provide breathing room for the sidewalks and allow space for food carts, repair shops, and other small retail seen throughout old Shanghai.
Centers are created around unique features, so that each neighborhood has a distinct character which allows residents to differentiate between nodes and identify their own. Here, subnodes include a metro station plaza, a wetland pond, a commercial center, a neighborhood courtyard, and so on.
The Parti of a courtyard unit is carried from the individual scale to the neighbrhood scale in a pattern of fractal self-similarity. Here, a large neighborhood park is sheltered from the public sphere by residential bars. A smaller semi-private courtyard is formed by two of the residential buildings. A single building proves some additional privacy for its inhabitants, and ﬁnally the individual unit allows for views and light but is completely private.
‘Fingers’ of reconstructed wetland run northward through the site, connecting residents (both new and old) to the river and allowing ‘breathing-space’ within the high density development of Shanghai. The perimeters of these greenspaces are publicly accessible, with playgrounds, walking paths, and other such public amenities. The interiors are left as ‘urban wilds’. Intentionally unmaintained and chaotic, these wilds will allow native plant and animal species to re-inhabit the city. The wetlands will also capture and ﬁlter rainwater runoff from the neighborhood.
URBAN PARTI + PL AN
URBAN PARTI + PL AN “A REGENERATION OF THE TYPE”
Rather than the massive, monolithic, soviet-style towers in the park that dominate residential development throughout China, this new neighborhood is designed to grow organically, using the phasing methods outlined in my research: 1. Pilot 2. Catalyst 3. Virus 4. City. Density and building height varies throughout the site according to several factors such as proximity to transit, orientation to the river, and density of existing context. The site is divided into several villages, each with its own æsthetic, to give residents and visitors a sense of place, differentiated from the larger city. As the villages will be built over time as demand necessitates (rather than as a single top-down development), the appearance of newer construction will differ from older since the fabrication factory will produce constantly evolving models. The larger scale arrangement of buildings, in contrast to much of the newer construction taking place in Shanghai, is based on traditional Chinese dwelling principles. Each individual unit is based around a central courtyard with varying layers of privacy. Similarly, whole buildings aggregate in a courtyard pattern. The streets are lined with ground level commercial space for various shops, restaurants and vendors. Upper level streetfront space can be used for small offices and higher-end restaurants. Residential bars face south in keeping with Chinese traditions, and partially enclose minor, semi-private courtyards for residents’ use. Each complex opens away from the street to a greenspace, the public courtyard and connection to nature. The heights, sizes, and æsthetics of each building will vary, but all are built according to this simple pattern.
Phase 1: PILOT
PHASE ONE - PILOT A small prototype village is constructed near the factory site, around the intersection of a major pedestrian way and a Metro station.
Phase 2: CATALYST
PHASE TWO - CATALYST As the pilot begins to grow, more centers are begun around the identiﬁed major nodes. Unused pavilions are re-purposed for neighborhood use as groceries, child care, community centers, etc.
Phase 3: VIRUS
PHASE THREE - VIRUS Nodal centers grow along the transportation framework, and begin to merge along the fringes. Density near the major nodes increases, while minor nodes form organically. The system begins to function as a feedback loop, growing upon itself in spurts independent from the initial Catalyst.
Phase 4: CITY
PHASE FOUR - CITY At the end of the initial growth, boundaries are blurred and the system begins to function as an interwoven network of minor and major nodes. Pockets of low density exist between these nodes, allowing a full variety of living options for inhabitants.
BUILDING CONCEPTS MATERIAL FLOW DIAGRAM
Sort sub lines
This conceptual diagram shows how raw material is brought into the facility, sorted, stored, assembled., and integrated into the manufactured unit.
ASSEMBLY LINE DIAGRAM
kitchen core assembly
Mech + bath core assembly
Based on site visits and research, this assembly process diagram was created showing how a modular unit comes together in the factory. Raw materials are delivered and sorted centrally, then distributed to individual stations for manufacture. The modular unit moves along a track from station to station, starting with initial framing, moving to enclosure, detail, mechanical and ďŹ nish detail. Sub-components (such as wall panels and wet cores) are assembled in parallel on separate lines, and integrated into the main line at the proper place.
windows / doors
e core walls
ne floor assembly
ne core walls
PROGRAM MASSING DIAGRAM
In order to begin to break up the massive size of this assembly line, stations are ﬁrst sorted into three categories: Framing, Enclosure, and Finish. Breaks are created between groups of stations to allow light, greenery, nt and pedestrian trafﬁc from the Greenway + larger city ro f (to the north) and the Courtyard + Waterfront Park (tot e r wa the south) M
greenway + city
in enclosure Finish
windows / doors
courtyard + waterfront
ORIENTATION DIAGRAM FRO MC ITY FR
Finally, the assembly line program is wrapped around the central courtyard to focus toward the public space. This creates a more enclosed “garden” along the riverfront and gives the central courtyard a stronger sense of destination. This shaping also creates an amphitheater-like view toward the river, the loading / shipping area, and the Expo Axis on the opposite bank.
BUILDING PL ANS
in g + L o a d in g iv Rece
B LY L I N E SSEM
p Ramp U
xhib lic E
l Li ne
Restaurant M a in
Pa t i o
Sout h Bund --> To Wat erfro nt Park +
n Me tro Sta tio Mu se um + <- - To Ex po
n F in is
Pa c k h+
a g in
ock in g D
Ground Level + Site Context Scale: 1/128” = 1’
OPE N TO BELO W
E x h ib
EN OP TO OW BEL
P u b lic
ard r ty ou hC
OPE N TO BELO W
Mezzanine Level Scale: 1/128” = 1’
South Cour tyard OPEN TO BELOW
fﬁce Sales O
EN OP O T W LO BE
BUILDING PL ANS
on Looking East 1/32" = 1' ction Looking East 1/32" = 1'
on Looking west 1/32" = 1' ction Looking west 1/32" = 1'
Section Looking East
Scale: 1/64” = 1’
Section Looking West
Scale: 1/64” = 1’
MATERIALITY + SUSTAINABILITY
â€œA REGENERATION OF THE ENVIRONMENTâ€? SOLAR POTENTIAL
40,000sf of angled PV panels provides up to 360KW of electricity while shading the assembly line and courtyards from summer sun.
PASSIVE SOLAR ORIENTATION
Aside from facing south, the offset sawtooth roof is angled to allow direct sun on to the mass walls only in the coldest months. From March to November the factory floor is shaded from direct sun, but allowed ample natural daylight from the north. Skylights are punched into the panelized roof as dictated by the lighting requirements of the activities taking place within.
Operable windows create stack ventilation to pull hot air out of the factory and draw in cool air from the underground cooling system
Massive rammed earth walls - made of excavated aggregate from other construction sites around Shanghai - form the major arc, providing enormous thermal mass for both heating and cooling.
DELIVERY BY SUBWAY
A spur off the adjacent subway line carries specially constructed cargo trains directly to the factory, removing nearly all truck traffic from the residential streets.
Chilled air from the cooling tubes is pulled through a subfloor lined with boulders and flowing water, which further cool and humidify the air for passive cooling throughout.
Buried tubes pull air from the adjacent wetland, through the thermally stable ground, and into the factory subfloor
Po t e n t i a l
In the short term, a mixed use, sustainably built housing development will reinvigorate the riverfront, reintroduce the displaced population, and serve as a permanent testament to the principles of Expo 2010. In the long term, this could become a pilot project for future sustainable development.
The larger goal for this design is to use the 2010 Expo site as a prototype. A ‘Living Factory’ could be constructed anywhere in China, and using this system, a healthy community could be ‘grown’ inside an existing urban area.
Ultimately, similar facilities could be built on any derelict waterfront site anywhere in the world. As a concept, Living Factories are applicable to any city or nation undergoing rapid urbanization or recovering from massive devastation, such as a major hurricane, earthquake, or tsunami. More specifically, the details within the modular system can be tailored to match the needs, traditions, and culture of a given area. This urban re-growth strategy can also be utilized to re-introduce density and vibrant community after large scale exhibitions such as Olympic Games or the Worldâ€™s Fair.