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Issue 16 | October 2014

LEED v4: Understanding the changes and implications for the use of wood as a building material Global market for Green Building Materials expected to reach USD 528.8 billion by 2020 American red elm displayed in all its glory in the National Theater of Bahrain Illwerke Center Montafon: A green building for the future Bamboo: Good or Bad for the environment? PLUS Timber industry news, new products, exhibition previews and listings and more

A N A L Y S I S | I N T E R V I E W S | D E S I G N | S U S T A I N A B IOctober L I T2014 Y | | T E C H N O L O G Y1

Farlin group of companies are vertically integrated with an established presence worldwide in timber logs, sawn timber, plywood, panel products and coal for energy sectors.

T: +971 4 8809889 F: +971 4 8809779 2 | October 2014


Cover Photo: The National Theater of Bahrain Image © Nicolas Buisson

Editor’s comment Zaha Hadid, the world renowned London-based architect - who is best known for utilizing modern materials such as concrete, fibreglass and resin - recently chose timber for the tapered wooden structures of the Sleuk Rith Institute, a building conceived by human rights activist Youk Chhang for the Cambodian capital Phnom Penh. The complex has been granted approval and is scheduled to start

Issue 16 | october 2014 Timber Design & Technology Magazine Director Andy MacGregor +971 55 849 1574 Marketing Director Eric Hammond +971 4 455 8400

construction on site next year. The fact that Hadid selected timber for this landmark project is once again testament to the fact that wood is very much of the moment globally. In late 2013, the U.S. Green Building Council (USGBC) released LEED v4. Described as a ‘quantum leap’, LEED v4 represents a major change from LEED 2009, with substantial differences in the Materials and Resources credit category and is said to speed up the credit submittal process for design teams and encourage building owners to better understand building maintenance and operation. In their report for this issue, Dovetail Partners take a closer look at the changes associated with LEED v4 and conclude that with the increased use of science-based tools to identify lowest impact alternatives, this may lead to wood products becoming the building materials of choice. In this issue, we also take a closer look at bamboo. Often refered to as ‘the timber of the 21st century’, bamboo is hailed as a new super material, with uses ranging from textiles to construction.

International Sales Director James Hamilton

From walls to flooring, bamboo is promoted as the environmental answer to wood. Environmentalists

Editor Tony Smith

throughout the world. Whilst it has the potential to absorb large amounts of carbon dioxide, the

International Correspondent Eamonn Ennis +91 98676 54952

love it for its quick growth and for the fact that it can be harvested without harming the environment. However, the downsides of bamboo are now being scrutinized as its popularity grows and expands biggest greenhouse gas, and provide some of the world’s poorest people with cash, some of key concerns include biodiversity, soil erosion, and chemical use. Timber also was a major component of the London Design Festival 2014, which opened earlier in September, and featured several installations that incorporate the use of wood. One project that captured our attention was ‘The Wish List - What I Have Always Wanted Is….’ exhibition, a unique collaborative project between some of the world’s best-known design names and up-and-coming

International Representatives Rabia Alga AntExpo Org. | Turkey +90 216 541 0390

designers. The project has not only engaged the interest of ten design legends, each of whom

Elias Aggelopoulos Med Expo | Greece +30 210 2931011

demonstrates the versatility of American hardwoods and the ability to experiment with designs both

Timber Design & Technology is published 6 times a year by Citrus Media Group (powered by WillyMac Associates FZ LLC) Level 14, Boulevard Plaza - Tower One, Emaar Boulevard, Downtown Dubai, PO Box 334155, Dubai, UAE

commissioned something for their personal collection. It has also given an extraordinary opportunity to a talented group of emerging designers, who worked closely with their commissioners to develop the designs and constructed them with the help of Benchmark’s master craftsmen. As such, it big and small. Interestingly, although wood is one of the oldest and most common construction materials, it’s typically perceived as weaker and more susceptible to fire than alternatives like steel and concrete. These fears have been codified over the past century by means of restrictive limits on the height and area of timber buildings. Robert Gerard, Fire Safety Engineer at ARUP, highlights the key factors in understanding the fire risk in tall timber buildings. According to Gerard, the development of highly sophisticated new wood products, combined with the design industry’s growing commitment to sustainability, has led to increasing interest in tall timber structures. As always, I would like to encourage you to log on to the website - - for the latest updates and please get in touch if you have any suggestions for subjects we should consider covering.

is designed by UC Design and is printed by MASAR Printing Press Great care is taken to ensure the accuracy of the contents of Timber Design & Technology but the publishers accept no responsibility for any errors or omissions. All contents are © 2014 Citrus Media Group and may not be reproduced in any form without prior consent. Letters and readers’ contributions may be edited at our discretion.

October 2014 |


4 | October 2014



LEED v4: Understanding the changes and implications for the use of wood as a building material

Taking a closer look at the U.S. Green Building Council’s LEED v4

16 MARKET REPORT Global market for Green Building Materials expected to reach USD 528.8 billion by 2020


Defined as the future of the construction industry, green buildings are emerging from their niche market status into a mainstream force

20 ANALYSIS Bamboo: Good or Bad for the environment?

Often refered to as ‘the timber of the 21st century’, Bamboo is being hailed as a new super material, with uses ranging from textiles to construction

24 design & décor


American red elm displayed in all its glory in the National Theater of Bahrain

A theater between land and sea

30 comment Understanding the fire risk in tall timber buildings

Robert Gerard, Fire Safety Engineer at ARUP, highlights the key factors in understanding the fire risk in tall timber buildings

34 technology Illwerke Center Montafon: A green building for the future

Project is one of the largest timber-built office buildings worldwide and is a milestone in resource efficient, sustainable construction

38 wood works ‘The Wish List - What I Have Always Wanted Is…’ at the London Design Festival 2014

A unique collaborative project between some of the world’s best known design names and up-andcoming designers


PLUS p6 Latest News p44 Showtime October 2014 |



FMC China 2014 hosts 800 exhibitors and record 35,524 trade buyers Colombia, the Netherlands, Italy, Switzerland, Singapore, Mexico, Malaysia, Russia, Poland, South Africa, Japan, Canada, Korea, Brazil, Vietnam, Britain and India. In addition, a total of 35,524 trade buyers from 108 countries visited FMC China 2014. Both the number of visitors and countries represented reached record levels this year. According to the organizers, the conferences and exhibitor seminars focused on the upstream and downstream linkages with a view to improve and upgrade the industry. These included the 2014 China Upholstery Industry Development Forum, China Woodworking Machinery Industry Forum, 1st China International Timber Order and Exchange Conference, 3rd Furniture Manufacturing Collaborative Innovation Conference, High-class Wine Reception for ‘Waterborne Furniture’, and E-business of Furniture Manufacturers and Suppliers. In addition, the ‘100 Sofa Show’ pioneered a new supply linkage and a new model between fabric and sofa manufacturers. The exhibits included Woodworking Machinery & Tools, CNC Image © FMC China

Machinery, Coating Machinery, Upholstered Furniture Machinery, Furniture Adhesives, Office Furniture Accessories and Components, Furniture Hardware and Fittings, Furniture Inspection Design &

The 20th Furniture Manufacturing & Supply China (FMC China 2014)

Service, Wood and Surface Décor, Furniture Fabric & Upholstery

successfully concluded on September 13, 2014 at the Shanghai

Components, and the Interior Design and 100 Sofa Show. The

World Expo Exhibition & Convention Center (SWEECC), concurrently

organizers have also announced that FMC China 2015 will be held

with ‘FMC Premium 2014’. The total area of the show this year was

from September 9 - 12, 2015 at the Shanghai World Expo Exhibition

59,000 sqm with 800 exhibitors from over 45 countries and regions

and Convention Center (SWEECC) and Shanghai New International

including China, Sweden, Germany, France, USA, Australia, Turkey,

Expo Center (SNIEC).

Zaha Hadid designs five Wooden Towers to house Cambodian Genocide Institute Zaha Hadid has unveiled designs for the Sleuk Rith Institute, which will house the Documentation Center of Cambodia’s one million document archive and, as the largest collection of genocide related material in Southeast Asia, will become a global center foreducation and research into the documentation, causes and prevention of genocide. The institute’s design is organized as five wooden structures that are separate volumes at ground level, but interweave and link together as they rise upwards; connecting the different departments, visitors, students and staff within a singular whole. With an overall footprint of 80 meter x 30 meter at the base and 88 meter x 38 meter at roof level, the structures range between three to eight storeys. Each of these five buildings will house a different function: the Sleuk Rith Institute; a library holding the largest collection of genocide-related material in Southeast Asia; a graduate school focusing on genocide, conflicts and human rights studies; a research center and archive to influence national and regional policies and discourse; a media center and an auditorium that can be used by the institute and the entire community. Constructed from sustainably sourced timber, the primary structure, exterior shading and interior partitions give natural scale, warmth and materiality. The more complex forms have been designed and engineered to be assembled from economical straight and single-curved timber sections with established technologies. The Sleuk Rith Institute complex has been granted approval and is scheduled to start construction on site next year.

6 | October 2014

Image © Zaha Hadid


JAF Group takes over sites of timber wholesaler DLH hardwood. Now we intend to follow this with further product areas,” explains Alexander Flatischler, CEO, JAF Group. Until the late 1990s the JAF Group concentrated on expanding the company in Austria. Since the beginning of the 1990s, in parallel it has also focused on international growth, starting with the Czech Republic, then expanding quickly during the following years into other countries such as Germany, Slovakia, Hungary, Croatia and Romania. The JAF Group has also been running its own sawmill and veneer production in Brasov (Romania) since 2007 under the name ‘J.F.Furnir’. Since 2005, the young markets have followed, namely Bulgaria, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Poland, Russia and Serbia. With 50 branches in 13 countries, the JAF Group has a dense network in Central and Eastern Europe. The company has established itself as a service-oriented partner for the wood processing industry, the Image © Novak

construction sector and resale. Today the JAF Group is the market leader in Austria, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary and Croatia. “We regard the integration of the DLH sales areas China,

The international JAF Group based in Stockerau - also known in

Vietnam and Cameroon into our company as a great chance - our

Austria under the name J. u. A. Frischeis - will take over operations

customers will benefit from the worldwide network we will now

of DLH Asia and Africa covering the markets of China, Vietnam

be able to access by means of this expansion. DLH customers in

and Cameroon as of October 31, 2014 (subject to the competition


authority’s approval). The total turnover for this division of DLH

being able to draw on the decades of know-how, strong logistics

has been around EUR 74 million annually. The DLH Group is a

and well-founded contacts of a market leader in Central and

stock market listed company, which specializes in the worldwide


wholesale of timber and timber products, and has been in Danish

the spot and are thus excellently informed about market conditions.

family ownership for more than 100 years. JAF, founded in 1948

Internationally we have direct access to the best procurement

by Josef and Antonia Frischeis, has 50 branches in 13 countries

markets, and benefit from the experience and opportunities of a

and is now Central Europe’s leading wholesaler of wood and wood

global group,” adds Flatischler.

based materials, and has remained an owner-managed company up to today. “We decided to acquire DLH Asia and Africa because, of course,

markets will immediately enjoy the additional benefit of

Europe: with our branches we are represented right on

“We have always aimed to build relationships with our customers and suppliers that will last for many years, as well as maintaining a balanced mix of innovation and tradition. In this area too, our

we see growth potential there. In addition, these markets fit

philosophy is a very good fit with the principles of DLH - as a family

perfectly with our plans to extend the international radius of the

company we appreciate the values and long-standing commercial

JAF Group. Up to now our global marketing expertise has mainly

traditions of the Danish group, and we will continue to work with

been in the areas of veneers and sawn timber - to be specific

these,” concludes Flatischler.

DOMOTEX asia/CHINAFLOOR 2015 almost sold out With over five months left to go, the organizers of DOMOTEX asia/ CHINAFLOOR have announced that 73 percent of the show has been sold out. The 17th edition of the show will take place on March 24 - 26, 2015 and will present not only the latest in flooring, but also new themed areas and interesting conference topics to further support the industry development. With 140,000 sqm of gross exhibit space, DOMOTEX asia/CHINAFLOOR will include 5 halls dedicated to carpet and rugs, 4 halls dedicated to wood, laminate, bamboo and other hard floors as well as 3 halls (one more compared to last year) dedicated to resilient commercial and industrial floorings with LVT leading this product category. In addition, the ‘World of Handmade Carpets’ concept will return following its launch in 2014, while the wood sector is back in the East halls of the Image © DOMOTEX asia/CHINAFLOOR

Shanghai New International Exhibition Center. ‘Color the Success in Flooring’ is the new slogan accompanying the 17th edition of this leading international trade event. The

for manufacturers’ products launches. In addition, the GreenStep Asia

InnovAction Flooring campaign, running for the third time in 2015,

Awards, organized by FCW and hosted by the show, is also coming

will reveal once again the newest products developed by the

back in March 2015 for its second edition. This is the only awards

industry specifically for the Asian region but also for the global

program giving recognition to green flooring solutions realized in the

markets. This campaign has already become one of the favorite tools

Asia-Pacific region.

October 2014 |



FAO and South Africa gear up for World Forestry Congress FAO Director-General Graziano da Silva met with Senzini Zokwana,

“As the first of its kind in the African continent, we want the

South Africa’s Minister for Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries

World Forestry Congress to be not only a success but a trendsetter,”

to discuss preparations for the 14th World Forestry Congress,

said Senzini Zokwana, South Africa’s Minister for Agriculture,

which will be held in September 2015 in Durban, South Africa.

Forestry and Fisheries. “We have one objective: promoting the role

The congress will bring together the global forestry community of

of forestry in denting hunger and unemployment. We also need

experts and policy makers to analyze and address current key issues

to identify and promote all the challenges of forestry, including

on the utilization and preservation of forests, including hunger

fires and recognize that communities must form part of forestry

prevention and mitigation of climate impacts.


Structural Accoya® at FagelCats intended to encourage a sense of calm and peacefulness amongst the chaos of the busy Amsterdam city and this superior quality made the wood specification an easy decision. Importantly, though, Accoya’s strength, durability and low-maintenance requirements were also key, as were its incredible sustainability credentials and its Cradle to Cradle Gold level certification.” Created using Accsys Technologies’ propriety acetylation technology, Accoya delivers outstanding levels of performance, including dimensional stability, class 1 durability and sustainability. Made with FSC® certified wood from legal, manageable and sustainable forests, Accoya is an attractive wood product which is Swan EcoLabel approved and is perfect for a variety of uses from windows and doors to external cladding, structural projects and decking. Bryan Crennell, Director of Sales and Marketing at Accsys Technologies, added: “From an architectural perspective, FagelCats is an outstanding example of the way in which Accoya can be used to regenerate built-up areas, providing sustainable and durable buildings that remain sympathetic to existing infrastructure. It is also an example of the ways in which materials such as Accoya can respond to the needs of end-users, with aesthetic beauty and a natural appearance that adds the finishing touch to projects such as Image © Accsys Technologies

residential developments.”

Accoya®, the high performance modified wood product manufactured by Accsys Technologies, has been put to use in a structural capacity in a project specifically designed to allow elderly people and those suffering from dementia to live independently. Located in Amsterdam, FagelCats is a complex of 22 apartments for seniors aged 65 and over and four community homes with 24 hour on-site care, designed to meet the needs of local residents living with dementia. At the heart of the development, the garden pavilion is a sheltered communal area, which connects two five-storey buildings, providing a natural and peaceful escape from the densely populated city and encouraging a sense of friendship and community amongst residents. As well as designing FagelCats to support the needs of the elderly, architect Liesbeth Janson of Studio Huijgens seized the project as an opportunity to regenerate the Westerpark area of Amsterdam. The impressive wooden design in the interior of this closed building block respects the surroundings of the city’s famous World Heritage canal ring with a modern interpretation of Amsterdam’s iconic architectural style. In keeping with the centuries-long tradition of collaboration between art and design, Liesbeth developed the design with local artist, Aam Solleveld. Accoya Structural was used for columns, decking and window frames throughout FagelCats. Architect Liesbeth Janson commented: “Accoya gives FagelCats a soft and natural appearance, which is

8 | October 2014

Image © Accsys Technologies


dwp wins ‘Outstanding use of American Hardwood in the Middle East’ award for ‘Emaar Corporate Offices’

Image © dwp

Design Worldwide Partnership (dwp) won the ‘Outstanding use of

AHEC’s involvement as the Gold Sponsor of the CID Awards is

American Hardwood in the Middle East’ award for Emaar’s new

part of its extensive outreach campaign championing the usage

corporate offices at the Commercial Interior Design (CID) Awards

of American hardwoods and reflects its commitment to educate

2014, which took place on Monday, September 15, 2014 at the JW

specifiers and to increase awareness of the potential applications

Marriott Marquis Hotel, Dubai. The award was presented by Roderick

offered by American hardwoods. This year, the ‘Outstanding use

Wiles, AHEC Director for Africa, Middle East, South Asia and Oceania

of American Hardwood in the Middle East’ category once again

to George Kahler, Design Director, dwp. This is the fourth year

attracted nominations from leading design practices across the

running that the American Hardwood Export Council (AHEC), the

region. The shortlisted nominees this year included ‘Dolphin Energy

leading international trade association for the American hardwood

offices’ by Perkins + Will; the ‘Pavilion Cafe’ by Bishop Design; ‘Mint

industry, has supported the prestigious CID Awards.

Leaf of London’ by AMBB Interiors; ‘SKA Energy Office’ by TOPOS

According to the judges, this year’s winner was praised for ‘its industrial feel which works seamlessly with the open office

Design Studio; and the ‘Sofitel The Palm Dubai’ by MPD Interiors. “Over the years we have witnessed many developments in Middle

approach, using a mixture of materials to define key areas. In

East design styles and we are delighted to see the emergence of

addition, the creative use of hardwoods throughout the design

innovative and cutting edge design in the region, embracing the

brings warmth into the space, thanks to their application not only

use of natural materials and textures. The quality of this year’s CID

as flooring but also in the walls, seating and rooms’. The judges

Awards nominations underlined this perfectly. Wood is very much of

also wanted to highly commend the ‘Big Easy’ restaurant by

the moment globally and it is encouraging to see so many projects

Broadway Interiors & Prozha as they noted its harmonious design

in the Middle East incorporating American hardwoods in their

that demonstrates thought and consideration toward exhibiting the

design and in so many different functions and finishes,” concluded

owner’s South African heritage.

Roderick Wiles.

Emaar, one of the world’s largest property developers, wanted to reinvigorate their team and have a new vibrant workplace. In order to achieve this, they relocated their entire team to Emaar Square in Downtown Dubai, which involved dwp working to provide a new dynamic workplace, spread over 3 levels and 6,250 sqm - one that translated their vision for the future into an extraordinary design aesthetic, as a clear reflection of the Emaar brand. The project, led by Mohammed Alabbar, was not an ordinary relocation project. It was to be an honest reflection of the company’s vision, future and its ever-increasing role in the framework of a growing Dubai. “Emaar’s previous offices supported it through a different era for the development industry. It was emerging from the financial crash and wanted to claw back its entrepreneurial spirit, to shape up its operations, inspire the staff to perform and drive the organization forward,” says George Kahler. “Emaar’s previous office space was fragmented and did not fully reflect this new Emaar drive. The new office design completely changed the dynamic and has contributed to and reinforced the chairman’s vision. It’s a huge success.”

Image © ITP

October 2014 |



Indonesian forests to benefit from PEFC Certification Indonesian forests, home to some of the most biologically diverse

wood that comes from forests that have been independently

forests in the world, can now benefit from credible, globally

verified as sustainably managed. We encourage companies and

recognized sustainable forest management certification following the

consumers alike to opt for PEFC-certified products to support

endorsement of the Indonesian Forestry Certification Co-operation

forest owners in Indonesia that manage their forests sustainably,”

(IFCC) by PEFC, the world’s leading forest certification system. With

emphasized Gunneberg.

more than 50 percent of Indonesia’s land area forested, the country’s

The endorsement of IFCC by PEFC follows the most rigorous

rainforest is the third-largest in the world. It is considered one of the

assessment process existing globally for national forest certification

five most species-rich countries globally, home to about ten percent

systems seeking international recognition. PEFC requires all

of all known species of plants, mammals and birds.

standards to be developed through comprehensive, multi-stakeholder

“This endorsement signifies a turning point for Indonesia, a

and consensus-based processes at national level with all standard

country which is still struggling with combating high deforestation

requirements meeting or exceeding the environmental, social and

rates,” said Ben Gunneberg, Secretary General of PEFC International.

economic requirements of PEFC’s Sustainability Benchmarks.

“Forest certification represents an important mechanism to verify

“Finding the right balance that protects forests and the people

and promote sustainable forest management, thus safeguarding the

who depend on them is critical to achieving long term sustainability.

environmental, social and economic benefits that forests provide.

We have benefitted from the involvement of a wide range of

This is especially important in a country like Indonesia given the

stakeholders in the development of our national forest certification

significance of its forest resources both in terms of protecting its

system towards this ambitious goal, and the endorsement by

invaluable biodiversity and its contribution to the livelihoods of the

PEFC confirms that we are in alignment with globally recognized

millions of people that depend on forest resources to make a living.”

Sustainability Benchmarks,” said Dradjad H Wibowo, Chairman of

It is estimated that 80 million Indonesians rely on forests for their livelihood. Responsible management of the country’s forest resources

the IFCC. “Forest owners and companies are now able to demonstrate their

are also important from an economic point of view: smallholders and

good practices through certification and to re-gain the trust of the

industrial forestry operators, along with pulp and paper producers,

marketplace that has been lost over the past decade. Indonesia

depend on forests, and contribute approximately USD 21 billion to

recognizes the importance of sustainable forest management, and we

the economy - around 3.5 percent of Indonesia’s GDP. More than 4

encourage buyers globally to take a second look at certified forest

million people are employed by this industry.

products from Indonesia and to reward those who are committed to

“PEFC forest certification enables people to choose good wood,

safeguarding our forest resources,” concluded Wibowo.

UN launches ‘game-changer’ software to help developing countries monitor forests Accurate information is crucial for governments to manage their

international reporting requirements related to reducing emissions

natural resources sustainably, the United Nations Food and

from deforestation and forest degradation and increasing the carbon

Agriculture Organization (FAO) said at the launch of new software it

stock in forests. In addition, the FAO tools simplify the complex

hopes will help developing nations monitor the state of their forests.

process of transforming raw data such as tree measurements and

FAO has launched free software tools that it hopes will improve the

satellite imagery into interactive web pages with statistics, graphs,

way many developing nations monitor the state of their forests to

maps and reports.

tackle deforestation and climate change. “Many countries simply do not have a full picture of what is

“Increased transparency will help the policy makers obtain the information they need to make informed decisions,” said Rojas-

happening in their forests, and without that knowledge it is hard to

Briales, adding that earlier this year Ecuador and Tanzania have

develop effective forest policies to combat deforestation and forest

already completed their first national forest inventories with the help

degradation or to advance national climate change strategies,” said

of Open Foris tools.

Eduardo Rojas-Briales, Assistant Director-General for FAO Forestry. As it stands now, nearly 80 percent of developing countries have difficulty obtaining and using basic information about their forest resources. ‘Open Foris’ is a FAO-led initiative designed to assist countries in forest inventory - from assessment, design and field data collection to analysis and reporting. Released at the International Union of Forest Research Organizations’ World Congress in Salt Lake City, Open Foris tools are already being tested in more than ten countries in Africa, Asia and Latin America. “We hope that Open Foris will be a game changer, as it is the first comprehensive open source tool that will not only guide the countries through the whole process of data collection and analysis but will also encourage and facilitate open knowledge sharing in an innovative way,” added Rojas-Briales. The new software includes built-in tools to help countries meet

10 | October 2014

October 2014 | 11


LEED v4: Understanding the changes and implications for the use of wood as a building material


n 2013, the US Green Building

Materials and Resources credit

Renovation, changes to the Materials

Council (USGBC) released LEED

category. Optional credits related to

and Resources category, and ways in

v4. Described as a ‘quantum

life cycle assessment (LCA), LCA-based

which changes may impact the use

leap’, LEED v4 is said to speed up

environmental product declarations

of wood.

the credit submittal process for

(EPDs), material ingredient

design teams and encourage building

verification, and transparent reporting

owners to better understand building

of raw materials sourcing are all new

maintenance and operation. New

additions for LEED v4. Also, the list of

BD&C: New Construction and Major Renovation Materials and Resources

standards and credit categories have

environmentally preferable products

There is a significant change from

been developed as part of LEED

has been modified to narrow the

LEED 2009 to LEED v4 in the

v4, as well as the introduction of

definition of locally sourced products,

Material & Resources (MR) section

prerequisites for metering of energy

exclude rapidly renewable materials,

(Table 1). Emphasized in the new

and water use, and establishment

and add a new bio-based products

standard are credits related to

of specific energy performance


life cycle assessment (LCA), LCA-

requirements. Perhaps the most substantial changes in LEED v4 are to the

12 | October 2014

This article examines LEED v4 -

based environmental product

Building Design and Construction:

declarations (EPDs), material

New Construction and Major

ingredient verification, health product


Image Š AHEC

declarations (HPDs), and transparency

forest products, reused and recycled

or the use of Life Cycle Assessment

regarding raw materials sourcing and

content products.

(LCA) to inform building design and

extraction. Also, a new locally sourced (100-mile radius) definition replaces the previous regional materials (500mile radius) credit. Stand-alone credits related to local

New Materials & Resources (MR) Credits in LEED v4, BD&C: New Construction & Major Renovations

materials selection. Building Product Disclosure & Optimization - Environmental Product Declarations (1-2 points)

sourcing, material reuse, recycled

As shown in Table 1, the MR section

Recognizes the use of products that

content and wood certification

of LEED v4 includes new credits.

have an Environmental Product

are no longer awarded, but are

Each of the new credits is briefly

Declaration (EPD).

now recognized in conjunction

described below. Building Product Disclosure &

with attainment of other criterion. In addition, reference to rapidly

Building Life-Cycle Impact Reduction

Optimization - Sourcing of Raw

renewable materials has also been

(up to 5 points)

Materials (1-2 points)

eliminated and replaced with

Focuses on optimizing the use of

Rewards the use of products that

responsible sourcing criteria that

materials and resources through the

publicly report supplier and extraction

include bio-based materials, certified

reuse of existing parts of buildings

locations. Replaces requirements for

October 2014 | 13


Image © Dovetail Partners

materials reuse, recycled content, and rapidly renewable materials with six new responsible sourcing criteria: 1. Extended producer responsibility 2. Bio-based materials 3. Wood products 4. Materials reuse 5. Recycled content

LEED v4 retains USGBC’s somewhat contentious, singular recognition of FSC wood products certification

6. USGBC approved program

conscious consumers can use in making purchase decisions. The shift toward EPDs has long been in the works and is reflected in the Green Globes standard as well. Manufacturer and product-specific EPDs (or LCAs) are needed to get full product credit and before anyone can claim optimization credits under

difficult to obtain. LEED v4 retains

LEED v4. Currently only the North

Building Product Disclosure &

USGBC’s somewhat contentious,

American wood products industry

Optimization – Material Ingredients

singular recognition of FSC wood

has developed and published ISO-

(1-2 points)

products certification. In view of LEED

compliant EPDs for a wide range

Rewards the reporting of a product’s

v4 alluding to recognition of ‘USGBC-

of products. The cement/concrete

chemical ingredients.

approved equivalent’ programs, it

industry is reportedly moving toward

is incumbent on USGBC to publish

developing industry-wide EPDs but

guidelines as to what constitutes an

as yet nothing is publicly available.

While LEED v4 represents a

equivalent program and to develop

There is no apparent movement on

substantive change from LEED

an appropriate review and approval

behalf of the steel industry regarding

2009, some positions related to


EPD development. As EPDs will take


wood remain effectively unchanged

The move to EPDs in LEED v4

time to develop, it is likely to be some

and some points in the Materials

is a positive step. EPDs provide

time before EPD optimization credits

and Resources credits may be very

information that environmentally

are realistically available. Previous versions of LEED awarded points for products for which raw material extraction (or collection), conversion to products (manufacturing), and incorporation into structures all occurred within a 500-mile radius. The 500-mile local sourcing rule has been eliminated in LEED v4. In its place, a 100-mile radius is now specified as defining local sourcing, with extraction, manufacturing, and purchasing all to occur within that range. Perhaps more than any other industry, the shift is likely to benefit wood products manufacturers and distributors.

Image © Dovetail Partners

14 | October 2014

Use of Wood Products and LEED v4 Within LEED v4, use of wood


products contributes to points in the following credits: Building Life Cycle Impact Reduction Life Cycle Assessment (3 points) Life cycle comparisons consistently show wood products have lower embodied energy and lower carbon emissions as well as significantly

EPDs provide information that environmentally conscious consumers can use in making purchase decisions

lower impacts across a broad

to a second point under this credit if it does not incorporate organic-based surface coatings, binders, or sealants.

The Bottom Line LEED v4 represents a major change from LEED 2009, with substantial differences in the Materials and Resources credit category. In LEED v4, USGBC has focused on transparency

spectrum of impact measures.

The second point is associated with

of information, energy-savings

Consequently, comparison of

extended producer responsibility,

through optimization, and building

dominantly wooden structures

bio-based materials, certified forest

performance and operation. Buildings

with those that incorporate little or

products, materials reuse, and

constructed in the future will be

no wood will almost always point

recycled content. Products that

significantly more energy efficient

to wood as an environmentally

typically qualify under the recycled

than today and, more attention

preferable option.

content provision include standard

will likely be given to minimizing

particleboard, fiberboard, and finger-

environmental impacts wherever

jointed studs.

possible. The increased use of

Building Product Disclosure & Optimization - Environmental Product

science-based tools to identify lowest

Declarations (1 point)

Building Product Disclosure &

impact alternatives may lead to

As noted previously, industry-wide

Optimization - Material Ingredients

wood products becoming the building

ISO-compliant EPDs are available

(1-2 points)

materials of choice.

for many wood products. However,

Untreated and unfinished wood

because this kind of EPD counts

is classified as an inherently non-

* This article is excerpted from a report

as only half product for purposes

emitting flooring source that can

issued by Dovetail Partners in August

of credit achievement, wood use

contribute to one point under this

2014. The full report is available at:

in itself is unlikely to satisfy the

credit. Refinished products may also

credit requirement. The second point

contribute to an additional point if

under this credit (optimization) is

material ingredients are reported.

effectively unavailable until such time as one or more manufacturer-specific

Low-Emitting Materials (2 points)

EPDs are published.

Wood products are referenced in the Low Emitting Materials category,

Building Product Disclosure &

which is found in the Indoor Air

Optimization - Sourcing of Raw

Quality section of the various LEED

Materials (1-2 points)

standards. Use of composite wood

Manufacturers of all products,

products that meet certain California

including manufacturers of wood

Air Resources Board Airborne Toxic

products, can qualify their products for

Control Measure (ATCM) requirements

contributing to the first point under

can contribute to one of the points

this credit by publishing an annual

available under this credit. Untreated,

Corporate Sustainability Report.

unfinished wood flooring contributes

About the Author Dovetail Partners provides authoritative information about the impacts and trade-offs of environmental decisions, including consumption choices, land use, and policy alternatives. Jim Bowyer, Ph.D is the Director of Responsible Materials, Kathryn Fernholz is the Executive Director and Jeff Howe, Ph.D. is Dovetail’s Founder and President.

Table 1 comparison of material & resources - prerequisites & credits in leed 2009 and v4 LEED 2009 - NEW CONSTRUCTION & MAJOR RENOVATIONS



Storage and collection of recyclables



Storage and collection of recyclables



3 possible pts



1 possible pt


Construction & demolition waste management planning Building life-cycle impact reduction


Building reuse - maintain existing walls, floors & roof Building reuse - maintain interior nonstructural elements Construction waste management

2 possible pts


2 possible pts


Material reuse

2 possible pts



Recycle content

2 possible pts



Regional materials

2 possible pts


Building product disclosure & optimization enviromental product declarations* Building product disclosure & optimization - Sourcing of raw materials* Building product disclosure & optimization - material ingredients* Construction & demolition waste managment


Rapidly renewable material

1 possible pt


Certified wood

1 possible pt


5 possible pts

2 possible pts 2 possible pts 2 possible pts

*If products meeting criteria for this credit are also locally sourced (i.e. extracted, manufactured, and purchased within 100 miles of the project site) they are valued at 200% of actual cost for purpose of credit calculation.

October 2014 | 15


Global market for Green Building Materials expected to reach USD 528.8 billion by 2020


efined as the future of the

provides a comprehensive review

agricultural byproducts, and sheep’s

construction industry, green

of market trends, issues, drivers,

wool. Engineered wood, timber, and

buildings are emerging from

mergers, acquisitions and other

glass are also forecast to witness

their niche market status into a

strategic industry activities of major

increased demand.

mainstream force. The growing

companies worldwide.

need to reduce energy consumption

According to the report, the

Currently, the United States represents the largest market

represents the single most important

development of innovative, natural,

worldwide supported by higher

factor driving remodeling initiatives

high performance biomaterials

customer willingness to adopt green

in residential, commercial and

is poised to benefit demand.

practices. Growing awareness and

industrial construction sectors.

Biomaterials sourced from bamboo

financial foresight over the long-

Stringent government regulations

and agricultural derivatives, such

term energy and cost savings of

calling for mandatory renovation

as sugarcane bagasse, wheat straw,

green buildings is driving voluntary

or reconstruction of aging buildings

and fiber crops, are witnessing a

renovation of existing buildings.

is additionally fuelling the trend.

strong spurt in popularity. Building

Asia-Pacific is poised to emerge as the

Against this backdrop, demand for

insulation and roofing solutions are

fastest growing market with a CAGR of

green building materials is witnessing

witnessing increased investments in

16.9 percent over the forecast period

steady growth. A new report titled

research and production backed by

led by strong GDP growth, improving

‘Green Building Materials: A Global

venture capital funding. Efforts are

living standards, rising disposable

Strategic Business Report’ released

underway to replace plastic foams

income levels, and growing emphasis

by Global Industry Analysts Inc.,

with renewable solutions based on

on energy conservation.

16 | October 2014


Image Š Cree

The Outlook

are more environment-friendly such

market is also influenced by factors

The green building concept is

as insulation with better energy

such as government incentives for

transforming the construction industry

efficiency, recycled concrete that is

green buildings, growing pressure to

landscape across both residential and

produced with eco-friendly techniques,

comply with low-energy construction

commercial sectors. Also known as

green roofing, energy-efficient

regulations, emergence of newer

sustainable building, green building is

residential windows, green floor

green technologies, and falling costs

a structure that is resource efficient

coverings, and others.

of green building materials. Further,

and environmentally responsible

Since its first adoption in few

the increasing occupancy rates of

throughout its entire lifecycle - from

government constructions, green

green buildings and the substantial

design and construction to operation

buildings are gradually expanding to

operational savings achieved by

and maintenance and further to

all construction sectors: residential,

building owners is encouraging

demolition and renovation stages. The

offices, hospitals, hotels, schools,

them to shift towards green building

focus of green buildings concept is

factories, and retail spaces, driven by

constructions, thereby stimulating

on improving efficiency of buildings

rising awareness about environmental

sales of green building materials.

in the use of energy, water and other

conservation and the adoption of

resources, while minimizing the

government mandates and voluntary

Building Materials is estimated at USD

impact on environment and human

standards, thereby driving up demand

281.9 billion in 2014, and is projected

health throughout the building’s life

for a wide range of green building

to reach USD 528.8 billion by the year

cycle. The concept relies on the use

materials. Besides environmental

2020. In the upcoming years, growth

of techniques and materials that

concerns, the green building materials

in the global green buildings materials

The global market for Green

October 2014 | 17


market would be driven by rising consumer awareness about benefits of green technologies, implementation of regulations and policies emphasizing on achieving energy efficiency and green designs, and increased adoption of voluntary certification programs for green buildings. Continuous improvements in material science, changing design and construction practices, and the need for production efficiency in mature product segments are also driving the shift towards green building materials.

Since its first adoption in few government constructions, green buildings are gradually expanding to all construction sectors

Growth would also be driven by home improvement or refurbishment as well as new constructions in the residential

driven to a large extent by rising environmental concerns. With the construction industry accounting for a significant share of greenhouse gas emissions, green building materials offer huge opportunities globally, backed by their environmentfriendliness and increasing government support.

construction was marginally affected

to opt for green designs, given

Building renovations & remodeling: A key revenue contributor

its huge implications on realizing

Building renovations are expected to

substantial cost savings for the

drive significant demand for green

enterprise or home.

building materials in the upcoming

by restricted funding, other sectors of the construction industry continue

In particular, the private sector has

years. Stringent government

sector. Retrofits and rebuilds in

been rapidly adopting sustainable

regulations calling for mandatory

both commercial and residential

measures, due to emphasis on

renovations or reconstructions for

buildings are expected to drive up

saving costs by increasing energy

aging buildings, both residential

strong demand for green building

efficiency and also as part of efforts

and commercial, will continue to

materials. Europe represents the

of companies to be identified as

drive reconstruction and remodeling

largest market with estimated sales of

being environment friendly. Demand

activity, thereby boosting market

USD 92.4 billion in 2014. Insulation

for green building materials is also

prospects for various types of

represents the largest application market for green building materials, while Framing constitutes the fastest growing application category.

Rising energy consumption propels demand for green building materials Sustainable design concept continues to gain popularity across all sectors of the economy. Though considered as a non-essential investment, companies across the world are now adopting green building as a means to achieve sustainability and energy savings. Despite the fact that spending on green buildings during the recession years in some construction sectors such as public buildings

18 | October 2014


of them being implemented as soon

use of recycled wood, cans, tires, and

as 2016. Led by these regulations,

bottles as replacement for traditional

construction industry participants

materials, to create eco-friendly

are engaged in developing products

buildings. For instance, in the flooring

that can limit demand for zero

market, focus is on using natural

energy buildings and also facilitate

materials, with wood, cork, reclaimed

compliance with new regulations.

hardwood, bamboo, and red oak

Though the current market for zero

finding widespread acceptance.

energy buildings is relatively small, thereby offering favorable prospects

Growing demand for green flooring materials

for green building materials.

With the growing emphasis on

the future looks extremely promising,

Traditional materials gain prominence as green buildings trend strengthens

energy and cost savings, consumers are increasingly looking towards products such as natural floors that need little energy to produce, or

An increasing number of construction

opting for local purchases so as to

projects across the world are striving

reduce transport energy costs. Other

to achieve green building certification

options include flooring with minimal

or recognition for their superior

or low VOC emissions and flooring

energy efficient green materials.

environmental performance, which is

made of renewable resources. A key

For instance, building renovations

giving rise to demand for materials

driving force for the market is slower

following Hurricane Sandy in 2012

that can improve manufacturing

economic growth, which is limiting

and tornadoes in early 2013 in the

processes and enhance performance

consumer spending levels, and turning

U.S. have and will continue to drive

while reducing the environmental

attention onto value-added products.

demand for green materials as a part

impact of buildings. A trend seen in

This is in turn driving demand for

of building renovations and retrofits.

this regard is the growing preference

energy efficient flooring options

for traditional methods and materials,

that allow consumers to cut down

which have been pushed to the back

overall costs.

Net zero energy buildings: The ultimate objective

burner over the past several decades

The green flooring market has

With green building practices gaining

in favor of petrochemicals-based

benefitted immensely from the

popularity in the construction

materials. Most of the traditional

increased adoption of LEED standards-

industry, the ultimate objective is

materials are sourced from bio-based

compliant products in the commercial

to design net zero energy buildings,

resources, which are low in carbon

flooring sector. The adoption in

implying buildings that consume as

and energy.

commercial flooring sector has also

Among the traditional materials

facilitated reduction in prices of green

by using renewable energy systems.

finding favor in the industry include

residential flooring materials, enabling

Several countries across the world

timber structures and cladding,

more and more consumers to opt for

have already set up long-term

bamboo flooring, straw-bale

the same. Lured by the huge potential

regulations and targets, which would

construction, natural mineral and fiber

in this rapidly growth segment,

necessitate construction of net zero-

floor coverings, cellulose insulation,

flooring manufacturers are offering

energy buildings. A number of these

and lime renders and mortars.

innovative flooring materials involving

regulations are likely to come into

Use of recycled materials is also

the use of sustainably sourced raw

effect in the near future, with some

increasing with companies making

materials and recycled content.

much energy as energy produced

Global Industry Analysts, Inc. (GIA) Global Industry Analysts, Inc., (GIA) is a leading publisher of off-the-shelf market research. Founded in 1987, the company currently employs over 800 people worldwide. Annually, GIA publishes 1500+ full-scale research reports and analyzes 40,000+ market and technology trends while monitoring more than 126,000 Companies worldwide. Serving over 9,500 clients in 27 countries, GIA is recognized today, as one of the world’s largest and reputed market research firms.

October 2014 | 19


Bamboo: Good or Bad for the environment?

20 | October 2014



ften refered to as ‘the timber of the 21st century’, Bamboo is being hailed as a new super

material, with uses ranging from textiles to construction. From walls to flooring, bamboo is promoted as the environmental answer to wood. Today, bamboo flooring is commonplace from showrooms to homes, and the building community expects that it will be used in plywood next. Further, new technologies and ways of industrially processing bamboo have made a big difference, enabling it to begin to compete with wood products for Western markets. Environmentalists love it for its quick growth and for the fact that it

The downside to bamboo lies in its construction; instead of being cut and used whole, like wood, bamboo is sliced into pieces and glued together

Environmental impact

include biodiversity, soil erosion, and

that global bamboo market stands at

case in recent years. Not only does

chemical use.

around USD 10 billion, and the World

a bamboo plantation not have the

Bamboo Organisation says this could

biodiversity of a natural forest, but

double in five years.

given its invasive nature, bamboo can

can be harvested without harming the environment. However, the downsides of bamboo are now being scrutinized as its popularity grows and expands throughout the world. Whilst it has the potential to absorb large amounts of carbon dioxide, the biggest greenhouse gas, and provide some of the world’s poorest people with cash, some of key concerns

What is Bamboo? Bamboo is a grass native to South

Today, the majority of the bamboo

The biggest argument made by the bamboo industry is that it can be harvested without killing the plant. The reality however is that farmers cleared virgin forest in order to plant their bamboo farms, which ensured that the profitability of bamboo surpassed the profit of rice and other kinds of farming. This hasn’t been the

also quickly take over a nearby forest. A key issue that needs to be

America, all parts of Asia, as well as

used in the United States is grown

northern Australia and areas of the

in China. Some of these plantations

considered is that rising demand for

southeast United States. Touted for its

date back hundreds of years, and

bamboo might threaten the remaining

strength, hardness, and fast growth

most of the world’s population uses

remnants of forest. In addition, the

rate, bamboo has more compressive

the grass in some form or another.

clearing of forest raises concerns

strength than concrete and the same

Mainly used in housing for flooring, in

over soil erosion, as do newly planted

strength-to-weight ratio as steel in

construction as support poles, and in

fields, especially on steep slopes.

tension. Significantly, its advocates

household implements like chopsticks

Researchers have found, though,

point out that it grows much faster

or cutting boards, the truth is that

that planting bamboo along river

than trees. Recent reports estimate

bamboo is flourishing.

banks helped decrease erosion. Once the grass was established on farms, erosion decreased there as well. According to Rupert Oliver, a simplistic single-issue comparison is often made between timber production (“trees require a long time to grow”) and bamboo (which has the single merit of being quick to grow) without any attempt to put this into the wider environmental context. As such, environmentalists are quick to forget that sustainable selection harvesting of semi-natural forest (typical in the hardwood industry) allows income generation while also maintaining biodiversity. Significantly, such forest management requires relatively little energy (no fertilizer, replanting or

October 2014 | 21


weeding required) and also helps protect watersheds. Contrast this with bamboo plantations, which require regular and intensive management, must be given ample water, actively protected from competitive weeds and, in many areas, require application of fertilizer. Many point to the fact that bamboo has the potential to ‘absorb large amounts of carbon dioxide’. While growing bamboo (like wood) certainly sequesters CO2, there’s no guarantee that the overall carbon footprint will be negative (i.e. more carbon ends up in stored in the finished product than is emitted in getting that product to market). The downside to bamboo lies in its construction; instead of

together under high pressure. All of

being cut and used whole, like wood,

this requires energy and leads to

enough evidence to say that bamboo

bamboo is sliced into pieces and

carbon emissions.

is necessarily better or worse for

In addition, there are serious

glued together.

According to Oliver, there is not

the environment than hardwood or

questions regarding health and

any other material. Some bamboo

only does bamboo require a relatively

safety surrounding how the bamboo

products may well contribute to

large amount of energy to grow, but

is handled and the chemical

carbon sequestration and in some

also to process. To produce bamboo

components used to glue and seal it.

circumstances bamboo production

flooring, for example, the outer skin of

At present, there are no standardized

might be a sound environmental and

the bamboo stem must be removed,

requirements for its construction or

social option. Elsewhere, sustainable

and then the stem is cut into strips,

the glue holding it together. In fact,

management of forests for hardwoods

which are treated against mould

rates of strength and hardness vary

will be the better option. The only

and insects. The strips may then be

from one end of the spectrum to the

way to make valid judgements of

boiled (steamed) to turn the material

other depending on supplier, and the

environmental impact is by comparing

a caramel brown color. The strips are

glue can contain formaldehyde and be

each product on a full cradle to

then kiln dried, pressed and glued

harmful to the environment.

grave basis.

Oliver highlights the fact that not

Don’t be Misled by Imitators CATEGORIES




Maturity is reached in 40–50 years. According to the USDA Forest Service, there were 119% more hardwood trees in 2007 than in 1953, and the growth-to-removals ratio is 2.00 (Forest Resources of the United States, 2007).

Maturity is reached in 5–7 years. There are over 1,600 known species, but only several are suitable for flooring and panels. Non-suitable species and immature plants yield products that lack appropriate hardness.

Energy Consumption

Manufacturing energy is limited to running a saw blade.

Because bamboo is not a hardwood but a grass, its strips must be compressed with chemical-based glue, under extreme pressure, to be bound together. Glue content can range from 3–20%.


No emissions for methane, nitrogen oxides, and other particulate matter, and minimal emissions for carbon dioxide (Bergman and Bowe, 2008).

Lower grade bamboo products often use formaldehyde resins in the gluing process, which can lead to formaldehyde off-gassing.

Material Utilization

Virtually every part of a log is used as lumber or by-products (including bark, sawdust, and scrap); finished products can be repurposed or used as a combustible fuel.

High quality manufacturing techniques use only 65% of the raw material; traditional manufacturing utilizes only 35%. The remaining material is wasted, usually burned.


Standards, established by U.S. associations, regulate the quality of American hardwood products.

In China, where the majority of bamboo products originate, there are no organizations governing quality.

Carbon Sequestration

Hardwood trees store carbon as they grow and, when harvested from a responsibly managed forest, are actually a carbon-negative material.

Bamboo grass stores carbon during the growth cycle, but—due to extensive energy required to process and manufacture its products—bamboo is not a carbon-neutral material.


American hardwoods come in a variety of species and lumber grades, providing color, pattern, and character marks to satisfy nearly every design scheme.

Bamboo products, flooring, and panels come in vertical- and flat-grain patterns and generally are a light, honey or natural color.

Life Span

A solid hardwood floor can last 125 years or longer with several refinishings.

According to manufacturers, bamboo flooring should last 30–50 years.

After Useful Life

Finished hardwood products can be repurposed or used as a combustible fuel. Even in a landfill, hardwoods will naturally revert back to nature.

Because of the high glue content, bamboo products will remain intact in a landfill almost indefinitely.

*Taken from

22 | October 2014

October 2014 | 23

design & décor

American elm displayed in all its glory at the National Theater of Bahrain

project was the subject of an


harmonious exchange with the nearby

one balcony to another. This enclosed

international tender won by the

National Museum, built in the 1980s,

shimmering gold jewel-case contrasts

French architects AS.ARCHITECTURE-

with which it shares public spaces

with the transparency of the main

STUDIO, a practice that already has

that serve as foundations for this

hall bathed in sunlight and stands as

several references to its credit in the

ceaselessly evolving cultural district.

the building’s true cornerstone: this is

Gulf region. Officially unveiled on 12

“A building is only meaningful if its

literally and metaphorically where it all

November 2012 during the festivities

personality and relevance combine on a


being held in Manama - the Capital

given site,” explain Roueïda Ayache and

Inside the main auditorium, the

of Arab Culture 2012 - this venture

René-Henri Arnaud, founding associates

flowing organic shapes have been

is among the Kingdom’s largest

of the AS agency.

entirely panelled in North American red

he National Theater of Bahrain

Its openwork structure creates a

enabling spectators to move from

Set between land and sea, the first

elm, a wood selected for its superior

theater of this scale in Bahrain, the

distinguishing feature of the National

acoustic qualities. The result is quite

venue provides a new stage for the

Theater of Bahrain is its roof canopy,

stunning: firstly because one rarely

eighth annual Spring of Culture, as well

a weave of openwork aluminium

sees projects where American red

as the election of Manama as the 2013

that is of major importance, to filter

elm has been specified on this scale.

Capital of Arab Tourism.

sunlight and, above all, keep the high

Furthermore the wood panelling has

temperatures in check. Inspired by the

been beautifully crafted to look like the

this maritime reference captures

country’s traditional wicker rooftops,

inverted hull of a ship, reminiscent of

the insular character of this Arab-

this immense sunshade also provides

the architecture of dhows, the ancestral

Persian Gulf archipelago together

natural ventilation for the extensive

fishing boats used on the Bahrain

with its extreme horizontality which

outdoor walkway, another of the

pearling trail, a very ancient local

fostered the building’s design. In fact,

theater’s attractive features.


undertakings. As the first national

Bahrain means ‘two seas’ in Arabic:



The wood panelling for the side walls

situate this 12,000 sqm theater facing

contemporary design blends perfectly

is made up of 30mm multi-layered

the artificial lagoon of the National

with its surroundings. Below the

MDF panels on steel and timber frame,

Museum, so as to preserve its views

canopy lies an inner shell clad in gold

finished with 6mm elm veneer facing.

and, more importantly, its majestic

tinted stainless steel, which houses the

This is up to the top of first balcony

profile towards the sea.

1,001-seat auditorium with a foyer

railing. Above this level are the solid

24 | October 2014

design & décor

Thanks to a range of sophisticated

Mai bint Mohammed Al Khalifa, who is

curtains behind. The back of the

stage equipment (invisible sound

committed to breathing new life into

auditorium is also made in solid elm

absorbing curtains, removable acoustic

the Bahraini cultural scene.

slats but with fixed acoustic insulation.

shells, padded leather chairs by

The curved soffits of the balconies

Poltrona Frau) the auditorium can

Minister of Culture, is the first woman

and main ceiling are also formed out

be easily reconfigured to cater for

to be awarded France’s Prix Colbert

of MDF in layers on steel and timber

different forms of live entertainment

in 2010 and also one of the most

frame and finished with elm veneer.

while retaining the same visual and

influential women in the Arab world.

Solid elm wood slats with acoustic

acoustic quality. The design of this

She helps promote contemporary

insulation have also been installed

Italian style theater which spans

design and creation in her country,

in the main lobby wall cladding. The

28 metres between the stage and

which also offers a wealth of historic

balcony railing tops are also in solid

the last row - was implemented

heritage. Her list of achievements



ranges from placing the Fort Qal’at

partnership with London-based Theater

Al-Bahrain on UNESCO’s World Heritage

a fire retardant before assembly. The

Project Consultants, as well as that of

List, to the rehabilitation of the historic

bespoke joiners used the architects’

Albert Xu, the famous acoustic engineer

downtown Muharraq, the former capital

CAD drawings to assemble the

who has been involved in designing

of Bahrain.

panelling. The acoustic performance

some of the greatest concert halls in

of the panelling was also tested on a

the world.

All the panelling was treated with

scale model prior to assembly. Only the

This project is representative of an

Her Excellency, Bahrain’s current

By investing and believing in the benefits of cultural exchanges, Bahrain is establishing itself as a forerunner in

straight sections were prefabricated

emerging cultural life in the Middle

its openness to the rest of the world.

and the supporting main steel ribs

East, such as for instance, the theater

An undertaking encouraged by H.E.

were also cut to the required shapes

festival organized by the GCC (Gulf

Shaikha Mai, who is committed to

at the production plant. However all

Cooperation Council), which, brings

strengthening ties between her country,

the curved panelling was shaped and

together every two years the six Gulf

those of the Gulf, and the remainder

assembled on site and the brass strips

countries (Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Qatar,

of the world. The National Theater

to enhance the flowing lines of the

Oman, the UAE and Bahrain), and the

of Bahrain, which she has supported

interior design were also inserted on

Spring of Culture. It was launched by

for a number of years, will serve as a

site in the wood panelling.

the historian and writer H.E. Shaikha

platform for this new vision.

Image © Nicolas Buisson

elm slats with motorized acoustic

October 2014 | 25

design & décor

A theater between land and sea Bahrain’s National Theater forms, alongside with the Museum, a consistent architectural and landscaping entity, a true cultural center for the Kingdom. On either side of the lagoon, the museum’s white masses interact with the lightness of the theater’s aluminium canopy, the latter reflecting itself in the water surface. The roof canopy shelters the hall of the Grand Foyer, which is entirely glazed and its large entrance square which seems to float on the lagoon water.

Large open spaces for a cultural flagship The building is organized around the Grand Foyer with a clear separation of public spaces, which include the main auditorium, the foyers, another modular auditorium, the ‘majlis’ (lounges for officials) and the café from the spaces exclusively reserved for artists, technical staff and administrative employees. The main entrance for the general public crosses the shaded esplanade through the foyer-hall, which gives on to the lagoon, the museum, and further behind the Manama coastline. In the foyer, visitors discover the heart of the building: the 1,001-seat

Inside the main auditorium, the flowing organic shapes have been entirely panelled in North American red elm

main auditorium is cladded in gold colored stainless steel. The entrances to the auditorium are located on the sides of this volume, where two staircases lead also to the upper foyers and lead also to the stalls and the two balconies. The main reception desk, the ticket booths and a small bookstore are all located in the main hall/foyer, which can also host temporary art installations. Located on either side of the foyer is the ‘majlis’ lounge for officials and the café, which gives on to the beautiful shaded terrace beneath the canopy. The stage doors and entrances for the theater staff are on the building’s east facade. Adjacent to this entrance, the artists’ foyer gives them access to their dressing rooms and to the backstage. A staircase and an elevator lead to one part of the first floor, which is occupied by the theater’s administrative services whilst the other part is dedicated to technical services. The entrance on the north side of the building is restricted to technical staff and deliveries. It also leads to the workshop, storage rooms and backstage. The auditorium’s design seeks to foster a link between the artists and the audience. The flowing

Image © Nicolas Buisson

26 | October 2014

curves of the balconies, the smooth

design & décor

Image © Nicolas Buisson

Image © Nicolas Buisson

and comfortable texture of the woodwork, which swathes the entire space, all create the right conditions for the show. The main auditorium is designed like a musical instrument that resonates with a perfect tone.

Materials The materials have been specified to underline the National Theater’s architectural statement, its enhancement of the Bahraini landscape and its ambition to act as a focal point between land and Image © Nicolas Buisson

sea. The roof canopy that covers the entire building is made up of woven perforated ribbons of anodized

up by thin brass strips that underline

aluminum. The gaps they form ensure

the curved shapes of the balconies.

The stage design and seating plan

proper ventilation and create a play

A lower section of the building clad

The scenography for Bahrain

on light, which transforms both the

in granite, runs below the main

National Theater was developed

indoor and outdoor spaces, between

auditorium and includes all the other

in partnership with London based

land and sea, depending on the time

rooms. Three major public venues are

Theater Project Consultants, with

of day.

therefore highlighted both by day and


Beneath the shade of the canopy,

at night: the esplanade beneath the

worked in the past, on two theaters

the full height glazed wall of the main

canopy, the main foyer-hall and the

built in Angers, France, and the

foyer-hall is completely transparent

main auditorium.

Onassis Cultural center in Athens,

thanks to its glass stiffeners. Rising

Greece. The chosen layout of the main

above the roof canopy, the outer shell

A shimmering vision

of the main auditorium is covered

At dusk, the canopy’s surface seems

theater with an orchestra pit and a

with stainless steel with golden

like a silver sea out of which emerges

retractable orchestra shell to allow the

reflections. Its surface catches light

the gold-lit volume, as if the heart of

stage set to adapt to theater, dance,

under different angles: twinkling at

the building was beating. In the night

opera or concerts. The acoustics are

dawn, flamboyant at sunset.

of Manama, between sky and sea, the

also modular and adaptable to these

theater becomes a shimmering vision,

different types of performance.

Within the auditorium, the warm tones of the elm wood panelling are lit

made of light and reflections.

auditorium was that of an Italian

The stage floor is 30 meters wide

October 2014 | 27

design & décor

Image © Nicolas Buisson

and 18 meters deep. The stage

The seating plan is organized into

height beneath the spot racks is 20

three sections: a 543-seat front

meters high with an extra volume

orchestra section, a front balcony

below the stage floor. Three stage

with 245 seats and a rear balcony

light racks beam down from above

with 213, totalling 1,001 seats. The

the stage ceiling. The orchestra pit

central front orchestra section is split

is in the forefront, on the right of

into two halves with, seats in the

the retractable first five rows, to fit

wings at the back and on the sides,

an orchestra of 60 musicians. The

to follow the balconies’ curves. The

front stage is 19 meters wide and

auditorium’s interior design creates

9.5 meters high. Mobile panels form

a closer relationship between the

a diaphragm that can downsize the

audience and the stage. The design

structure to 12 meters by 7 meters.

of the side lodges and seating plan in

Sound and lighting is controlled

the wings creates a continuous flow,

from the technical booth located at

which plays down the distance to the

the back of the space at stall level,

back of the auditorium.

and is linked to the entire stagecraft equipment.

A smaller adjustable auditorium can host smaller performances. Its

The auditorium’s acoustic was

layout adapts to different seating

developed by acoustician Albert

plans: a front stage facing a floor

Xu, who had already worked in

of 144 seats; a circular seating plan

partnership with AS.ARCHITECTURE-

surrounding the central modular

STUDIO on the Onassis Cultural

stage or an open stage to do

Center in Athens. The acoustics

rehearsals. The room is equipped

were studied for live shows with no

with a technical ceiling grid

sound system support. To ensure

covering the entire surface as well as

good quality acoustics for each

the control booth so as to host

type of disposition, sliding curtains

all types of performance. Behind

located in the middle ground and

the stage are four individual

made up of wood panelled shutters,

dressing-rooms, four shared

which can customize the quality of

dressing-rooms for four and two

the auditorium’s acoustics to the

group dressing-rooms, offering

room’s acoustic properties to each

performers and artists the best

type of performance.

conditions to prepare.

28 | October 2014

Project Details Architects AS.ARCHITECTURE-STUDIO Civil Engineers SETEC BATIMENT Local engineering consultant ATKINS Stage design THEATER PROJECTS CONSULTANTS Acoustics XU ACOUSTIQUE Bespoke joinery Al Yusuf (Bahrain) Seating capacity Main auditorium 1,001 + 150 seats in smaller auditorium Surface area 10,370 sqm Budget 31 million euros Date of completion November 2012 Photo credit Nicolas Buisson Copyright ADAGP

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fti October 2014 | 29


Understanding the fire risk in tall timber buildings


lthough wood is one of the oldest and most common construction materials,

architectural appeal. However, fears about fire safety

laminated veneer lumber (LVL), or glued laminated timber (Glulam).

have continued to limit its use.

Construction was recently completed

it’s typically perceived as weaker

Thankfully, a considerable amount of

on a 10-storey apartment building

and more susceptible to fire than

testing focused in Europe, Canada, and

in Melbourne, Australia, with taller

alternatives like steel and concrete.

New Zealand has begun to convince

structures up to 30 storeys under

These fears have been codified

designers and public authorities

design in Norway, Austria and

over the past century by means of

alike that wood can be as safe for

Vancouver. These buildings are cited

restrictive limits on the height and

buildings as steel and concrete. Height

for their advantages in sustainability

area of timber buildings. However,

limits for wooden structures have

resulting from the use of wood as

wood construction has experienced

been relaxed in some regions of the

a renewable construction material.

something of a renaissance over

world, while others have introduced

Claims have been made that they can

the past few years. Building

options for performance-based design

be designed to be safer than buildings

professionals and government

solutions. Timber structures up to 30

fabricated using structural steel due

officials alike have been drawn

storeys high are currently in design in

to the formation of an insulating char

to its sustainability credentials:

Norway, Austria, and Canada.

layer that forms on the perimeter of a

timber stores carbon dioxide, can

Recent architectural trends

laminated wood beam when exposed

be fully renewable, and prevents

include the design and construction

pollution typically generated during

of increasingly tall buildings with

Many in the architecture,

the extraction and manufacturing

structural components comprised

engineering, and construction

of steel and concrete. Timber also

of engineered wood including

industry believe that developing

offers unique design possibilities and

cross laminated timber (CLT),

a broader understanding of new

30 | October 2014

to a fire.


Image © Will Pryce

Image © Architekturagentur

Image © Berg | C.F. Møller

technologies, design tools, and research will allay these fears and enable the construction of more and taller timber buildings. In an effort to fully understand the implications of this shift within the U.S. market, ARUP was commissioned by the non-profit Fire Protection Research

Wood construction has experienced something of a renaissance over the past few years

of exactly how exposed timber influences fire dynamics inside rooms. More needs to be known about how exposed timber materials impact both the development of fires and conditions within affected rooms throughout a fire’s duration, as these can impact occupant safety and structural stability.

Foundation to conduct a multi-phase study of fire safety in tall timber

combined with the design industry’s

buildings: Fire Safety Challenges of

growing commitment to sustainability,

laminated timber (CLT) is used for

Tall Wood Buildings.

has led to increasing interest in tall

walls or the undersides of floors,

timber structures. However, building

layers of char can form and fall off.

focused on gathering information

codes and regulations designed to

This process, known as delamination,

and identifying knowledge gaps,

address concerns about fire safety

may raise temperatures within the

was released in December, 2013.

still place strict restrictions on

room and contribute to the fire’s fuel

Robert Gerard, Fire Safety Engineer

timber construction across much of

load. In turn, the increased exposure

at ARUP, highlights the key factors

the world.

to heat may result in more severe fire

The report for the first phase, which

in understanding the fire risk in tall timber buildings. According to

Timber in room fires

Gerard, the development of highly

One of the top recommendations was

sophisticated new wood products,

to invest in greater understanding

For example, when exposed cross-

conditions at later stages in the fire duration, and speed the collapse of structural timber elements. However, while the general outlines

October 2014 | 31


Image © Michael Charters

of this process are understood, the

Service penetration impact

specifics are unclear. More needs to

Holes are cut into building floors,

be known about the performance

walls, and ceilings to provide

of exposed CLT and other timber

for mechanical, plumbing, air

materials in room fires. This is vital

conditioning, electrical services, and

not only to enable designers to create

communications. These penetrations

safer timber buildings, but also to

must be lined with materials known

overcome negative stereotypes about

as fire stopping that contain fires and

the safety of wood during fires.

prevent smoke from spreading to

Connection performance

adjacent areas. In most buildings, the areas

Testing of steel connections such

surrounding these penetrations are

as nails, bolts, plates, and rods has

made of non-combustible materials. In

shown that exposed elements quickly

timber buildings, however, potential

lose strength when subjected to

charring where structure meets fire

fire. However, common means of

stopping may compromise performance.

protecting them - among others,

More research needs to be conducted

providing a protective layer of

to determine the best design for fire

gypsum board or embedding them

stopping in wooden buildings.

within the structure - can be less cost, structural efficiency, and

Expanding the knowledge base


These examples represent some of

than ideal in terms of aesthetics,

More research is needed to allow

the most important gaps in knowledge

designers to understand and predict

about fire safety in timber buildings.

the fire performance of connections

Greater research and fire testing

in structural systems and develop

is critical to developing a better

safe, efficient, and architecturally

understanding of timber building

pleasing connections for new timber

fire performance. However, it is the

technologies. A high level of safety in

effective communication of these and

structural design will enable greater

related risks that will be necessary to

confidence in structural stability

enable the design and approval of tall

during building fires.

timber structures.

32 | October 2014

About the Author

Robert Gerard, P.E. - Project Engineer, is a licensed Fire Protection Engineer in the state of California and currently based in Arup’s Sydney office. Robert’s Master’s thesis, “Fire Resistance of Pre-Stressed Heavy Timber Structures,” focused on structural fire performance of multistory timber buildings. His research on fire safety of mid- and high-rise timber buildings has enabled him to establish strong international connections within the industry, including researchers, manufacturers, suppliers, designers and building authorities. Robert’s experience with fire performance and safety in tall timber structures has made him an authority on fire safety in high-rise timber construction.

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October 2014 | 33


Illwerke Center Montafon: A green building for the future Project is one of the largest timber-built office buildings worldwide and is a milestone in resource efficient, sustainable construction

34 | October 2014



he Illwerke Center Montafon

minimized resource and energy

(IZM) is one of the largest

use, up to 90 percent improved CO2

timber-built office buildings

balance, shorter construction times

worldwide and is a milestone in

and specifically precise construction

resource efficient, sustainable

quality. The LCT wood construction

construction. The IZM demonstrates

remains exposed and the fire

that size does not have to be

protection provisions are complied

expressed in height. The second

with in high buildings as well. All

building built with the LifeCycle

building components, including

Tower (LCT) system, the IZM is 120

energy supply, are individually

meters long with a usable area of

configured and optimized depending

10,000 sqm in Montafon, Austria.

on site situation.

The development of the IZM can be traced to the end of 2010

IZM grows within six weeks

when Hermann Kaufmann ZT GmbH

The environment of the new site

Architects, a close development

for the Illwerke Center Montafon is

partner of Cree GmbH, won an

characterized by a strong natural

international architectural competition

space with the artificial landscape

for the new Illwerke centre. The

adjustments to create the artificial

clients based their selection decision

lake and large cubes of the existing

mainly on the technological, ecological

buildings. The 120 meter long building

and economic advantages of the LCT

sets a self-confident, strong sign and

system - plus its demonstrably high

redefines the site with its unique

fire safety.

front and back. This attitude towards

The IZM uses LCT, a modular,

construction in the Alps follows the

flexible wood-hybrid construction

tradition of Vorarlberg power plant

system for the central office building.

construction. A quarter of the building

Industrial prefabrication in wood

protrudes into the lake, which is

construction has many benefits:

‘unusual’ in spatial experience.

Image © Norman A. Muller

Image © Norman A. Muller

Image © Norman A. Muller

October 2014 | 35


Image © Norman A. Muller

The Illwerke Center Montafon had reinforced concrete work performed on site to the ground floor ceiling and the two access towers. The 10,000 sqm area of the building structure including facades were built in only six weeks using the LCT system. A special feature for large-volume wood construction in the LCT system is that load-bearing elements are not covered; wood-concrete composite elements are supported on glued wood supports that are integrated into the façade and held by steel carriers along the middle axis, supported on a series of reinforced concrete columns. Image © Norman A. Muller

According to the architects, in spite of the exposed wood construction, fire protection is warranted. In addition, the hybrid ceiling element with a concrete part that also divides the floors consistently in the support, as well as by the advanced fire apron in the façade area are important towards reaching the safety requirements, while the sprinkler system also compensates for material flammability. A strict façade grid - the canopies are at the same time a constructional weather protection and blind protection - glazed from desk height gives the building transparency and generous space. The consistent skeleton structure with few reinforcement cores offers high flexibility. At the same time, the building technology is used sparingly

Image © Norman A. Muller

36 | October 2014

and in a targeted manner. Primary


energy consumption stays below 30 kWh/m./year, the heat demand at 14 kWh/m./year and is completely covered by the exhaust heat system of the Rodund plant, as is the cooling demand by the heat pump system. These indices, including those for ‘grey’ energy, turn the building into a site with exemplary effect.

LCT system pursues a ‘top-down’

The 10,000 sqm area of the building structure including facades were built in only six weeks using the LCT system

approach for high wooden structures, where all components are planned to be adjustable to the country-specific requirements and mainly using the resources on site, this means that it can be used internationally.

LifeCycle Tower The LCT (LifeCycle Tower)

Modern Workplaces

construction system is an innovative

IZM not only uses water for clean

controlled and optimized for each

wood construction based on a

energy generation, but also features

workplace. In addition, the wall

high degree of prefabrication

modern workplaces wherein 270

elements for interior design, veneered

and suitable for skyscrapers as

people work in a space of 10,000

oak, are simply clasped together in

well. Serial production warrants

sqm. The office concept was optimized

a construction kit system and thus

precise construction quality, quick

with team-oriented workspaces

adjusted to any working situation

construction progress, and high

with high flexibility featuring

easily and flexibly.

economic efficiency. LCT remains

predominantly. The open office

flexible across its entire life cycle.

combines two units each, structured

Research and Development

with low office furniture. There also

Cree GmbH, a Rhomberg group

especially since the easily removable

are areas to withdraw to, think tanks,

company, who acted as the

installed materials are a considerable

for focused work, that can be used in

general contractor on the project,

value accumulator. The facades can be

the longer term as well.

undertook the construction of IZM.

freely designed according to the needs

The research of several years in an

and wishes within the system. As a

comes from the floor. The other

interdisciplinary team of knowledge

regenerating material, wood requires

installations are routed in the ceiling

leaders of all areas marked the

little energy, even in processing.

below metal panels painted white.

beginning of development of the

What’s more, if the building is located

Lighting can be adjusted according to

innovative wood-hybrid construction

in a region rich in wood, this is the

the amount of natural sunlight and

system for large-volume buildings

most environmentally compatible way

each room’s climate is individually

with up to 30 floors. Given that the

of building.

Everything for the workplace

It permits custom room structures

Project Details Name: Illwerke Center Montafon (IZM) Client: Vorarlberger Illwerke AG Structure: Merz Kley Partner Building physics / accoustics: Wärme- und Schallschutztechnik Schwarz (WSS) Image © Norman A. Muller

Fire protection: IBS - Institut f. Brand-, Gerardschutztechnik und Sicherheitsforschung Façade: GBD Projects Site: 160,000 sqm Gross floor area: 11,500 sqm Usable space: 9,900 sqm Photo Credits: Norman A. Müller Image © Norman A. Muller

October 2014 | 37

wood works

‘The Wish List - What I Have Always Wanted Is…’ at the London Design Festival 2014


he Wish List - What I Have

Furniture, the compelling installation

talented group of emerging designers,

Always Wanted Is….’ exhibition,

will have an extended stay at the V&A

who worked closely with their

a unique collaborative project

until October 24, 2014. The project

commissioners to develop the designs

between some of the world’s best-

demonstrates the versatility of

and constructed them with the help of

known design names and up-and-

American hardwoods and the ability

Benchmark’s master craftsmen, some

coming designers, opened at the

to experiment with designs both big

with 40 years’ experience to draw

Victoria and Albert Museum as part

and small.

on. The result is ten beautiful objects

of the London Design Festival 2014.

The Wish List has not only engaged

in a variety of American hardwoods

Commissioned by the American

the interest of ten design legends,

including red oak, white oak, walnut,

Hardwood Export Council (AHEC), the

each of whom commissioned

hard maple, ash, tulipwood and

leading international trade association

something for their personal

cherry. The pieces show the amazing

for the American hardwood industry,

collection. It has also given an

versatility that can be achieved with a

and brought to life by Benchmark

extraordinary opportunity to a

single material. Image © Petr Krejci

38 | October 2014

wood works

Getting Away From It All

which is currently my favourite

considerable skill. The 2mm red

place for quiet time.” Why doesn’t

oak strips Cox chose for the curved

Commissioned by Terence Conran

the design titan simply do it himself?

screens had to be soaked in a brook

Designed with Sebastian Cox

“While I’ve had the occasional piece

on the Benchmark property before

Made from American red oak and

customized,” says Conran, “I have

they could become supple enough for

American cherry

never once had the opportunity to

weaving. Then Cox finished them with

Sir Terence Conran asked designer

design something purely and selfishly

a whitener to lighten their appearance

Sebastian Cox to create a “cocoon-like

for myself.”

to Conran’s specifications.

desk” in red oak and cherry for his

Regarding Conran’s brief for a desk,

For the cupboard roll-top,

office - a place where he could work

Sebastian says, “It’s a space Terence

Cox joined solid pieces of wood

without distractions, with everything

can work in without distractions,

mechanically, then built a drawer to

he needed at hand. “I like the idea

a cocoon-like desk with cabinetry

conceal the mechanism. “This was

of being cocooned away happily

around it, a space for undistracted

the most advanced, intricate and

designing or writing in blissful peace,”

creative thought.” Yet building it

challenging thing I had ever made,”

he says. “And it will save me going

from red oak and cherry took more

says Cox, “but how often do you get

in to the greenhouse in my garden,

than a little creative thought, and

the chance to design something for someone who is so important in the industry?” For his part, Conran says, “I have been making furniture for 60 years, but I am still learning from Sebastian.”

Image © Petr Krejci

A Stool for the kitchen

Image © Petr Krejci

she would not only own but also put

the house. Stools offer a dynamic

into production. She commissioned

kind of seating. There’s a temporary

Commissioned by Alison Brooks

a stool for her kitchen from Felix de

quality to sitting on a stool - you

Designed with Felix de Pass

Pass that could work in a range of

don’t have to commit to sitting down.

Made from American cherry

environments. “The stool,” she says,

I’ve never been able to find a really

Alison Brooks wanted an object that

“is always the most popular seat in

clever, beautiful kitchen stool that is the right height for a kitchen counter.” She chose cherry, a timber she felt was under appreciated and which her mother collected when she was growing up in Canada. “Cherry has a tight grain with lots of character. The color grows darker and richer over time to an incredible burnt umber color,” she adds. The stool consists of a cherry seat and post that de Pass steam-bent into three legs. With Benchmark’s help, he labored over how to attach the stainless-steel footrest, or “crown”, settling, eventually, on three discreet metal bars. Brooks helped the designer refine the seat into a light disc that becomes sturdier where it

Image © Petr Krejci

joins the base.

October 2014 | 39

wood works

Tulipifera Sharpeners Commissioned by Norman Foster Designed with Norie Matsumoto Made from American tulipwood Norman Foster may run one of the most technologically advanced practices in the world in, but he still likes to draw. “For as long as I can remember the pencil and I have been inseparable companions – sketching and scribbling are integral to my Image © Petr Krejci

way of life.” He described his wish as “a pencil sharpener for three sizes, capable of sitting on a desk and with a compartment to receive the shavings”. Foster has more than one desk, so the wish expanded into a family of pencil sharpeners, each for a different location. Foster and Matsumoto chose to design the pencil sharpeners

Image © Petr Krejci

in American tulipwood, which is often seen as a low-quality timber,

was wider than the thickest available

abundant and inexpensive. But Foster

stock. To compensate, Matsumoto cut

loved the variation in color. “Of all the

triangular pieces from the wood and

samples we examined,” he says, “it

joined them together. “The angles and

was uniquely pale and the grain had

jointing were challenging. There were

an almost marble-like quality.”

a lot of practical issues I had to solve,”

The cube, cylinder and sphere were

she says. Each sharpener has a tray

cut from solid pieces of tulipwood,

to sit on that is large enough to hold a

but the tetrahedron, at four inches,

sizeable collection of pencils.

Image © Petr Krejci

Ves-el Commissioned by Zaha Hadid Designed with Gareth Neal Made from American white oak Zaha Hadid’s wish was very openended, simply specifying ‘tableware’. Gareth Neal approached the project by thinking about the fluid nature of Hadid’s work but juxtaposing that with a functional element dynamic. From this, the water carafe idea emerged. He was invited to go to Hadid’s office and working with her design team, using the company’s modeling software to create the vessel; there he conceived the idea of extruding the form along one of its axes with a slit opening at the end that allowed the viewer to look into “a cathedral-like space”. Image © Petr Krejci

Benchmark had to upgrade its CNC software to achieve the complicated form. Neal constructed the vessels

by a potter’s thumb. Neal and Hadid

thing we have ever made.” Gareth

in two halves, which were expected

agreed to keep one vessel natural,

Neal adds, “I hope the pieces will

to be identical but in fact were not

while the other was ebonized. Sean

embed the design with a sense of the

quite, adding the sense of a “maker’s

Sutcliffe says of the results, “I have

handmade through the arm of a robot,

mark”. The process produced ridges

been running my workshop for 32

questioning the viewer’s perceptions

that were analogous to those created

years, and this is the most remarkable

of craft and the handmade”.

40 | October 2014

wood works

The Hole Chair Commissioned by Allen Jones Designed with Lola Lely Made from American maple and walnut veneer Jones’ wish was for a recliner in the shape of a human form, a concept he developed more than 10 years ago but, he says, “I didn’t have the facilities to pursue it.” The idea was that it should have a personalized form, fitted to the contours of his own body, while also deliberately androgynous. A dowel inserted into the drainage hole would take its inspiration from the removable phallus on Marino Marini’s statue of a horseman in front of the Peggy Guggenheim museum in Venice. Image © Petr Krejci

The chair evolved from a recliner into a more upright chaise longue. Lely made a full-sized model at Benchmark,

constructed the chair from maple

then drove it from the workshop to

and walnut veneer. “The only way we

Jones’s home at London’s Barbican,

could make the shape I wanted was

so he could have it “fitted” in the

in veneer,” she says. The main timber,

truck outside, to the entertainment of

maple, is a uniform pale color, and


contrasts well with the dark tones of

Of The Wish List project, Lola Lely

walnut. Lely built up the form with

says, “I was the problem solver. It

13 layers of veneer, adding special

was all right not to be so much of a

top and bottom walnut layers with

designer on this project. This is what

marquetry. “They went together like

Allen wanted and what he got.” She

jigsaws,” she says.

6 X 500

joints to join the pieces. Creating

Image © Petr Krejci

these was a delicate balancing act Commissioned by Amanda Levete

- they had to be tight enough to fit,

Designed with Win Assakul

but not so tight that a mallet would

Made from American walnut

be needed to separate them. The

Amanda Levete often entertains up

contoured reversible walnut dish with

to 18 people at the 4.8m-long dining

brass edging is in six pieces. Every

table she designed for her home. She

piece is subtly different because of

loved the idea of a long and reversible

the hand carving. “We had designed it

serving dish that would allow people

with as little flat surface as possible

to help themselves to cold meats or

on the underside, to reveal as much of

fruit. She also asked for a storage

the grain as we could,” says Assakul.

Image © Petr Krejci

box that should be as beautiful as the dish itself. Levete commissioned Win Assakul to design the pieces saying, “He is quite exceptional as a designer, thinker and communicator. It is rare to find those qualities in one so young.” Levete and Assakul chose American walnut to give the dish a rich and luxurious quality. The idea was that the dish would be nearly flat on one side, for cold meats and cheeses, and with deeper hollows on the other side, for fruit. It is in six pieces: four interchangeable central sections, and two ends. Assakul handcarved each section and used dovetail

Image © Petr Krejci

October 2014 | 41

wood works

Room Commissioned by John Pawson Designed with Studio Areti Made from American white oak and walnut John Pawson commissioned a family of elements for the country house he is currently remodeling for his family. The site includes agricultural buildings dating back centuries. “Rather than starting with the idea of commissioning a specific piece of furniture, I was interested in getting Studio Areti to explore the things you touch and use every day, that Image © Petr Krejci

are moments in the life of a place as well as objects - switching on a light, opening a door, hanging a shirt

element the pair designed was the

on a hook, taking a book down from

door. “When you have a door in a

a shelf,” he said. Pawson had not

wall it is an interruption to a very

worked with Studio Areti before but

pristine surface,” says Gwendolyn.

says, “I was interested in the breadth

“We decided to design a door that is

of training and experiences the two

not ashamed, but that works with the

sisters bring to their design studio -

wall in an elegant way.” The solution

from architecture and art history to

was to taper it, so it always looks half

product design.”

open - though this made hanging it

The team chose white oak

more challenging. The dimmer switch

and walnut. “We’re exploring the

demonstrates the sisters’ attention to

possibilities of their color contrast and

detail. When the light is off, the grain

very different characters of grain,”

on the knob is aligned with that of the

says Pawson. The most complex

base plate.

Image © Petr Krejci

Image © Petr Krejci

Table Turned

Image © Petr Krejci

as adults.” Having designed ‘Endless

direction on each layer, making the

Stair’ in collaboration with AHEC in

panels stronger and more stable). The

Commissioned by Alex de Rijke

2013, de Rijke wanted to work with

table was turned in three sections. “It

Designed with Barnby & Day

tulipwood again because he liked the

was incredible to watch such a large

Made from American tulipwood

fact that it is strong, light, abundant

object turned on the lathe,” says Day.

Alex de Rijke wanted a large circular

and beautiful. “The liveliness of the

The largest section turned at a speed

laminated-tulipwood pedestal

grain varies because it has grown in

of 62mph on the outer edge, so it was

table that looks as if it has been

different microclimates,” he says.

essential that nothing went wrong.

The design was initiated by

De Rijke spent a day at Benchmark

carved from a single tree. “We know everything takes place at the table,”

de Rijke and then developed

while the top was turning, refining

he says. “The best decisions are

collaboratively with Barnby & Day.

the profile of the edge. The end result

made, meals are enjoyed, homework

Rob Barnby and Lewis Day built up

weighs in at 170kg - more than was

is done, computers are used.” A round

the table from 13 rings of three-

anticipated, but far less than the

table is, he says, “more democratic. It

layered cross-laminated-timber

weight of the solid table it appears

means that children have as much say

(in CLT, the grain runs in opposing

to be.

42 | October 2014

wood works

The Ladder that likes the Wall Commissioned by Richard and Ab Rogers Designed with Xenia Moseley Made from American red oak Richard and Ab Rogers wanted a ladder that would allow them to perch at a height and be comfortable enough for writing, eating and working. They Image © Petr Krejci

also wanted it to be economical with materials. A ladder, says Ab Rogers, “is a simple diagram of how to get you off the ground.” To be sturdy enough for all those tasks, it needed to invert the A shape of a traditional fruit-picking ladder. Total stability would be borrowed from the existing architecture of the surrounding environment, leaning on a vertical

Image © Petr Krejci

surface - a wall or a bookcase. For The Wish List, Moseley saw

could provide handholds for people

herself as a facilitator. “At first I

going up and sitting down. Moseley,

didn’t see my stamp,” she says, “but

along with the Rogers, resolved this

now it is very much a meeting of

elegantly, designing one upright with

minds.” She became involved with the

a tight outward curve at the top, and

steam-bending of the American red

another extending beyond the tray,

oak she chose for the ladder (red oak

which can fold away. “It has been such

was chosen for its receptiveness to

a roller coaster and a whirlwind,” says

steam-bending). The uprights of the

Moseley. “It’s been more productive

ladder had to be designed so they

than I could ever have imagined.”

Image © Petr Krejci

Paul’s Shed Commissioned by Paul Smith Designed with Nathalie de Leval Made from thermally modified American ash Paul Smith’s request was for a garden shed, “Somewhere you can go to switch off, somewhere to relax,” he says. “In today’s world where everyone is so busy, I think this is really important and very needed.” He stipulated that one end of the shed should be glazed, offering a view out. Image © Petr Krejci

And, like the shed George Bernard Shaw used to write, Smith wanted his to rotate, so he could take advantage

seemed a sensible choice. De Leval

same time preserving enough strength

of sun or shade at different times of

chose thermally modified ash for

for modest structural use. The next

day. Paul Smith chose to work with

its dimensional stability, rich color

step will be to do some formal

Nathalie de Leval, saying, “Nathalie’s

and grain. She consulted with Arup’s

strength testing.”

understanding of the materials

timber specialist, Andrew Lawrence,

she works with is really amazing.

on the structure, which had to be

base, which sits on a hand-rotating

She combines this with fantastic

demountable. “Paul’s Shed is the first

mechanism. Diagonal tensioning

craftsmanship to make something

structural use of thermally modified

cables hold the shed in shape. “It is

truly contemporary.”

American ash,” says Lawrence. “The

all incredibly low tech, which I like,”

thermal modification makes the ash

says de Leval. “It’s a flat pack. But it

be all wood, thermally modified

resistant to decay and imparts a

was a lot of work. I did seven issues

hardwoods, with grade-one durability,

wonderful dark tone, while at the

of drawings.”

As Smith wanted the shed to

De Leval spent two days making the

October 2014 | 43


Top Industry

Exhibitions coming up This season

LESDREVMASH The 15th edition of LESDREVMASH, the International specialized exhibition for the Forest, Timber, Pulp and Paper and Woodworking Industries, will take place from October 20 - 23, 2014 at the Moscow ExpoCenter. As the largest trade show of its kind in Russia, Eastern Europe and the CIS, the 2012 edition attracted over 500 exhibitors with 60 percent of them coming from over 30 countries. In total, over 20,000 professional visitors attended the show,


which was held in over 45,000 sqm of exhibition space. Aiming to provide a comprehensive overview of the industry, the show is supported by EUMABOIS and will feature companies under the following categories: Timber and logging industry; Primary processing of wood and wood based materials (production of semi-finished products); Secondary processing of wood and wood based materials (laminating, machining, gluing of solid timber); Surface finishing; Furniture production; Pulp and paper production; Special product groups; Tools; Forest products; Bioenergy, energy saving, ecology; Computeraided management; Forest reproduction; and Research and vocational education. The 7th edition of the Forest and Man International Forum will also run alongside the show. The forum’s slogan this year is ‘The Timber Industry: Investing in the Future’. As such, it will include about 20 events devoted to the most relevant problems of the Russian timber industry, wider co-operation with the global community, and discussions on effective development strategies. The

The sixth edition of SICAM, the International Exhibition of

participants will draw up joint plans for Russian federal

Components and Accessories for the Furniture Industry,

and regional authorities, Russian timber enterprises and

is scheduled to take place from October 14 - 17, 2014

interested foreign companies and associations concerning

in Pordenone. Strategically located at the heart of the

development of sustainable forest management and timber

furniture industry in Pordenone, where 40 percent of

processing in Russia.

Italian furniture is produced, the show’s success is proof of the importance of offering a showcase as complete and comprehensive as possible. Along with all the world leaders in hardware, the event will host decor papers, door fronts, wood, panels, components, equipments, household appliances, veneers, upholstery tools and materials, adhesives, glues, paints, fabrics and leathers. The unparalleled strength of the event is its specialized slant and the top quality of the enterprises represented. SICAM has established itself over the years as an event focused exclusively on components, accessories and semifinished products for the furniture industry, therefore a trade fair that bases a large part of its success on a format characterized by its extreme specialization. This guarantees that visiting operators can manage their time to the maximum and also provides the best possible participation conditions for exhibitors. As such, SICAM has grown year by year because it has succeeded in meeting the demands of its exhibitors and operators, putting them in the most suitable conditions to be able to focus solely on their business, seize opportunities and grasp new trends. Date: 14 - 17 October Venue: Pordenone Exhibition Center (Fiera di Pordenone) Location: Pordenone, Italy WEBSITE:

44 | October 2014

Date: 20 - 23 October Venue: ExpoCenter Fairgrounds Location: Moscow, Russia WEBSITE:


furniPRO Asia 2014

Belgrade Furniture Fair The Belgrade Furniture Fair (International fair for Furniture, Equipment and Interior Decoration, Machines, Tools and Materials for Woodworking) is ranked among the highest profile fair events of its kind in the field of furniture, interior decoration and accompanying industry of production materials and woodworking machines for the furniture industry in Serbia and Southeast Europe. For decades the show, which has been the meeting place for renowned manufacturers from the region, has offered an opportunity for exhibitors to present their latest products whilst keeping pace with the current furniture design trends, maintaining old contacts and establishing new ones, as well as exchanging information and ideas. The product range on display includes everything for the furniture industry from primary wood processing to the final product. All types of furniture will be on display, home and office furniture, interior decoration, as well as woodworking machines, tools and production materials. According to the organizers, the show will also include presentations, round tables and workshops, designers and architects offering advice to visitors, as well as the ‘Exhibition of Design’, which involves the participation of faculties, vocational schools and associations with the aim to connect young talented people, architects and designers with manufacturers.

The biennial furniPRO Asia is the leading trade fair for the woodworking, furniture and panel production industries in South East Asia. Offering an unparalleled outreach and access from the international woodworking and furniture production industries to trade professionals in the ASEAN region and beyond, the show attracts high quality buyers with its commitment to be a showcase and trading platform for the newest machinery and technologies in the market. furniPRO Asia serves as an ideal sourcing platform for customers from the ASEAN furniture and furnishings manufacturing industry, and offers manufacturers and service providers from the international woodworking, furniture and panel production industry an ideal gateway to the ASEAN markets. It is the premier networking and innovations exchange platform, boasting unique business matching and opportunities for particpants to exchange knowledge and insights with fellow industry professionals. This year, furniPRO Asia 2014 will be launching a new show segment called panelPRO Asia - the ideal platform for solution providers in the wood-based panel, veneer and plywood production industry. Panel Production is a key component of the industry’s value chain but it has never been presented as a focus exhibition segment within the ASEAN markets. In addition, a full-fledged conference programme, hands-on product workshops and exciting activities on the show-floor have been planned this year.

Date: 5 - 8 November Venue: Marina Bay Sands Expo and Convention Center Location: Singapore WEBSITE:

Date: 10 - 16 November Venue: International Exhibition Center Location: Belgrade, Serbia WEBSITE:

October 2014 | 45



(EMAF) will offer a series of highly specialized events and a platform for leading players from the wood and woodworking machinery sectors. In addition, visitors are encouraged to make the most of the synergies offered by the three fairs and the business opportunities they offer to exchange ideas and experiences. The profile of exhibitors will include companies supplying cutting machines; sawing machines; planning machines; moulding machines; boring machines; sanding and polishing machines; combination machines; deforming machines; jointing and coating machines; bonding machines; presses; wood treatment machines; portable hand machines; and tools and other auxiliary equipment for the timber industry. In addition, leading suppliers of timber and its by-products, paints, varnishes, glues, iron tools and utensils, furniture fittings, and chemical products for timber treatment will also feature at the show.

The next edition of EXPOBOIS (the International exhibition of Woodworking Machinery Manufacturers and Timber

Date: 19 - 22 November Venue: EXPONOR - Porto International Fair Location: Leça da Palmeira, Portugal WEBSITE:

Industries) is set to take place from November 17 - 20, 2014 at the Paris Nord exhibitions center. Over the course of four days, the show will host more than 300 international exhibitors across 15,000 sqm of exhibition area, and succefully attract 20,000 professionals. A new

Hout & Habitat (Everything About Wood)

addition to the 29th edition of the show is the BOBĂ‚T space, which will target the construction timber market, accessories and finishing products. With the addition

The fourth edition of Hout & Habitat is slated to take place

of this new segment, EXPOBOIS aims to become the

from November 20 - 23, 2014 at the Antwerp Expo with a

most comprehensive exhibition in France for all wood

view to showcase the beauty and various qualities of wood,

transformation processes and uses.

especially given that wood is the material of the future

The show allows manufacturers, craftsmen, merchants

as it is sustainable and ecological, warm and comfortable

and buyers to view a comprehensive range of materials,

and healthy. The exhibition will aim to showcase various

machinery and equipment, workshop and on-site power

applications of wood including for construction, outdoor and

tools, accessories, finishing and decoration products. In

indoor uses, and in furniture and joinery.

addition, a series of conferences will welcome industry

The show attracted over 10,000 visitors in 2013

experts who will speak on topics such as the mutli-floor


building, robotics and automation, and the cost of energy

numbers this year. A key attraction at the fair is a display

in industrial processes amongst other topics. Following a

of projects that incorporate wood by some of the most

successful launch in 2012, the 2014 EXPOBOIS Trophies

famous Flemish interior designers and landscape artists.

will reward innovative products, concepts or services

Central to the theme of the exhibition is the versatility and

implemented by a manufacturer and their client in the

beauty of wood.

the organizers are confident of exceeding these

following categories: wood transformation processes; wood-based materials for construction, decoration or biomass; and services and logistics in the timber sector.

Date: 17 - 20 November Venue: Paris Nord Exhibition Center - Hall 3 Location: Paris, France WEBSITE:

FIMAP / FERRALIA / EMAF This year, EXPONOR will simultaneously host three exhibitions - FIMAP, FERRALIA and EMAF. The 18th International Fair of Woodworking Machinery (FIMAP), the 13th Exhibition of Accessories and Equipment for the Wood Industry (FERRALIA) and the 15th International Fair on Industrial Machinery, Equipment and Services for Industry

46 | October 2014

Date: 20 - 23 November Venue: Antwerp Expo Location: Antwerp, Belgium WEBSITE:


Big 5 Dubai

Image © Big 5

The Big 5 Dubai celebrates its 35th anniversary in

and hands on experience. Experts from around the world

2014 and expectations are high for the show this year,

engage in the industry’s most topical discussions, finding

which is set to run from November 17 - 20 at the Dubai

solutions, facing challenges and seizing opportunities. As

International Exhibition and Convention Center. The show

the gateway to the Middle East and North Africa (MENA),

attracted more visitors than ever last year and with 98

the show provides both exhibitors and visitors with

percent planning to return this year plus a host of new

the opportunity to conduct serious business with like-

exhibitors from across the world, the organizers believe

minded professionals.

this year’s event will be the largest and best attended in its

The Big 5 returns in 2014 with eight dedicated product sectors: steel; building interiors; coating, adhesives &

illustrious history. As the largest event for the building and construction

sealants; general construction; kitchens & bathrooms; water

industry in the Middle East, the show attracts more than

technology; windows, doors and cladding; and heating,

2,500 exhibitors from 65 countries and takes place at the

ventilation and air conditioning systems (HVAC). The

Dubai International Convention & Exhibition Center. For

35th edition of the show has already seen an increase in

more than 30 years The Big 5 has provided a business

international exhibitors, driven by renewed confidence in

and networking platform for the construction industry. It

the region’s construction sector.

is an opportunity for buyers and sellers of construction

Running alongside The Big 5, two co-located events, PMV

products and services from around the world to source

Live and Middle East Concrete (MEC), offer a 360-degree

an astounding array of the very latest technologies,

platform to the building and construction industry, with the

innovations and techniques.

three shows providing the largest international building

More than an exhibition, the event provides attendees with unrivalled access to information, intelligence, contacts

construction, concrete and heavy machinery gathering place in the region. Last year both shows attracted a record breaking 32 percent increase in attendance over 2012, with another outstanding year expected for 2014 as companies in the PMV and concrete sectors take advantage of the region’s burgeoning infrastructure projects. Following last year’s record attendance across more than 130 educational seminars, 30 live product demonstrations, and 5 workshops, the organizers are are preparing an even larger and more interactive suite of educational activities at The Big 5, with more than 40 certified workshops plus a two-day conference on Sustainable Design and Construction taking place in 2014.

Date: 17 - 20 November Venue: Dubai International Convention & Exhibition Center Location: Dubai, UAE WEBSITE: Image © Big 5

October 2014 | 47


International Trade Fair for Woodworking Machinery and Tools

Wood Fair The Korea Wood Industry Fair (Wood Fair 2014) is the only professional wood industrial exhibition in the country and is being spearheaded by the Korea Federation of Wood Industrial Societies, which combines 15 associations and groups all with a view to invigorate the wood industry in the country. The exhibition covers both wood and woodworking sectors and aims to disseminate information on wood as well as experiencing life with wood. According to the organizers, the aim is to create new business opportunities through the show for industry professionals whilst also showcasing a range of woodworking machines and highlighting wood as a truly sustainable material. An exhibition of wood products will further help to emphasize the importance and diverse use of wood. Key attractions of the fair include the ‘Wood Experience Festival’ and the ‘Korea Wood Design Awards’ in addition to seminars and other events. The idea is that by highlighting eco-friendly, high-quality structures, the show will shed light on the value of wood, which will further promote the production, distribution and consumption of wood. The profile of exhibitors includes eco-friendly & DIY products; manufacturers and distributors of timber; wooden facilities & interiors; wooden materials and Equipment & Tool; and wooden housing.

The International Trade Fair for Woodworking Machinery and Tools (Woodworking. Machinery. Technology. Tools 2013) will take from December 4 -6, 2014 at the Kipsala International Exhibition Center. The fair attracts both Latvian and international companies who participate with the objective to demonstrate woodworking and furniture making equipment, log sawing machines, door and window production equipment, professional power tools for woodworking and construction specialists, carpentry equipment, finishing equipment as well as a variety of materials and technologies. The exhibition will also showcase the latest products from European and global equipment manufacturers and Latvian-made equipment and tools. The show provides an important platform for the timber industry, especially since it is one of the largest manufacturing sectors in Latvia with an average growth of 15 percent over the past decade and with total turnover exceeding one billion in the past year. Given that the Latvian timber industry aims to increase export volumes and improve its domestic market, the show offers companies related to this sector - processing enterprises, window, door and furniture, wood-frame building and log-house manufacturers, carpenters, loggers, construction companies, timber distributors and other businesses the opportunity to increase their competitiveness. As a result, the industry is able to learn how to modernize and improve production efficiency, implement new technologies, innovative products and target new markets.

Date: 4 - 6 December Venue: Kipsala International Exhibition Center Location: Riga, Latvia WEBSITE:

48 | October 2014

Date: 4 - 7 December Venue: Coex Hall C Location: Seoul, South Korea WEBSITE:

October 2014 | 49



14th - 17th October Pordenone Exhibition Center (Fiera di Pordenone) Pordenone, Italy LESDREVMASH

20th - 23rd October ExpoCenter Fairgrounds Moscow, Russia Pragoligna/Tooltec

Hout & Habitat (Everything About Wood) 20th - 23rd November Antwerp Expo Antwerp, Belgium Mebel

24th - 28th November ExpoCenter Moscow, Russia

International Trade Fair for Woodworking Machinery and Tools 4th - 6th December Ķīpsala International Exhibition Center Riga, Latvia Korea Wood Fair 4th - 7th December Coex Hall C Seoul, South Korea

30th October - 1st November Prague Exhibition Grounds Prague, Czech Republic Holzhaus

30th October - 2nd November All-Rusian Exhibition Center Moscow, Russia

furniPRO Asia 2014

5th - 8th November Marina Bay Sands Expo and Convention Center Singapore

Wooden House Building 6th - 9th November KyivExpoPlaza Kiev, Ukraine Belgrade Furniture Fair 10th - 16th November International Exhibition Center Belgrade, Serbia EXPOBOIS

17th - 20th November Paris Nord Exhibition Center - Hall 3 Paris, France BIG 5 Dubai

17th - 20th November Dubai International Convention & Exhibition Center Dubai, UAE SoFab

18th - 20th November Poznań International Fair (MTP) Poznań, Poland

FIMAP / FERRALIA / EMAF 19th - 22th November EXPONOR - Porto International Fair Leça da Palmeira, Portugal Image © Petr Krejci

50 | October 2014

October 2014 | 51

52 | October 2014

Timber Design & Technology Middle East - October 2014  
Timber Design & Technology Middle East - October 2014  

The only magazine for Timber industry professionals published in the Gulf region.