Arrow First Flight 45 Year Memorial Photo Album Copyright© 2002, Arrow Alliance Press
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Arrow Rollout 45 Year Memorial Photo Album Includes index. ISBN 1-55056-903-1 1. Arrow...Aviation 2. Rebuilding...History, Canada 3. Photo Collection First Printing, October 2002 Design by Peter Zuuring & Jozef VanVeenen Typesetting and Layout by Jozef VanVeenen Cover Design - Jozef VanVeenen Photo Editing/Retouching - Jozef VanVeenen Editing - Essence Communications Printed and Bound in Canada by Friesens
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The Arrow Alliance and its subsidiaries / affiliates are official licencees of the Canadian Aviation Museum in Ottawa. Furthermore the Alliance has permission from Magellan Aerospace Ltd., Malton, for the use of the Avro Aircraft and Orenda Engines logos as well as permission without recourse to use of the photos presented. Even though ownership of the Hawker Siddeley photo negative collection was transferred to the National Aviation Museum in Ottawa, in the early nineteen nineties, any residual copyrights that Magellan Aerospace may have acquired through their acquisition of Orenda Engines Ltd. have been kindly waived and confirmed by our photo reproduction agreement with the Canadian Aviation Museum of Ottawa. Summer 2002
The Story of the Photos Some sorting of these negatives had been done by volunteers soon after their acquisition but only in a global way. I became a registered volunteer and got the task of continuing this process. Was I in for a surprise! Day after Day I stared, like a Radiologist, at the lightbox - passing my loop over the 4 X 5 inch negative with obvious delight, sometimes boredom and yes, 'Eureka!' at times. After several months I isolated approximately 3,000 negatives that applied directly to the Avro Arrow and Orenda Iroquois developments. Further sorting into Avro and Orenda, then into development, manufacturing, operating, ceremonial/events, people, and then further subsets of these, led to being able to pick about 360 really superb photos. These photos relate to important events The actual delivery/acceptance document that proves Hawker that tie into a 45 year Siddley Canada Ltd. transferred ownership of the 14,000+ historical memorial possibility. They photo collection to the National Aviation Museum, in the early are the Arrow's rollout, the nineties, for a tax receipt and safe keeping. Arrow's first flight and the Iroquois' rollout...yes there was an Iroquois Early in 2002 I found out that the Canadian rollout celebration albeit with less fanfare than Aviation Museum in Ottawa had acquired more the Arrow. Many of these were new to me and than 14,000. photo negatives from Hawker a delight to behold. Siddeley Canada Ltd. in the early 1990s. These BGM imaging in Ottawa is the designated recorded many aspects of the former A.V.Roe photo processing house for the museum. After Canada Ltd umbrella organization that included some time/price negotiations with BGM's viceAvro Aircraft Ltd. and Orenda Engines Ltd. They president Rip Jones, the negatives were supplied are stored in many small boxes and drawers in three batches. Paul Latreille , their experienced in several places around the museum..
darkroom man, was assigned to the job. Both BGM and Paul are to be commended for the effort they put into this project. One never knows the quality of the positive that comes from an old negative. Many times several exposures were made in order to balance grey scales and saturations of black and white so that later computer scanning would have the best possible result. Furthermore, the work was completed in record time. The quality of BGM's work coupled with the photo retouching skills of Joe Van Veenen, our Graphic Designer, gives you these wonderful snapshots of an unforgettable period in our aviation history.
Peter Zuuring, Kingston, ON, Fall 2002
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This painting by D. Reepen, in 1958, captures the essence of the Arrow on take-off. Its speed and power are aptly portrayed.
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Introduction It is with great pleasure that I present this Limited Edition 45 Year Memorial Photo Album of the Arrow's First Flight for your viewing pleasure. I have been digging out the Arrow story for five years. Along the way I have found amazing things and met many fantastic Canadians some of whom had the honour and thrill of working at Avro or Orenda directly during those heady days in Malton. Finding the photos that you are about to peruse has been particularly delightful. Lou Wise and his Avro photo crew did such superb work that their efforts look as fresh today as they did then. The first flight of any aircraft is a significant step in its development. This milestone of the Arrow program was no different, It had been
anticipated and planned for weeks ahead. After the Arrow's official rollout nearly six months earlier many unexpected changes had to be dealt with. In particular the flight control system and main gear braking system had to be refitted. Sluggish movement of the control surfaces and spring back in the throttle assembly required add-on hydraulic assist and feedback mechanisms. Brakes had to have an additional disc added to absorb the actual landing energy, to prevent heat transfer buildup in the tires. Prior to the full-scale Arrow first flight, large scale Free Flight models of the Arrow were fired at DND's Point Petrie range in Prince Edward County. These were really the first Arrows to fly on their own. You will find a photo history
sequence of model #8 reproduced to celebrate this portion of the Arrow's first flight program. In preparing for First Flight taxi trials were carried out nearly daily during the 57/58 winter months. Faster and faster, lifting the nose, hard braking and parabrake deployment were all checked and rechecked. Some historical photos accompany this first flight album for completeness. The captions for the photos are made out to the best of my ability Sometimes limited sources of information make identifying people, places, processes and/or parts difficult. If, you the reader, have information relating to these photos and the Rollout event that correct or compliment our effort please contact us at the Arrow Alliance.
Avro photographic crews are briefed for First Flight by department head Lou Wise as he points to camera locations along Malton's main north-south runway #32. Sitting left to right are: Peter Brown, Cy Beard, Harold Roberts, George Laidlaw, Granville Stuart and Jack Hurst. Standing from left are: Al Betts, Bill McDowell, Fred Hopkinson, Russ Thompson, Ron Northcott, Stu Barefoot, Hugh MacKechnie, Cliff Heckel (Orenda), Ron Nunney, Len Goodenough (Orenda), and Verne Morse PR photographer. Note that Hugh MacKechnie is holding the specially adapted Speed-Graphic Camera with attached pistol style grip and shutter trigger. It made air to air photography easier. Lou Wise was a lucky man when at a recent reunion of the department he was presented with one of the two produced...what a find!
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The Avro Aircraft Ltd. Malton plant looking North-West, circa 1956. The Arrow program is underway. You can see the free standing Arrow Fuel System Test Cell building going up by the North-East parking lot. The CF-100 program is still in full swing and will continue to the fall of 1958.
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Jan Zurakowski The man and the Avro Arrow have nearly become one and the same reminders that Canadians can do great things! With an untried and unproven airplane, familiarization flights demand a master's touch. Jan Zurakowski was such a master - recognized, then and remembered today, as the world's best test pilot. During the Arrow's first flight he got the feel for one of the most sophisticated planes ever built up to that time. Asked how he felt about it, he comments on the great feeling of responsibility he experienced as apposed to the adrenaline rush we might have expected. He explains that he had little direct control over the aircraft since black boxes and fly by wire controls interpreted his commands. So about 10-20% control, yet if anything went wrong during the flight, 100% responsibility for the outcome. Now there's a twist! The flight was signed off, months of planning put into action, chase planes are in position, throttles are opened up, the roar is heard before the Arrow comes into view, it's 9:51 am, as the Toronto Tower hands over the Arrow to company control. Flight reports of the day show little or no snags. Gentle turns, speed and and height limitations avoid any real risks. Because speed easily picked up Jan exceeded gear down speed specifications and raises the undercarriage. Immediately buffeting noise of the main gear door against the fuselage cease and the flight proceeds to circle the Malton area. The aircraft climbed to 11,000 feet or so and continued to cruise as photos, film and observations are recorded. Before you know it, time's up, a long gentle turn lines the Arrow up for a relatively hot landing - keeping up some speed for better control during this crucial part of the flight.
The parabrake works as Zura taxis the Arrow past thousands of jubilant Avroites back to the south-end staging area. The release of pent up emotions carries Jan and the watching world off their feet. We did it! Now the celebrations can begin and they did! Little shows of the, more often than not,
selfless dedication of the thousands of Avro employees that made this first flight a success. Everybody there however, recognizes that this flight is something special and introduces Canada to the world of Supersonic Flight - a leader at the edge of technology.
Janusz (Jan) Zurakowski (Zura), the celebrated Avro test pilot, at his Barry's Bay, Kartuzy Lodge in the spring of 2002 - 87 years old and looking good! Jan has been a Canada booster ever since he came to this country. The Avro story has touched him deeply. He doesn't hesitate to set the record straight.
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Typical model, like #8, is shown attached to the Nike booster. Note the intakes. No boundary layer bleed ejectors were needed since it wasn't powered. Boosters were modified at Avro in Malton before being transported to the site at Pte. Petrie where it was mated to the free flight model.
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The free flight models were developed to explore the Arrow's flight envelope at reynolds numbers more consistent with full scale flight. The 1/8th scale models all had a fin about 50% larger than the actual Arrow. Many other design aspects were altered to provide data from a particular configuration. These models were big - compare it to the man in the background who is measuring its weight and balance.
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Stress deflection tests of the structure, at key points, is measured by strain gauges.
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Ready for flight models were heavily instrumented to transmit data back to the engineers. The transmitter is being installed on model #8.
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Free flight model #8 has made it to the assembly hangar at Point Petrie. it is being mated to the Nike booster rocket for firing later that day. Note the extra booster in the background.
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Model #8 is on its zero launch platform by the Quonset hut. In the fore-ground are tracking doppler radar dishes - behind that, the high speed, dual, Theodolite camera tracking system.
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The truck is hooked up to pull the Model out to the launch ramp and pad.
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It seems that truck power was not quite enough!
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Last minute preparations for the the test.
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Free flight model #8 ready to fire. Average flight times were between 25 and 30 seconds. It took 3,2 seconds, with 50,000 lbs. of thrust, to get the model up to about 1.7 times the speed of sound. Separation of the models was due to differential drag when the rocket motor cut out. Speed dropped off rapidly with supersonic flight times lasting about 8 seconds. The models hit water about 5-6 miles off shore.
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Just a reminder of how big the Arrow really was.
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Rl-201 was anchored to the ground with two long poles. The two Pratt & Whitney J-75s could produce 36,000 pounds of thrust with the afterburners on. It must have been quite a roar...everybody is wearing hearing protection during a run!
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You can make out the anchoring poles that held the Arrow in place as the J-75 engines roared to life.
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Before taxi trials could begin engine run-ups were frequent.
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On December 24, 1957 Arrow Taxi trials commenced. Arrow 201 is being towed to the start=up area south and west of the plant. One way to tell that this is a pre-flight moment is by the lack of air intake de-icing covers and by the unpainted weapons/instrument pack. The Data Boom beta sensor( Side-slip indicator) was often tied off.
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Jan climbs aboard for that first taxi trial. It's a long way up that ladder. You had to straddle the canopy and step down on the seat and then the floor. All ejection seat safety lock pins had to be given to the ground crew prior to taxiing.
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Jan is in place with the canopy closed. Engine start is in progress. Weather conditions varied considerably...rain, sun all within minutes as first taxi trial begin. It's December 24,1957.
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RL201 Taxis out to the active runway 32/14. All 10,000 feet plus and two hundred feet wide would be used to try out various speeds, braking, para-braking, accelerations and nose lifts.
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Taxi trials brought out one major flaw. Main gear brake drums were designed for a certain mass close to stalling speeds of the aircraft. The loads considered were too light and the brakes over heated. All the braking energy went into the hub in the form of heat and built up into the rim and finally the tire - exploding it!
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The remedy? Add one more heat dissipating plate inside the drum...this seemed to do the trick. You can see why the parabrake had to function integrally with the main gear brakes so as not to exceed the heat limits.
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This trial is over as Jan parks the Arrow back at the South-West end of the Avro lot. Lots of anxious people..."Well, How was it?"
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The arrow secured gives everyone on the ground a chance to turn their back to the bitting cold wind as another taxi trial is completed in the 1957/58 winter months.
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Taxi trials at night!
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Taxi trials in the snow!
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Taxi trials in the wind!
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The rig shown lowered and raised the main gear, testing the extension, twisting and turning action of the shaft. Even though this was done thousands of times it didn't prevent the one accident caused by incomplete gear rotation as it extended during the 11th flight test. Each gear was put through its paces before being installed in its Arrow.
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Another reminder of the complexity of the internal structure of the Arrow. Intake tunnels were well anchored to the bulkheads. The negative pressure and suction created by the engines at full throttle could pull the tunnel walls from their supports. Bullets were fired through the tunnel walls to ensure they wouldn't collapse in combat. The box structure of the wing spars and ribs was extensive. It not only supported the wings but had to hold the twenty thousand pounds of fuel, in various tanks, that the Arrow needed for a mission.
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You will recall in "Arrow Rollout" photos showing the manufacture of many of the Arrow's parts. This exploded view of the major components is a further reminder of their placement and serviceability of the aircraft.
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Peter Cope, Don Rogers and Jan Zurakowski, in a pensive pose, review fist flight details.
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Extensive photo coverage planning was in effect several months before the actual 'First Flight' as this document shows. It is interesting to note the balance between photos for technical reasons versus those required for publicity.
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It's March 25,1958....This is the day! The Arrow is rolled out of the D2 hangar and towed past the experimental building D1 with an F-86 Sabre and a CF-100 sitting outside. The ground crew is straddled every which way, even in the cockpit. All paper work has been cleared.
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The Arrow rolls South along West taxi way- heading for the start-up staging area.
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The day starts off sunny yet becomes variable as the morning of first flight progresses.
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Ground crew prep the Arrow as normal passenger traffic continues operation. The TCA terminal can be seen in the distance.
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The ground crew opens the instrument pack access panels to activate the test instruments for the flight.
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Zura has arrived and done a preliminary cockpit check. He climbs out and lies down on the wing to talk to a colleague and lets him know there is a snag with the parabrake chute.
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Line crewman Doc Staly attaches DC power to its mating connection on the back of the nose gear. Note the RCAF photographer just on the left of the front gear.
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Engineering arrives in full force and resolves the problem. Jan looks on in the next few photos and has some words to say on the matter.
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Intense discussions are underway. You will recall that main gear braking was borderline. The parabrake had to work even though the runway provided ample landing room.
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Jan looks on as the brake chute release mechanism is adjusted. Communications with the Avro tower located on the Bay#1roof was by radio telephone...what, no cell phone?
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Are we ready?
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Zura is finally happy as the big smile indicates.
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Engines are fired up, The canopy is closed. The ladder is removed...it's time to go. Employees start to line the taxi ways and building roofs...anywhere to get a good view.
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Zura taxis down to the south end of the long North/South runway. Makes the turn unto the active runway #32, last minute checks of the controls and starts the roll ... its 9:49 am. The CF100 and Sabre escorts, flown by Spud Potocki and Jack Woodman respectively, pass by on either side...they're off!
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Zura tries the controls one last time as he approaches the end of runway 14-32 the time is 9:49 and he's ready to go!
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Because of a small rise in the runway the Arrow is not visible - but the roar of the engines can be heard as Avroites anxiously look Southward to catch a first glimpse of the take-off... There she is...Yeah!!!! A routine sounding radio check from the Toronto Tower officially records the historic event..."Avro 201 off at 9:51 and cleared to company tower."
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Flight conditions, control positions, temperatures, pressures, radio talk and many more parameters were monitored closely by hundreds of sensors placed throughout the Arrow's airframe. These could be recorded right in the weapons packed and/or sent directly by radio signal to the receivers/recorders in the telemetry van. Technicians are following the first flight on the ground.
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First photo of the Arrow in flight. The undercarriage is down and will stay down most of the flight. As speeds exceeded 250 knots, buffeting of the main gear door against the fuselage was very noticeable. The gear was retracted successfully and the buffeting was gone.
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People on the ground are clustered everywhere, eyes glued to the sky following every move.
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Another gentle turn over Malton as the flight envelope is cautiously explored.
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Out of the hospital, just to see the Arrow fly, came Harry Shipley of Flight Test, left, who said nothing could make him miss the event. To his left is Ken Cooke of Engineering who is watching the first flight through binoculars.
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The Arrow is just barely visible with the CF-100 just behind. Way back is the Sabre...
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With under carriage up the Arrow looks so sleek in another gentle turn.
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As the Arrow comes in and out of view thousands are just milling about, ecstatic that all is going well.
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Great shots of the Arrow. Finally it was time to come back down to earth.
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Hugh MacKechnie does his air to air photo magic once again. What amazing shots!
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The Arrow is in close company with the Sabre off to port and the CF100 to starboard.
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The under carriage is down and locked. Several let downs are tried to simulate landing while getting a feel for the descent rate at no more than a 15% angle of attack.
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The flight climaxed many weeks of waiting for "The Day." It was the culmination of four and a half years of hard work...everybody was terribly excited and proud...who wouldn't be!
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For 35 minutes the Arrow flew around the Malton area, climbing no higher than 11,000 feet at not more than about 350 knots. There were a few snags but nothing significant.
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Duke Riggs, Avro's Vice-President of Manufacturing, and entourage are as anxious and excited as everyone else as they watch the first flight of the Arrow.
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The Arrow's first flight and ginger turn over the Avro Plant seems far removed from the thousands down below who are massed at both Avro and Orenda watching the flight with lumps in their throat and pounding adrenaline through their heart.
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A gentle turn to base leg and then another turn to final...U/C down..gentle does it.
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The landing sequence, CF-100 passing by, down she comes and ...there it is...touchdown!
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Nearly on the runway as the Arrow completes its maiden flight without any snag of significance.
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Mere inches away the Arrow is about to make its first landing...all systems are go.
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The landing roll is nearly complete as Zura approaches the end of runway 14-32. The parabrake functioned perfectly on this first flight. Heh, the sun's back!
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Zura has arrived. A thunderous roar of pent up emotion was let loose by a huge crowd of Avroites.. It was Tuesday morning, March 25, 1958. Jan Zurakowski had done it in 35 minutes...a successful maiden flight! Note, our RCAF photographer is right there.
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John Plant, Executive Vice-President and General Manager, Avro Aircraft Ltd., and Zura review the flight informally.
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John plant does the same with Spud Potocki on his return. Peter Cope, who will be the fourth pilot to fly the Arrow later on, listens in. He is just perfectly framed in Spud's oxygen mask.
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Fire extinguishers are brought in just in case those hot brakes he case a tire blow-up once again.
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Avroites are being held back as ground procedures shut down the Arrow. The CF-100 nose is just visible as Spud talks to Peter Cope. The Sabre, piloted by Flt Jack Woodman has now joined the display.
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Zura gets more enthusiasm thrown his way as he is lifted up on the shoulders of those who can get near him. What a day...and relief!
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Zura is slapped on the back, picked up and carried on people's shoulders and had his hands shook a thousand times. Did he deserve it...you bet!
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Sated, well-wishing, Avroites start to return to work..how could they?
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Jan is escorted to a waiting vehicle by Duke Riggs, Avro's Vice-President of Manufacturing. The trip included the fire extinguishers...hey why not!
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Jim Hornick, well-known news writer on Toronto's morning news paper, The Globe & Mail, is seen interviewing Zura after the flight.
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CBC newsman , Joe Gibson talks to Zura about his historic flight for the evening's news. Note the official RCAF photographer on the right near the line crew gathering.
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CHML reporter has waited patiently to talk to Zura. Now he gets his chance!
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The jovial and enthusiastic Line crew has Zura do a jig and reel as he re-enacts his exit from the Arrow.
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The line crew and Zura show their enthusiasm and joy. From left to right; Bill Forester, Doc Staly, Jack Gary, ARnold Banks, Bill seggie, Johnnie Straboe, John Salmon, Zura, Bob Levitt, Murray Boyd, and Art Cowper.
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Harry Beffort show how proud he is of Zura's achievement, which culminated the 4 1/2 years of hard work to make the Arrow a reality.
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Zura and Spud are caught by Hamilton Radio station CHML crew for an impromptu corridor interview. Spud and Zura are wearing their lumberjack shirts...is this some special Pilot's under garb ?
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After the official flight debriefing some of the key players catch up with the press and the day's events in one of the executive offices. The Happy faces include Jim Floyd, John Plant, Zura, Duke Riggs and Spud...all have been introduced before. Diefenbaker and Royalty look on in the photo on the wall.
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The day has progressed...Jim floyd, Bob Lindley, Chief Engineer, Guest Hake, now Quality Control and Inspection Manager who was Avro Project Designer at the time of the Arrow introduction and Zura gather for a last peek at the Arrow before heading to more formal celebrations.
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Zura touches the Arrow one more time...would he have thought...Hey ..that's my baby...you did it! ...?
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The author Peter Zuuring with Zura at Kartuzy in the spring of 1998.
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The arrows rate of climb astonished people who saw the flights, Canadian power in the sky!
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Both Avro and Orenda employee news magazines carried the story of the first flight. The Orenda had only two pages of coverage while the Avro Newsmagazine dedicated most of the edition to the event. These publications have been a great source information about the day as many of the old-timers who were there have forgotten some of the details. Employee names are especially well documented through the various photos used. What a proud and exciting day for all those who worked on the Arrow!
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Jus two examples of key documents that concerned the first flight of the Arrow. The original flight certification of RL201 and the limitations that were impose on the flight are recorded and signed off by the Design Department.. Similarly the official first flight test result is just a one pager. A familiarization flight - routine in one sense jet so dramatic in an other...issued by Flight Test and the Engineering Department.
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World Press Lauds AVRO When First Arrow Airborne On Maiden Flight THE GLOBE & MAIL “The world’s largest jet interceptor, closely pursued by two photographic planes, roared smoothly into a clear sky at Malton Airport yesterday on its maiden flight. When it touched down 35 minutes later, a brake parachute streaming from its tail, the airliner-size Avro Arrow had performed as predicted. Announced James Floyd, vice-president in charge of engineering for Avro Aircraft Ltd. ‘Everything went exactly to plan.’ Commented Test Pilot Jan Zurakowski, a man noted for his understatement: ‘It handled nicely. There was no unexpected trouble.”
THE TORONTO DAILY STAR “The delta-winged Avro Arrow darted into the Air at Malton Airport today for the first time. The flight was the climax of four years of research and building. On it was pinned the hopes of more than 600 separate companies who had built parts for this machine which will fly at more than 1,200 mph. The employees
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of Avro Aircraft and hundreds of others were out on the field this morning to watch the successful flight. In the chase plane, which was a CF100, the pilot was Zurakowski’s wartime flying buddy, Spud Potocki. The plan for the test flight went exactly on schedule.”
THE TELEGRAM “Chief development test pilot Jan Zurakowski got a football hero’s ovation from over-joyed Avro Aircraft workers today as he taxied the 32-ton, delta-wing Avro Arrow in from its first successful flight. Avro officials found it impossible to keep employees at their jobs when word swept through the plant that Zurakowski was to make an attempt at flying the Arrow for the first time. The plane shot into the air at 9:55 a.m. as smoothly and as gracefully as the arrow for which it is named. Little more than half an hour later, the 43-year old pilot touched the huge machine down gently and gracefully.”
Centre fold excerpt from “AVRO News Magazine”, Volume 4, No. 4, April 2, 1958
CBC TELEVISION NEWS - National Edition “The big story today is the first flight of the supersonic CF-105 AVRO Arrow at Malton Airport near Toronto. The 32-ton delta winged allweather interceptor took off from Malton’s 11,000-foot runway this morning after a takeoff run of nearly 3,000 feet. CBC cameramen were on the spot to record this historic event so let’s watch the first flight of the Avro, Arrow . . . “ Ed: the nation’s ‘IV screens then showed the Arrow sifting down Runway 32, the nose wheel came off the ground, then the big delta lifted smoothly into the air and viewers watched it climb from sight.