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Tufts Institute of the Environment (TIE)

NCSE Conference 2013 Disasters and Environment: Science, Preparedness and Resilience

Symposium 15: Coastal Cities: Planning for Resilience, Adaptation, and Sustainability Lessons from the Northeast and Superstorm Sandy

Workshop 4: Coastal Communities: Planning for Resilience, Adaptation and Sustainability Building Resilience in Coastal Communities: An International Agenda

BRIEF ON SUPERSTORM SANDY

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CONTENTS Brief Information on Hurricanes Impacts USA

New York New York Area Damage Map New Jersey New England Southeast Mid-Atlantic

The Caribbean and Canada

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Brief Information on Hurricanes Tropical Cyclone Hurricane: A tropical cyclone with maximum sustained winds of 74 mph (64 knots) or higher. In the western North Pacific, hurricanes are called typhoons; similar storms in the Indian Ocean and South Pacific Ocean are called cyclones. The Atlantic hurricane season runs from June 1st to November 30th, and the Eastern Pacific hurricane season runs from May 15th to November 30th. The Atlantic basin includes the Atlantic Ocean, Caribbean Sea, and Gulf of Mexico. 1 The Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Wind Scale is a 1 to 5 rating based on a hurricane's sustained wind speed. This scale estimates potential property damage. Hurricanes reaching Category 3 and higher are considered major hurricanes because of their potential for significant loss of life and damage. Category 1 and 2 storms are still dangerous, however, and require preventative measures. In the western North Pacific, the term "super typhoon" is used for tropical cyclones with sustained winds exceeding 150 mph. 2 Category

Sustained winds

Types of Damage Due to Hurricane Winds

1

74-95 mph 64-82 kt 119-153 km/h

Very dangerous winds will produce some damage

2

96-110 mph 83-95 kt 154-177 km/h

Extremely dangerous winds will cause extensive damage

3 (major)

111-129 mph 96-112 kt 178-208 km/h

Devastating damage will occur

4 (major)

130-156 mph 113-136 kt 209-251 km/h

Catastrophic damage will occur

5 (major)

157 mph or higher 137 kt or higher 252 km/h or higher

Catastrophic damage will occur

Table from http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/aboutsshws.php

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NOAA. “Tropical Cyclone Climatology.” National Weather Service: National Hurricane Center. Accessed Dec 1, 2012 http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/climo/. 2 NOAA. “Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Wind Scale.” National Weather Service: National Hurricane Center. Accessed Dec 1, 2012 http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/aboutsshws.php

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Number of Tropical Cyclones per 100 Years

The official hurricane season for the Atlantic Basin (the Atlantic Ocean, the Caribbean Sea, and the Gulf of Mexico) is from 1 June to 30 November. As seen in the graph above, the peak of the season is from mid-August to late October. However, deadly hurricanes can occur anytime in the hurricane season. Hurricane Return Periods Hurricane return periods are the frequency at which a certain intensity of hurricane can be expected within a given distance of a given location (for the below images 50 nm or 58 statute miles). In simpler terms, a return period of 20 years for a major hurricane means that on average during the previous 100 years, a Category 3 or greater hurricane passed within 50 nm (58 miles) of that location about five times. We would then expect, on average, an additional five Category 3 or greater hurricanes within that radius over the next 100 years. More information on return periods can be found from NOAA Technical Memorandum NWS NHC 38 (pdf) on the NHC Risk Analysis Program (HURISK). Magnitude of Sandy The National Hurricane Center now says tropical force winds extended 820 miles at their widest, down from an earlier estimate of 1,000 miles. Sandy's pure kinetic energy for storm surge and wave "destruction potential" reached a 5.8 on the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's 0 to 6 scale, the highest measured. 3

3 “What we know about Superstorm Sandy a month later.� Weather.com. Accessed Dec 2, 2012 http://www.wthr.com/story/20213136/what-we-know-about-superstorm-sandy-a-month-later

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Here are the highest wind gusts by state which exceeded 80 mph, according to NOAA's Hydrometeorological Prediction Center 4: ● Mt. Washington, N.H.: 139 mph ● Islip, L.I.: 90 mph ● Tompkinsville, N.J.: 90 mph ● Westerly, R.I.: 86 mph ● Madison, Conn.: 85 mph ● Cuttyhunk, Mass.: 83 mph ● Allentown, Pa.: 81 mph

Rainfall Map 5

Snowfall Map 6

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“Superstorm Sandy's Storm Reports.” The Weather Channel. Accessed Dec 2, 2012 http://www.weather.com/news/weatherhurricanes/sandy-storm-report-history-20121028 5 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Sandy2012filledrainblk.gif 6 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Sandy2012filledsnowblk.gif

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Power Outages Some estimates place peak power outages resulting from Hurricane Sandy around 8.5 million customers. Approximately 57% of outages were fixed by 11/2. The total number of power outages finally fell below 2 million by 11/4, mostly in New Jersey and New York State. According to Brian Wolff, a senior vice president of the Edison Electric Institute, a Washington-based group representing publicly traded power companies, “this is the largest weather-related power outage caused by a single event in the U.S....It’s really an unprecedented response to an unprecedented event.” 7 As of Nov 3, 31 percent of homes and businesses in New Jersey, 9 percent of those in New York and 6 percent in Connecticut and West Virginia remained without electricity. 8 Economic Impacts National estimates of the economic impacts of hurricane Sandy are in the range of $50 billion dollars of storm-related losses. This does not account for interrupted economic activity, like days out of work and inability to pay mortgages and other bills. In the longerterm, economic impacts are expected to be minimal. A JP Morgan Chase study concluded that economic activity should return to stable within 6 months (see chart 1 below). These trends are expected to be similar for private sector employment and retail sales (see chart 2 below). Based in historical trends, by the end of the first fiscal quarter of 2013, the US economy should be on track with predictions from before the storm.

Chart 1

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“Northeast power outages from Sandy finally fall below 2 million.” Yahoo News. Accessed Dec 2, 2012 http://news.yahoo.com/unortheast-power-outages-fall-below-2-million-184947747.html 8 “Sandy’s Blackouts Leave 2.5M Customers Lacking Power.” 2012. Businessweek. Accessed Dec 2, 2012 http://www.businessweek.com/news/2012-11-03/blackout-backlash-builds-as-sandy-slow-recovery-drags-out

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Chart 2

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Impacts in the US New York General • •

• • • • •

NY, NJ, CT are together asking for about $83 billion in aid. 9 Interesting ongoing impact: NYPD evidence storage facilities flooded, unsure of extent of damage o up to 5,000 55-gallon cardboard drums (“biological evidence containers”) in Red Hook o over 1,000 containers in Greenpoint Need more information on status of prisons during hurricanes. First-person accounts claim no information was shared with prisoners, power and water out for days. 10/28 - Cuomo declares state of emergency for all NY counties o 200 National Guard troops deployed 11/5 - Cuomo says displaced voters are allowed to vote anywhere 11/7 - Cuomo fires head of NY Office of Emergency Management for using emergency resources to remove a tree on his own property Associated Press reported 48 deaths as of 11/29

Closures • • • • • • •

New York marathon cancelled Starbucks closed all locations in NYC and Long Island 10/27-10/30 Stock trading closed 10/29-10/30; o first 2-day closure since 1888 All state courts closed except for arraignments and emergency applications NYU Langone Medical Center cancelled all surgeries and procedures except emergency procedures Unit #3 at Indian Point Nuclear facility shut down 10:45pm to avoid overloading grid Schools closed through 11/2 o up to 40,000 students stayed home until 11/7 o 57 schools still flooded as of 11/7 61 emergency shelters of original 75 closed on 11/1

Evacuations • • •

Mandatory evacuation of Fire Island, surge zone areas of babylon, Brookhaven, Islip, Riverhead, Southampton, and Southold NYU Langone Medical Center evacuated during storm after generators flooded Bellevue Hospital Center, Coney Island Hospital, Palisades Medical Center partially or fully evacuated

9 “Lhota, Christie in Washington To Talk Sandy Impact And Recovery.” 2012. CBS New York. Accessed Nov 26, 2012 http://newyork.cbslocal.com/2012/12/06/lhota-christie-head-to-washington-to-talk-sandy-impact-and-recovery/

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Economic •

• •

Impacts estimated to be smaller than Hurricane Katrina but at least similar to those of Hurricane Andrew, around $30-50 billion of combined insured and uninsured damages o Destruction of productive assets, harder to determine impact of interrupted economic activity “Repaired and rebuilt homes, stores, and infrastructure may well be better built and sounder than what they replace but, in the mean time, the economy will not be as productive as it would have been without the damage.” 10 11/2 - Cuomo signs waiver stating that fuel tankers don’t have to register and pay taxes Small Business Association loans have been made available to many businesses in impacted areas, but are not accessible or desirable in many cases o local customer base is severely impacted, limiting ability to pay back loan

Flooding • • • • •

• •

Storm surge combined with Spring Tide - 14 feet above mean low water Numerous tunnels and subway stations flooded - including over 12 feet of water in Brooklyn Battery Tunnel Numerous subway stations and tunnels flooded All road tunnels except the Lincoln tunnel closed and flooded Interesting ongoing impact: NYPD evidence storage facilities flooded, unsure of extent of damage o up to 5,000 55-gallon cardboard drums (“biological evidence containers”) in Red Hook o over 1,000 containers in Greenpoint 57 schools still flooded as of 11/7 Numerous generators flooded

Housing •

Many homeowners in impacted areas not getting breaks on mortgages o Banks and Mortgage Companies are not required to offer customers in disaster areas special assistance Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac, who own about half of all mortgages, have authorized loan servers to suspend payments up to 90 days without approval o JP Morgan Chase has given “several thousand” customers 90-day payment suspensions, but the subsequent payback is often a “recipe for default.” 11

10 Stone, Chad. “The Economic Impact of Hurricane Sandy.” 2012. US News.com. Accessed Nov 10, 2012 http://www.usnews.com/opinion/blogs/economic-intelligence/2012/11/02/the-economic-impact-of-hurricane-sandy. 11 “Hurricane Sandy Victims Say Mortgage Companies Dismiss Pleas For Loan Help.” 2012. Huffington Post. Accessed Nov 10, 2012 http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2012/12/05/hurricane-sandy-mortgage-companies_n_2247355.html

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Tufts Institute of the Environment (TIE) • •

Bloomberg continues to refuse temporary housing in most damaged areas of Rockaways 10/30 - 190 firefighters fought 6 alarm blaze that destroyed 111 structures and damaged 20 others in Breezy Point o cause thought to be exploded trasformer

Structural •

• •

Fuel distribution infrastructure severely impacted by increased demand due to travel and widespread generator use as well as no new shipments during storm; gas stations also without power o 24% of gas stations open 1 week after storm; 67% the following friday (source?) Transportation infrastructure significantly damaged by flooding of underground public transportation tracks and tunnels o in response to overcrowding of reopened bridges into and out of Manhattan causing massive traffic delays, HOV restrictions imposed for travel on bridges Power transformers, generators flooded and failed throughout NYC and Long Island o massive explosions from transformers Much of NYC and area infrastructure is underground, more prone to flooding

Transportation • • •

• • •

Numerous subway stations and tunnels flooded All road tunnels except the Lincoln tunnel closed and flooded MTA Chairman Joe Lhota estimates that flooded subway stations, destroyed aboveground tracks on subway and regional railroad over $5 billion o South Ferry Terminal reconstruction alone predicted to cost around $600 million 12 10/27 - Metro North and Long Island RRs suspended services 7pm 10/28 - MTA closed all bus, subway, commuter rail services 7pm o PATH service closed at midnight 10/29 - Tappan Zee Bridge closed due to high winds o All Port Authority buses stopped 3AM o Parking meter regulations suspended o Holland and Brooklyn Battery Tunnels Closed 2pm o JFK, L:aGuardia, Newark airports cancelled major flights 10/29-10/30  over 8000 flights cancelled by 4pm 10/30  airports reopened 11/1 o George Washington, Throgs Neck, Verrazano, Whitestone bridges closed 7pm

12 “Lhota, Christie in Washington To Talk Sandy Impact And Recovery.” 2012. CBS New York. Accessed Nov 26, 2012 http://newyork.cbslocal.com/2012/12/06/lhota-christie-head-to-washington-to-talk-sandy-impact-and-recovery/

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in response to overcrowding of reopened bridges into and out of Manhattan causing massive traffic delays, HOV restrictions imposed for travel on bridges 10/30 - Limited bus service resumes with strict curfew times 10/31 - ferries between Hudson county, NJ and Manhattan resumed 11/1 - fuel ships return to NY Harbor o A train from Penn Station partial service 11/2 - Staten Island Ferry resumed; Staten Island Railway resumed 11/3 o Holland Tunnel opens only to buses 11/3 - 80% subway service resumed o Cuomo waived MTA fares through 11/5 11/6 - Queens Midtown tunnel opened 1 lane only to buses in/out of Manhattan, only during rush hour o fully reopened 11/9 11/7 - Holland Tunnel reopened to general traffic 11/8 - Long Island Rail Road resumed partial service to most areas 11/9 - NYC, Suffolk, and Nassau Counties start odd-even gas rationing 11/12 - Brooklyn Battery Tunnel open to limited rush hour bus service 

• • • • • •

• • • •

Environmental •

• •

On 11/2 Mayor Bloomberg announced that water in Breezy Point was not safe to drink or boil, however NYCHA denies water problems. Local residents are reporting cases of skin rashes, burning sensations, nausea, and other symptoms (ongoing) Many buildings inundated with water during the storm have developed significant mold problems, resulting in cases of skin rashes, burning sensations, nausea, and other symptoms (ongoing) 10/31 - Health and Human Services declare public health emergency Smell of mold and standing water reported throughout Rockaways, o Widespread concerns about air quality, reports of respiratory problems (“Rockaway Cough”) o DOH claims air quality is fine

Power Outages Con Edison Power Outage Map shows power outages throughout NYC area as of Friday, Nov 2 13 Long Island Power Authority removed many homes from their power outage map for being too damaged to receive electricity o As of 11/6 193,000 LIPA customers in Nassau and Suffolk Counties without power • Total customers that lost power 2.1 million 13 “Power Outage Map, New York City: Thousands Still Have No Power After Hurricane Sandy (INFOGRAPHIC).” 2012. Huffington Post. Accessed Nov 26, 2012 http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2012/11/02/power-outage-map-new-york_n_2067535.html.

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New Jersey ● ● ● ● ●

● ●

Estimated 23 fatalities, 5 from CO poisoning FEMA stated that, as of November 4, $31 million in federal aid was approved for residents of New Jersey. Gov, Christie estimates damages close to $37 billion 14 Additional impacts - especially power outages due to wet snow on tree limbs - from nor’easter one week later. High Rain - 11.62” (equivalent to seasonal average); High Wind - sustained 40s-50s mph; high at 90mph ○ See November Precipitation History with 5-year Tendencies Election - NJ allowed electronic voting, overwhelmed by requests, many votes not counted Worst impacts to Jersey Shore and Barrier Islands

Closures ● 509 out of 580 school districts closed on 10/30 Evacuations ● Hoboken and Jersey City evacuate basement and street-level residences ● (Barrier Islands) Mandatory evacuation 10/28-11/10 ○ as of 11/12 Ortley Beach still not allowed to return - called ground zero ● 2 fire stations in Hoboken evacuated due to flooding ● Palisades Medical Center patients evacuated ● Much of Bergen co. evacuated when waters 5ft over berm Economic ● On 11/1 the Star-Ledger estimated business losses up to $30 billion ● (Barrier Islands) Preliminary damages to Long Beach Island estimated at $750 million to $1 billion Flooding ● Hudson river overflowed at Exchange Place, Liberty Harbor spilled into Marin Boulevard ○ combined to flood historic downtown and all low-lying areas of Jersey City ● Half of Hoboken flooded, evacuation of 2 fire stations ● As of late night 1/30, 20,000 people stranded ● Bergen co. - Hudson river rose 5 ft over berm forcing evacuations

14 “Lhota, Christie in Washington To Talk Sandy Impact And Recovery.” 2012. CBS New York. Accessed Nov 26, 2012 http://newyork.cbslocal.com/2012/12/06/lhota-christie-head-to-washington-to-talk-sandy-impact-and-recovery/

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Housing ● (Jersey Shore) Mantoloking - over 24 homes washed off foundation entirely ● fires at approximately 14 homes in Sayreville Structural ● Jersey Shore - 50 feet of Atlantic City boardwalk washed out; ○ Perth Amboy marina and waterfront destroyed ○ Belmar boardwalk destroyed ○ Much of Casino Pier and Funtown Pier washed out from waves, rides destroyed ● Half of Jersey City lost power; city hall and Jersey City Medical Center flooded and evacuated ○ also massive power outages in Hoboken, Bayonne, Weehawken, North Bergen, Edgewater Transportation ● NJ to receive $10 million in federal emergency transportation funds ● According to AAA on November 2, about 60% of the gas stations in New Jersey were closed. ● Gas Rationing - Executive Order 108 signed 11/2; odd-even fuel sales starting 11/311/13 in Bergen, Essex, Hudson, Hunterdon, Middlesex, Morris, Monmouth, Passaic, Somerset, Sussex, Union and Warren counties ● Long Beach Island - up to 4ft of sand deposited on roads, blocking transportation ● NJ Transit flooded by 8 ft water, damaging 65 locomotives and 257 railcars ● 10/31 - 3000 flights cancelled ● 10/31 - NJ Transit and PATH services suspended ○ 11/1 - NJT fully restored 68 bus lines in Northern and Central NJ, 18 in Southern NJ. ■ Partially restored service on 58 bus lines in Northern and Central, 17 in Southern with detours around hurricane damages ○ 11/2 - limited service to Penn Station ○ 11/4 - Limited service on Main Line to Metro North with all local stops resumed; Jersey Coast line opened for 1 day, closed due to overcrowding ■ Bergen co. line still closed Princeton Branch shuttle down ● SEPTA loaning 31 buses for NY commuters ● PATH resumed service to Manhattan 11/12 Environmental ● 780,000 gallons “oily mixture” recovered by coast guard near Perth Amboy ● 7700 gallons diesel fuel spilled in Linden ● NJ Transit flooding accompanied by 300,000 gallon spill of diesel fuel 13


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Power outages 15 Christie said in the morning of October 30 that some 2.4 million households in the state were without power.[46] No timetable was given on the restoration of power to these customers,[47] although some estimates mention a week will be needed before a full assessment of damage can be made.[48] As of the morning of November 2, 1.6 million customers are without power, down from 2.7 million.[49] As of November 3, 31 percent of homes and businesses in the state did not have electricity.[50] As of the morning of November 5, reported customers in the state without electricity were: ● Jersey Central Power & Light: 382,000 ● Public Service Electric & Gas: 375,000 ● Atlantic City Electric: 606 ● Rockland Electric Company: 19,224[51] As of the morning of November 6, more than 582,000 homes and businesses in the state still don't have power:[52] ● Public Service Electric & Gas: 310,000 remain without service ● Jersey Central Power & Light: 257,884 outages, mainly in Monmouth and Morris counties ● Orange & Rockland: 13,913 remain without service ● Atlantic City Electric: 227, mostly in Atlantic County As of the morning of November 7, winds from the nor'easter may delay restoration of electricity. Federal safety rules prevent line crews working in bucket trucks when winds are greater than 40 mph. About 396,000 homes and businesses remain without service.[53] ● Public Service Electric & Gas: 190,400 remain without service. ● Jersey Central Power & Light: 190,278 remain without service mainly in Monmouth and Morris counties ● Orange & Rockland: 10,744 remain without service. ● Atlantic City Electric: 4,488 remain without service. As of 6 a.m. EST November 9, about 265,000 homes and businesses are without power in the state because of Sandy and the subsequent nor'easter. Mid-Atlantic States (does not include NJ)

15 “Effects of Hurricane Sandy in New Jersey.” 2012. Wikipedia. Accessed Nov 19, 2012 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Effects_of_Hurricane_Sandy_in_New_Jersey

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Virginia Wet snow Federal Disaster designation Peak of 200,000 homes without power, 92,000 still without power as of 10/30 2 fatalities as of 11/2 Washington DC Supreme Court closed 10/30 Schools and Federal offices closed 10/29-10/30 MARC train to VA Railway Express closed 10/30 Metrorail and buses opened at 2pm 10/26 - State of Emergency declared Maryland Evacuations - Smith Island 10/27; Ocean City, Worcester co., Wicomico co., Somerset co. 10/28; 10/28 - federal emergency declared; City of Salisbury set curfew from 7pm 10/29 to 10am 10/30 Sewage overflow in Howard co. resulting from power outage - 2 million gallons/hr, some flowing into Little Patuxent River Transportation: MTA cancelled service 10/29-10/30 Chesapeake Bay Bridge, Tydings Memorial Bridge, Hatem Memorial Bridge closed mid day 10/30 I-68 closed from heavy snow some vehicles stranded, national guard dispatched Early voting cancelled on 10/29 100 ft of fishing pier destroyed in Ocean City Power outage peaked at 365,700, still 28,600 without power as of 11/2 Somerset co. estimated damages at $40 million as of 11/3 11 fatalities as of 11/2 Delaware Declared Federal Disaster Area Up to 7 inches rainfall some areas 10/29 (approximately double monthly averages for Oct and Nov 16).

16 “Monthly Averages for Delaware City.� 2012. The Weather Channel. Accessed Nov 19, 2012 http://www.weather.com/weather/wxclimatology/monthly/graph/USDE0010

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Power outages due to wind-felled trees - 13,900 Delmarva Power Co. customers lost power up to 6 hours 440 still without power as of 11/2 Wind gusts recorded at 64mph in Lewes DE route 1 flooded between Dewey Beach and Fenwick Island, 1-2 ft still closed as of 11/2 Pennsylvania Philadelphia Mayor - no mass transit 10/30 Major highways in and around city closed on 10/29 during hurricane, reopened 4am 10/30 Delaware River Port Authority closed major crossings between PA and NJ 10/29 Peak of 1.2 million households without power; 372,000 customers without power as of 11/2 11/4 - PA Emergency Management Agency reported 14 deaths South East Florida High winds, waves Power Outages for approximately 1000 homes Airlines cancelled over 20 flights at Miami Dade International Airport, 13 at Ft Lauderdale North Carolina 10/28 - Declared State of Emergency in 24 counties in the eastern half of the state Ocracoke and Highway 12 flooded up to 2ft The Bounty from film Mutiny on the Bounty sunk 4 fatalities as of 11/4

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Impacts in the Caribbean Haiti17 Damage ● Haiti worst hit also as a result of earthquake; also still recovering from Tropical Storm Isaac and cholera epidemic ● Spared direct hit from hurricane but suffered heavy rain ● Received about 20 inches of rain in Les Cayes causing rivers to overflow ● Highest death toll in Caribbean; at least 52 deaths ● Emergency supplies have not been replenished since Hurricane Isaac Health/Disease ● Increased cases of cholera reported post Sandy ● UN Office of Coordination of Human affairs estimates 450,000 (at least 4,000 children) at risk of severe acute malnutrition ● Médecins Sans Frontières opened extra cholera treatment center Housing Concrete houses and tent camps destroyed as a result of flooding Food insecurity ● UN estimates over 1 million people to be food insecure ● Emergency food rations distributed ● Estimated 200% increase in food price in some communities Crop damage ● 70% of crops destroyed ● Most crops in southern part of Haiti destroyed ● Superstorm further exacerbated food strikes in the country as a result of higher food prices and standard of living

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Sources: “ActionAid responds: Hurricane Sandy in Haiti.” 2012. ActionAid. Accessed Nov 16, 2012 http://www.actionaidusa.org/2012/10/actionaid-responds-hurricane-sandy-haiti “Emergency appeals launched as Cuba, Haiti and Jamaica recover from the devastation of Hurricane Sandy.” 2012. ReliefWeb. Accessed Nov 16, 2012 http://reliefweb.int/report/haiti/emergency-appeals-launched-cuba-haiti-and-jamaica-recover-devastation-hurricane-sandy. Ferreira, Susana. “In Haiti, Hurricane Sandy Leaves Behind Death and Devastation.” 2012. Time.com Accessed Nov 16, 2012 http://world.time.com/2012/10/29/in-haiti-hurricane-sandy-leaves-behind-death-and-devastation “Hurricane Sandy: Haiti Crops Damaged, Food Price Increase Feared.” 2012. Huffington Post. Accessed Nov 16, 2012 http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2012/10/29/hurricane-sandy-haiti_n_2040292.html. “IDB to aid Haiti in Hurricane Sandy recovery efforts.” 2012. Caribbean360. Accessed Nov 16, 2012 http://www.caribbean360.com/index.php/news/haiti_news/633963.html#axzz2CsMkRDg2 Watts, Jonathan. “Aftermath of hurricane Sandy leaves Haiti facing new disaster.” 2012. The Guardian. Accessed Nov 16, 2012 http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2012/nov/02/aftermath-hurricane-sandy-haiti-disaster

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Accessibility ● Roads and bridges severely damaged ● Access to border crossing to the Dominican Republic affected by road closures Water Aquatabs to purify water supplied by govt Aid ● ActionAid released funds from rapid response fund - medical care; cash to plug gaps for lost jobs and restore roads, agricultural land and homes; goats and chickens to meet household needs; seeds and tools for farming ● ActionAid also to expand housing and education program from 2010 earthquake ● Red Cross and Red Crescent Socities launched preliminary appeals following the event ● Inter-American Development (IDB) to provide expected $17.5 mil to aid in transport infratructure, agriculture revitalization, and reinforce river banks to mitigate floods ● Venezuela sent nearly 650 tons of aid (food, potable water, heavy machinery) ● Operation USA to provide aid after assessing safe water, food, shelter and other needs ● CARE Haiti to provide hygiene supplies and emergency clean water ● UN estimates new needs arising from Sandy will require $39.9mil, totalling Haiti’s appeals to $151mil for 2012 ● UN World Food Program (WFP) appealing for $25mil ● Haiti: UN Humanitarian Dashboard - Emergency Appeal Hurricane Sandy

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Cuba 18 Damage ● ● ● ● ● ●

Second hardest hit nation 11 deaths, 1.1 million affected Category 2 hurricane Hospitals in Santiago, Guantanamo, Granma and Holguin severely damaged Medical school flooded; library materials lost Rivers swollen

Preparation Cuban government ordered evacuation of 343,230 people. Many looked for shelter with extended family, causing overcrowding Housing ● In Santiago (most affected part of country) 137,000 homes destroyed, 43,000 roofs blown off, 15,000 houses collapsed ● First shipment of 12,000 roofs arrived days after disaster via train ● 840,000 roofs and 220,000 tons of cement expected to arrive by train and ship Electricity ● ● ● ●

Outage experienced for several days Service restoration prioritized to strategic uses such as hospitals and bakeries Restored to 28% normal in Santiago two weeks after disaster Guantanamo province have 99% electricity back

Closures ● Roadways closed in two parts of central highway that spans the island ● About 895 schools in Santiago closed; those intact housed homeless 18

Sources: Associated Press. “Sandy Gone in Caribbean, Clean Up Begins.” 2012. The Weather Channel. Accessed Nov 20, 2012 http://www.weather.com/news/weather-hurricanes/hurricane-sandy-news-20121023. Boylan, Desmond. “Cubans start cleanup of Hurricane Sandy destruction.” 2012. Reuters. Accessed Nov 20, 2012 http://www.reuters.com/article/2012/10/27/us-storm-sandy-cuba-idUSBRE89Q01920121027. CARE International. “AlertNet News Blog - Hurricane Sandy: CARE responds in Haiti and Cuba.” 2012. AlertNet. Accessed Nov 20, 2012 http://www.trust.org/alertnet/blogs/alertnet-news-blog/hurricane-sandy-care-responds-in-haiti-and-cuba/. “Hurricane Sandy leaves Cuba's 2nd largest city without power 4 days later.” 2012. CBS News. Accessed Nov 20, 2012 http://www.cbsnews.com/8301-202_162-57542204/hurricane-sandy-leaves-cubas-2nd-largest-city-without-power-4-days-later/. “Hurricane Sandy Relief for Santiago, Cuba.” 2012. Global Giving. Accessed Nov 20, 2012 http://www.globalgiving.org/projects/medical-materials-for-santiago-cuba-hospitals/. “Operation USA to aid Hurricane Sandy relief efforts in Cuba and Haiti.” 2012. ReliefWeb. Accessed Nov 20, 2012 http://reliefweb.int/report/haiti/operation-usa-aid-hurricane-sandy-relief-efforts-cuba-and-haiti. “Sandy: UN to send emergency food aid to storm-hit Cuba.” 2012. BBC News. Accessed Nov 20, 2012 http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-latin-america-20222239. Whitefield, Mimi and Jacqueline Charles. “Hurricane Sandy leaves Cuba, Haiti struggling to recover.” 2012. MyrtleBeachOnline. Accessed Nov 20, 2012 http://www.myrtlebeachonline.com/2012/10/29/3141225/hurricane-sandy-leaves-cuba-haiti.html.

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Water ● People urged to boil drinking water before storm hit to avoid infectious diseases ● Chlorine distributed to sterilize water Crops ● 96,980 hectares of crops damaged ● Coffee crops in eastern region destroyed ● Banana, sugar cane, beans and yucca crops also damaged Aid ● Radios and TVs set up to keep people up to pace with latest relief efforts ● UN (World Food Programme) to send food aid to Cuba, enough to feed nearly half a million people ● WFP plans to work with Cuban government to distribute emergency aid to Santiago de Cuba ● Archdiocese of Miami contributed 8,500 pounds of nonperishable food (plane-load) ● Venezuela sent nearly 650 tons of aid (food, potable water, heavy machinery) ● Operation USA provided water and support to hospital and clinic partners ● Global Links partnering with the Pan American Health Organization/WHO and MEDICC to provide $50,000 in aid ● CARE Cuba to provide support to female-headed households

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Tufts Institute of the Environment (TIE)

Jamaica 19 Damage ● 1 death ● Characterized as category 1 hurricane ● St. Thomas, Portland, St. Ann, St. Andrew parishes in Eastern Jamaica worst affected ● More than 4000 houses affected, roofs missing ● $16.5 million in total damage ● Refusal to declare Portland a disaster zone for fear of effect on tourism industry Closures Schools in Kingston and eastern parishes closed for the week Electricity ● 70% of island lost power during storm ● As of Nov 4, power restored to most corporate area communities Water ● 80% restored as of Oct 30 by National Water Commission ● Supplied either through public power supply, standby generators, or operated using gravity flow operations Roadways ● 176 roads made impassable in preparation for storm ● National Works Agency (NWA) reported more than 95% reopened to at least single-lane traffic

19 Sources: “ODPEM partners with NGOs to assist Sandy victims.” 2012. Office of Disaster Preparedness and Emergency Management, Government of Jamaica. Accessed Nov 14, 2012 http://www.odpem.org.jm/ArticleDetails/tabid/226/Default.aspx?article=2435. Brown, Ingrid. “No timeline for 'Sandy' relief houses.” 2012. JamaicaObserver.com. Accessed Nov 14, 2012 http://www.jamaicaobserver.com/news/No-timeline-for--Sandy--relief-houses_12949270#ixzz2C1BoRRlL “Minister: Disaster declaration could hurt Jamaica.” 2012. Office of Disaster Preparedness and Emergency Management, Government of Jamaica. Accessed Nov 14, 2012 http://www.odpem.org.jm/ArticleDetails/tabid/226/Default.aspx?article=2426 “Red Stripe gives $5.7m to Hurricane Sandy relief.” 2012. JamaicaObserver.com. Accessed Nov 14, 2012 http://www.jamaicaobserver.com/news/Red-Stripe-gives--5-7m-to-Hurricane-Sandy-relief. “China Harbour adds $13m to Sandy relief fund.” 2012. JamaicaObserver.com. Accessed Nov 14, 2012 http://www.jamaicaobserver.com/news/China-Harbour-adds--13m-to-Sandy-relief-fund_13000002. McFadden, David. “Hurricane Sandy 2012: Jamaica Recovers From Strong Storm.” 2012. Huffington Post. Accessed Nov 14, 2012 http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2012/10/25/hurricane-sandy-2012-jamaica_n_2019664.html. “Hurricane Sandy recovery update: JPS says work will continue into next week.” 2012. JamaicaObserver.com. Accessed Nov 14, 2012 http://www.jamaicaobserver.com/news/Hurricane-Sandy-recovery-update_12871290#ixzz2ChZ940Lz. “Power restored to most Corporate Area communities.” 2012. JamaicaObserver.com. Accessed Nov 14, 2012 http://www.jamaicaobserver.com/news/Power-restored-to-most-Corporate-Area-communities.

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Tufts Institute of the Environment (TIE)

Agriculture ● More than half of banana sector damaged ● World renown Blue Mountain coffee crops damaged Houses ● Severely damaged houses in St. Thomas, St. Mary, Portland ● As of Nov. 28, no recovery timeline from government to construct destroyed houses ● Vouchers disbursed for damage recovery through Ministry of Labor and Social Security, valued at $60,000 for entire roof lost and $30,000 for some amount of damage ● Relief houses constructed under Food for the Poor under the special Jamaica Emergency Employment Program (JEEP) housing project Aid ● Coordination secretariat by the Office of Disaster Preparedness and Emergency Management (ODPEM) to ensure coordination of government aid and Sandy recovery ● ODPEM also to partner with NGOs (Red Cross, Catholic Relief Agencies and other NGOs) ● Coordination mechanisms piloting for 4-6 months ● Getting support from private donor partners who pledged to assist government in aid of Sandy ● Getting support in health and education from French and German govt ● Donors: China Harbour $13 million; Red Stripe $5.7million, more fundraising ongoing by international organizations

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Tufts Institute of the Environment (TIE)

Bahamas 20 2 deaths Ocean surged into coastal buildings and deposited up six feet of water Category 2 Experienced severe flooding Greatest damage in Cat Island and Exuma Crops and roofs lost in Long Island Puerto Rico 21 1 death Severe flooding caused over 100 families to seek shelter Aid provided by the Red Cross Dominican Republic 18,100 people evacuated after storm destroyed bridges and isolated about 130 communities Severe flooding Heavy rains and winds damaged about 3,500 homes Main road linking Dominican Republic and Haiti badly damaged Canada 2 deaths Strong winds and heavy rain, strongest in Ontario and Quebec Power outage experienced by 145,000, restored two days later

20 Todd, Jeff. “Hurricane Sandy 2012: Bahamas Pounded By Strong Storm, Scores Dead In Caribbean.” 2012. Huffington Post. Accessed Nov 20, 2012 http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2012/10/26/hurricane-sandy-2012-baha_n_2022420.html. Lewis, Simon. “Hurricane Sandy Damages Grand Bahama Airport, Homes on Northern Shore.” 2012. TheBahamasWeekly.com. Accessed Nov 20, 2012 http://www.thebahamasweekly.com/publish/bis-newsupdates/Hurricane_Sandy_Damages_GB_Airport_Homes_on_Northern_Shore24799.shtml. 21 “Another Hawaii volunteer to assist Superstorm Sandy victims.” 2012. KHON2 Hawaii’s News Leader. Accessed Nov 20, 2012 http://www.khon2.com/news/local/story/Another-Hawaii-volunteer-to-assist-Superstorm/n9kcip9By0eCqQdikMEIXg.cspx.

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2013 NCSE Conference Brief on Hurricane Sandy  

Briefing packet on Hurricane Sandy at the 2013 National Council for Science and the Environment's (NCSE) Conference, Disasters and Environme...

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