Tidbits Grand Forks - November 19

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S PUZZLE • A I • TRIV N FACTS • FU November 19, 2015

Of Grand Forks • East Grand Forks Published by: Wick Publications

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It happened at the World’s Fair! Some will recognize this as the title of a 1963 movie starring Elvis Presley, filmed on the site of the 1962 Seattle World’s Fair. Let’s look at the history of these expositions that have been staged for more than 160 years. • The World’s Fair, officially known as the Universal Exposition or Great Exhibition, made its debut in London’s Hyde Park in 1851. It was designed as a way for nations to present their scientific innovations. The entire London exhibition was contained inside the Crystal Palace, an enormous greenhouse structure made from cast iron and glass. It was the brainstorm of Prince Albert, Queen Victoria’s husband. The inaugural America’s Cup yachting race was held in conjunction with the Exhibition. The world’s first voting machine was on display as well as an early precursor to the fax machine. • The first era of expositions from 1851 to 1938 focused on nations’ technological inventions, brought together in one place. In 1939, the focus shifted to cultural themes, with themes including “Building the World of Tomorrow” (1939), “Peace through Understanding” (1964), and “Man and his World” (1967). Starting in 1988, the fairs were used as a tool for nations to improve their image through their national pavilion displays. Publish a We provide the opportunity for success!



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Quiz Bits

5. How many U.S. states border the Gulf of Mexico? 6. Who lives at 124 Conch Street, Bikini Bottom, Pacific Ocean? 7. What was the name of the first mate in the novel “Moby Dick”? 8. What is the decimal equivalent of the fraction one-eighth? 9. What’s the traditional liquor used in making a Tom Collins drink?


1. How many times has Paris hosted the World’s Fair? 2. Fairy floss was introduced at the 1904 St. Louis Fair. What was it? 3. The Perisphere was centerpiece of the 1939 fair in what city? 4. In what year did President Jimmy Carter pardon all Vietnam War draft dodgers?


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• The first World’s Fair held in the United States was the Centennial International Exhibition of 1876 in Philadelphia, celebrating the 100th anniversary of the signing of the Declaration of Independence in that city. Close to 10 million visitors attended the fair, which was equal to about 20% of the U.S. population at that time. Several notable items made their debut at the fair, including Alexander Graham Bell’s telephone, Heinz ketchup, Hires root beer, a Remington typewriter, and a 1500-horsepower Corliss steam engine, which provided power for all the exhibits. Four buildings from the Exhibition still remain at the site. • The entrance arch to the 1889 World’s Fair was highly criticized as an eyesore, yet it has become one of the most recognizable structures in the world. Paris’ Eiffel Tower was built as part of the exhibition commemorating the 100th anniversary of the French Revolution. The designer, Gustave Eiffel, had a permit for the Tower to stand for 20 years and it was set for demolition in 1909. However, the Tower proved valuable for purposes of communications and the City of Paris allowed it to remain. Upon its completion in 1889, at 1,063 feet tall, it was the tallest man-made structure in the world, an honor it held for 41 years. Today, it is the most-visited paid monument in the world, with 25,000 visitors daily, about 7 million annually. • St. Louis was chosen as the site of the 1904 World’s Fair to celebrate the centennial of the 1803 Louisiana Purchase. The 1904 Summer Olympics were held there in conjunction with the fair, the first time they were held in the U.S. The field used for the track events is still in use today on the campus of Washington University. ...continued


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SPORTS QUIZ 1. What year did the Dallas Stars win their only Stanley Cup? 2. Who had the most hits in one major-league season: Barry or Bobby Bonds? 3. Six players hold the record of four goals in an NHL All-Star Game. Name four of them. 4. What year did the Vikings last reach the Super Bowl?

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WORLD'S FAIRS (continued):

• Scientific innovations making their debut at the 1904 Louisiana Purchase Exposition included the X-ray machine, baby incubator, electric typewriter, and telephone answering machine. • New York City has hosted three World’s Fairs – 1853, 1939, and 1964. At the 1853 exhibition, Elisha Otis demonstrated his elevator equipped with a safety brake. Three years later, America’s first passenger elevator was installed by Otis in a five-story New York department store. Flushing Meadows Corona Park in the borough of Queens was the site of both the 1939 and 1964 fairs. The park was built on a site known as the Corona Ash Dumps, where ashes from coal-burning furnaces were dumped, along with horse manure and garbage. Some of the buildings from the 1939 fair were used from 1946 to 1951 as the United Nations’ first headquarters before their move to permanent offices in Manhattan.

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• The Ford Motor Company presented its Mustang to the world for the first time at the 1964 New York fair. Shea Stadium home of the New York Mets, opened in conjunction with the exposition across from the fairgrounds. The Unisphere was the focal point of the 1964 exposition, a 12-story, 140-ft. tall, 700,000-lb. stainless steel Earth, a landmark that remains in the park today. The fair featured a special tribute to John F. Kennedy, who had broken ground for the pavilion in 1962, but was assassinated five months before the fair’s opening.



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Place a number in the empty boxes in such a way that each row across, each column down and each small 9-box square contains all of the numbers from one to nine.

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WORLD'S FAIRS (continued): • The Century 21 Exposition opened in April, 1962 in Seattle, with the spotlight on the newly-constructed Space Needle. At 605 feet, at the time it was the tallest structure west of the Mississippi River. Built to withstand earthquakes of up to 9.1 magnitude and winds up to 200 mph, the foundation was laid in a 30-ft. deep hole 120 feet across. It took 467 cement trucks an entire day to fill the cavity. The elevator travels up the side of the Space Needle at 10 mph, a trip that takes about 41 seconds. The monorail and Key Arena (then known as Washington State Coliseum), and Pacific Science Center were also constructed to mark the opening of the exposition. • Seattle’s 1962 fair wasn’t the first held there. In 1909, the city hosted the Alaska-Yukon-Pacific Exposition promoting the development of the Pacific Northwest. The fairgrounds later became the campus of the University of Washington. • Montreal’s Expo 67 was one of the most successful World’s Fairs, with more than 50.3 million attendees. The former Major League Baseball team, the Montreal Expos, was named for the fair.

• Expo 86, held in Vancouver, British Columbia, was the latest World’s Fair to be held in North America. It was officially opened by Prince Charles and Princess Diana, along with Prime Minister Brian Mulroney. Over 22 million people attend the Expo, yet it suffered a $311 million deficit. The Expo Center’s southeastern section was redeveloped for use as part of the Olympic Village at the Winter Olympics held in the city in 2010. • Eleven fairs have been held since Vancouver, including Expo 15, hosted by Milan, Italy, until this October. Kazakhstan will host the 2017 exposition, and Dubai will be home to the 2020 fair.

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• It was 20th-century American journalist Walter Lippmann who made the following sage observation: "Our conscience is not the vessel of eternal verities. It grows with our social life, and a new social condition means a radical change in conscience." • According to a recent analysis of data from the online music streaming service Spotify and artist popularity data from a website called The Echo Nest, Americans tend to stop listening to new music at the age of 33. • John Tyler, born March 29, 1790, was the 10th president of the United States. He was married twice and had a total of 15 children. These children, collectively, were witness to a surprisingly large swath of American history. The oldest, Mary Tyler Jones, was born in 1815, the year that saw the end of the War of 1812; the youngest, Pearl Tyler Ellis, survived until 1947, two years after the end of World War II. President Tyler even has two grandsons who are still alive today. • You might be surprised to learn that it costs the U.S. government nearly 2 cents to mint a single penny. • Unless you've been to Crater Lake National Park in Oregon, it's difficult to believe just how blue the water of that lake appears. In fact, there was a time when the rich blues made the professionals at Kodak believe the photos to be overdeveloped, and the pictures would be returned at no charge. • Those who study such things say that if you were (for reasons unspecified) to eat the liver of a polar bear, you'd die. The amount of vitamin A stored in that organ constitutes a fatal dose for humans. *** Thought for the Day: "You never know what you'll want to write until it starts writing itself in your head." -- Jill Ker Conway © 2015 King Features Synd., Inc.

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• Work began on a prototype of a bread-slicing machine in 1916 in an abandoned warehouse. Rohwedder drew hundreds of blueprints with differing specifications. Tragedy struck in 1917 when his prototype and all of his blueprints were destroyed in a fire. • It was 10 years before Rohwedder had another machine completed, but this one was much better. While his first machine had used long metal pins to hold the sliced loaf together, the new machine tightly wrapped the loaves in waxed paper. The contraption was 5 feet wide, 3 feet high, and 6 feet deep. After being awarded a patent for the slicer, Rohwedder began searching for buyers and received mostly ridicule.

• Full-page ads declared that sliced bread was “the greatest forward step in the baking industry since bread was wrapped.” Before long, the slogan had been modified to include every new exceptional invention, referring to innovations as “the greatest thing since sliced bread.” • Two years after the launch of the bread slicer, Continental Baking Company introduced Wonder Bread in its bright, balloon-imprinted wrapper, with the word “Sliced” emblazoned in large letters. Their ad was a happy picture of families packing sandwiches for picnics. • In 1933, Rohwedder sold his rights to Iowa’s Micro-Westco Company and became vice-president and sales manager of the bakery machine division. • In 1960, a beer bottler bought the building that had formerly housed the Chillicothe Baking Company. In the storage area was a pile of metal the owner thought was junk, which he promptly disposed of. He later learned it was Rohwedder’s original slicer. The Smithsonian is home to one of Rohwedder’s second design machines.


• At 36, Rohwedder got out of the jewelry business and set out to solve a common household complaint. Loaves of bread were sold whole, and housewives didn’t like slicing it! Rohwedder devised a brief questionnaire to determine the thickness of a slice that housewives would like to see. He placed ads in several large newspapers and within a few months had received 30,000 responses.

• A 1928 issue of Modern Mechanics explained how the machine worked: “Two banks of thin sharp steel blades are utilized…While one blade moves upward, its immediate neighbor moves downward. As the blades pass through the soft bread, the loaf closes immediately behind the blades and keeps the air out… thus retaining the freshness of the loaf.”


• At age 20, Davenport, Iowa native Otto Rohwedder moved to Chicago to pursue a degree in optometry at a college of ophthalmology in the Windy City. After a year in the profession, Otto made a drastic career change and began an apprenticeship with a local jeweler. At 25, he settled in St. Joseph, Missouri, and by 32, he had acquired three jewelry shops. In his spare time, he began tinkering with new inventions.

• He finally persuaded a friend whose bakery was on the verge of bankruptcy to give it a try. Frank Bench, owner of Chillicothe Baking Company produced the first slices in July, 1928, and put it on the shelves as “Kleen Maid Sliced Bread.” Within two weeks, his bread sales had increased by 2,000%. The public loved sliced bread and the machine’s success was launched.


What’s the greatest thing since sliced bread? How about sliced bread itself? Here’s the scoop on one of the most beneficial inventions of the 20th century.



• On Nov. 28, 1582, William Shakespeare, 18, and Anne Hathaway, 26, pay a 40-pound bond for their marriage license in Stratford-uponAvon. Six months later, Anne gives birth to their daughter, Susanna, and two years later, to twins. • On Nov. 27, 1703, an unusual freak storm finally dissipates over England after wreaking havoc for two weeks. Packing hurricanestrength winds, the storm killed between 10,000 and 30,000 people, and sank hundreds of Royal Navy ships. • On Nov. 29, 1929, American explorer Richard Byrd and three companions make the first flight over the South Pole. In 1996, a diary of Byrd's was found that seemed to suggest his plane had turned back 150 miles short of its goal because of an oil leak. • On Nov. 23, 1936, the first issue of Life magazine is published, featuring a cover photo of the Fort Peck Dam. When it folded during the Great Depression, publisher Henry Luce bought the name and re-launched Life as a picture-based periodical. • On Nov. 26, 1941, President Franklin D. Roosevelt signs a bill officially establishing the fourth Thursday in November as Thanksgiving Day. In 1789, President George Washington had proclaimed a holiday of national thanksgiving for the U.S. Constitution. • On Nov. 24, 1971, a hijacker calling himself D.B. Cooper -- wearing only wraparound sunglasses, a thin suit and a raincoat -- parachutes from an airplane into a thunderstorm with 100-mph winds and temperatures well below zero over Washington state. Despite a massive search, no trace of Cooper or the $200,000 in ransom money he carried was ever found. • On Nov. 25, 1990, after a howling wind- and rainstorm on Thanksgiving Day, Washington state's historic floating Lacey V. Murrow Memorial Bridge breaks apart and sinks to the bottom of Lake Washington. The bridge had been made of 22 floating pontoons. © 2015 King Features Synd., Inc.

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• “To remove paint or stain from hands (even oil-based), use an old dry washcloth with liquid hand soap — no water. After the paint is loose, rinse with warm water.” — H.P. in Washington • “I found a terrific metal magnet strip that is for use in the kitchen. It was a great price at a local resale shop. I have used it in my mini workshop to hold jewelry-making tools by my craft desk. It is especially handy now that I am making many ornaments for gifts.” — E.L. in New Jersey • Use baking soda as a dry cleaning agent for fabric items such as suitcases, backpacks, boots, canvas items, etc. • “Try this baking tip from my mother: When you have a recipe that calls for dry spices (cinnamon, ginger, ground clove, etc.), cream them with the butter instead of sifting them with the dry ingredients. I do feel like they become infused in the recipe better.” — A. in Illinois • Fresh ginger can be frozen. Simply grate as needed. Flavor remains, and it will stay fresh much longer. • “An oldie but a goodie, and certainly considerate of dear old Mom: In my family, you come to Thanksgiving dinner with your own plastic containers for leftovers. If you don’t bring your own, you don’t go home with tomorrow’s lunch. Mom instituted this rule after the first Thanksgiving when all the kids had moved out. We practically cleaned her out of Tupperware!” — E.Y. in New Mexico Send your tips to Now Here’s a Tip, 628 Virginia Drive, Orlando, FL 32803. © 2015 King Features Synd., Inc.

Inside the Mind of a Turkey

Inside the Mind ofByaJesse Turkey Hirsch

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5570 W. Prairiewood Dr. • Grand Forks Price: $458,900 Growing Pains Growing PainsRight around the age of the adolescence, male Right around age turkeys male start acting like of adolescence, turkeys start punks. acting They like seek attenthe most desperate punks. They tion seekin attenways, shoving each other tion in the most desperate around generally being ways, shoving each and other obnoxious. around and generally being“It's like teen humans,“ says Karcher. obnoxious. “It's like teen “They don't have the good humans,“ says Karcher. judgment that comes with “They don't have the good Depositphotos.com maturity.“ judgment that In a fascinating book called "The Psychology of comes with Motherly In ashrink-turned-birdwatcher fascinating Depositphotos.com book called “The maturity.“ Birds," Harold Burtt ap- Love Turkey hens are like most mothers Psychology ofof Birds,” shrink-turnedplies the powers psychoanalysis to our inscrutable Motherly Lovein nature — mess with their babies fascinating book called “The Burtt birdwatcher Harold applies feathered friends, e.g., "There's no point in asking a Turkey hens are like most mothers ology of Birds,” shrink-turnedthe powers bluejay why heofispsychoanalysis screaming." to our and they'll totally freak. Karcher says in nature — mess atcher Harold Burtt feathered applies friends, it can with be notheir easy babies task to collect eggs inscrutable e.g., Beautiful Split-level Home But, in a major scholastic oversight, Burtt forgot the during laying season. Typically docile anda they'll freak. Karcher says “There's no point bluejaytotally wers of psychoanalysis to in ourasking turkey. henstask havetono problem rearing up and • 4 Bedrooms / 3 Baths why he friends, is screaming.” collect eggs able feathered e.g., it can be no easy Calldocile for attacking a human. HeAppointment: says the male • 2,874 sq.ft. (1,506 up/1,368 dn) But, in a major oversight, laying Typically e's no point in asking a bluejay Modern Farmer hasscholastic pickedduring up where theseason. book left Home: (701) turkeys (toms) also get772-2775 in on the • 3-Car Heated Garage • Steel Siding forgot turkey. wolf hensdown have no rearing up will and e is screaming.” off.Burtt After all, the Americans 46 problem million of action. “You take anmale egg, they're going • Beautiful 5” Hardwood Floors Modern Farmer has picked up where Cell: (218) 779-8731 attacking awe human. the in a major scholastic oversight, these birds each November; shouldn't at leastHe trysays toalso flog the get crapinout you with their • Large Master Suite • Walk-in Closets the book left off. After all,turkeys Americans (toms) onofthe orgot thetoturkey. relate? Using the combined wisdom of anwings,“ Ohiowill tur• Vaulted Ceilings • Lot Size 95’ x 163.54’ Schools: he they're says. wolf down 46 ofaction. these birds “You take an egg, going Middle/RRHS • Custom Cherry Cabinetry • Built in 2010 ern Farmer has picked up million where Discover/So. keyeach farmer named Bill Karcher, a poultry researcher shouldn'ttowe at least Need Be with Heard flog theessays crapA out oftoyou their ok left off. AfterNovember; all, Americans named Anderson some 4H written try toJohn relate? Using theand combined wisDo not mock the comical-sounding wings,“ he says. Motherly Love own 46 for million of these birds children, let usturkey provide you with some armchair dom of an Ohio farmer named gobble — it's a basic form selfNovember; shouldn't we at least Turkey hens areoflike most mothers in nature -- mess with insight tomorrow's dinner. A researcher Need to Be Heard Bill into Karcher, a poultry expression. It's also only one of the elate? Using the combined wis- andDo their babies and they'll totally freak. Karcher says it can be not4H mocknoises the comical-sounding named John Anderson some Loneliness turkeysnomake in a fairly com-eggs during laying season. Typically f an Ohio turkey farmer named easy task to collect essays written for children, let us progobble —turkeys it's plex a always basic formof of selfIt's well-documented: Domesticated arsenal turkey communicaKarcher, avide poultry with researcher docile have no problem rearing up and attacking a husome armchair insight expression. also only of hens the want toyou hang out. Even if they have lotsIt's oftion. space to one Turkeys possess a vast range of John Anderson and some 4H man. He says the male turkeys (toms) also will get in on the into they'll tomorrow's dinner. Anderson noises turkeys make inclucks a fairly andcomyelps, with meanstick calls itgobbles, "flocking written roam, forLoneliness children, let us tight; pro- plex arsenal action. an egg, of turkey ings rangingcommunicafrom “I'll"You take take you on, big they're going to flog the crap out of Remove a turkey from his friends, he'll squawk ou with up." some armchair insight you with their wings," tion.real Turkeys a vastwords) range of boy“ (Acker's to “I'm lost“ orhe says. It's well-documented: make a scene. They'reDomesticated not choosypossess -- Andermorrow'sand dinner. gobbles, clucks andjust yelps, mean“I'm up fortothe always want latch to hang out.dogs Even A Need Beday.“ Heard sonturkeys has seen turkeys onto or sheep in waking a with iness pinch. if they have lots of space to roam, ings ranging from “I'll take you on, big Tidyhim Mind Do not mock the comical-sounding gobble -- it's a basic He even has a turkey at home that A trails they'll stick tight; Anderson it words) boy“calls (Acker's “I'm lost“ or well-documented: Domesticated form of self-expression. You'vetosurely heard this one before It's also only one of the noises turlike a trained pooch. “flocking up.“ Remove a turkey from “I'm just waking up for the day.“ s always want to hang out. Even keysturkeys make will in asupposfairly complex arsenal of turkey commu— in a rainstorm, Fear Death to hisofoffriends, he'll squawk and make edly crane their y have lots space roam, necks up and drown. nication. Turkeys possess a vast range of gobbles, clucks A Tidy In athescene. poultry industry, makeMind the about They're notitstories real choosy — rounds stick tight; Anderson calls This myth has been roundly disprovand before yelps, with meanings ranging from "I'll take you on, big You've surely heard this one suffering heart attacks when theiren, brethren Anderson has seen turkeys latch onto ing up.“ turkeys Remove a turkey from yet it endures. Some claim it is the boy" (Acker's words) to "I'm lost" or "I'm just waking up for — in a rainstorm, turkeys will supposdogs or sheep a pinch. HeKarcher even has head to slaughter. or not, says necessary that when folklore we use to justify ends, he'll squawk andinTrue make the day." edly crane their necks up and drown. anot turkey at choosy home that him like a mass a turkey dies in front oftrails its flock, everyone else gets turkey slaughter (i.e., it's OK e. They're real — This myth has been roundlyA disprovtrained pooch. Tidy Mind spooked. They all mope for a while, eating less and to kill dumb things). Dr. Karl Nestor son has seen turkeys latch onto en, yet it endures. Some claim it is surely the You've heard this avoiding the death site. Luckily they get over it after Fear of Death suggests that turkeys aren't but one before -- in a rainstorm, turkeys r sheep in a pinch. He even has necessary folklore we use to justify dumb, will supposedly crane their necks up and drown. This myth a few days. "They're either really resilient, or they've they do like a good rainstorm. It's like In the poultry industry, stories make y at home that trails him like a mass turkey slaughter (i.e., it's OK has been roundly disproven, yet it endures. Some claim it is a natural shower to wash them clean. the rounds about turkeys suffering says. d pooch. got bad short-term memory,"toKarcher kill dumb things). Dr. Karl Nestor folklore He may just be speculating, but turheart attacks when their brethren head the necessary we use to justify mass turkey slaughter Pains f DeathGrowing suggestssays that turkeys dumb, but keys arearen't always preening and tamping to slaughter. True or not, Karcher (i.e., it's OK to kill dumb things). Dr. Karl Nestor suggests around the age of adolescence, male turkeys rainstorm. like e poultryRight industry, make down their feathers, a not-quite-OCD that whenstories a turkey dies inthey frontdooflike its a good thatIt's turkeys aren't dumb, but they do like a good rainstorm. start acting like punks. seek attention the a natural shower toinwash them clean. unds about turkeys suffering display of hygiene. flock, everyone else They gets spooked. It's like a natural shower to wash them clean. He may just most desperate each and mayother just around beReprinted speculating, but turttacks when their They allbrethren mopeways, forhead a shoving while,He eating less be speculating, but turkeys are always preening and tamping by permission of Modern generally being obnoxious. "It's are like teen humans," always preening and tamping and avoiding thesays death keys site. Luckghter. True or not, Karcher Farmer. To read articles like downmore their feathers, a not-quite-OCD display of hygiene. says Karcher. "They don't have good judgment ily dies theyingetfront overofit its after down a fewthe days. their feathers, not-quite-OCD hen a turkey this ora to subscribe to its magazine, Reprinted by permission of Modern Farmer. To read more articles like this or to subthat comes with maturity." “They're either really resilient, display ofor hygiene. everyone else gets spooked. visit modernfarmer.com. scribe to its magazine, visit modernfarmer.com. they've got bad short-term memory,“ ll mope for a while, eating less Reprinted by permission of Modern © 2015 King Features Synd., Inc. voiding theKarcher death says. site. Luck- Farmer. To read more articles like By Jesse Hirsch

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• The 1893 World’s Fair, held in Chicago, was officially known as the World’s Columbian Exposition, commemorating 400 years since the 1492 voyage of Christopher Columbus to the Americas. More than 28 million people paid the admission price to tour the exhibits of 46 nations, built at a cost of more than $28 million. • The fairgrounds were referred to as the “White City,” because all buildings were covered with white stucco in order to resemble carved marble, and illuminated with 100,000 electric lights. • Several commercial products were introduced at the fair, including Pabst Blue Ribbon beer, Cream of Wheat cereal, Juicy Fruit gum, Aunt Jemima pancake mix, and Cracker Jacks. Early versions of the dishwasher, fluorescent light bulbs, a milk sterilization machine, and the zipper also made their debut. • One of the main attractions was the world’s first Ferris Wheel, the invention of Pittsburgh bridge builder and steel magnate George Ferris, Jr. Towering 264 feet in the air, the wheel had 36 cars that could accommodate 60 people each, allowing a total of 2,160 riders at a time. Each paid 50 cents for the nine-minute ride, providing a boost to the fair’s shaky financial status, generating $395,000 in profit. The Ferris Wheel proved so popular that, after the conclusion of the fair, it was moved to Chicago’s North Side, where it operated for another 10 years. It was then dismantled and moved to St. Louis for their World’s Fair, the Louisiana Purchase Exposition of 1904. After its tenure there, the wheel was dynamited with 300 lbs. of explosives and sold for scrap in 1906.

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Sports Answers 6. Michael 1. 1999 Spinks (2x), 2. Bobby (200), Mike Tyson, Barry (181) Evander Holy3. Wayne Gretzky, field, Oliver Mario Lemieux, McCall, and V. Damphousse, Brian Nielsen Mike Gartner, Chris Davis of 7. Dany Heatley, Orioles (47) John Tavares 8. 2: J. Arrieta 4. 1977 (22), Dallas 5. Ten Keuchel (20)

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• In addition to its financial struggles, the fair experienced several other tragedies. A smallpox epidemic Answer: Dell. originated on the grounds in the summerAofVERY 1893 LARGE and hadNUMBER spread throughout Chicago by Autumn. Two days before the • Edward Kasner was a mathematician. In 1938 closing ceremonies, the city’s Mayor Carter he was asked to come up with a name for a Harrison assassinated in his home. The very largewas number: the numeral one, followed ceremonies were cancelled and his replaced with by a hundred zeros. He asked two young anephews public what memorial service for the mayor. name they would suggest. Shortly after the close of suggested the fair, many the • Nine-year-old Milton a of name buildings were destroyed by fire. Seventeen out of the funnies. A cartoon strip character people killed in thepopular. blaze including 14 named were Barney was very Milton chose firefighters. fire out in the Cold Barney’s lastThe name forbroke the number. Building, one of the fair’s largest • Storage Kasner announced the new name for the big structures. It was used to store perishable food number in his next book, altering the spelling. used the vendors, as well housing ice • Sixtyby years later, Larry Pageasand SergeyanBrin skating rink. The building was constructed developed a new internet search engine. Other with a 200-foot iron chimney run the and research engines searched each towebpage ranked them according to how timesofa frigeration units. In keeping withmany the theme specific term appeared on them, Page and the “White City,” builders added but a decorative Brin designed their search engine to search for wooden cupola around the chimney. A serious the hazard specificwas termcreated and then out how many fire byfind placing the wood links there were that led back to that base just 30 inches above the chimney. page, which resulted in a better search engine. • • Of the decided more thanthey 200 needed buildingsa constructed They name that for the exposition, only one remains. reflected how many websites the Known search as the Palace of Fine Arts in took 1893,the today it engine was searching. They name houses Chicago’s Museum of Science andonly Inof Edward Kasner’s very large number, they misspelled it slightly, so it ended up being dustry. spelled exactly the same way the cartoon • Most folks have seen a machine that flattens a character Barney spelled his last name. What’s penny, embossing a picture of various it called? (Answer itatwith bottom of page) tourist attractions. That machine was first seen COMPUTER FACTS at the Columbian Exposition, and featured • seven In 1981 Bill Gates said, “640 kb for of memory different lettering designs fairgoought to be enough for anybody.” ers to choose • from Moore’s for Law theirstates that computer performance doubles every 181.toSix 24times months, and ever since souvenir. 6. SpongeBob 1971, this has been true. 2. Cotton candy SquarePants THANKS 7. Starbuck 3. New York CityApple • HP, Google, Microsoft, and were all 8. 0.125 4. 1977 FOR started in garages. 5. Five: AL, FL, 9. Gin READING LA, MS, TX Answer: Google, from googol.

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