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S PUZZLE • A I • TRIV N FACTS • FU November 12, 2015
Of Grand Forks • East Grand Forks Published by: Wick Publications
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TIDBITS VISITS ®
MONTANA by Janet Spencer
Montana became the 41st state on November 8, 1889, so come along with Tidbits as we visit Montana!
“Cozy Feet are Happy Feet” More Styles Available
• The town of Browning, Montana near Glacier Park holds the national record for the greatest drop in temperature in 24 hours, for a 100 degree drop on January 23, 1916. It went from 44° to -56°F. • On January 11, 1980, when Great Falls set a new national weather record for quickest temperature increase in the shortest time, it took just seven minutes to go from -32° to 15°F. • Montana's record low is -70°F and the record high is 117°F, for a temperature range of 187 degrees. No state has a temperature ranger greater than that. • Cooke City near Yellowstone National Park holds the state record for greatest snowfall in a single season, with 418 inches for the winter of 1977-78. However, the town of Summit near Glacier National Park holds the record for greatest snowfall in 24 hours; greatest snowfall in four days; greatest snowfall in five days; and the greatest snowfall in one month when 131 inches of snow fell in January of 1972. Turn the page for more!
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4. Are there more miles of railroads or interstate highways in Montana? 1. What percent of Montana land 5. What single product fills 74% is considered by the Census of the railroad cars leaving the Bureau to be metropolitan? state? 2. In Maine, 82% os the state is 6. In the late 19th century, how forested (the most) and in North many years did it take for MonDakota only 1% (the least), but tana’s bison herds to be reduced what percentage of Montana is from millions all the way down forested—20%, 24%, 28% or 32%? to just a few hundred? 3. Are there more cows or humans TRIVIA living in Montana?
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• How long would it take to give a lift to the entire population of Montana in the state’s 65 ski lifts? About 13 hours at maximum capacity of 72,000 people per hour. There are 15 ski areas in the state, with a combined area of 14,000 acres of skiing and 548 downhill runs. • Martin City hosts the annual Barstool Races each February, where barstools must be mounted on skis to enter. • Red Lodge Mountain hosts the Cardboard Cup Classic each winter, during which cardboard contraptions hit the slopes and are awarded prizes for the most creative. • At Big Mountain near Whitefish each winter, they host the annual furniture race, where skis are attached to any snow-worthy item of furniture and ridden down the mountain. • Showdown ski area hosts mannequin jumping, where decorated mannequins are attached to skis and sent down the mannequin ski jump. • The city of Missoula sponsors the Frost Fever Festival every February, featuring snow football, snow softball, and snow volleyball.
IT’S A FACT
• Percent of avalanche victims in the U.S. who are men: 90% • Percent of Montana’s stream flow that originates from melting snow: 70%. • Miles of interstate in Montana: 1,200 • Miles of groomed snowmobile trails in Montana: 4,000
MONTANA STATE FLOWER
• The Montana state flower is the bitterroot. It can live for over a year without water and can be revived even after being boiled, dried, or pressed. Its tenacity is reflected in its Latin name “Lewisia rediviva” with “Lewisia” being for Meriwether Lewis who cataloged it, and “rediviva” meaning “one who lives again.” ...continued
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NAME THAT STATE
• Montana’s least populated counties, Petroleum and Garfield, have only 0.3 people per square mile. The county seat of Garfield County is Jordan, known as the “lonesomest town in the world” because it’s the most isolated county seat in the contiguous U.S. The nearest airport is 175 miles away, and it’s 115 miles to the nearest railroad depot.
• The only state that has more hiking trails than Montana’s 15,000 miles of trails is California. • The only states that have more pick-up trucks per capita than Montana’s 361 trucks for every 1,000 residents are North and South Dakota. • The only state that has a higher rate of private airplane ownership than Montana is Alaska. • About 80% of Montana communities have a • The only state that has an average daily wind speed population of 3,000 or fewer, and there are only higher than Montana's 12.7 mph is Wyoming, averagseven cities in the state with populations of over ing 12.9 mph. 10,000. The population of the entire state is just over one million. • The only state that has more acres of land being farmed than Montana’s 58.6 million acres is Texas, with 129 million cultivated acres. After Montana come Kansas, Nebraska, and South Dakota.
MONTANA POPULATION: SPARSE
• When Hillary Clinton visited the state in 1993, she described it as “hyper-rural.” Nationwide, about 25% of the population lives in rural areas, but in Montana, 48% do. • The average population density across the state is 6.2 people per square mile. The only states more sparsely settled than that are Alaska and Wyoming. The national average is 75 people per square mile, and New York City has a density of 26,402 per square mile.
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4. Two NHL teams have won a Stanley Cup after losing the first two games 1. Who was the last golfer of the series at home. before Bernhard Langer in Name either one. 2014-15 to notch back-to5. How many tennis Grand back wins at the Senior Slam doubles titles have Players Championship? Bob and Mike Bryan won 2. Who was the last Tampa together—10, 12, 14 or 16? Bay quarterback to rush for 6. T or F: In 2015, Alex two TDs in a game before Killorn of the Tampa Bay Josh McCown in 2014? Lightning, became the 3. Which MLB team finished first Harvard graduate the 2015 regular season to score a goal in in the with the best record? Stanley Cup Finals.
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• When six prospectors dipped their gold pans in Alder Creek in 1863, leading to one of history’s richest placer gold discoveries, they were hoping to find just enough gold to pay for their tobacco. Instead the $10 million worth of gold taken out of Alder Creek, which runs through Virginia City and Nevada City, would be worth about $2.5 billion today. • Today Montana ranks 5th in production of gold, behind Nevada, California, Alaska, and South Dakota. The Montana state motto “Oro y Plata” is Latin for “gold and silver” and the state seal displays a pick, plow, and shovel. • When a hotel was built in the state capital of Helena, enough gold was recovered from the excavation of the basement to pay for the construction of the entire building. • At a nearby gulch, miners pulled 700 pounds of gold from a two acre plot in a single day. • In the 1880s, Helena had more millionaires per capita than any other city in the nation, with 50.
• Bearcreek’s 50 residents hold Pig Races each summer. Pigs are tended by “sowboys.” • Missoula hosts the annual “Punkin’ Chuckin’ Contest” to see who can build a catapult to throw a pumpkin the farthest without using motors or explosives. The current record is nearly 4,000 feet (1,219 m). • Reed Point’s answer to Pamplona’s Running of the Bulls is the annual Running of the Sheep, including the Sheep Roundup, the Sheep Beauty Contest, and sky-diving (plastic) sheep.
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• The town of Drummond, Montana sponsors the annual Flapjack Race, where rules dictate that you must build a fire and cook an edible pancake, all while keeping your untied mule next to you at all times.
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• It was beloved British crime novelist Agatha Christie who made the following sage observation: "It is a curious thought, but it is only when you see people looking ridiculous that you realize just how much you love them." • If you've ever yelled out a warning in panic -- "Stop!," "Run!," "Don't!" -- you've used a monepic sentence, one that is complete with just a single word. Of course, at the time you probably weren't concerned about the grammatical nature of your utterance. • When in New Jersey, you'd best mind your manners at the table. In that state, it's illegal to slurp your soup. • If you're a sky-watcher, you may already know that the center star of the constellation Orion's sword isn't actually a star; it's a nebula -- the only one visible from Earth with the naked eye. In fact, the Orion Nebula is so large that if the distance between the Earth and the sun were 1 inch, the relative size of the nebula would be 12 miles. • If you were to create a rope out of one full head of human hair, that rope would be able to support 12 tons. • It's a well-worn trope that men refuse to stop and ask for directions when they're lost. That point of view might seem to be supported by the results of a survey conducted by the American Automobile Association, which found that 34 percent of male drivers admit to stopping to ask for directions. However, the same survey found that only 37 percent of women did the same. • By the time he was 5 years old, 19th-century French composer Camille Saint-Saens was already composing waltzes. *** Thought for the Day: "Wise sayings often fall on barren ground, but a kind word is never thrown away." -- Arthur Helps
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• After mixing in carbons and hydrogens extracted from coal tar, the result was a black sludge. Perkin threw it away, then washed his flasks out with water and alcohol but was interested to see that the sludge residue turned the water and alcohol purple. • Experimenting further, Perkin extracted the substance that caused the color, and sent samples to a friend in the dye business. The purple substance was effective at dying cotton and silk. • At the time, purple dye was obtained from mollusks and it took 12,000 mollusks to produce enough dye for a single dress, and it was not color-fast. Only royalty could afford purple clothing. Perkin’s dye was permanent, cheap, and easy. • William, who was only 17 when he made his discovery, subsequently decided to go into the dye business. In 1856, the Patent Office granted Perkin a patent for ‘a new colouring matter for dyeing.’
• William’s father invested his savings in order to build a factory, and the business was wildly successful. He continued his research, finding how to prevent cloth from being dyed unevenly by using a soap bath to ensure even application of the color. He found methods of creating light and dark shades of mauve. He figured out how to dye cloth in calico patterns. • His contribution to dye chemistry happened just as the Industrial Revolution was taking place. Cotton fabric could be manufactured and dyed very cheaply, making it possible for common people to buy better and more colorful clothing. • William became rich in short order, selling his factory and retiring from the business at the age of 36 to pursue other interests. • His discovery revolutionized the dye industry and sparked the birth of the synthetic chemical industry. Coal tar had previously been thought of as a useless by-product of the gas industry, whose only known use was for water-proofing boots. Perkin’s discovery laid the foundations for an industry that found uses for coal tar ranging from pharmaceuticals to perfumes to Saccharine. As a result of Perkin’s discovery, over 700 new compounds were found.
• After hearing a lecture on the difficulties of extracting quinine, Perkin decided to try to synthesize quinine. He started with aniline, made from distilling the indigo plant, because he thought the chemical structure was similar enough to quinine that he could alter it.
• William didn’t know anything about textiles or the large scale production of chemicals. However, 1857 the Empress Eugénie, wife of Napoleon III, began to wear mauve-colored gowns. In 1858, Queen Victoria wore mauve to her daughter’s wedding. Suddenly mauve was in demand. Since he was the only person who knew how to produce the dye, his success was assured.
• In the mid-1800s malaria caused many deaths. The only remedy was quinine, painstakingly derived from the bark of the cinchona tree.
• The dye was a hit in France, where they named it ‘malva’ for the mallow flower, which is the same color as the dye. Chemists later altered this French name slightly, giving the dye its common name: Mauve.
• Born in England in 1838, William Perkin was supposed to grow up to be an architect, which is what his father wanted. However, a youthful chemistry experiment with soda and alum caused William to become far more interested in chemistry than architecture. As a result, he attended the City of London School, one of the first schools to teach chemistry as a standard subject. William excelled.
• On Nov. 22, 1718, Edward Teach, also known as Blackbeard, is killed off North Carolina's Outer Banks during a battle with a British navy force. Believed to be a native of England, Teach likely began his pirating career in 1713 on the Queen Anne's Revenge. • On Nov. 20, 1923, the U.S. Patent Office grants Patent No. 1,475,074 to inventor and newspaperman Garrett Morgan for his three-position traffic signal. By having a third position besides just "Stop" and "Go," it better regulated crossing vehicles. • On Nov. 21, 1916, the Britannic, sister ship to the Titanic, sinks in the Aegean Sea, killing 30 people. In the wake of the Titanic disaster in 1912, the White Star Line made modifications in the construction of the Britannic, but an explosion caused catastrophic damage. • On Nov. 19, 1969, Brazilian soccer great Pele scores his 1,000th professional goal in a game in Rio de Janeiro. It was a major milestone in a legendary career that included three World Cup championships.
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• On Nov. 18, 1978, Peoples Temple founder Jim Jones leads hundreds of his followers in a mass murder-suicide at their commune in a remote part of Guyana. Many of Jones' followers willingly ingested a poison-laced punch, while others were forced to do so at gunpoint. The final death toll at Jonestown that day was 909; a third of those were children.
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• On Nov. 16, 1988, in Pakistan, citizens vote in their first open election in more than a decade, choosing as prime minister the populist candidate Benazir Bhutto, daughter of former Pakistani leader Zulfikar Ali Bhutto. She was the first woman leader of a Muslim country in modern history. • On Nov. 17, 1998, DaimlerChrysler begins trading its shares on the New York Stock Exchange. The company had formed five days earlier, when the American Chrysler Corporation merged with the German conglomerate Daimler-Benz AG. © 2015 King Features Synd., Inc.
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(Answers located 2 pages after this one)
• You can cut the bitterness in some varieties of greens by soaking them in ice water for roughly an hour before serving. Use a salad spinner to get all of the water off. • To freshen carpets, there’s no need to purchase expensive or heavily perfumed carpet deodorizers — baking soda can do the job. Sprinkle carpets liberally, let set for 30 minutes to an hour, and then vacuum thoroughly. • “If you host a large family holiday gathering and serve a lot of side dishes, try this trick to them hot while waiting for other items to finish in the oven. Simply cover the bottom of a clean ice chest with a few trivets or a couple kitchen towels, and set casseroles and oven-cooked meats inside. Most people use a cooler to keep things cold, but the insulation works just as well to keep hot things hot ... at least for a little while.” — M.E. in West Virginia • Recipe substitution: If you need 1 teaspoon of pumpkin pie spice, use 1/2 teaspoon cinnamon, 1/4 teaspoon ginger, 1/8 teaspoon nutmeg and 1/8 teaspoon ground cloves. • Blood pressure can be affected by many things, and seeing the doctor is one of them. Instead, request that your blood pressure be taken by a nurse or physician’s assistant. Having a full bladder also can make your pressure reading higher, as can positioning your arm below heart level. • Remove the annoying sticky residue from price tags with WD-40 or baby oil. This is for use on hard surfaces only. If you are unsure, test in an inconspicuous spot first to make sure the oil doesn’t leave a stain where the tag was. Send your tips to Now Here’s a Tip, 628 Virginia Drive, Orlando, FL 32803. © 2015 King Features Synd., Inc.
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(Solution on Next Page)
• In 1920, so the story goes, an Italian man named de Lelio was concerned because his pregnant wife had lost her appetite. He owned a restaurant in Rome, so he concocted a dish of egg noodles covered with a rich delicious sauce to tempt his wife’s appetite. History does not record whether or not she liked it, but the patrons of his restaurant did. He called the dish after himself and began to serve it regularly. • Movie stars Douglas Fairbanks and Mary Pickford were on their honeymoon in Rome and stopped in his restaurant for dinner nearly every night. They enjoyed his noodle dish so much that they presented him with a gold-plated fork and spoon with which to stir his famous sauce. • Within a year the recipe was featured in a cookbook produced by the famous Rector’s Restaurant in New York, which helped popularize the dish in America. Hollywood movie stars continued to eat at di Lelio restaurant in Rome, and they insisted that their favorite chefs back home try their hand at the recipe as well. • Today the noodle dish, with a sauce made from butter, cream and Parmesan cheese, is popular across the U.S. The restaurant started by di Lelio is still in business. What was his first name, now attached to his famous pasta recipe? (Answer at top of next page.)
QUIZ: LUIZA’S PASTA
• Luiza was born in Italy in 1871 and began singing at the age of three. She made her debut in opera in 1890 when the scheduled soprano failed to show up for a performance and Luiza stepped in, garnering immediate acclaim. She had a remarkable voice and toured the world. In 1905 she made her American debut in San Francisco, which became her favorite U.S. city.
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LUIZA’S PASTA (continued)
• As she grew older and stouter, Luiza’s voice declined somewhat. One of her husbands stole Answer: Dell. her fortune and she died in 1940 after suffering NUMBER years of AillVERY healthLARGE and poverty. She is remem•bered Edward Kasner was a mathematician. In 1938 today, not so much for her astonishing he was asked to come up with a name for ais voice, as for one of her favorite dishes that very large number: the numeral one, followed thought to have been named after her by a chef by a hundred zeros. He asked his two young atnephews the San Francisco stayed. The what namehotel they where wouldshe suggest. dish consists of bits of turkey or chicken, swim•ming Nine-year-old Milton suggested a name in a sauce of cream and wine, served over out of the funnies. A cartoon strip character noodles. Name it. (Answer at bottom of page) named Barney was very popular. Milton chose
Barney’s HECTOR’S last name for thePASTA number. • Hector in restaurant kitchens his • Kasnerworked announced the new name for near the big home in Italy from the age of 11. His family number in his next book, altering the spelling. came the U.S. 1915Page whenand heSergey was 17,Brin and • Sixtytoyears later,inLarry he soon got a job as a chef in the kitchens of the developed a new internet search engine. Other prestigious Plazasearched Hotel in New City. and search engines each York webpage ranked them according to how many times ain • In 1926 he opened his own Italian restaurant specific term appeared on them, but Page and Cleveland. His their spaghetti was popular Brin designed searchsauce engine to so search for that diners often asked him for some to take the specific term and then find out how many home As demand his sauces links with there them. were that led back for to that page, continued to grow, he opened a spaghetti which resulted in a better search engine. sauce to thethey restaurant. so •factory They next decided needed Business a namewas that brisk that in 1929, he started a company selling reflected how many websites the search bottled sauce. They took the name engine spaghetti was searching. of Edward Kasner’s very large number, only • He wanted to name the company after himself, they misspelled it slightly, so it ended up being but his Italian surname had a difficult spelling. spelled exactly the same way the cartoon So he Americanized it. The label included character Barney spelled his last name. What’sa depiction of him, wearing his white chef’s hat. it called? (Answer at bottom of page) Chef Hector experimented with canning spaCOMPUTER FACTS ghetti, and when that turned out well, he added •not In only 1981canned Bill Gates said,but “640 of memory spaghetti alsokbcanned ravioli ought to be enough for anybody.” to his product line. During World War II, the firm •supplied Moore’sAmerican Law statestroops that computer performance with rations of canned doubles every 18 to 24 months, and since pasta. By the time Chef Hector died inever 1985, his 1971, this has been true. Americanized name was known throughout the •world: HP, Google, Microsoft, Apple were all Hector Boiardi, nowand Boyardee. started in garages. Answer: Turkey Tetrazzini, named for Luiza TetAnswer: Google, from googol. razzini.
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Answer: Alfredo, who named Fettuccine Alfredo.
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