Little Paper Ever Read®
S PUZZLE • A I • TRIV N FACTS • FU October 1, 2015
Of Grand Forks • East Grand Forks Published by: Wick Publications 701-772-8239 TIDBITS® USES
Issue # 937
by Janet Spencer
In honor of "No Salt Week" come along with Tidbits as we appreciate salt!
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• No animal can survive without salt. Salt is a Retirement. Sharon Opdahl, Agent mineral, not a spice. It's made of 40% sodiHow17th do Ave. you S. • Suite F 2534 get there? Grand Forks, ND 58201 um, which is a metal with a positive charge, 701-746-0495 sharonopdahl.com and 60% chlorine, which is a poisonous gas with a negative charge. Put them together and you have sodium chloride, a mineral the body is unable to manufacture on its own. Without salt, muscles won't contract, blood won't circulate, food won't digest, wounds won't heal, nerve impulses won't get through, and the heart won't beat. Salt regulates fluids, controls blood pressure, and helps the Carpet Cleaning liver clear waste products. Salt is not just a Services, Inc. seasoning; it's a necessity. Carpet Cleaning • Carpet • The amount of salt needed varies according Cleaning SPECIAL! to a person's size, age, metabolism, and exerUpholstery $149 •Cleaning tion level. The average human body contains 5 Rooms, Hallway about four ounces of salt. A typical human & 1 Stairway • Water Not valid with any other offer. needs to ingest about 0.1 ounce per day to Extraction Expires 10-30-15 maintain the proper level. The typical American eats about 0.35 ounces of salt per day, and the excess is excreted by the kidneys. The concentration of salt in the blood generally 701-775-8500 Residential & Commercial doesn't vary beyond one percent. One-third Did You Know Vacuums of the sodium we ingest comes from the salt Require Regular Maintenance? shaker. The rest is already in our food.
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5. Every year, Americans consume 6.4 million tons of salt, but how much pepper? 6. What percent of salt is used to melt snow? 7. 4% of the salt supply goes into human food. What percent is fed to livestock? 8. What two songs by the hip hop trio Salt-N-Pepa reached the Top 10 on the Billboard Charts?
1. Does salt dissolve faster in hot water or cold water? 2. What percent of chefs measure the amount of salt they use? 3. What country produces more salt than any other? 4. Salt has over 14,000 different uses in industry. Only one chemical has more uses than that. Name it.
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SALT FACTS (continued):
• Although it is true that people who already have high blood pressure can lower it by limiting their salt intake, the fact is that people who have normal blood pressure are not much affected by salt. Salt, however, can be a deadly poison if too much is taken all at once. A mere 2.3 ounces will make a person seriously sick. About 6.6 ounces will kill an adult human. Salt saturation used to be an acceptable method of suicide in Japan. • In an experiment, people were given massive doses of salt, not only in their food but also intravenously. The effects of too much salt were swollen feet, weight gain, an enlarged heart, and high blood pressure. Too little salt resulted in fatigue, confusion, muscle cramps, poor judgment, and an inability to correctly estimate passage of time. In another study, people with abnormally low sodium levels were shown to have a higher death rate than those with a normal level of salt in their bodies. • Pound for pound, babies have almost twothirds more sodium and twice as much chloride as adults. In 1980, a brand of soy-based baby formula jumped on the "low-salt" bandwagon and began offering a new low sodium formula. Within a few months, 34 cases of chloride deficiency in babies were reported. The babies were losing weight, sluggish, and stunted because they were not getting enough sodium chloride. They recovered after being switched to a different formula, and the baby food company put salt back in its recipes.
IT'S A FACT
• In Leonardo da Vinci's painting of the Last Supper, the salt container next to Judas is overturned, signifying bad luck. • Salt is colorless, like snow. It only appears to be white because it scatters light. ...continued
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• "Wich" was the word indicating a town where salt was produced such as Greenwich, Northwich, and even Sandwich, which was a place before it was a food. • The word "salt" probably comes from the name of the town Es-Salt, which was once a capital city close to the Dead Sea. It is also the origin of words like "salami" and "salad." The words "war" and "peace" originate from the ancient Arabic words for salt and bread, perhaps because the first wars were fought over these two commodities. • Much of human society has been built around salt, which has often served as the cornerstone of economy. The Roman government used to pay its soldiers in salt, and our word ‘salary’ comes from the Roman word for salt. Any worker who didn't work hard was "not worth his salt."
WHY IS THE SEA SALTY? • Seas are salty because water dissolves the natural salts in the soils and rocks it flows through on the way to the ocean. Over the eons as water has continually evaporated from the oceans, the salts have been left behind. The concentration builds up year after year. The oceans are 3.5 percent salt.
www.dakotacommercial.com/apts • The Dead Sea, which, at 1,300 feet below sea level is the lowest place on the planet, has plenty of fresh water coming in but not a single place where water can go out. Because the rate of evaporation is so high, all the incoming minerals are left behind. In some spots the Dead Sea is 23% salt which is too salty to support any kind of life. By comparison, the Great Salt Lake in Utah is about 20% salt-- so salty that it never completely freezes over. • About 97% of Earth's water is in the form of salty seawater. • When evaporated, 150 gallons of seawater will ...continued yield 35 lbs.of salt.
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MORE SALTY FACTS
• There is enough salt in the seas to cover all the continents to a depth of 500 feet. • The first patent ever issued in America was for a process to recover salt from sea water. • Where salt seas became land-locked and dried up, large strata of rock salt were left, which are good places for salt mines. One of the largest salt plants in the U.S. is located in Texas City, where there's a salt deposit that's 1.5 miles wide and over three miles thick. There's enough salt in this one location to supply the world's needs for some 20,000 years. • The Erie Canal was built with funds raised from a 12% tax placed on American salt and, once built, was used to carry heavy loads of salt from the factories in New York.
DON'T DRINK SEA WATER
• Your kidneys are responsible for making sure the ratio of salt to water in the bloodstream stays at the optimum level. If you drink salt water while stranded on a raft in the ocean, the level of salt in the bloodstream skyrockets. The kidneys now work overtime to add water to the blood in order to return things to normal. Sea water is three times saltier than urine, so for every cup of sea water that is drunk, the body has to make three cups of urine to flush the salt out of the body. This robs your body tissues of their natural supply of water, and you become dehydrated much faster than if you had not drunk the salt water.
• Some species of sea birds have a gland between their eyes that filters salt from seawater that the bird drinks and empties it out of the beak. Some birds, like the albatross, cannot drink fresh water or they suffer from salt deficiency as the salt continues to pour out of the gland. The camel is also adapted for drinking brackish salt water. Pure water may intoxicate the animal.
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• It was 20th-century American journalist and cartoonist Robert Quillen who made the following sage observation: "A happy marriage is the union of two good forgivers." • In a recent survey of parents with adult children, 45 percent of respondents said they would rather stay in a hotel than in the home of one of their kids. • In 2009, the government of Saudi Arabia established a special Anti-Witchcraft Unit to combat the practice of sorcery. By 2011, there were nine bureaus in cities across the country. The following year, 215 people were arrested for sorcery. • Those who study such things say that all kangaroos are left-handed. • When you think of hibernation, you probably picture a bear holing up in a cave for the winter, right? You might be surprised to learn that creatures don't just hibernate
to get through the winter months; almost any adverse environmental condition can trigger such a response. For instance, on the island of Madagascar, the fat-tailed dwarf lemur hibernates for seven months during the dry season. • If you're a fan of Major League Baseball, you're going to pay three times as much to attend a game in Boston as in San Diego. • Wildlife biologists say that the milk from a mother hippopotamus is pink. • The size of a nickel represents the halfway point between the size of an atom and the size of the earth. If an atom were the size of a nickel, a nickel would be the size of the earth. *** Thought for the Day: "I like the pluralism of modernity; it doesn't threaten my faith. And if one's faith is dependent on being reinforced in every aspect of other people's lives, then it is a rather insecure faith, don't you think?" -- Andrew Sullivan
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• Joy Morton was born in 1855 in Nebraska City, & Crookston locations of: Located on Nebraska. After falling ill with spinal meningitis publicati the racks nea on at the age of 18, he decided to get a job entailing r th Exit doors e ! hard physical labor in an outdoor setting in order to regain his strength. He subsequently went to work for the railroad, working throughout Illinois. He • As a result, between 1924 and 1928, the goiters of eventually found a job working for E.I. Wheeler's Michigan - and everywhere else - virtually disapsalt manufacturing company in Chicago. peared. Today, over half of all table salt sold is iodized. Sea salt has no iodine added because it con• He became a partner in the business in 1886 when tains iodine naturally. he invested $10,000 in order to move salt westward
by hauling it on barges across the Great Lakes. • The other innovation Morton invented was to add an anti-caking element to salt. In the 1800s, ground-up When Wheeler died, Morton bought the company. salt tended to form clumps in humid weather. Many When his brother and son joined the company, it salt shakers were made that tried to combat this using was renamed Morton Salt Company. It was the various means. Some had agitators inside to break only salt company in the nation at the time and it is up lumps; some had special pockets for moisture-abstill remains the #1 salt producer in North America. sorbing solutions. Morton began adding magnesium • Morton was responsible for two innovations in salt. carbonate to salt which prevented it from clumping Iodine is essential for the thyroid gland to work up even in the rainiest environments. This inspired properly. Without iodine, the thyroid swells, sometheir slogan (swiped from the Bible, and suggested times enormously, and forms a goiter. People sufby Morton's son) "When it rains, it pours" and the fafering from iodine deficiency suffer from tremors, mous logo of the little girl with the big umbrella. In a fatigue, nausea, and anemia. Iodine is usually prespoll, 90% of housewives recognized the slogan. Afent in the soil and the water. But in places where ter the clumping problem was solved, the salt shaker it's not, goiters became common. In 1924, almost became standard issue. 66% of school children in the Lake Superior school districts had goiters. Meantime, goiters were almost • In 1903, the Morton warehouse in South Chicago contained over 200,000 tons of salt - the world's unheard of along the Mississippi River, where the largest stock under a single roof. No one knows what water has up to 18,000 times as much natural iodine started the fire, but the entire compound was in ruins as Lake Superior. After being approached by health by the time it was out. Where once there were piles officials, Morton became the first company to add of pure white salt, now there were piles of blackiodine to its salt in minuscule amounts. Health auened salt, covered with ashes and carbon. Joy Morthorities correctly surmised that salt was the single ton was undaunted. Charcoal makes a good additive most universally consumed food item, and it’s easy in stock food, and soon farmers were buying up the to add iodine to salt. One-fifth of a pound of iodine new product: Morton's special "charcoal blend." The is enough to treat an entire ton of salt. entire stock of salt was sold.
• In the 1930s the Morton Co. expanded into other chemical products, and in 1982 merged with the Thiokol Corp. to form Morton-Thiokol. Morton now sells around 400 different kinds of salt-based products.
• On Oct. 5, 1892, the Dalton gang attempts to rob two banks simultaneously in Coffeyville, Kansas, but meets resistance from townspeople, who kill four of the five bandits. The gang had turned to crime when they became bored with their other career possibilities on the Western frontier. • On Oct. 11, 1925, novelist Elmore Leonard is born in New Orleans. He decided to write either Westerns or detective novels, whichever would generate the most income. By the time of his death in 2013, he'd penned 45 books. • On Oct. 9, 1934, the St. Louis Cardinals defeat the Detroit Tigers in the World Series. The Cards nickname, the "Gashouse Gang," had to do with the team's close resemblance to the rowdy, dirt-streaked thugs who hung around the Gashouse District on Manhattan's East Side. • On Oct. 10, 1957, President Dwight D. Eisenhower offers his apologies to the Ghanian finance minister, who had been refused service at a restaurant in Delaware. It was one of the first of many such incidents in which African diplomats experienced racial segregation in the United States. • On Oct. 6, 1961, President John F. Kennedy advises American families to build bomb shelters to protect them from atomic fallout in the event of a nuclear exchange with the Soviet Union. • On Oct. 8, 1970, Russian writer Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn wins the Nobel Prize for literature. Arrested in 1945 for criticizing the Stalin regime, he served time in Russian prisons, forced labor camps and internal exile. His works had to be secreted out of Russia in order to be published. • On Oct. 7, 1983, Sean Connery stars in "Never Say Never Again" as the British secret service agent James Bond, a role he last played in 1971. The film's title referenced the fact that Connery had previously said he would never play Agent 007 again. © 2015 King Features Synd., Inc.
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• “We are moving out of our apartment, as we finally found a home to purchase. With all the new projects, we’re going to need our deposit back, so we want to leave the old place in tip-top shape. Here’s a trick we learned: Tiny nail holes in drywall are instantly patched by rubbing a bar of soap across the surface.” — S.G. in Arkansas • Now is the time to have your heating systems checked if you have not done so already. And before you start a fire in your fireplace, make sure you have your fireplace inspected for cracks in the mortar joints. Very small cracks can start a fire in your home, as the flames can be sucked through the gaps. While you’re at it, spring to have any creosote buildup cleaned out. Be safe AND warm this season! • “Before I pluck my eyebrows, I rub on a bit of my granddaughter’s teething gel. She’s done teething and doesn’t need it anymore, but it works well for me. Be very careful when applying, though; let dry and wash your hands before touching your eye any further!” — M.L. in California • Most cake recipes ask you to grease and dust the cake pan to make removal easier. To avoid unsightly flour marks on the outside of the cake, just dust the pan with a bit of the cake mix instead of using flour.” — J.P. in Pennsylvania • “For troublesome-to-open jars — pickles and such — use a pair of standard dishwashing gloves. It’s a great gripper, especially if your hands are the least bit moist.” — D.L. in Indiana • “Wear oven mitts to protect your hands when clipping roses or other thorny plants.” — O.L. in Louisiana Send your tips to Now Here’s a Tip, 628 Virginia Drive, Orlando, FL 32803. © 2015 King Features Synd., Inc.
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QUICK QUIZ: SAUCE #1
• Off the coast of Louisiana there’s a place called Avery Island. A family named McIlhenny owned the island and ran the nation’s first successful salt mine there. • In 1862, in the midst of the Civil War, Union troops invaded the area. They needed salt to preserve their meat, so they took over the island. Mr. McIlhenny and his family fled to Texas. • When they returned after the war, they found the salt factory and the plantation ruined. All that was left was a crop of hot peppers, which the soldiers had no taste for. The peppers were particularly hot because the soil was so salty. McIlhenny was determined to make a profit from the peppers so he began experimenting. He devised a new sauce using his peppers combined with the island’s salt, along with vinegar and spices. He named it after a river in Mexico simply because he liked the word. • After pouring it into empty cologne bottles, he sent samples to wholesalers. The typical cuisine of the Southern U.S. tended to be bland, but people found that just a few drops of McIlhenny’s sauce spiced things up. In 1868 he sold 350 bottles of the sauce. In 1870 he sold over 1,000. Two years later demand was so great he had to open a London branch. • Today McIhenny’s factories on Avery Island produce 200,000 to 300,000 bottles of this sauce each day, and it’s sold worldwide. What sauce is it? (Answer at top of the next page)
QUICK QUIZ: SAUCE #2
Chemist #1: Know any good jokes about sodium?" Chemist #2: "Na." ----------------------------------------------------Two peanuts were walking down the road. One was a salted.
(Solution on Next Page)
• According to the legend, Lord Sandys of England spent several years living in India. Around 1835 he returned home to England, bringing with him the recipe for a sauce that he liked which was popular in India. He gave the recipe to two druggists named John Lea and William Perrins. ...continued
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DIFFERENCES: 1. Towel is missing. 2. Pocket is missing. 3. Arm is moved. 4. Airplane is missing. 5. Sand trap is smaller. 6. Club head is different. © 2015 King Features Synd., All rights reserved.
SAUCE #2 (continued):
• John Lea and William Perrins were so impressed by Sandys’ ravings about how good it Answer: Dell. was going to taste that they mixed up a few A VERY LARGE NUMBER barrels of it, hoping to make a big profit by • selling Edwardthe Kasner was a mathematician. In 1938 excess to their customers. But when he was asked to come up with a name a they tasted it, they found it so awful thatforthey very large number: the numeral one, followed stored the barrels in the basement and forgot by a hundred about them. zeros. He asked his two young nephews what name they would suggest. • A few years later, the barrels were re-discov• Nine-year-old Milton suggested a name ered while the basement was being cleaned out of the funnies. A cartoon strip character out. Before throwing it out, they tasted again. named Barney was very popular. Miltonitchose After aging for two years, the sauce had ferBarney’s last name for the number. mented, developing a new flavor that was an • Kasner announced the new name for the big instant They into business, releasing numberhit. in his nextwent book, altering the spelling. the new product in 1838. • Sixty years later, Larry Page and Sergey Brin • When salesmen by Lea and Perrins developed a newemployed internet search engine. Other convinced British passenger ships to put and botsearch engines searched each webpage tles of the sauce on their to dining ranked them according how room manytables, times its a popularity spread worldwide. specific term appeared on them, but Page and Brin designed their search anchovies, engine to search for • Today the recipe includes soybeans, the specific termshallots, and thenand findmolasses, out how many vinegar, garlic, which links there were that led back to that page, are blended and then aged two years. The sauce which resulted in a better search engine. was named after the town where the druggists • lived, They and decided theyof the needed a most namepopular that is still one world’s reflected how many websites the search sauces, used in everything from meats to mixed engine What was is searching. They took the name drinks. it? (Answer at bottom of page) of Edward Kasner’s very large number, only TABASCO they misspelled it slightly,FACTS so it ended up being spelled exactly thestored sameinway thedark cartoon • Tabasco should be a cool place character Barney his last name. What’s but does not needspelled to be refrigerated. it called?sauce (Answer at bottom page)over time, • Tabasco may change ofcolor COMPUTER FACTS growing darker with exposure to heat and light, • but In 1981 Bill Gates said, that doesn't affect the “640 taste. kb of memory ought to has be enough • Tabasco a shelf for lifeanybody.” of about five years. Moore’s Law states that computer performance • • A teaspoon full of Tabasco has zero calories. doubles every 18 to 24 months, and ever since • A maximum about 1971, this hasof been true.700,000 bottles of Tabasco can be turned out every single day. • HP, Google, Microsoft, and Apple were all Answer: & Perrins created Worcestershire started inLea garages. Sauce, often called Worcester Sauce. (The town Answer: Google, from googol. was Worcester and ‘shire’ means ‘county.’)
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