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August 28, 2014
Of Grand Forks • East Grand Forks Published by: Wick Publications
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On August 27, 1859, the first productive oil well was drilled in Titusville, PA. Come along with Tidbits as we take a look at petroleum! RECIPE: • Take a warm planet and cover liberally with green plants, especially large tropical ferns. Allow plants to decay, and cover planet with alternate layers of rotted plants and sediment. Wait 500 million years, or until sediments harden. Depending on heat and temperature, the result will be pockets of coal, oil, or natural gas. Drill, refine, and serve. • "Petro" is Greek for stone and "oleum" is Latin for oil. Petroleum is crude oil. Crude oil is not really flammable. It’s composed of thousands of compounds, and the refinement process results in different products. First the oil is pumped into a “fractionating” column and heated. Certain components of the oil have low boiling points and are very light, so they vaporize and rise to the top where they are collected. These include propane and butane. The “middle distillates” are heavier and rise only half way up the column: gasoline, kerosene, and fuel oil. Heavy residues stay on the bottom, such as asphalt and wax. If these products are distilled again— some under pressure, some in a vacuum— they can be broken down into even more things. WANT TO RUN YOUR OWN BUSINESS? Publish a
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5. What percentage of crude oil is composed of gasoline? 6. How many countries consume What state produces more oil than more oil than the United States? any other state? Which state is 2nd? 7. How many gallons are in a barrel How many U.S. states produce at of oil? least some oil—11, 21, 31 or 41? 8. Name the TV sitcom that had How many gallons of water does these words in it’s theme song: it take to make a gallon of gas “...then one day he was shootin’ from crude oil? at some food, and up through the ground came a bubblin’ crude.” Of the 90 million barrels of oil used worldwide daily, how many TRIVIA are used in the United States?
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BLACK GOLD IN CANADA • The first commercial oil well in Canada became operational in 1858 at Oil Springs, Ontario. James Miller Williams dug several wells between 1855 and 1858 before discovering a rich reserve of oil four meters below ground. He extracted 1.5 million liters of crude oil by 1860, refining much of it into kerosene lamp oil. Because William's oil well became commercially viable a year before the oil well in Titusville, Pennsylvania did, it can be considered to be the first commercial oil well in North America. Today Canada is the sixth largest oil producing country in the world. INDISPENSIBLE • You’d be surprised at how hard it is to get away from petroleum products. Your bed sheets, pajamas, and shirt may be 50% polyester, made from natural gas. Your alarm clock has a styrene case, an ethylene derivative. Soap is made from the fatty acid in paraffin, and shampoo contains propylene glycol. You have a plastic toothbrush. There are petro-products in shaving cream. Rubbing alcohol is a derivative. The morning paper was pulped using petro-detergents and printed with carbon-black, which comes from crude oil. Consider your plastic glasses, buttons on your shirt, synthetic rubber soles, and the pen in your pocket. Your vinyl kitchen floor and floor wax and ammonia. The wax on your milk carton and the plastic coffeemaker and the cellophane over your donuts. The asphalt you drive on and the antifreeze in your engine. The nylon ribbon in your typewriter. The list is practically endless: plastics, synthetic fibers, adhesives, surface coatings, drugs, pesticides, fertilizers. • There are more than 3,000 compounds that originate with crude oil. Still, only 5% of world oil consumption is used for petrochemical products. The rest is burned as fuel.
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3. Name the 3 players from the 2014 U.S. men’s World Cup soccer team who have appeared in over 100 international matches. 4. Name the last team before the 2013 Chicago Cubs to be shut
1. Before 2013, when was the last time that the first two overall picks in the NFL Draft were offensive linemen—1968, 1978, 1988 or out 5 times in seven home games. 1998? 5. Entering 2014, the U.S. 2. How long was the Michigan (33) and Taiwan (17) have State men’s basketball team won the most titles in Little absent from the NCAA TourLeague World Series history. nament before Magic Johnson Which country is third? helped the Spartans there in 6. Which NFL team has the 1978—13, 15, 17 or 19 seasons? most Super Bowl losses?
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OCTANE, KNOCKING, & DIESEL • Crude oil is composed of nothing but hydrogen and carbon atoms, linked together in chains of various lengths. When you separate the petroleum into its different "chains," you get different substances. As the chains get longer, they get heavier and they have different properties. Methane (with one carbon atom), ethane (two carbon atoms), propane (three), and butane (four) are the four lightest chains, which are all gasses with low boiling points. Octane is called octane because it has eight carbon atoms. • In a gasoline engine, gas and air are mixed together to create a vapor that is compressed by a piston, which is then ignited by a spark plug. The amount of compression is called the compression ratio of the engine. • Octane handles compression very well- you can compress it a lot and nothing happens. When gas ignites by compression rather than because of the spark from the spark plug, it causes knocking in the engine which causes damage. The octane rating of gasoline tells you how much the fuel can be compressed before it spontaneously ignites. Lower-octane gas (like "regular" 87-octane gasoline) can handle the least amount of compression before igniting. 87 octane gasoline contains 87% octane and 13% other fuel.
• The compression ratio of an engine determines the octane rating of the gas that must be used in the car. One way to increase the horsepower of an engine is to increase its compression ratio. So a "high-performance engine" has a higher compression ratio and requires higher-octane fuel. • Charles Kettering was trying to eliminate the “knock” in the engine when he found that adding lead to gasoline increased the octane level, which boosted fuel economy and eliminated knocking. Lead was added to gasoline until the 1970s when it was found to be highly toxic to humans.
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Mosquito Surveillance - Why Trap Mosquitoes? WEST NILE HAS BEEN IDENTIFIED IN LOCAL MOSQUITOES. PLEASE TAKE PRECAUTIONS TO AVOID BITES. The Grand Forks Health Department maintains an active mosquito surveillance program. The more we know about mosquitoes, the better equipped we are to control them. Our surveillance program is responsible for collecting, identifying, and conducting West Nile virus tests on mosquitoes. Traps are distributed throughout the community and the Information gained from these traps include: Mosquito Population – Knowing the population helps us determine if it’s necessary to conduct citywide mosquito spraying. This information also enables us to measure the effectiveness of the mosquito spraying operations.
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Species of Mosquitoes – There’s around 43 different species of mosquitoes in North Dakota. Some of these mosquitoes are just annoying pests, but one of them, the Culex tarsalis, is the most common mosquito for transmitting West Nile virus in North Dakota. This mosquito is prevalent in the Grand Forks region. Monitoring and testing the Culex tarsalis mosquito is important because it may enable us to respond to an elevated threat of West Nile virus before it infects the human population. This component of mosquito control is very important in reducing the risk of mosquito-borne disease in our community. Mosquito Activity – Knowing what times the mosquitoes are active is important for getting the best results from our spray operation. We use ultra-low volume sprayers that deliver very small droplets and only 1 ounce of a diluted, non-residual insecticide per acre. Because we’re using such a small amount of insecticide, timing is critical to be successful. This insecticide must directly impact mosquitoes, generally while in flight to be effective. Rotator traps are used to monitor the times the mosquitoes are most active. Gender Identification – Knowing the sex of the mosquito can be helpful in predicting a new hatch. Male mosquitoes hatch out before females. Therefore, if we see a spike in the number of male mosquitoes collected in our traps, we know there’s the potential for an increase of females soon to follow. That data is helpful in preparing us for a citywide spray. It’s a short warning to get ready. Traps used in mosquito surveillance programs are not successful in reducing mosquito populations. They are simply a surveillance tool used to collect data about the mosquitoes in our community. For information about West Nile Virus and the Grand Forks mosquito control program visit our website at www.gfmosquito.com or call the Information Line at 701-787-8144
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MOMENTS IN TIME • On Sept. 2, 31 B.C., at the Battle of Actium, Roman leader Octavian wins a decisive victory against the forces of Mark Antony and Cleopatra, queen of Egypt. Antony and Cleopatra broke though the enemy lines and fled to Egypt, where they would commit suicide the following year. • On Sept. 3, 1777, the American flag was flown in battle for the first time during a Revolutionary War skirmish at Cooch's Bridge, Delaware. Patriot Gen. William Maxwell ordered the "Stars and Stripes" banner raised as a detachment of his infantry and cavalry met an advance guard of British and Hessian troops. • On Sept. 1, 1807, former U.S. vice president Aaron Burr is acquitted of plotting to annex parts of Louisiana and Spanish territory in Mexico to be used toward the establishment of an independent republic. Nevertheless, public opinion condemned him as a traitor, and he fled to Europe. • On Sept. 7, 1896, an electric car built by the Riker Electric Motor Company wins the first auto race in the United States, at the Narragansett Trotting Park in
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Rhode Island. The Riker won the race easily, finishing its five laps in about 15 minutes. The other electric car came in second, and a gas-powered Duryea took third. • On Sept. 4, 1951, President Harry S. Truman's opening speech before a conference in San Francisco is broadcast across the nation, marking the first time a television program was broadcast from coast to coast. The speech was picked up by 87 stations in 47 cities. • On Sept. 5, 1975, in Sacramento, California, an assassination attempt against President Gerald Ford is foiled when a Secret Service agent wrests a .45-caliber pistol from Lynette "Squeaky" Fromme, a follower of incarcerated cult leader Charles Manson. • On Sept. 6, 1995, Baltimore Orioles shortstop Cal Ripken Jr. plays in his 2,131st consecutive game, breaking Lou Gehrig's record for most consecutive games played. Ripken went on to play 2,632 games in a row before ending the streak by voluntarily removing himself from a game in 1998.
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Of Grand Forks • East Grand Forks
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DIESEL FACTS • In a diesel engine, only air is compressed by the piston. The more that air is compressed, the hotter it becomes. Diesel fuel is injected at just the right moment of compression and combusts from the heat of the air alone– no spark plug required. Diesel fuel is heavier, denser, and less flammable than gasoline. In order to detonate it, it has to be compressed in a cylinder to a very high pressure and temperature, at which point it detonates without a spark. Because diesel is denser, it has more energy per gallon. Dieselpowered vehicles get more miles per gallon. However, diesel fuel requires a very high compression engine, which is more expensive to build. And because it relies on temperature to detonate, diesel engines traditionally have more trouble starting in cold temperatures. Diesel fuel emits far less carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, and other emissions that contribute to global warming. CRANKCASE OIL • In motor oils, what does the “W” stand for, such as in 10W-30? It stands for winter. The two numbers, 10 and 30, denote the viscosity of the oil, or its ability to flow. The 10 before the W designates the viscosity in the winter, while the 30 indicates the oil’s ability to flow at normal temperatures. The lower the number in front of the W, the greater the oil’s ability to flow at low temperatures. In SAE 10W 30, the SAE stands for Society of Automotive Engineers. FACT • About 40% of the oil we consume comes from U.S. production. In 2013, the U.S. was the third largest oil-producing nation in the world, behind only Saudi Arabia and Russia. Our largest foreign oil supplier is Canada, followed by Mexico, Venezuela, Saudi Arabia, and Nigeria.
PRESIDENTIAL QUOTES: “No government ever voluntarily reduces itself in size. Government programs, once launched, never disappear. Actually, a government bureau is the nearest thing to eternal life we’ll ever see on this Earth!” ~ Ronald Reagan
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• Abraham Gesner was born in Cornwallis, Nova Scotia, in 1797. When his first career as a seaman ended up with him being shipwrecked twice, he decided to pursue a career as a doctor instead. He was studying medicine in London when he also became interested in geology after becoming friends with Britain's premier geologist Charles Lyell. • He returned to Canada and set up his practice as a physician, settling in Parrsboro because it's an area rich in geological features. He constantly collected rock specimens and drew maps as he traveled. As his interest in geology grew, his interest in doctoring faded. • In 1836, he published a book about the geology of Nova Scotia. This led officials in New Brunswick to hire him to survey the area for coal deposits, and that job inspired him to conduct scientific experiments with coal. He discovered that when coal was placed in a beaker and heated, the resulting liquid was flammable, burning with a bright clear light. In that day and age, whale oil was the most common source of lighting. Whale oil smelled bad when burned, and you had to kill a whale to get it. Gesner's new coal oil was superior. • Gesner named the new substance kerosene, from the Greek word 'keros' meaning wax. In August of 1846 he gave the first public demonstration of the preparation and use of the new lamp fuel. His audience was unaware that they were witnessing the birth of the petroleum refining industry. • In 1850, Gesner created the Kerosene Gaslight Company and began installing lighting in the streets of Halifax and other cities. By 1854, he had patented the process and expanded to the United States where he created the North American Kerosene Gas Light Company in Long Island, New York.
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• By 1857, kerosene was being advertised throughout the United States and the British provinces and Gesner's company prospered, allowing him a comfortable life in Brooklyn. Demand grew to where his company was barely able to keep up. Just then, the discovery of petroleum, from which kerosene could be more easily produced, solved the supply problem. • By 1859, commercial production of petroleum had begun in northwestern Pennsylvania and southern Ontario. Kerosene can be distilled from petroleum far more easily than from coal, so Gesner's company was able to produce the product at about onequarter of its former cost. • In 1861 he wrote his second book, "A Practical Treatise on Coal, Petroleum and Other Distilled Oils," which became a standard reference. Eventually, Gesner's company was absorbed into Standard Oil. • Gesner returned to Halifax, where he was appointed a Professor of Natural History at Dalhousie University. His collection of specimens comprise the second oldest geological survey collection in the British Empire. His private museum formed the basis of the prestigious New Brunswick Museum. His other inventions include one of the first effective wood preservatives, a process of asphalt paving for highways, briquettes made from compressed coal dust, and a machine for insulating electric wire. • Today kerosene is commonly used as a cooking and lighting fuel, and it's also used in jet engines. The Amish, who do not use electricity, depend on it for lighting. • Gesner died in Halifax in 1864, after seeing his invention cause a precipitous decline in the whaling industry. Imperial Oil provided a tribute at his grave in Halifax, for he did "give the world a better light."
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Medicare plans made simple. For more call Medica’s Center for Healthy at 1-800-906-5432. 8 a.m. For moreinformation, information, call Medica’s CenterAging for toll-free Healthy AgingSM toll-free atto 8 p.m CT, 7 days a week. TTY users, please call the National Relay Center at 1-800-855-2880. You must continue to 1-800-906-5432, a.m. toMedica 8 p.m. days users, pleasein call pay your Medicare Part B8premium. is aCT, Cost7plan withaa week. MedicareTTY contract. Enrollment Medica depends on contract renewal. Y0088_3450 CMS Accepted. You must continue to pay © 2013 Medica the National Relay Center at 1-800-855-2880. your Medicare Part B premium. Medica is a Cost plan with a Medicare contract. Enrollment in Medica depends on contract renewal. Y0088_3450 CMS Accepted © 2013 Medica.
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• The first U.S. oil well was drilled near Titusville, Pennsylvania, in 1859. At that time, a man named Robert Chesebrough was the owner of a kerosene business which had boomed after the invention of the kerosene lamp five years earlier. With the sudden oil boom, he traveled to Pennsylvania to get into the petroleum business. • While questioning the drill workers, he found that they were annoyed by problems with a waxy residue that stuck to their drilling rods, gumming them up. They scraped it off and threw it away. Chesebrough returned home to Brooklyn with some of it and spent months experimenting with it: extracting, purifying, and testing. Soon he had a colorless, odorless oily substance, in a day and age when the only oils available were animal and vegetable oils that spoiled easily and smelled terrible.
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(Answer at top of next page.) NIFTY NYLON • Nylon was patented in 1937. Nylon is made from coal, petroleum, natural gas, air, and water. It is an excellent material because it does not mildew, decay, or absorb moisture like other fabrics, and it is not harmed by oil and grease or household cleansers.
• It is a Moroccan man named Brahim Takioullah who has the dubious distinction of possessing the world's largest feet. They measure 15 inches from heel to toe. • A man is 10 times more likely to be color blind than a woman is. • You've probably heard the phrase "long in the tooth" to describe someone who's getting up there in years, but did you ever wonder where it originated? The term came from horse breeders. As equines age, their gums begin to recede; the teeth don't actually get longer, but they appear to. Therefore, a horse whose teeth look long must be getting old. • If you're like 20 million other Americans, you read your horoscope on a daily basis. * * * Thought for the Day: "The nice thing about egotists is that they don't talk about other people." -- Lucille S. Harper
• It was noted British wit Hector Hugh Monroe -- better known by his pen name, Saki -- who made the following sage observation: "A little inaccuracy sometimes saves a ton of explanation." • When Mozart was young, he traveled to Rome to hear Gregorio Allegri's "Miserere" performed by the papal choir. This piece was performed only once a year, and the pope had forbidden its performance anywhere else in the world. There was only one copy of the score, and it was kept in a vault in the Vatican. According to a papal decree, anyone who reproduced the work in any way would be excommunicated from the Catholic Church. After Mozart heard the performance -- only once -- he transcribed the entire piece. When the pope heard of this feat of memory and musical genius, rather than excommunicating the prodigy, he awarded Mozart the Cross of the Order of the Golden Spur. • The dog that played Toto in "The Wizard of Oz" was actually named Terry.
• He went on the road with this product, selling it for a penny an ounce. Doctors used it to hasten healing; housewives used it to remove stains from furniture; farm hands used it to revitalize dried leather goods; farmers used it to prevent rust on machinery; painters used it to prevent paint splatters from sticking to floors; and druggists used it as a base for creams and cosmetics. Soon Chesebrough had transformed a gummy waste product into a million-dollar industry, and the product is still found in every drugstore and supermarket today. Chesebrough named the product after the German word for ‘water’ and the Greek word for ‘oil’. What is the product called?
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DIFFERENCES: 1. Fence board is moved. 2. Number is different. 3. Arm is moved. 4. Word "coach" is missing. 5. Slab is shorter. 6. Head is turned. © 2014 King Features Synd., All rights reserved.
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WATER DISPLACING OIL DEERE. JOHN DEERE. (continued): • In 1953 Norm Larson and two other researchers •were It was while living in Illinois John nosearching for a substance that to prevent rust ticed the problems that farmers faced when on missiles. They needed to find a formula that attempting to water, till soil.preventing Because the area sitting had would displace it from formerly been woodland, the soil was rich on metal surfaces. They tried many formulas bewith hummus, clumped and concoction clung to fore hitting upon which formula #40. This the blades of the plows farmers were accusof petroleum-based mineral spirits and mineral tomed to using. While repairing a broken ciroil repelled water, preventing corrosion. The cular saw, Deere stumbled upon an idea. He product was named for its water-displacing abilemployed his smith skills to fashion the steel ities and into for the thatofit awas the 40th attempt. blade thefact shape plow. He affixed • When workersspokes, building using two wooden thenmissiles hitched began the device a horse. the that heavy Illinois it, tothey foundItitplowed so useful they begansoil taka charm. In fact, who happened inglike it home, where theya farmer found more uses for it. be observing the squeaking, test run immediately put It to stops hinges from loosens frozen in an order for his own John Deere plow. nuts and bolts, keeps snow from sticking to shovels, evengave removes marks •snow In short order,and Deere up hiscrayon blacksmith and tar splatters from surfaces. shop and focused on making plows. The
grew steadily and in added many em• Bycompany 1958 the product came an aerosol can, ployees. In the late 1840s, John relocated the and it was marketed to mechanics and hardware entirenationwide. operation toThe Moline, Illinois. stores company gotAshamed a boost in of his own lack of education, John hison 1961 when Hurricane Carla wreaked sent havoc children to the state’s finest schools. One of the Gulf Coast; the product was used extensivehis proudest days occurred when son Charles ly to recondition flooded cars and prevent rust earned the equivalent of an MBA from Bell’s on metal equipment.
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5. About 40% 6. None 7. 42 gallons 8. “The Beverly Hillbillies”
Commercial College in Chicago.
• •Today there are more than 2,000 ways to use it. With his son Charles managing the company, Norm Larson sold his share of the company John found time to pursue philanthropic in-for a pittance andco-founded never gotboth rich the off First his invention, terests. He NationbutalitBank is now found in an estimated out of and the First Congregationalfour Church. every five American homes. What's it called? He was elected the mayor of Moline in 1873, (Answer at bottom page.) where one of his of first actions – the replacement of the city’s open drains with a sewer QUOTE pipe system – saved reduc• "My grandfather rodecountless a camel,lives my by father rode ing the spread of disease. a camel, I drive a Mercedes, my son drives a
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sonDeere will drive Land Rover, •Land The Rover, originalhis John logo, aregistered in but1876, his son will ride a camel." -Rashid Saeed depicted a deer that was native bin to AfriAlca. Maktoum, prime minister Thirty-sixvice-president years later, inand 1912, it was rewithArab the image of aand North American of placed the United Emirates Emir of Dubai, In the onwhite-tailed his concern deer. over peak oil.decades that followed, the now-familiar “outline” logo took Answer: WD-40, for ‘water displacement formula #40.’ over as the symbol of the John Deere brand. Information in the Tidbits® Paper is gathered from sources considered to be reliable, but the accuracy of all information cannot be guaranteed.
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