Tidbits Grand Forks July 10 Issue

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Of Grand Forks • East Grand Forks

July 10, 2014

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UNUSUAL INSTRUMENTS There are lots of ways to make beautiful music on instruments other than the familiar ones. This week, Tidbits looks at some of the world’s more unusual instruments along with a few well-known ones. • Atlantic City, New Jersey, is home to the world’s largest pipe organ, with seven manuals, or keyboards, and 33,112 pipes. Credited as the largest musical instrument ever constructed, it was built between 1929 and 1932 by Long Island, New York’s Midmer-Losh Organ Company at a cost of $350,000, and weighs about 150 tons. It’s in the midst of a 10-year, $16 million restoration project. If you want to take a tour of the organ at that city’s Boardwalk Hall, you will need to notch out 4½ hours. • Another interesting organ is located deep in the Luray Caverns of Virginia’s Shenandoah Valley. Its inventor Leland Sprinkle was a scientist and mathematician at the Pentagon who discovered that the cave’s stalactites produced deep resonating notes when struck. Over the course of three years in the early 1950s, Sprinkle tuned stalactites across 3½ acres to specific pitches using sandpaper. Rubber-tipped mallets were then wired to keys on the Great Stalacpipe Organ’s keyboard, so that they would strike the stalactites whenever the corresponding key was played. WANT TO RUN YOUR OWN BUSINESS? Publish a

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1. What instrument is the political symbol of Ireland? 2. What instrument is often referred to as the “blues harp”? 3. What are the first three words of the Old Testament in the Bible? 4. How many colors are in a rainbow? 5. How many countries make up Great Britain?


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INSTRUMENTS (continued): • The Fluegelhorn has its origins in the early 18th century, when it was a large semicircular hunting horn, essentially a bugle without valves, played by the “Fluegelmeister.” The modern instrument looks much like a trumpet, but with a much wider bell. It has a richer, mellower, darker sound than the trumpet, about halfway between the tones of a trumpet and a French horn. • Benjamin Franklin invented an instrument called the hydrocrystalophone, which in simpler terms is known as the glass armonica. His armonica consisted of a series of glass bowls of graduated size floating in a tray of water. The varying sizes produced different musical tones based on the size of the bowl. • A thin flat wooden frame with up to 50 strings stretched across its body is known as a zither. Five of the strings are used to play the melody with the remainder used for the harmony. The performer can pluck the strings with either his fingers or a special tool called a plectrum. The zither is common in Austria, Hungary, Croatia, Slovenia, and southern Germany. An early form of the zither was found in the tomb of Chinese royalty dating back to 433 B.C. • The indigenous Australians of northern Australia developed the didgeridoo about 1,500 years ago, and it’s still in use today. The wooden cylinder measures anywhere from 3 to 10 ft. in length. The longer the didgeridoo, the lower the pitch. Aboriginal craftsmen look for hollow live eucalyptus trees, usually ones that have been invaded by termites that have attacked only the heart of the tree. The tree is cleaned out and the bark removed, then shaped into an instrument, with a rim of beeswax added to the mouthpiece end. A British medical study indicates that playing the didgeridoo helps reduce snoring and sleep apnea by strengthening muscles in the upper airway.



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4. In the past 20 years (19952014), only two Kentucky Derby-winning horses had a 1. Which two players shared the name of three words. Name NBA’s Rookie of the Year the horses? Award in 1995? 5. In 2013, Baltimore’s Chris 2. Milan Hejduk finished his Davis became the third play14-season career third in scorer in MLB history to have ing among Czech-born players at least 40 doubles and 50 (805 points). Who are the top homers in a season. Name the two? other two. (hint: both played 3. The Seattle Seahawks are one in the American League) of only 3 NFL teams to have 6. T or F: No player has ever a Super Bowl record of 1-1. scored a hat trick for U.S. men’s Name the other two. soccer in World Cup play.

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INSTRUMENTS (continued): • Oompah! Where would marching bands be without the sousaphone? Although many folks call it a tuba, this large 40-lb. (18.1 kg) brass instrument that wraps around the player (who supports most of the weight with his or her shoulder) is more accurately called a sousaphone after its designer. John Philip Sousa, conductor of the United States Marine Band in the 1890s, and composer of “Stars and Stripes Forever,” was looking for an improvement to the era’s helicon, a narrower version of the sousaphone. Sousa came up with a design that was submitted to Philadelphia’s J.W. Pepper Company, a design with the bell pointed upward. By the 1920s, the design had been changed to the bell pointing outward for better sound projection. In more recent years, the instruments have been manufactured from fiberglass to lighten the load. • The hurdy-gurdy has been around since about the 12th century when it was known as the organistrum or symphonia. It’s a three-stringed instrument with a wheel or circular bow that is turned by a crank. The strings are attached to keys and when the wheel rubs against the strings, it produces a sound similar to that of a violin. The large organistrum has a guitarshaped body and long neck where the keys are set. The name hurdy-gurdy is often confused with the barrel organ or street piano played by street musicians. That instrument consists of barrels onto which perforated paper rolls are attached. Only a turning of the crank is required to play the barrel organ, with no musical skills required. It’s the instrument seen in illustrations of an organ grinder and his performing monkey.

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INSTRUMENTS (continued): • One of the world’s oldest musical instruments, the harp, was developed from a hunting bow. Pictographs of harps have been found in ancient Egyptian tombs dating back to 3000 B.C. The modern harp has a long hollow side called the column or pillar, in which are situated the rods that control the instrument’s seven pedals. The pedals allow for changing notes and switching keys. Because there are no “black keys” to help the harpist locate notes on the nearly 50 strings, the “C” strings are colored red and “F” strings are black. The harp’s strings are made of nylon, gut, wire, or silk. • The Jew’s harp isn’t a harp and it isn’t Jewish! Its proper name is “plucked idiophone,” and its small lyre-shaped metal frame is played by positioning it on the performer’s teeth. A bent metal tongue inside the frame is plucked by the player’s finger. Ancient frames dating back to the year 1400 have been found in Germany. One of Beethoven’s music teachers, Austrian composer and organist Johann Alberchtsberger, composed several concerti for the Jew’s Harp around 1765.

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• Since 1998, folks across Europe and Asia have been listening to the Vienna Vegetable Orchestra, a group of 11 musicians who play instruments carved from fresh vegetables. They make their instruments one hour before each performance from the freshest vegetables possible, and play music on cuke-o-phones, radish marimbas, carrot flutes, bell pepper trumpets, pumpkin basses, violins carved from leeks, and percussion instruments fashioned from eggplant. It takes about 90 lbs. of fresh veggies to create the orchestra, and following the performance, the group’s cook throws all of the instruments into a kettle of soup.

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For years we knew him as Pa Cartwright, the patriarch of the Ponderosa Ranch on television’s Bonanza. But there was more to this famous Canadian than running a fictional ranch. Take a look at the life of this noted actor. • Born Lyon Himan Green (without the “e”) to Russian Jewish immigrant parents in Ottawa, Ontario, he became interested in acting while a chemical engineering student at Queen’s University in Kingston. After graduation, he walked away from a career in engineering, finding a job as a radio broadcaster with the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. With his rich, deep voice, before long he became known as “The Voice of Canada.” • After a stint as a flying officer in the Royal Canadian Air Force during World War II, Greene returned to Canada to pursue an acting career. His authoritative bass voice lent itself well to the narration of documentary films. • His role in 1957’s Peyton Place led to a guest spot on television’s Wagon Train, which led to his most well-known role, that of Ben Cartwright on the western Bonanza in 1959. Green modeled his character after his own father, a shoemaker. For the next 14 years, Greene played Cartwright on a series that became the second-longest running western series (after Gunsmoke). Within two years, Bonanza was the Number One show on TV, and in the mid-1960s, Greene was making $11,000 a week. • In a TV Guide survey of the “50 Greatest TV Dads of All Time,” Ben Cartwright was ranked as #2 behind Bill Cosby.

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MOMENTS IN TIME • On July 15, 1606, the Dutch master Rembrandt is born in Leiden. His portraits began to go out of style after the 1630s, when his human figures were criticized as being coarse and indecorous. • On July 19, 1779, Massachusetts launches a 4,000-man naval expedition consisting of 19 warships, 24 transport ships and more than 1,000 militiamen to capture a 750man British garrison on the Penobscot Peninsula. The failed expedition was considered the worst naval disaster in American history until the attack on Pearl Harbor in 1941. • On July 18, 1914, convicted on meager evidence of murdering two Salt Lake City policemen, Wobbly Joe Hill is sentenced to be executed in Utah. Hill was a member of the International Workers of the World, called Wobblies. Scholars have debated whether Hill was railroaded because of his radical politics.

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landed his plane in Dublin, Ireland, stepped out, and exclaimed, "Just got in from New York. Where am I?" • On July 20, 1948, President Harry Truman institutes a military draft calling for nearly 10 million men to register within the next two months. Truman's decision underlined the urgency of his administration's concern about a possible military confrontation with the Soviet Union. • On July 16, 1951, J.D. Salinger's only novel, "The Catcher in the Rye," is published by Little, Brown. The book, about a confused teenager disillusioned by the adult world, was an instant hit and was taught in high schools for half a century. The 31-year-old Salinger had worked on the novel for a decade.

• On July 14, 1974, U.S. Army Gen. Carl Spaatz, fighter pilot, dies in Washington, D.C., at age 83. In September 1947, Spaatz, an illustrious combat career behind him, was • On July 17, 1938, Douglas "Wrong named the first chief of staff of the inWay" Corrigan, a glory-seeking flier, dependent U.S. Air Force, which pretakes off from Brooklyn, pointed west. viously had been a unit of the Army. Twenty-eight hours later, Corrigan © 2014 King Features Synd., Inc.

WEST NILE VIRUS RISK INCREASES JULY THRU SEPTEMBER Most human West Nile virus cases in North Dakota occur from late July to mid-September. People infected with this disease typically develop syptoms between 2 and 14 days after the infected mosquito bites them. Protect yourself from mosquito bites and West Nile virus.

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Weekly Data 2002 - 2013 Total Human Cases in ND - 1,512

What Are the Symptoms of West Nile Virus? Symptoms vary: Serious Symptoms in a Few People. About one in 150 people infected with West Nile virus will develop severe illness. The severe symptoms can include high fever, headache, neck stiffness, stupor, disorientation, coma, tremors, convulsions, muscle weakness, vision loss, numbness and paralysis. These sympotoms may last several weeks, and neurological effects may be permanent.

Milder Symptoms in Some People. Up to 20 percent of the people who become infected will display symptoms which can include fever, headache, and body aches, nausea, vomiting, and sometimes swollen lymph glands or a skin rash on the chest, stomach and back. Symptoms can last for as short as a few days, though even healthy people have been sick for several weeks. No Symptoms in Most People. Approximately 80 percent of people (about 4 out of 5) who are infected with West Nile virus will not show any symptoms at all.

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LORNE GREENE (continued): • During his Bonanza years, Greene also served as the co-host of the Macy’s Thanksgiving Day Parade on NBC from 1963 to 1972, beside Betty White. He also released several albums of country western and folk songs, achieving a #1 single on the music charts with his recording of “Ringo,” a spoken-word ballad about the Old West outlaw Johnny Ringo. • In 1973, after a 430-episode run, Bonanza was cancelled. Greene’s next role was that of a private detective in the crime drama Griff, but it was cancelled due to poor ratings after only 13 episodes. However, there was no lack of work for Greene. He immediately began hosting a nature series entitled Last of the Wild, as well as beginning a years-long job as spokesman for Alpo dog food. He also had a major role in the classic miniseries Roots as the master of slave Kunta Kinte. • In 1978, Lorne Green took on the role of Captain Adama in the popular sci-fi series Battlestar Galactica and its follow-up Galactica 1980. Following its cancellation, Greene turned back to nature, hosting a Canadian television documentary series Lorne Greene’s New Wilderness. • In 1987, a made-for-TV movie with a Bonanza reunion was planned, and Greene signed on to reprise his role of Ben Cartwright. Unfortunately, he passed away before the filming began from pneumonia that developed following ulcer surgery. The movie was still produced, with Greene’s daughter playing the role of the love interest of Little Joe Cartwright’s son. • Greene left behind a tribute to his Canadian roots by his founding of Toronto’s Academy of Radio Arts, originally called the Lorne Greene School of Broadcasting.

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CHOCOLATE-Y FACTS In honor of Chocolate Day on July 7, Tidbits checks out the facts on this favorite confection. • A small evergreen tree ranging in height from 15 to 26 feet is the source of cacao beans. The Theobroma cacao, native to Central and South America, produces seeds directly on its trunk rather than on branches. Each seed pod is about the size of a pineapple and holds between 30 and 50 seeds that have a very bitter taste until they undergo a seven-day fermentation process, which develops the flavor. In the ancient Mayan civilization, cacao beans were so valuable, they were used as currency. They were commonly counterfeited, with fakes fashioned out of painted clay.

• Milton Hershey was already a candy manufacturer specializing in caramels when, in 1894, he decided to start producing sweet chocolate as a coating for the caramels. Soon Hershey was producing milk chocolate in 114 different bars and other shapes. He chose a location in south-central Pennsylvania for his operation, which has grown into the largest chocolate manufacturer in North America. • Hershey’s kisses came along in 1907, and today the company produces over 80 million kisses every single day. About one billion pounds of chocolate products are produced annually by Hershey’s.






ternal impressions," which posited that what a pregnant woman looked at could influence the appearance of her child. This belief set off a rush of pregnant Parisian women • In 1811, London be- heading to the Louvre to gaze at came the first city in the the lovely artworks, hoping to world to reach the mile- give birth to attractive babies. stone population of 1 million. • If you were at a certain street • If you're like one-third of corner in Manitowoc, WisAmerican men, you'd like a shot consin, on a certain day in at hosting "The Tonight Show." 1962, you would have seen a startling thing: After plung• You might think that hot dogs ing through the atmosphere, a are a relatively recent food of- 21-pound chunk of the Soviet fering, but you'd be wrong. Sputnik IV spacecraft made The first sausages were cre- impact at the corner of Park ated more than 3,500 years Street and North 8th Street. ago when ancient Babylonians began stuffing spiced meat • Half of first-time marriages in into the intestines of animals. Kentucky involve teenagers. • If you hear the word "Bil- • Those who study such things bo" you might think of a fa- say that after Paul Revere mously adventurous hob- made his famous midnight bit, but a bilbo also is a ride, he billed the Massachufinely tempered Spanish sword. setts state house 10 pounds, 4 shillings to cover his expenses. • Elvis Presley report* * edly was worth $10 mil- * lion when he died in 1977. Thought for the Day: "A mathematician is a de• In Western medicine in the vice for turning coffee into 19th century, experts believed theorems." -- Paul Erdos in a phenomenon called "ma© 2014 King Features Synd., Inc. • It was civil-rights leader Martin Luther King Jr. who made the following sage observation: "Nothing in the world is more dangerous than sincere ignorance and conscientious stupidity."


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• Christopher Columbus brought cacao beans back from what is now Honduras, presenting them to the Spanish king and queen who had financed his journeys. The beans’ value was overlooked for years until fellow explorer Hernando Cortez also brought back a stash of the precious cargo.

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CHOCOLATE (continued): • The U.S. chocolate industry uses about 3.5 DEERE. JOHN (continued): million pounds ofDEERE. whole milk every day to • produce It was while living in Illinois thatuse John no-of milk chocolate. They also 40% ticed the problems when the world’s almondsthat and farmers 20% offaced the world’s attempting to till soil. Because the area hadto peanuts. About 400 cacao beans are needed formerly been woodland, the soil was rich make one pound of chocolate. with hummus, which clumped and clung to • Research that farmers dark chocolate has the bladesindicates of the plows were accusmany benefits, the tomedhealth to using. Whileincluding repairing areducing broken cirrisk of saw, heartDeere disease by one-third. antioxicular stumbled upon anItsidea. He dants seem to pressure, aremployed hisreduce smith blood skills to fashion widen the steel bladeand intopromote the shape of a plow. affixed teries, healthy blood He flow. Some two wooden spokes, then hitched theattention device experts claim that it boosts memory, to a horse. It plowed the heavy Illinois soil span, and problem-solving skills. Dark chocolike flavonoids, a charm. In afact, farmer happened late’s typeaof plant who chemical, have to be observing the test run immediately put anti-inflammatory properties and cell-protectin an order for his own John Deere plow. ing effects. It doesn’t take much to reap the • benefits In short– order, Deere gavecontains up his blacksmith a 1.4 oz. serving 536 mg of shop and with focused on indicating making plows. The flavonoids, research that just 80 company grew steadily and added many emmg can produce a drop in blood pressure. But ployees. In thechocolate late 1840s, John the it’s only dark that hasrelocated been shown operation to Moline, Ashamed toentire be beneficial, while milkIllinois. chocolate, white of his own lack of education, John sent his chocolate, and other varieties are not. children to the state’s finest schools. One of • Per folks Switzerland most hiscapita, proudest daysinoccurred when eat son the Charles chocolate, about 22 lbs. per person per year. earned the equivalent of an MBA from Bell’s Australians consume 20 lbs. each annually, Commercial College in Chicago. and the Irish eat 19 lbs. per person. Even • With his son Charles managing the company, though the United the most John found time toStates pursueproduces philanthropic inchocolate terests. Heworldwide, co-foundedthe bothaverage the FirstAmerican Nationconsumes justthe 12First lbs.Congregational a year. Some eat more al Bank and Church. than others – those who feel depressed seem He was elected the mayor of Moline in 1873, towhere eat about 55% more than those who aren’t one of his first actions – the replacedepressed. ment of the city’s open drains with a sewer pipe systemto– the saved countlessBook lives by • According Guinness of reducWorld ing the spread of disease. Records, folks in Derbyshire, United King• dom Theare original John Deere logo, registered in responsible for producing the world’s 1876, chocolate depicted abar deerinthat was native largest October, 2011.toItAfrimeaca. Thirty-six years in 1912, was re-2 sured more than 13 later, ft. square, wasit nearly placed with image more of a North American feet thick, andthe weighed than 12,770 lbs. white-tailed deer. In the decades that followed, the now-familiar “outline” logo took Thanks for Reading Tidbits! over as the symbol of the John Deere brand. Information in the Tidbits® Paper is gathered from sources considered to be reliable, but the accuracy of all information cannot be guaranteed.

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Sports Answers 1. Grant Hill and 4. Mine That Bird (2009) and I’ll Jason Kidd Have Another 2. Jaromir Jagr (2012) (1,755 points), 5. Babe Ruth & Patrik Elias Albert Belle (983) 6. False. Bert 3. Kansas City Patenaude did Chiefs and it in 1930 Chicago Bears

Tidbits Laughs A young child says to his mother, "Mom, when I grow up I'd like to be a musician." She replies, "Well honey, you know you can't do both."


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