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Of Grand Forks • East Grand Forks

May 16, 2013

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TRAMPOLINES You see them in backyards everywhere. Join Tidbits as we find out the story behind them! • George Nissen was a three-time National Tumbling Champion for the years 1935– 1937. As a young adult he became fascinated watching the acrobats at the circus falling into the nets from the high wire, sometimes doing amazing tricks and twists as they bounced. He also watched vaudeville acts that used springboards in their acts. One actor would pretend to fall into the orchestra pit, only to bounce back up on the stage. And he’d heard that Eskimos stretched walrus skins between stakes in the ground and then bounced up and down on them just for fun. Inspired by a love of gymnastics, Nissen wanted to invent some kind of “jumping table.” • He started work on his invention in 1926 while still in school, scavenging materials from the local dump, and tinkered with the idea for over ten years. Finally, using the rails from a bed, rope, strips of inner tube, and some canvas, Nissen and a local gymnastics coach named Larry Griswold came up with a prototype. They took it to the YMCA where Nissen worked as an instructor to test market it. The kids stood in long lines for a chance to bounce on it. Turn the page for more! Publish a

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TRAMPOLINES (continued):

• When Nissen graduated from college in 1938 he set about improving the invention. He “I love the drive-thru window. No walking through a large store just to pick up my medicine.” called it the “trampoline,” from the Spanish a large store just to pick up my medicine.” - Another Satisifed Medicap Patient word trampolin which means “diving board.” - Another Satisifed Medicap Patient He began to mass produce them, but couldn’t understand why they weren’t selling. He found HOURS HOURS M-F 9-7 M-F 9-7 that people saw it as something suitable only Sat. 9-1:30 Sat. 9-1:30 for the circus or professional performers. So he JeffJeff Theige R.Ph. Med Park Mall • 1395 S. Columbia Road • 746-1800 Theige, R.Ph. Med Park Mall • 1395 S. Columbia Road • 746-1800 Jeff Theige, R.Ph. Med Park Mall • 1395 S. Columbia Road • 746-1800 strapped a trampoline to the top of his car and took off cross-country, giving exhibitions anyComplete hearing aid care where a crowd was gathered: schools, fairs, • Advanced Digital Technology playgrounds, and sports events, taking orders • FREE Hearing Evaluation on the spot. • 60 Day Hearing Aid Trial

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Quiz Bits 1. 2. 3. 4.

5. In what year did the Beatles make their first visit to the United States? How old does a gymnast need to 6. What is the capital of Iceland? be to compete in the Olympics? 7. Name the classic rock song that What is the conversion of water contains this lyric: “The jig is up, vapor to liquid called? the news is out, they finally found What was the name of the centaur me.” in “Harry Potter and the Sorcerer’s 8. What was the name of Gary Cooper’s character in the classic Stone”? Western film “High Noon”? What does Cruela De Vil want to make out of the puppies in the TRIVIA movie “101 Dalmations”?

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• When World War II started, he convinced the Army and the Navy that a trampoline would be a good part of a pilot training program. Pilots training on a trampoline became less fearful of being upside-down. They learned to control the falling and the turning of their bodies, and it helped them hone their balance and body control in mid-air situations. Soldiers who used trampolines in the service ordered them when they went home after the war. Business continued to improve. In 1948, trampolining was included in the NCAA and AAU list of gymnastic events at official competitions. In the 1950s it swept the country as a fad. • Nissen went on to build a very successful sports equipment empire, manufacturing gymnastics equipment and trampolines. George Nissen holds over 30 patents on sports and fitness equipment. At the age of 83, he won the Senior Fitness Award from the California Governor’s Council on Physical Fitness and Sports. Nissen works to pass on his enthusiasm and love for the sport of gymnastics, which is where the story of the trampoline began: each year the Nissen Award is given to the outstanding collegiate gymnast in the nation.

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TRAMPOLINE FACTS • As a promotional stunt, Nissen taught a kangaroo to jump on a trampoline and then went to Egypt to bounce on top of a pyramid. He trained the kangaroo using dried apricots as treats and quickly learned that the best way to keep from getting kicked was to hold “hands” with the kangaroo’s front paws. • When officials at the Arkansas Children’s Hospital did a study, they found that four percent of the patients seen in their hospital emergency room over a five-year period in the mid-1990s were there with orthopedic injuries due to accidents on trampolines. About 70% of the accidents were due to more than one child being on the tramp at one time, a definite no-no. • Jeff Schwartz of Illinois bounced on a trampoline for 266 hours, 9 minutes in 1981, setting a world record. (That’s just over 11 days.) He was allowed breaks for eating, sleeping, and going to the bathroom. • The record for the most consecutive somersaults on a trampoline is 3,333 and was set by Brian Hudson (UK) at Jumpers Rebound Centre, Gillingham, Kent, UK on September 18, 2003.

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• A world record was set on July 24, 1999 when a team of 20 members of a trampoline club in West York, UK, did 29,503 somersaults in exactly five hours using two standard trampolines. This averages out at just under 1,500 somersaults per person, or about five somersaults per minute. • In 1986, Cleveland State University’s Delta Epsilon fraternity fielded a six-man team that set the Guinness World Record for continuous bouncing on a trampoline, with 53 days of jumping between six people. President Reagan called the team to congratulate them.


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• In 1962, West Germany was the first country to host an international trampolining event. • On a modern competitive trampoline, a skilled athlete can bounce to a height of up to 33 feet. • In competitive trampolining, each contestant must perform two sets of maneuvers. In the first set, everyone must complete the same ten basic moves which include the three standard shapes: tucked, piked, and straight. The second set is free-form in which contestants make up their own routines. In all routines, the contestant must begin and end on their feet. • During a competition, a trampolinist is in contact with the trampoline bed for just 0.3 seconds between moves. In 2010, a new “Time of Flight” score was introduced into professional trampolining, which is calculated on how much time the trampolinist is in the air. To measure it, a box is fitted under the trampoline which measures every time the competitor hits the bed. • There are five judges. When a performance is scored, the highest and lowest scores are tossed out and the remaining scores are added together to come up with the final tally.

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NUGGET OF KNOWLEDGE • On a trampoline, the higher the number of springs that attach the platform to the frame, the higher the bounce and jump. • The word “trampoline” was originally a trademarked term, but eventually became part of the common language, much like the word “xerox.” • There are competitions in synchronized trampolining as well as mini-trampolining in which the competitor does a single move and lands on the floor. Please Recycle this copy of Tidbits. Share it with a Friend.

• Nissen always wanted to have trampolining included in the Olympic Games. This finally happened in the 2000 Summer Olympics in Sydney. In 2008, Nissen was able to travel to Beijing to watch the trampoline event at the 2008 Summer Olympics. He was given the honor of testing out the Olympic trampoline before the event. • George Nissen died in San Diego, California, on April 7, 2010 at the age of 96 from complications from pneumonia, having seen his dream become a reality.

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Women in History:

THE LENNON SISTERS The Lennon family of Venice, California, was a big Catholic family with 12 siblings born in the 1930s and 40s. They all crowded into a twobedroom home, and their father supported the family as a milk man. • The four oldest sisters, Dianne, Peggy, Kathy, and Janet, formed a singing group when they were in their teens. A classmate of theirs happened to be the Larry Welk, son of Lawrence Welk. One day Larry told the girls to come home with him and sing for his father. Although his famous father was sick in bed with the flu at the time, he listened to them sing. When they were done, he picked up the phone and booked them on the next Lawrence Welk Show. That was the beginning of a great career for the Lennon sisters, who sang as regulars on the program from 1955 until 1968. At the time of their debut, the youngest sister, Janet, was only 9 years old. • During their long tenure with the Lawrence Welk Show, they were paid only scale wages, but earned extra money by touring on the side. Welk was annoyed with their father, who insisted each girl be paid scale wages, rather than being paid at the far lower group rate. Within a few years they were earning enough money to allow the family to move into a six-bedroom home where six sisters and five brothers lived along with Grandma. • As the girls grew up, Lawrence Welk worked hard to preserve their image as fresh-faced youngsters. In 1964, Peggy Lennon married the trumpet player from the Lawrence Welk show. When pregnancies arose, Welk hid expanding tummies from the camera with artfully arranged props.

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• It was French Enlightenment author Voltaire who made the following sage observation: “Judge a man by his questions rather than his answers.” • If you’re like the average American, you laugh 15 times every day. • Have you ever heard of an artist by the name of John Banvard? You’re to be forgiven if the name is unfamiliar; few people these days remember him. In the mid19th century, though, he was something of a phenomenon. In 1840, the then-25-year-old man set off on a skiff down the Mississippi River. He spent more than a year on the river, sketching steadily along the way. After he completed the voyage, he spent another five years painting his “Panorama of the Mississippi,” an ambitious work that was 12 feet wide and more than 3 miles long. When completed, the painting was mounted on two upright revolving cylinders and displayed for the paying public throughout

the U.S. and Europe, earning him $200,000 along the way. • In the 1960s, the miniskirt was still controversial. Both the Vatican City and Disneyland refused entrance to women wearing the short skirts. • If you’re a fan of the TV series “Dr. Who,” you probably know that the title character, a Time Lord from the planet Gallifrey, has two hearts. This may seem like science fiction (and, of course, it is), but it’s not unknown for a human to be born with two hearts. One such example was Giuseppe de Mai, born in Italy in the 19th century. The condition is rare, though; so rare, in fact, that the London Academy of Medicine offered de Mai $15,000 under the condition that it receive his body after his death. * * * Thought for the Day: “Women are like elephants to me. I like to look at ‘em, but I wouldn’t want to own one.” -- W.C. Fields

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LENNON SISTERS (continued): • Their first hit was a single released in 1956 called Tonight, You Belong to Me. It reached #15 on the charts, and was followed a few years later by a 1961 single Sad Movies Make Me Cry, which provided them with the only #1 single of their career. They turned out albums of classic songs, as well as coloring books, paper dolls, and story books. • In 1969, the Lennon sisters left the Lawrence Welk Show in order to star in their own variety show called Jimmy Durante Presents the Lennon Sisters Hour. Six weeks before the show premiered, they were forced to deal with the shooting death of their father, William Lennon, by a delusional stalker named Chet Young, who believed himself married to Peggy and claimed her father stood in the way. Young, who often had to be removed from the front steps of the Lennon family home by police, followed William Lennon to his work place at the Marina Del Rey golf course and shot him in the parking lot before escaping. William Lennon was 53 years old when he died. His wife was left with seven school age children still at home. Two months later, the body of Chet Young was found in the trunk of his car, where he had shot himself using the same gun. The traumatized Lennon sisters kept up their schedule with their new variety show, but cancelled after the first year. • In the 1970s, the sisters performed regularly on the Andy Williams Show and toured the country extensively. They played in Vegas and appeared on numerous game shows. • In 1995, Larry Welk, Junior– the classmate who originally introduced them to his father– invited them to headline at the Welk Champagne Theater in the Ozark community of Branson, Missouri, and they’ve been performing there ever since.

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Moments in time • On May 24, 1844, in a demonstration witnessed by members of Congress, American inventor Samuel F.B. Morse dispatches a telegraph message from the U.S. Capitol to a railroad station in Baltimore. The message -- “What Hath God Wrought?” -- was telegraphed back to the Capitol a moment later.

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ing a stolen car near Sailes, La. All told, the Barrow Gang was believed responsible for the deaths of 13 people, including nine police officers.

• On May 26, 1940, President Franklin Roosevelt makes a radio appeal for the support of the Red Cross. Belgian and French civilians were “running from their homes to escape • On May 22, 1859, Sir Arthur Conan bombs and shells and machine gunDoyle, the creator of master sleuth ning, without shelter, and almost Sherlock Holmes, is born in Scot- wholly without food,” broadcast FDR. land. His first Sherlock Holmes story, • On May 20, 1956, the United States “A Study in Scarlet,” was published in conducts the first airborne test of Beeton’s Christmas Annual in 1887. an improved hydrogen bomb, drop• On May 25, 1927, Robert Ludlum, ping it from a plane over the Bikini author of 25 thrillers, is born in New Atoll in the Pacific Ocean. ObservYork City. Although he never earned ers said that the fireball caused by a reputation as a masterful prose the explosion measured at least 4 stylist, his suspenseful stories such miles in diameter and was brightas “The Bourne Identity” gripped a er than the light from 500 suns. wide readership. As a critic for The • On May 21, 1978, 21-year-old rookWashington Post noted about one ie golfer Nancy Lopez defeats her Ludlum novel: “It’s a lousy book. So childhood hero, JoAnne Carner, on I stayed up until 3 a.m. to finish it.” the first hole of a sudden-death play• On May 23, 1934, notorious crimi- off to win the Coca-Cola-Classic in nals Bonnie Parker and Clyde Bar- Jamesburg, N.J. The next year Lopez row are shot to death by Texas and beat out 44-year-old Mickey Wright, Louisiana state police while driv to repeat as Coca-Cola champion. © 2013 King Features Synd., Inc.

• Harry Coover was a researcher working for Kodak Research Labs in 1942. He was trying to develop a clear plastic gunsight for use during World War II. Working with acrylate monomers– a type of acrylic– he discovered cyanoacrylates. The discovery wasn’t at all helpful for the purpose of clear gunsights because the cyanoacrylate stuck to everything and made a big mess. He set the discovery aside. In 1951, Coover was working at the Tennessee Eastman Chemical Company trying to find a tough acrylate polymer for jet canopies. One day a fellow researcher, ironically named Dr. Fred Joyner, spread a film of ethyl cyanoacrylate between two prisms of a refractometer in order to see if it would refract light. It didn’t refract light, and the two men discovered it was impossible to pry the prisms apart again. They feared they’d be in trouble for ruining the expensive equipment, but the company realized the potential in the new adhesive. The glue went on the market in 1958 under the name Eastman Compound #910. Dr. Coover even appeared on the quiz show “I’ve Got a Secret” where he lifted host Gary Moore completely off the floor using a single drop of the glue. • Cyanoacrylate is chemically known as C5H5NO2, but scientists call it CA for short. It’s a highly reactive substance, but the addition of a bit of acid stabilizer prevents the CA from reacting and keeps it in a liquid state. When the acid stabilizer comes into contact with a catalyst, its stabilizing effect is neutralized.

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SUPER GLUE (continued): • This allows the CA molecules to react with DEERE. (continued): each other, JOHN formingDEERE. long polymer chains. The • catalyst It was for while living in Illinois that John ions, nothe acid stabilizer is hydroxyl ticed are the located problems faced which in that everyfarmers molecule of when water. attempting to till soil. Because the area Every surface has a tiny amount of waterhad on woodland, the soilamounts was richof it,formerly and therebeen are always miniscule with available hummus, in which clumped and clung to water the air. The water acts like the blades of the plows farmers were accusa trigger, allowing the molecular structure of tomed to using. While repairing a broken cirthe CA to change. The molecules join up like cular saw, Deere stumbled upon an idea. He a employed long serieshis ofsmith popper beads. What was thin skills to fashion the asteel liquid hard mass of molecular spabladebecomes into the ashape of a plow. He affixed ghetti noodles. two wooden spokes, then hitched the device horse.being It plowed • Iftothea parts gluedthe areheavy movedIllinois duringsoil the like a charm. In fact, a farmer who happened formation of the chains, the chain is broken to be thehold. test run immediately put and theobserving glue won’t It bonds best when in an order for his own John Deere plow. used at the rate of one drop per square inch. thanorder, that will require a longer bonding • More In short Deere gave up his blacksmith shop and focused on making plows. The period. It’s tough enough that a single squarecompany grewliftsteadily and added many eminch bond can one ton. ployees. In the late 1840s, John relocated the • Why doesn’t super glue stick to the bottle? entire operation to Moline, Illinois. Ashamed Because it needs moisture to set and there is of his own lack of education, John sent his nochildren moisture bottle. to in thethe state’s finest schools. One of proudestsoldiers days occurred whentubes son Charles • Inhis Vietnam, were given of super earned the equivalent of an MBAseal fromwounds. Bell’s glue in their first aid kits to help Commercial Chicago. Special kinds College of superin glue are now used in reducing the thecompany, need for • hospitals With his worldwide, son Charles managing sutures, stitches, and staples. It doesn’t John found time to pursue philanthropicwork inonterests. deep wounds or on wounds the skin He co-founded both thewhere First National Bank the First Congregational Church. does a lotand of stretching. He was elected thebeing mayorused of Moline in 1873, • Super glue is now in forensic dewhere one of his first actions – the replacetection. When investigators open a foil packet ment of the city’s open drains with a sewer of ethyl-gel cyanoacrylate, the fumes settle pipe system – saved countless lives by reduconing skin leftofbehind the oils spread disease.in human fingerprint, turning the invisible smear into a visible object. • The original John Deere logo, registered in • Glued fingers together? nail 1876, your depicted a deer that wasUse native to polish Afriremover. Don’t years have any polishitremover? ca. Thirty-six later,nail in 1912, was reUse warm soapy water and bit ofAmerican patience. placed with the image of a aNorth Your sweat and natural skin oils will white-tailed deer. In the decades that soon folloosen lowed,the thebond. now-familiar “outline” logo took over as the symbol of the John Deere brand. Information in the Tidbits® Paper is gathered from sources considered to be reliable, but the accuracy of all information cannot be guaranteed.

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