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Mastering the Art of

FRENCH COOKING

By Simone Beck Louisette Bertholle Julia Child


Mastering the Art of French Cooking


Mastering The Art Of French Cooking By Simone Beck Louisette Bertholle Julia Child Drawings by Sidonie Coryn The only cookbook that explains how to create authentic French dishes in American kitchens with American foods This is a borzoi book, published by Alfred A. Knopf, Inc.


Copyright © 1961 by Alfred A. Knopf, Inc. All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced in any form without permission in writing from the publisher, except by a reviewer who may quote brief passages and reproduce not more than three illustrations in a review to be printed in a magazine or newspaper. Manufactured in the United States of America and distributed by Random House, Inc. Published in Canada by Random House of Canada, Limited. PUBLISHED OCTOBER 1961 REPRINTED FOUR TIMES SIXTH PRINTING, MAY 1964


To

La Belle France, Whose peasants, fishermen, housewives, and princes - not to mention her chefs - through generations of inventive and loving concentration have created one of the world’s great arts


CONTENTS 3 11 15 20 24 26 31 37 54 55 66 76 79 86 94 96 99 105 106

KITCHEN EQUIPMENT DEFINITIONS INGREDIENTS MEASURES TEMPERATURES CUTTING: Chopping, Slicing, Dicing, and Mincing WINES CHAPTER I - SOUPS CHAPTER II - SAUCES White Sauces Brown Sauces Tomato Sauces The Hollandaise Family The Mayonnaise Family Vinaigrettes Hot Butter Sauces Cold Flavored Butters List of Miscellaneous Sauces Stocks and Aspics

116 116 122 123 125 126

CHAPTER III - EGGS Poached Eggs Shirred Eggs Eggs in Ramekins Scrambled Eggs Omelettes

139 139 146 157 175

CHAPTER IV - ENTRÉES AND LUNCHEON DISHES Pie Dough and Pastry Shells Quiches, Tarts, and Gratins Soufflées and Timbales Pâte à Choux, Puffs, Gnocchi, and Quenelles 1


190 196

2

Crêpes Cocktail Appetizers

207 208 218 220 226 232

CHAPTER V - FISH Fish Filets Poached in White Wine Two Recipes from Provence Two Famous Lobster Dishes Mussels List of Other Fish Dishes

234 240 249 254 258 265 267 272 282

CHAPTER VI - POULTRY Roast Chicken Casserole-roasted Chicken Sauteed Chicken Fricasseed Chicken Broiled Chicken Chicken Breasts Duck Goose

288 288 328 350 375 389 399 405 409 413 416

CHAPTER VII - MEAT Beef Lamb and Mutton Veal Pork Ham Cassoulet Liver Sweetbreads Brains Kidneys

421 423 476 489 496

CHAPTER VIII - VEGETABLES Green Vegetables Carrots, Onions, and Turnips Lettuce, Celery, Endive, and Leeks The Cabbage Family


499 501 505 508 517 520 528

Cucumben Eggplant Tomatoes Mushrooms Chestnuts Potatoes Rice

536 536 544 558 564 576

CHAPTER IX - COLD BUFFET Cold Vegetables Aspics Molded Mousses Pâtés and Terrines List of Other Cold Dishes

579 579 588 594 613 623 632 648 655 658 665 667

CHAPTER X -DESSERTS AND CAKES Fundamentals Sweet Sauces and Fillings Custards, Mousses, and Molded Desserts Sweet Soufflés Fruit Desserts Tarts Crêpes Clafoutis Babas and Savarins Ladyfingers Cakes

follows page 684

INDEX

3


MEASURES A pint’s a pound the world around except in England where a pint of water weighs a pound and a quarter, and all measurements in this book are level. The following table is for those who wish to translate French measurements into the nearest convenient American equivalent and vice versa: American Spoons And Cups

French Equivalents

Liquid Ounces

Liquid Grams

1 tsp (teaspoon)

1 cuillère à café

1/0

5

1 Tb (tablespoon)

1 cuillère à soupe, cuillère à bouche or verre à liqueur

1/2

15

1 cup (16 Tb)

1/4 litre less 2 Tb

8

227

2 cups (1 pint)

1/2 litre less 1/2 décilitre

16 (1 pound)

454

4 cups (1 quart)

9/10 litre

32

907

62/3 Tb

1 décilitre 1 demi-verre

31/2

100

1 cup plus 1 Tb

1/4 litre

81/2

250

41/3 cups

1 litre

2.2 pounds

1000 (1 kilogram)

A pinch, une pincée The amount of any ingredient you can take up between your thumb and forefinger. There are big and little pinches. 4


BRITISH MEASURES British dry measures for ounces and pounds, and linear measures for inches and feet, are the same as American measures. However, the British liquid ounce is 1.04 times the American ounce; the British pint contains 20 British ounces; and the quart, 40 ounces. A gill is 5 ounces, or about 2/3 of an American cup.

Conversion Formulas American, British, Metric To Convert

Multiply

By

Ounces to grams

The ounces

28.35

Grams to ounces

The grams

  0.035

Liters to U.S. quarts

The iters

 o.95

Liters to British quarts

The liters

 o.88

U.S. quarts to liters

The quarts

  1.057

British quarts to liters

The quarts

 1.14

Inches to centimeters

The inches

 2.54

Centimeters to inches

The centimeters

 0.39

5


Cup-Deciliter Equivalents L Deciliter Equals 62/3 Tablespoons Cups 1/4 1/3 1/3 2/3 3/4 1

Deciliters  0.56  0.75  1.13 1.5  1.68  2.27

Cups 11/4 11/3 11/2 12/3 13/4 2

Deciliters  2.83 3.0 3.4  3.75 4.0 4.5

Gram-Ounce Equivalents Grams 25 30 50

6

Ounces  0.87 1.0  1.75

Grams 75 80 85

Ounces  2.63 2.8 3.0

Grams 100 125 150

Ounces 3.5 4.4  5.25


TEMPERATURE CONVERSION TABLE AMERICAN–FRENCH–BRITISH American Oven Temperature Terms

French Oven Temperature Terms, And Fairly Standard Thermostat Settings

Fahrenheit Degrees (American And British)

Centigrade Degrees

160 170

 71  77

#1

200 212 221

 93 100 105

Très Doux; Étuve

225 230 250 275

107 110 121 135

Very Slow

Doux #3

284 300 302 320 325

140 149 150 160 163

Slow

Moyen; Modéré

350 356 375 390 400

177 180 190 200 205

Moderate

410 425 428 437 450

210 218 220 225 232

Hot

475 500

246 260

Very Hot

525

274

#8

550

288

#9

British “Regulo” Oven Thermostat Setting

#2 #1/4 (241 F) #1/2 (266 F) #1 (291 F)

#4

Assez Chaud; Bon Four #5

Chaud #6

#4 (358 F) #5 (379 F) #6 (403 F) #7 (424 F) #8 (446 F)

Très Chaud; Vif #7

7


Viandes

MEAT Fundamental Techniques And Information

Faced with the awesome problem of what to choose from among the wonderful store of French recipes for beef, lamb, pork, ham, sweetbreads, kidneys, liver, and brains, we have picked those which seemed to us especially French, or of particular interest to American cooks. We have not gone into roast beef or broiled chops as they are practically the same everywhere. Besides numerous traditional dishes, we have included a number of French regional recipes for ragouts, stews, and daubes; their comparative economy and ease of execution, in addition to their robust flavors, make them most appealing.

8

For those who have collections of original French recipes, or who are living in France, we have in most instances given translations, approximations, or explanations of French meat cuts. Cross-cultural comparisons are a maze of complication as the systems of the two countries are entirely different: the French cut meat following muscle separations, while American butchers usually cut across the grain. Identification is made more confusing as different regions in each country use different names for the same cuts. We have used the Chicago terminology for American cuts, and the Paris terminology for French cuts.


9


Escalopes De Veau À La Crème

SAUTÉED VEAL SCALLOPS WITH MUSHROOMS AND CREAM For 6 people

This recipe for veal scallops makes a perfect main course for a chic little luncheon. If you are reasonably quick you can complete it in 30 minutes or less, and you may prepare it in advance; it only needs a 5-minute heating before it is ready to eat. Serve with it butter ed rice or risotto, green beans, peas, or braised endive, and a chilled white Burgundy wine. 12 veal scallops prepared according to the preceding directions 2 Tb butter and 1 Tb oil, more as necessary A 10- to 12-inch enameled skillet 3 Tb minced shallots or green onions 2 Tb butter if needed ½ cup dry white wine or ⅓ cup dry white vermouth or Madeira ⅔ cup brown stock or canned beef bouillon A wooden spoon 1½ cups whipping cream ½ Tb arrowroot or cornstarch blended with 1 Tb water Salt and pepper to taste

10

½ lb. sliced fresh mushrooms 2 Tb butter 1 Tb oil Salt and pepper Salt and pepper A hot platter Parsley sprigs


Dry the scallops thoroughly on paper towels. Pour the cream and the starch mixture into the The meat will not brown if it is damp. skillet and boil for several minutes until cream has reduced and thickened slightly. Remove Place the butter and oil in the skillet over mod- from heat and season with salt and pepper. erately high heat. When you see that the butter foam has almost subsided, arrange 3 or 4 pieces In a separate skillet, sauté the mushrooms in of veal in the skillet. Do not crowd them to- very hot butter and oil for 4 to 5 minutes to gether. Sauté on one side for 4 to 5 minutes brown them lightly. Season to taste with salt regulating heat so fat is very hot but is not and pepper, and scrape them into the cream burning. Turn, and sauté the meat on its other sauce. Simmer for 1 minute. Remove from heat side for 4 to 5 minutes. (Each scallop should be and correct seasoning. lightly browned and cooked to the point where the juices have turned from rose to yellow. It is Sprinkle salt and pepper over the sautéed scaldone when it has just become resistant to the lops and arrange in the skillet, basting with the pressure of your finger.) Remove the scallops to cream and mushrooms. a dish, and continue with the rest in the same (*) May be done ahead to this point. Set skillet manner, adding more butter and oil as needed. aside, partially covered. Pour all but 2 tablespoons of fat out of the skillet. If fat has burned, discard it and add 2 Tb butter. Stir in the shallots or onions and cook slowly for 1 minute.

Several minutes before serving, cover the skillet and bring almost to the simmer for 4 to 5 minutes, to warm the veal thoroughly but not to overcook it.

Pour the wine and stock or bouillon into the skillet and scrape up all the coagulated cooking juices with wooden spoon. Boil rapidly until liquid has reduced to about ¼ cup.

Arrange the scallops on a hot platter. Spoon the cream and mushrooms over them and surround, if you wish, with the rice or risotto. Decorate with parsley, and serve.

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Entremets et Gâteaux

DESSERTS & CAKES Fundamental Techniques And Information

One or several of the following processes will be a part of almost any dessert or cake recipe you encounter. Some can be accomplished by machine, others are better performed by hand. None is difficult, but all contribute to the success of your dish and must be done precisely.

12


13


Riz À L’ impératrice

BAVARIAN CREAM WITH RICE AND FRUITS - A COLD DESSERT For 8 to 10 people

Riz à l’lmpératrice is one of the grand old standbys of the classic French cuisine, and has no relation, fortunately, to the dreadful rice puddings of one’s youth. It is velvet to the tongue, and is always accompanied by a decorative fruit sauce.

¾ cup (4 ounces) finely diced glacéed fruits of various colors, such as cherries, angelica, orange peel 4 Tb kirsch or cognac 1⅓ Tb (1⅓ packages) gelatin ½ cup (4 ounces) white rice 4 quarts boiling water 1⅔ cups boiling milk ⅓ cup granulated sugar 2 Tb butter A 1-quart covered, fireproof casserole 1 tsp vanilla extract A round of buttered waxed paper

14

5 egg yolks A 3- to 4-quart mixing bowl A wire whip or an electric beater ¾ cup granulated sugar

1 tsp cornstarch 1½ cups boiling milk A heavy-bottomed enameled saucepan A wooden spoon 1 tsp vanilla extract 3 Tb apricot preserves forced through a sieve Flavorless cooking oil A 6-cup cylindrical mold about 3½ inches deep, or a ring mold A round of oiled waxed paper 1 cup chilled whipping cream A chilled bowl A chilled beater A round of oiled waxed paper 2 cups strawberry or raspberry sauce, page 592 A chilled serving platter


Preheat oven to 300 degrees. Mix the fruits in a small bowl with the kirsch or cognac. Sprinkle on the gelatin and set aside until needed. Sprinkle the rice into the boiling water and boil 5 minutes. Drain thoroughly. Bring milk, sugar, and butter to boil in the casserole. Stir in the rice and vanilla. Bring to simmer on top of the stove. Lay paper over the rice, cover casserole, and set in preheated oven to cook very slowly for 35 to 40 minutes, until the milk has been absorbed and the rice is very tender. Meanwhile, following the procedure for creme anglaise, page 588, place egg yolks in mixing bowl. Gradually beat in the sugar and continue beating until mixture is pale yellow and forms the ribbon. Beat in the cornstarch, then the boiling milk by droplets. Pour into saucepan and stir over moderate heat until custard coats the spoon Lightly (170 degrees). Do not bring near the simmer or egg yolks will curdle.

Remove from heat and immediately stir in the glacĂŠed fruits and gelatin mixture, stirring until gelatin has thoroughly dissolved. Add the vanilla and apricot preserves. Stir the rice into the custard, a spoonful at a time if rice is hot. Chill, stirring occasionally, until cold but not set. Lightly oil the inside of the mold and line the bottom with oiled waxed paper. When the rice custard has cooled, beat the cream until doubled in volume and beater leaves light traces on the surface, page 580. Fold the cream delicately into the rice custard, and turn the mixture into the mold. Cover with oiled waxed paper. Refrigerate for 4 hours or overnight. Remove waxed paper. Dip mold in very hot water for 1 second (a few seconds more if mold is not of metal). Run a knife around the custard, and unmold on chilled serving platter. Surround with the sauce. (NOTE: After dessert has been unmolded, you may decorate it with glacĂŠed fruits.)

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printed in u.s.a.


Jack T. Xü Spring, 2015

Master the Art of French Cooking  

A Julia Child cookbook mock-up by Jack T. Xü

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