Thomas Coulborn & Sons Catalogue

Page 1

I Vesey Manor, Sutton Coldfield, West Midlands B72 1QP Tel: +44 (0)121 354 3974 Mobile: +44 (0)7941 252 299

Thomas and Mary Coulborn bought Vesey Manor in 1942 as

We have been members of the British

a base for their expanding antiques business and they were

Antique Dealers’ Association for over fifty

joined by their twin sons, Peter and Paul in the late 1950s.

years, and are proud to include some great

While Paul left the business to pursue his love of cabinet

institutions amongst our valued clientele:

making in the 1970s, Peter devoted his life to antiques dealing, only gradually and reluctantly retiring about 10

The Victoria & Albert Museum

years ago. The sandstone property was originally built as a

Temple Newsam House

farm for Bishop Vesey of Exeter, a favourite of King Henry

The National Trust

VIII, in the mid 16th century and was substantially enlarged

The British Museum

and adapted by the builder Edward John Charles in 1900.

Birmingham Museum & Art Gallery

You would be very welcome to visit.

Herbert Art Gallery, Coventry Buckinghamshire County Museum

With the third generation at the helm, Thomas Coulborn

Soho House Museum

& Sons continues to cement an international reputation

Aston Hall

amongst collectors, decorators and museum curators

The Metropolitan Museum

for discovering and presenting items of great interest and

Boston Museum of Fine Arts


Fine Art Museums of San Francisco Art Institute of Chicago The Rijksmuseum

Dear Friends and Clients, I am very pleased to be sending you a copy of our first catalogue. Like everyone, our exhibiting activities have been severely restricted by events beyond our control, but we have been able to continue to find wonderful things and we have missed being able to share our discoveries and engage in the dialogue that ensues. So, in a fiercely digital age, we decided to print a catalogue, and special thanks are due to our new recruit, Stephanie Forrester, for her invaluable contribution. There is, of course, more information on our website, but as a temporary replacement for being able to handle and view the objects in person, we hope you will enjoy a journey through these pages instead. We have included a selection of items which represents my eclectic taste, spanning various periods, cultures and design influences. Each item has its own remarkable story, and I remain in awe of the many exceptionally talented people who produced them. We have prioritised photos over words, so please get in touch to find out more about each piece. I look forward to hearing from you.

Jonathan Coulborn



























































1 Late 17th Century Scarlet Japanned Cabinet on a later painted stand England, circa 1690 HEIGHT: 67.75ins (172cms) WIDTH: 43.75ins (111cms) DEPTH: 24ins (61cms) PROVENANCE:

Private Collection, Paris


his cabinet is amongst a small group of fine 17th century pieces made in the earliest period of “japanned”

The treatise is often (correctly) quoted as the source for the chinoiserie designs that became so popular thereafter. On

furniture. Its highly unusual compositions, framed in

this cabinet, the influence of Stalker and Parker is extremely

striking shapes, are quite different from the decoration that

clear, but the japanner interpreted his source with more

was more widely produced by the London workshops of

freshness and freedom than the often more formulaic designs

Belchier and Grendey in the first half of the 18 century.

that were to follow. The wild large sprays of flowers in vases,


intricate interconnecting buildings, and the ambassadorial In 1688 a source book by John Stalker and George Parker

receptions all relate closely to designs in Stalker and Parker

A Treatise of Japanning and Varnishing was published to

notably plates 2, 14 and 23. Also worthy of note are the fine

assist professional cabinet makers by providing recipes for

elaborate gilt brass hinges and lock plates which frame the

Japanning as well as designs for figures, gardens and plants.

japanner’s exuberant and joyful composition.

2 George III Carved Mahogany Elbow Chair attributed to Wright & Elwick England, circa 1760 HEIGHT: 40ins (101.5cms) WIDTH: 28ins (71cms) DEPTH: 30ins (76cms) PROVENANCE:

Collection of Robert Garnett Jnr 1830-1903 of Garnett & Sons, cabinet makers of Warrington and by descent


ichard Wright & Edward Elwick of Wakefield (1745-

1771) became the pre-eminent firm of cabinet makers

and upholsterers in Yorkshire during the second half of the

18th century. Their premises in Gill's Yard, Wakefield are still standing. Richard Wright, who may have directed the Soho tapestry factory before moving from London to Wakefield had the expertise that enabled the firm to advertise such a wide range of services relating to tapestries, carpets and needlework. Wright subscribed (like his partner) to Chippendale's Director 1754. Edward Elwick, ‘merchant taylor’ of York commended the ‘neat plainness’ of his furniture to patrons and wrote to one of them ‘I have the Honour to serve most of the Nobility & Gentry in the West and North Rideing’. Yorkshire provided nearly all the firm's commissions including Sir Rowland Winn at Nostell Priory, the Duke of Norfolk at Worksop Manor, Viscount Irwin at Temple Newsam House, John Spencer at Cannon Hall and the Marquis of Rockingham at Wentworth Woodhouse.


G. Beard and C. Gilbert, eds., Dictionary of English Furniture-Makers 1660-1840, Leeds, 1986, p.1006-1008 Christopher Gilbert, ‘Wright and Elwick Of Wakefield, 1748-1824: A Study of Provincial Patronage’, Furniture History Vol. 12, 1976, p. 34-50, The Furniture History Society

3 Engine Turned Lignum Vitae Standing Cup and Cover and a complete set of 12 dipping cups England, circa 1630 HEIGHT: 11.75ins (30cms) MAX. DIAMETER: 6ins (15cms)

The finial unscrews to reveal a spice box, the underside of the lid incorporating a nutmeg grater, and the interior containing twelve turned tumbler cups and tasters with ‘rose engine turning’ decoration to each base. PROVENANCE:

Berkeley Family, Spetchley Park, Worcestershire, by descent


onathan Levi explains that it is believed that vessels were first made using lignum vitae when the wood was

imported into England from South America in the late 16th

or early 17th century: ‘The properties of this wood allowed the turner to give a bowl a greater depth than had been possible with English woods…, without causing splitting or subsequent leakage of the drink’ (Jonathan Levi, Treen for the Table: Wooden Objects related to Eating and Drinking (Antique Collectors’ Club, Suffolk, 1988), p.17). Lignum vitae was rare and very demanding to work, making the degree of decoration in this standing cup and cover very unusual.

The art of ornamental turning, as shown elaborately on


this standing cup and, incredibly, on the base of each of the

Jonathan Levi, Treen for the Table: Wooden Objects related

complete set of dipping cups, originated in South Germany

to Eating and Drinking, 1988

in the 16


century. Often performed on ivory goblets as

Owen Evan-Thomas, Domestic Utensils of Wood, Stobart

well as wood, the intricate geometric patterns were greatly

Davies, Hertford, 1992

admired and ivory examples in particular are represented in

Edward H. Pinto, Treen and Other Wooden Bygones, Bell &

the Wunderkammers of the Great Treasuries of Continental

Hyman Ltd., London, 1979

Europe. The standing cup offered here demonstrates the

‘Spetchley Park-I. Worcestershire, The Seat of Mr. R. V.

highest level of sophistication achieved by a British turner

Berkeley’ in Country Life, 8th July 1916

and the conservation of its complete set of cups is apparently unique.

4 Ebony Casket Mounted with Florentine Pietra Dura Panels and Specimen Marbles Italy, late 17th century HEIGHT: 11.25ins (29cms)


WIDTH: 16.75ins (43cms)

Collection of Elizabeth Parke Firestone Firestone family by descent until 2012

DEPTH: 14ins (35.5cms)

With Galerie Sarti, Paris The drawer and the interior accessed via spring locks, the

Private European Collection

interior lined with crimson velvet with a mirror on the underside of the lid. Complete with keys.


Galerie G. Sarti, Fasteux Objets en Marbre et Pierres Dures: Catalogue no 7, London, 2006, illustated as a reference (not for sale) p. 38, fig. 26


ietra dura’ or ‘pietre dure’, the so-called ‘Florentine

The motifs of birds and flowers used on this casket are

brand’ dates back to the late 16 century and consisted

typical of the Grand Ducal Workshops of Florence in the

of a mosaic technique which used natural colours and

late 17th century. Giovanni Battista Foggini (1652-1725) was


precious stones, cut in sections and matched to form a

director of the workshops under Duke Cosimo III (1670-

larger image. ‘Stone painting’ was the term used to define

1723). A wide range of pietra dura-inlaid objects were made

Florentine mosaics, as artisans used the technique to

under his supervision.

represent a wide range of subjects. Flowers and plants were frequently depicted alongside fruit and birds.


By the 1700s, pietra dura became increasingly fashionable,


and artists trained in this workshop travelled all over Europe to work for other noble or royal households, with

In 1588, Grand Duke Ferdinando I of Tuscany founded

elaborate pieces being commissioned by the aristocracy

the Galleria de’ Lavori, the Medici grand-ducal hardstone

and nobility of Europe, who then commissioned a custom-

workshop in Florence. The Grand Duke hired and trained

made piece of furniture to display their stonework. Pictorial

local craftsmen to restore ancient carved-stone objects and

pietra dura panels depicting flowers, fruit and birds, set on

to create original works in pietra dura, making pictures

a background of black marble edged with yellow marble

by setting together thin pieces of brightly coloured stones.

borders, were the favourite compositions for the Galleria de’

During the 1600s, the Galleria worked primarily in

Lavori. Renamed the Opificio delle Pietre Dure in the mid-

Florence, concentrating on the decorations of the Medici

1800s, the workshop continues to operate today as a state-

family’s chapel in the church of San Lorenzo, begun in 1605.

supported institution.

5 Marble and Ormolu Desk Stand for the Indian Market France, circa 1840 HEIGHT: 8ins (20.5cms) WIDTH: 20ins (51cms) DEPTH: 15.5ins (39.5cms)

The rooves of the two buildings at the rear of the stand open to reveal two red velvet interiors. The building on the left hand side houses an inkwell with an ormolu lid and a glass container; the building on the right hand side containing two glass containers with ormolu lids engraved: ‘LIGHTS’ and ‘STAMPS’.

6 George II Walnut Coffer on Stand England, circa 1730 HEIGHT: 33.5ins (85cms) WIDTH: 45ins (114cms) DEPTH: 22ins (55.5cms) PROVENANCE:

with Jeremy Ltd., London English Private Collection

7 17th Century Danish Carved Beechwood and Polychrome Decorated Mangle Board Denmark, possibly Grimstrup HEIGHT: 5.7ins (14.5cms) WIDTH: 6.3ins (16cms) LENGTH: 24.4ins (62cms)

The applied handle of a mermaid with scrolling tail over a cartouche reading JMBB.


n An Encyclopedia of the History of Technology’ Ian McNeil states: ‘During the sixteenth century the mangling

board and roller came into general use. The idea spread from

Holland, Denmark and northern Germany.... The material was wrapped round the roller... which was placed on a flat table. The mangling board [was] then passed backwards and forwards over the roller until the fabric was smoothed... The idea was exported by Dutch colonists, particularly to North America and South Africa.’ This action was a hand version of the wheel and chain operated box mangle. While the board could be beautifully decorated on one side the roller had to be smooth and plain for effective ‘ironing’. Making an attractive carved mangling board was a part of the winter’s husflid; traditional carving which is carried out during the long winter months when it is not possible to work outside. Such mangling boards were not only used as ornaments within the home but were also sometimes hung outside the entrance door to the house to publicise that the owner took in laundry (Pinto, Treen & Other Wooden Bygones, p.153). By tradition, mangling boards became a popular courtship gift, hand-carved by men to be given to their brides at their engagement. This example includes the initials of the courting couple. It would have been a great honour to have received such a beautifully carved mangle board as a love token.

8 Late 17th/Early 18th Century Batavian Relief-Carved Ebony Casket Indonesia, circa 1680-1720 HEIGHT: 15.3ins (39cms)

The interior and drawer lined with red velvet, the hinges

WIDTH: 21ins (53cms)

replaced in the 19th century.

DEPTH: 14.5ins (37cms)


his type of furniture is associated with the workshops

Comparable examples of chests of this quality are rare, but

of Batavia (present-day Jakarta) which became the

a large ebony cabinet on a stand in the Rijksmuseum (circa

centre of the Dutch East India Company's trading network

1680-1720, published in Veenendaal, 2014, p.25, fig. 23) has

in Asia and European-style furniture was made for the

large lotus floral carvings similar to the decoration on this

Dutch elite in the region. According to Van Campen, the

casket. Also, an example of similar size to this one can be

floral decoration was made to fit the senior Dutch officials’

found in the National Trust Collection at Kingston Lacy,

demands. (Van Campen, p. 54 and 56, fig.34). This casket


is typical of the style which incorporated Indonesian and Dutch motifs.


J. & Hartkamp-Jonxis, E. Van Campen, Asian Splendour: Company Art in the Rijksmuseum, Walburg Pers, Amsterdam, 2011 J. Veenendaal, Furniture from Indonesia, Sri Lanka and India during the Dutch Period, Foundation Volkenkundig Museum Nusantara, Delft, 1985

9 Regency Coade Stone Torchère by Coade & Sealy, Designed by Thomas Hopper (1776-1856) Signed, inscribed and dated: COADE & SEALY LAMBETH 1810 HEIGHT: 82ins (208cms)


WIDTH: 17.5ins (44.5cms)

W.H. Pyne Royal Residences, London, 1818, plates I, II

LENGTH: 18.5ins (47cms)

One of the torchères is illustrated in Geoffrey de Bellaigue and Pat Kirkham, ‘George IV and the Furnishing of


Windsor Castle’ in Furniture History: The Journal of the

Supplied to George, Prince of Wales (later King George IV)

Furniture History Society, Volume VIII, 1972, p.1-34, pl.13B.

for Carlton House, Pall Mall

Alison Kelly, Mrs Coade's Stone, Upton-upon-Severn, 1990,

Removed to the Coffee Room at Windsor Castle in the

illustrated p.220


The Queen's Gallery Carlton House: The Past Glories of

Collection of Sir Robert Gordon Cooke MP, Athelhampton

George IV's Palace, London, 1991, p.225, illus. back cover,

House, Dorset

Buckingham Palace Exhibition Catalogue Diane Bilbey and Marjorie Trusted, British Sculpture 14702000. A Concise Catalogue of the Collection at the Victoria and Albert Museum, London: V&A 2002, p. 307, cat. no. 471 Celina Fox (ed.), London - World City, 1800-1840, New Haven: Yale University Press, 1992 no. 279


his is one of a set of ten individually-designed torchères

One of the torchères is illustrated in Geoffrey de Bellaigue

commissioned for the Prince Regent and designed by

and Pat Kirkham’s ‘George IV and the Furnishing of

Thomas Hopper. They were originally made for the cast-

Windsor Castle’ which was published in Furniture History:

iron gothic Conservatory at Carlton House, the London

The Journal of the Furniture History Society, Volume VIII,

residence of the Prince Regent, later George IV (1762-1830).

1972, p.1-34, pl. 13B. De Bellaigue and Kirkham comment

The conservatory also housed Coade Stone statues of kings,

that Morel and Seddon originally listed four candelabra

bishops and a pilgrim, and featured a central fountain with

to appear in ‘Room 240’ – the King’s Apartment. However,

eight dragons. Each torchère would have held brass lamps

‘eight were despatched to this room on 26 November 1827 by

with six burners and originally stood on a black marble plinth.

Morel and Seddon’. In addition, ‘[t]he complete set of ten were fitted with new oil lamps, four for each candelabrum, by

Kelly writes of the decoration for the conservatory by

Messrs William and George Perry at an estimated cost of £10

Coade and Sealy ‘In July of 1810. Some Statues were ready,

per piece’ (ibid, p.28).

“2 statues of ancient Kings and 2 do. Of Bishops and 1 statue of a Pilgrim for niches in the Conservatory.” They…seem

Of the ten original candelabra, six went to Leeds Castle

reasonable at £96.12s.0d. – less than £20 each; but much

following their purchase at Christie’s on 19 November 1970.

dearer was a set of ten extraordinary Candelabra, the only

One was sold at Christie’s in 1989, and bought for the

survivors of all this fantastic ornament, which were sent at the

National Museum of Wales, Cardiff.’ (Item number NMW

same time… They supported brass lamps and stood on black

A 30042).

marble plinths; probably it was these features which brought the cost of the Candelabra to £500.’ (Alison Kelly, Mrs

One torchère is in the collection of the Victoria and Albert

Coade's Stone, p. 219-220).

Museum, London; Museum number: A.92-1980.

Carlton House was demolished in 1827 and the torchères were then moved to Windsor Castle where they graced the Coffee Room.

The image of the interior of the Conservatory at Carlton House show the torchères depicted in situ in the piers between the arched Gothic windows.


crisp details and weathered better than other forms of

Coade & Sealy was founded by Eleanor Coade (1733-1821)

claimed it had ‘a property peculiar to itself of resisting the frost

sculpture. In one of her advertisements, Eleanor Coade around 1769 when she moved from Lyme Regis, Dorset to

and consequently of retaining that sharpness in which it excels

London and opened a factory in Lambeth making artificial

every kind of stone sculpture.’ (Rupert Gunnis, Dictionary

stone. Eleanor’s husband, George Coade died in 1768 but

of British Sculptors 1660-1851, The Abbey Library, 1968,

Eleanor ran the business with her nephew, John Sealy (1749-

p.105). The technique meant that all manner of sculptures,

1813). Examples of the output from the firm can be found

seating, decorative and architectural items could be made

around the world including Canada, America, Brazil.

for a fraction of the cost of sculpted stone.

Poland, Russia and the West Indies. Notable items include gate piers for Horace Walpole at Strawberry Hill (1772); a


statue of Nelson in Montreal (1808); a model of a ship for the entrance of the West India Docks (1804); the west window

Thomas Hopper (1776-1856) was an architect and designer

of Exeter Cathedral (around 1809); and the tympanum of

who famously said 'it is an architect's business to understand

the west pediment of Greenwich Palace (completed in 1813)

all styles, and to be prejudiced in favour of none'.

which was 40 feet long and around 9 feet high. On Mrs Coade’s death, in 1796, she was succeeded by her daughter. Coade and Sealy was active until 1833.


Geoffrey de Bellaigue and Pat Kirkham, ‘George IV and COADE STONE

the Furnishing of Windsor Castle’ in Furniture History: The Journal of the Furniture History Society, Volume VIII,

Originally known as ‘Lithodipyra’ or ‘Lithodipra’ (‘stone

1972, p.1-34, pl. 13B.

fired twice’) Coade Stone is a cast artficial stone – a ceramic-

Rupert Gunnis, Dictionary of British Sculptors, 1660-1851,

type material. As such, it could be easily reproduced with

The Abbey Library p.105-109

10 Early Victorian Cast Iron Fire Grate in the manner of A.W.N. Pugin England, circa 1840 HEIGHT: 37ins (94cms) WIDTH: 37.75ins (96cms) DEPTH: 13.75ins (35cms)

There are two designs which relate closely to this fire grate - the ‘New Sheffield pattern for a modern Castellated Grate’ in The True Principles of Pointed or Christian Architecture by A.W.N. Pugin, London: 1841 and another in Ackermann's Repository of Arts, London: 1811-1828 - Gothic Fireplace Plate 34, Vol. 5.

11 James I Oak and Ash Turner’s/Thrown Armchair England, North Country, possibly Lake District, circa 1620 HEIGHT: 26.5ins (67.5cms) WIDTH: 23ins (58.5cms) DEPTH: 45ins (114.5cms)

Known as a ‘Turner’s chair’ because all the parts, including the seat, are turned on a pole-lathe by a wood-turner – except for the unusual nulled-carved and puncheddecorated horizontal rails and uprights incorporated into the back. A most unusual feature of this chair is that the back uprights terminate with pendants and as such are disengaged from a single rear leg, the latter forming a three-post base with the bold, turned front supports. With four spindles between the front seat rail and the front stretcher, and a row of ball finials along the top edge of the stepped and curved cresting rail.


tools and chairs are the most important aspects of turners’ furniture. The role of the turner is usually considered

a secondary function – as a decorator of joined furniture,

taking on aesthetic rather than structural responsibilities. Yet the turner was also responsible for an independent range of items, which included furniture, spinning wheels, mortars, cups, bowls and scales. The principle of turnery consists of shaping a piece of wood with chisels whilst it revolves around an axis between the jaws of a lathe. This process was precisely described in the 17th century: ‘…Any substance, be it Wood, Ivory, Brass, etc., pitcht steddy upon two points (as on an Axis), and moved about on that Axis, also describes a Circle concentric to the Axis; And an Edge-Tool set steddy to that part of the Aforesaid Substance that is nearest the Axis, will in a Circumvolution of that Substance, cut off all the parts of Substance that lies further off the Axis and make the outside of that Substance also Concentrick to the Axis… This is a brief Collection, and indeed the whole Summ of Turning….’ (see Victor Chinnery, Oak Furniture: The British Tradition, Antique Collectors’ Club, 1979, p. 81-86 for information about turning; and p.87-104 for information about turned chairs). The terms ‘turner’ and ‘thrower’ mean the same thing, thus the classic turned chairs are described as both ‘turneyed’ and ‘throwen’ in English inventories.

12 James I Carved Oak Polychrome-decorated and Parcel-gilt Heraldic Supporters in the form of a Lion and a Unicorn England, circa 1605 LION: HEIGHT: 16ins (40.5cms) WIDTH: 5.25ins (13cms) DEPTH: 8.25ins (21cms) UNICORN: HEIGHT: 15.25ins (39cms) WIDTH: 5.5ins (14cms) DEPTH: 8ins (20cms)

Original painted decoration.


n the form of a lion and a unicorn, supporters of the Royal

Arms. The lion and the unicorn are symbols of the United

Kingdom – taking the form of heraldic supporters. The lion symbolises England and the unicorn symbolises Scotland.

This combination dates back to 1603, when King James VI of Scotland succeeded Elizabeth I when she died without children. Until this time the Scottish Royal Arms had used two unicorns as shield supporters; whilst the English Arms had used a variety of supporters, but had most frequently included a lion. James I placed a lion upon the left of the new Arms, and a unicorn upon the right. However, the rampant red lion had always been the primary symbol of Scotland. The Stuart dynasty reigned in England and Scotland from 1603 until 1714. During the Jacobean period (the reign of James I) court culture and courtly patronage flourished. Great country houses were built by wealthy landed families – for example the Howards built Audley End and the Sackvilles constructed Knole – and skilled craftsmen were employed to work on elaborate decoration and ornamentation for these homes. BIBLIOGRAPHY:

Anthony Wells-Cole, Art and Decoration in Elizabethan and Jacobean England: The Influence of Continental Prints, 1558-1625, Paul Mellon Centre for Studies in British Art, Yale University Press New Haven & London, 1997

13 Tudor Carved Oak Relief Panel King John England, circa 1530 HEIGHT: 18.5ins (47cms) WIDTH: 23.5ins (59.5cms) DEPTH: 2.75ins (7cms)

With remnants of original gilt and polychrome decoration.


Probably commissioned c. 1530 by Lord De La Warr during his redecoration of the main Hall at Halnaker 1540 de la Warr was forced to relinquish Halnaker to King Henry VIII and Halnaker was granted by indenture to Sir John Jenyns, Esquier and Gentleman of Henry's Privy Chamber, the Master of the Ordinance in Boulogne, until his death in 1545 1561 the house was granted to Henry, 12th Earl of Arundel 1566 settled on Henry’s son-in-law John, Lord Lumley 1587 sold to Sir John Morley of Saxham, Suffolk Thence by descent in the Morley family until Mary Morley, Dowager Countess Derby (who had married James, 10th Earl of Derby in 1704) died in 1752 and left the estate to Sir Thomas Dyke Acland 1765 Charles Lennox, 3rd Duke of Richmond bought Halnaker for £48,000 Dukes of Richmond, panel removed to Goodwood House by 1822, until 1939 Private Collection, UK LITERATURE:

D. Jacques, Librarian of Goodwood, A Visit to Goodwood, near Chichester, the seat of His Grace the Duke of Richmond with an Appendix, descriptive of an ancient painting. (William Mason, Chichester, 1822). The Bognor, Arundel and Littlehampton Guide, Comprising a History of those Places, and of the Castle of Arundel; with topographical notices of the Villages of Aldwick, Pagham, Northmundham, Selsey, Felpham, Middleton, Yapton, Walberton, Slindon, Bartham, Boxgrove, &c. &c. with a Full Description of Good House and of the Roman Remains at Bignor (William Mason, Chichester, 1828, p. 150). The 1903 Inventory of Goodwood House in the Long Hall: , 'an antique carved wood and gilt panel, 29 × 23 ins, with Coat of Arms and masks in relief & in the centre a representation of King John with the Orb & Sceptre' Country Life Picture Library, photo no. 4726468 of the Long Hall at Goodwood, illustrated situated above the door Victoria & Albert Museum: Fifty Masterpieces of Woodwork, Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1955, no. 18. An Oak Panel; mentions ‘a panel found at Goodwood House’ Victoria & Albert Museum: Collection Museum Number: 1585-1855; Online Object History

'King John'


uring the 16th century, Lord De La Warr made various

'Unknown King' © Victoria & Albert Museum


additions and alterations to Halnaker House. J. Lewis

André comments: ‘The hall at Halnaker appears to have been

The earliest reference to this panel was by D. Jacques in

a part of the house which received especial attention, and he

1822 when it was described as being inscribed ‘King John’.

[Lord De La Warr] panelled its walls from floor to ceiling with

Remants of the inscription were visible before the removal

rich and elegant work… These panels, from descriptions left

of the varnish. While the inscription was not thought to

of them, must have been exceedingly intricate and beautiful’

be part of the original decorative scheme, its style and

(J. Lewis André, Halnaker House, Sussex Archaeological

colouring and the fact that it was in English, all suggest it

Collections, Volume 43, 1900, p.201-213).

had been added, but the early 19th century reference to it being King John must have been for a reason and so should


carry some weight.

Two other panels of closely related compositions are

All three panels share several features which suggest that

known. One is in the collection of the Museum of London,

they were, in fact, intended as royal portraits. First, the

and is a representation of King Stephen. It is thought to

regalia with which they are furnished is stylised, but bears a

have possibly originally formed part of a decorative frieze

resemblance to that with which English kings were furnished

in Winchester House, the London residence built in the

in printed works which pre-dated this panel. John Rastell

1500s by Lord Treasurer, Sir William Paulet, Marquis of

(1468-1536, Sir Thomas More's brother-in-law) published

Winchester, within the precincts of the dissolved friary. This

The Pastyme of People or The Cronycles of Englande

panel was recoloured and gilded in 1912.

and of Dyvers other realmys [STC 20724], in 1529/1530, a chronicle which included the novelty of single page woodcut

The second panel is in the collection of the Victoria & Albert

illustrations of every King of England since the Conquest,

Museum (Museum Number: 1585-1855). It was acquired by

rendering them with orbs, sceptres and swords very like

the Museum in 1855, and has been historically linked to the

those which appear on this series of panels.

Paulet provenance on the basis of its evident relationship with the Museum of London panel, before the discovery of

Fifty Masterpieces of Woodwork (Victoria & Albert Museum,

the “Goodwood” panel.

Her Majesty’s Stationery Office, London, 1955), no. 18 notes that the heraldry to these panels is explicitly English, in that

All three panels are the same size.

the central bust is flanked by 'a crowned shield bearing three lions passant guardant, from the Royal Arms of Henry VIII'. The same shields flank the bust in the panel offered here.

in Ghent. The decorative motifs employed on the columns relate very closely to many of those on the present panel showing the strong influence of Florentine technique and design. A chimney-piece design by Hans Holbein the Younger (1497/8–1543) preserved in the British Museum (Museum no. 1854,0708.1), featuring roundels and similar grotesque foliate ornament typical of early Renaissance woodwork in this country, resonates with the carving of these three panels. The British Museum catalogue German Drawings in the British Museum... by artists born before 1530 (1993) 2 vols., No. 327, notes ‘on stylistic grounds, the drawing may preferably be placed towards the end of Holbein's career, c. 1537-43. The 'King Stephen' © Museum of London

design of this chimney-piece is reflected in English architecture of later decades, such as the grand chimney-piece, at Loseley, near Guildford, Surrey, of 1562-8…’

The three lions were first used by Richard I (or Lionheart)

Hans Holbein was in England between 1526 and 1528

from c. 1198 and used by his successors until 1340. That is to

and returned for a second visit in 1531/2–1543. His dates,

say that they were used by King John (1199 – 1216), Henry

therefore, overlap with these panels, and it is possible that he

III (1216 – 1272), Edward I (1272 – 1307), Edward II (1307 –

designed them. They certainly share features with his other

1327), and Edward III (1327 – 1377) until 1340. In Rastell's

known designs.

Pastyme, this convention is observed, with Stephen given three sagittarii, and his successors up until Edward II the


three lions passant guardant. This exceptional panel is a highly sophisticated example of The concept of the Divine Right of Kings suited the

the influence of the Florentine Renaissance in Tudor England.

political motives of Henry VIII and legitimate succession

The discovery, thanks to the recent dendrochronological

was essential to support this ideology. The series of mural

analysis, that this ‘King John’ panel and the companion

portraits of English monarchs in roundels by Lambert

panel in the Victoria and Albert Museum both incorporate

Barnard at Chichester Cathedral serve to are reinforce the

an oak board cut from the same tree, confirm what is already

legitimate succession of the monarch, and it is possible that

suggested by their evidently similar design; that they were

the scheme to which this panel belonged, was using images

surely intended for the same decorative scheme. Given that

of past kings to reinforce the Tudors’ right to the throne.

there is documentary evidence that panel was at Halnaker House in the 18th century, and that Lord de la Warr installed


impressive carved oak panelling there in the first half of 16th century before the house was purchased in 1540 by King

The influence of the Florentine Rennaissance in Tudor

Henry VIII, it is reasonable to suggest that these panels may

England was considerable and Henry VIII’s desire to make

well have been orginally installed there.

an impact amongst other European monarchs led to painters and sculptors from Italy and France being commissioned

We are extremely grateful to Megan Wheeler for her

to create new interiors for Royal Palaces to impress – and

extensive research and contribution to these notes; to Nick

compete with – visiting diplomats and foreign royalty.

Humphries and his colleagues in the Department of Furniture and Woodwork at the Victoria and Albert Museum for

Cardinal Wolseley commissioned Benedetto de Rovezzano

allowing access to make close comparison of the construction

to design and produce his tomb. It was later adopted by

of the King John panel and theirs, and allowing Ian Tyers

Henry VIII and ultimately broken up but Rovezzano’s

to acess to analyse the V&A panel to faciliate make

columns for the tomb still exist and are currently found

dendrochronolical comparison of the two panels.

14 Alabaster Group of Christ’s Tomb England, Nottingham, 15th century HEIGHT: 5.25ins (13.5cms) WIDTH: 10.5ins (26.5cms) DEPTH: 3.25ins (8cms)


he Resurrection of Jesus is central to Christian faith

‘Nottingham alabaster’ refers to the sculpture industry which

and art. It is depicted in Christian art – both as a single

thrived in England from the 14th until the early 16th century.

scene and as part of a cycle showing the Life of Christ. The

The alabaster carvers worked in London, York and Burton-

inclusion of the sleeping guards, illustrated in this alabaster

on-Trent, but the largest concentration of production was

group, appear in one of the earliest depictions of the scene –

around Nottingham – in Derbyshire and Staffordshire –

an ivory plaque dated c. 400 AD.

where large accessible deposits of alabaster were discovered,

Nottinghamshire alabasters often depict The Resurrection

Most of the alabaster carvings were relatively small and

hence the work being referred to as ‘Nottingham alabaster’. of Christ, but this portrayal of the group at Christ’s tomb is

depicted religious subjects. The newly-finished carvings

unusual in that it captures the moment in between death and

were polished and pristine, brightly coloured and gilded.

resurrenction. The new British Galleries in the Metropolitan

They were usually commissioned for churches but also

Museum in New York incorporate a group display of six

for the home. For congregations who were largely unable

alabaster reliefs showing Christ before death, being laid

to read, these alabaster carvings served to bring biblical

on the tomb, and resurrecting, emerging triumphant from

narratives to life. English alabaster carvings were traded

Death while the soliders sleep.

across Continental Europe and North America.

15 Pair of Regency Gothic Revival Hall Chairs England, circa 1825 HEIGHT: 36ins (91.5cms)


WIDTH: 16ins (41cms)

Acquired from Mallet in the 1980s

DEPTH: 18.5ins (47cms)

Private Collection

Carved oak. Elements of the design of these unusual chairs show the influence of George Smith’s designs for ‘parlour chairs’.

16 Pair of Ormolu-Mounted Agate Ground Porcelain Vases by Dihl & Guérhard France, Paris, circa 1800 HEIGHT: 20ins (51cms) (2) DIAMETER: 8ins (20cms) (2)

Signed ‘M.Dihl’ on underside of the porcelain base


hristophe Dihl (1752-1830) was a porcelain modeller,

Dihl was a man of broad scientific interests whose focus

originally from Neustadt. In 1781, Dihl and his business

was on research into colours. He investigated effects which

partner Antoine Guérhard (d.1793) established a factory. In

simulated hardstones, a technique which he used on this pair

1765 a source for kaolin, the essential raw material in hard-

of vases. Le Guay’s portrait shows Dihl with his palette, and

paste porcelain, had been discovered near Limoges in France.

Dihl is acknowledged to have been the first to establish a

A Royal Decree in 1766 relaxed prohibitions on porcelain

complete palette of colours which could be used to decorate

factories, with the intention of encouraging development of

hard paste porcelain.

this material. Despite this, the Sèvres factory retained its royal patronage and its exclusive right to produce sculptural,

Dihl’s work was highly regarded and there were close links

multi-coloured and gilded porcelain as the Decree only

between the Dihl and Sèvres factories. The Dihl factory won

allowed the other porcelain factories to produce domestic

a number of important awards, including a gold medal at

porcelain, decorated in underglaze blue or a single enamel

the Exposition des produits de l’industrie française in 1806.

colour (‘en camaïeu’), insisting factory marks be added. After

Unlike other factories, Dihl’s did not suffer during and after

the death of Louis XV in 1774, a number of French factories

the Revolution, in part due to trade with England. In 1789,

which were protected by their aristocratic patronage,

Dihl moved to new premises in the Rue du Temple (1789-

disregarded these restrictions. Dihl and Guérhard, under

1828). During this period the pieces were signed ‘Dihl’, ‘M.

the protection of the Duc d’Angoulême, a nephew of Louis

Dihl’ or ‘Dihl et Guérhard, Paris’.

XVI, which enabled them to manufacture coloured and gilt porcelain which had been monopolised by Sèvres since 1766,


opened their factory at Rue de Bondy, Paris. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York has recently The gilt decoration and chased ormolu mounts on this pair

acquired a similar sized and shaped pair of hard-paste

of vases indicate that they would have formed part of an

porcelain vases by Dihl and Guérhard. This pair is decorated

important commission. Dihl’s clients included some of the

with scenes of storms on land, circa 1790–95 (Accession

most celebrated figures of the period. In 1804 a magnificent

Numbers: 2014.68.1 and 2014.68.2).

table top decorated with classical scenes was presented by Napoleon to Charles IV of Spain and Queen Marie Louise.

A single hard-paste porcelain vase, painted in enamels and

In 1792 a table service belonging to the late Marquis de la

gilded is housed in the collection of the Victoria & Albert

Luzerne, former French ambassador to the English court,

Museum, circa 1790-95; (Museum number: 309:1, 2-1876).

was sold in London, while Benjamin Franklin bought a

This vase is a very similar shape to this pair.

tea service for his daughter during his nine-year residence in Paris.

17 George II Mahogany Free-standing Architect's Chest England, circa 1750 HEIGHT: 31ins (78.75cms) WIDTH: 36.5ins (92.75cms) DEPTH: 24ins (61cms)

The chest with an adjustable ratcheted top with a bookrest and candleholders, above a retractable writing surface with a brass handle and key escutcheon to the front, over an arrangement of two short drawers with shaped fronts and two long drawers, all with brass handles and keyhole escutcheons (with keys), on shaped supports.


he first edition of Chippendale’s Director from 1754 included drawing chests/tables with ratcheted tops, as

did The Universal System of Household Furniture by Ince &

Mayhew where they are described more broadly as ‘writing and reading tables.’ The shaped upper corners of the short drawer fronts is a highly unusual - possibly unique - little detail, adding to the charm of this piece.

18 William IV Mahogany and Brass-Mounted Reading Chair England, circa 1835 In the manner of Morgan & Sanders HEIGHT (OF CHAIR BACK): 32.75ins (83cms) HEIGHT WITH READING TABLE: 42ins (107cms) WIDTH OF READING TABLE: 18ins (46cms) WIDTH OF CHAIR: 25ins (63.5cms) DEPTH OF CHAIR: 24.5ins (62cms)


n The Dictionary of English Furniture: Volume One,

supports for the arms. As a proof of their real comfort and

Ralph Edwards discusses library and reading chairs,

convenience, they are now in great sale at the ware-rooms of

commenting that: ‘Early in the eighteenth century a specialised

the inventors, Messrs. Morgan and Sanders, Catherine-street,

form of chair for use in libraries was introduced, padded and

Strand’ (ibid, p.54).

generally covered with leather. They were made in walnut and mahogany.’

(Antique Collectors’ Club, Woodbridge,


Suffolk, 1983), p.317). Morgan & Sanders were upholsterers and cabinet makers Ackermann, in his celebrated journal The Repository of Arts,

with premises at Trafalgar House, 16-17 Catherine Street,

Literature, Commerce, Manufactures, Fashions and Politics,

near the Strand, who were in business between c.1801-1820.

published from 1809 until 1828, describes and illustrates

There is much information about the business of Morgan

a pair of ‘Library Reading Chairs’ (op. cit.): ‘two of the

& Sanders because of their involvement with Rudolph

most convenient and comfortable library chairs perhaps ever

Ackermann, who was a print seller, art dealer and publisher

completed. Each of them has become a favourite piece of

of the monthly periodical The Repository of Arts, Literature,

furniture for the library, boudoir, and other apartments of the

Commerce, Manufactures, Fashions and Politics, for which

nobility and gentry.’ He describes the second chair as: ‘a more

Morgan & Sanders supplied a succession of furniture

novel article, but equally convenient and pleasant [as the chair

designs which were published between 1809 and 1815. The

on the left]: gentlemen either sit across, with the face towards

firm actively promoted their patent furniture through

the desk, contrived for reading, writing, &c. and which, by a

advertisements in the press (Ambrose Heal, The London

rising rack, can be elevated at pleasure; or, when its occupier

Furniture Makers from the Restoration to the Victorian era

is tired of the first position, it is with the greatest ease turned

1660-1840 (B.T. Batsford Ltd, 1953), plate on page 115).

round in a brass grove, to either side or the other; in which

For more information see the British and Irish Furniture

case the gentleman site sideways. The circling arms in either

Makers Online section on Morgan & Sanders.

way form a pleasant easy back, and also, in every direction,

Plate showing reading chairs from Ackermann’s Regency Furniture & Interiors

19 Pair of Kalgan Jasper Medici Vases by the Imperial Lapidary Works Russia, Ekaterinburg, circa 1860s-1870 HEIGHT: 14.75ins (37.5cms)


WIDTH: 7ins (18cms)

Illustrated in Jacques Kugel, Treasures of the Czars: Russia

DEPTH: 7ins (18cms)

& Europe from Peter the Great to Nicholas I, Paris, 1998, plate 293. Treasures of the Czars emphasises the quality


of the polishing techniques used by the craftsmen in the

Galerie J. Kugel, Paris

Imperial Lapidary Workshops. The craftsmen’s skills are

Christie’s Paris, Une Américaine à Paris: Un pied-à-terre

displayed in the execution of this pair of vases, notably in

par François Catroux, 11 October 2006, lot 17

the contrast between the matte finish of the long leaves and

Sotheby’s London, Russian Art, Works of Art and Faberge,

the polished appearance of the body of the vases.

27 November 2007, lot 480 Private European Collection


he Medici Vase, now in the Uffizi Gallery in Florence,

In 1800, the Count Stroganoff who was the Director of the

is a Roman marble bell-shaped krater made in Athens

Academy Fine Arts, was given responsibility for the Imperial

in about AD50–100. Over a metre and a half tall, it was at

Lapidary Workshops. He resolved to modernise the tools

the Villa Medici in Rome by 1598, first appearing in the

and to focus on collaboration with artistic talents. The

inventory of the Medici collection that century. The vase

best artisans received scholarships to study at the Academy

was widely copied, and appeared in many prints in the 17th

in St Petersburg, and returned to the Imperial Lapidary

and 18th centuries.

Workshops with a foundation in art and technique.


In 1863, the factory received a set of sixteen drawings from

During the 18th century, having observed stonecutting in

Majesty’s Cabinet, according to which similar works were

Holland, Peter the Great instigated gem and stone grinding

executed over the next twenty years.

St. Petersburg together with instructions from His Imperial

production at Peterhov, his summer palace just outside St Petersburg. After several geological expeditions, discoveries

Dr Ludmila Budrina notes that an 1863 drawing marked

of rich deposits and larger veins of semi-precious hard stones

with the letter ‘F’ is a design for a small Medici vase in

were discovered in the Urals and further east in Siberia,

Kalgan Jasper, with gadrooned ornament on the base and

many of which were unique to Russia. Consequently, in

one row of vertical acanthus leaves on the main body –

1751, a factory was opened at Ekaterinburg in the Urals; and

similar to the design of these vases.

in 1784 another facility was set up at Kolyvan in the Altai Mountains. Locating these factories closer to the mineral


extraction centres solved the problem of the difficulty

Jacques Kugel, Treasures of the Czars: Russia & Europe

and expensive of transporting of the blocks throughout

from Peter the Great to Nicholas I, Paris, 1998

Russia. These three centres of production catered for the

Ludmila Budrina, ‘Two Malachite Vases by Yekaterinburg

needs of the Russian Imperial Family, producing a large

Masters in Imperial Diplomacy’ in Quaestio Rossica, Vol. 6,

range of hard stone objects from buttons and boxes to urns

2018, p.151–160

and architectural specimens such as fireplaces, columns and tombs. The Russian Imperial Academy of Fine Arts

We are grateful to Ludmila Budrina for her assistance with

controlled the standards of design.

these notes.

20 Pair of Neo-Classical Carrera Marble Pedestals by Lorenzo Bartolini (1777-1850) Italy, 1820-28 HEIGHT: 51ins (130cms) (2)


WIDTH: 22ins (56cms) (2)

Commissioned by Thomas Thynne, 5th Viscount

DEPTH: 19ins (48cms) (2)

Weymouth (1765-1837), son of the Marquis of Bath of Longleat, in Florence

Of triangular tapering form, incorporating the arms of the

Offered for sale, unsuccessfully, as part of Viscount

Thynne family of Longleat, near Bath.

Weymouth’s collection of ‘Costly Objects of Taste and Vertu’ on 18th April 1828 Remained in the Collection of Viscount Weymouth at Shanks House, near Wincanton, Somerset Purchased at the Wheatley sale of ‘The Valuable Library of the Late Right Hon. Lord Viscount Weymouth’ held on Saturday 24th June 1837 at Shanks House, Lot 1086, by Mr. Brown Acquired by Mr or Mrs Hayes Burns (sister of J.P. Morgan) between c.1894-1914 for their collection at North Mymms Park, Hertfordshire


homas Thynne, 5th Viscount Weymouth, was born

of the draped floral swags is particularly accomplished.

in Bath in 1796. As the eldest son of the Marquess

Very similar swags can be found on the pedestal for one

of Bath and his wife, Isabella, he would have expected to

of Bartolini’s masterpieces, The Campbell Sisters Dancing

inherit Longleat and the rest of the family estates. At the

a Waltz which was made in Florence in 1822 and is now in

age of 24, however, Thomas eloped with Harriet Robins,

the collection of the V&A. Interestingly, in a photograph of

the daughter of the local toll road keeper, and was never to

Bartolini’s studio taken between 1850 – 1857 - which was

become the 3rd Marquess of Bath. They travelled to Paris

unaltered since his death - (Collection Fondo Fagnani Cardi

in 1820, and travelled extensively Italy; in total they were

Rimini) there is a pedestal with a seemingly triangular form

away for 8 years. During his extended Grand Tour Thynne

and similar mouldings.

acquired a substantial collection of Old Master paintings, sculpture and works of art including works by Rembrandt,

On his return to England in 1828 he rented Shanks House

Caracci, Canaletto and Reni to name a few, together with

in Cucklington, (now Somerset) and decided to offer some

silver, French furniture, a collection of snuff boxes, and

of the items he had acquired in Europe for sale, through

much more.

the auction room of George Robins in Covent Garden. Robins described the collection as Costly objects of taste

In Europe Thynne met the celebrated Florentine sculptor

and vertu, collected with infinite care and judgement, and

Lorenzo Bartolini; a favourite of Napoleon and his family.

aided by proverbial liberality, during his residence at Rome

The young Grand Tourist evidently admired his work, as he

and Florence. The pair of pedestals failed to reach their

purchased Bathing Venus and busts of Emperor Napoleon

high reserve and remained in Thynne’s collection at Shanks

and Lord Byron from him, as well as commissioning this

House until his premature death in 1837.

pair of pedestals incorporating his coat of arms. With the rams’ heads, the lion paw feet and carved anthemions, the sculptor embraces the enduring fashion for neoclassical

We would like to thank Christopher Coles for his assistance

motifs drawn from antiquity, and his delicate interpretation

with cataloguing these pedestals.

21 Pair of French Neo-Egyptian Bronze and Ormolu Candlesticks France, circa 1800 Attributed to the Workshop of Henri Auguste (1759-1816)


After an original design by Jean-Guillaume Moitte (1746-

Sold Sothebys’s Zurich, 1999 Collection of Count Waleska (descendant of Marie


Walewska, mistress of Napoleon) HEIGHT: 12.25ins (31cms)

Sold Christie’s Geneva

DIAMETER OF BASE: 4.75ins (12cms)

With Jeremy Ltd., London Private European Collection


hese candlesticks were made by the workshop of

service comprising 425 pieces. Henri Auguste supplied

Henri Auguste, who worked in partnership with

clients across Europe including George III, Catherine the

Jean-Guillaume Moitte, regularly using Moitte’s designs.

Great and William Beckford.

The design for the candlesticks is in the collection of the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York. The design for

This pair of candlesticks is very similar in feeling to the toilet

this candlestick is the left-hand image in this drawing of

mirror which belonged to Napoleon’s wife, the Empress

Three Designs for Candlesticks by the Workshop of Henri

Joséphine. Moitte was highly favoured by Napoleon and

Auguste, c.1770–1816.

many examples of his neo-Egyptian sculpture are housed in the Louvre’s collection.

HENRI AUGUSTE (1759–1816) JEAN-GUILLAUME MOITTE (11 NOVEMBER Henri Auguste was the son of the royal goldsmith Robert-

1746-2 MAY 1810)

Joseph Auguste (1723-1805). He took over his father’s workshops in 1784–85. He continued to receive official

Jean-Guillaume Moitte was a French sculptor. He worked

patronage from Louis XVI and later from Napoleon. When

for the Goldsmith of the King, Henri Auguste (1759-1816),

Napoleon became Emperor, Auguste received his most

for whom he delivered many models and drawings from the

important commission from the City of Paris for a silver


Three Designs for Candlesticks, Workshop of Henri Auguste (1759–1816), c.1770–1816; Pen and black ink, brush and gray wash, with framing lines in pen and black ink

22 Malachite Tazza by the Imperial Lapidary Works Russia, Ekaterinburg, circa 1830 HEIGHT: 14ins (35.5cms)


WIDTH: 12.75ins (32.5cms)

Galerie J. Kugel, Paris

DEPTH: 9.5ins (24cms)

Private European Collection

Composed of malachite stones of varying shades of green,


assembled and polished to create the illusion that the piece

Illustrated in J. Kugel, Treasures of the Czars: Russia

is carved from one block.

& Europe from Peter the Great to Nicholas I, Paris, 1998, plate 296


uring the 18th century, having observed stonecutting

this, the veins being selected and laid to form patterns. The

in Holland, Peter the Great instigated gem and stone

finished piece was then highly polished to mask the joins,

grinding production at Peterhof, his summer palace just

giving the illusion that it had been made from a single block

outside St. Petersburg. After several geological expeditions,

of stone.

rich deposits and larger veins of semi-precious hard stones were discovered in the Urals and further east in Siberia,

Malachite became the preferred material of sovereigns and

many of which were unique to Russia. Consequently, in

tsars, who commissioned many decorative objects, not only

1751 a factory was opened at Ekaterinburg in the Urals; and

for the Malachite Salon of the Winter Palace in Moscow and

in 1784 another facility was set up at Kolyvan in western

the Hermitage but also as gifts. Ludmila Budrina comments

Siberia to make use of Russia’s rich mineral resources in

that: ‘[t]he history of the art of stone carving in Russia is closely

order to fashion marble and semi-precious stones. Kolyvan

connected with the country’s foreign policy. Works from the

specialised in huge pieces made from the stones extracted

Yekaterinburg Lapidary Factory were sometimes distributed

from the Altai Mountains, with locally trained stone

around different countries and continents as diplomatic gifts

cutters working larger pieces of stone. These three centres

or a demonstration of gratitude from the Russian emperors’.

of production catered for the needs of the Russian Imperial

Such gifts demonstrated the richness of Russia’s mineral

Family, producing a large range of hardstone objects from

deposits and the quality of Russian workmanship.

buttons and boxes to urns and architectural specimens such as fireplaces, columns and tombs.

In 1826 a round bowl was produced and sent as a gift to the Duke of Wellington (Stratfield Saye House, N. Guseva, O.

This tazza demonstrates the skill of the Russian Imperial

Suchov, ‘Diplomatic gifts from Tsar Nicholas I of Russia to

Lapidary Works’ craftsmen. Malachite was the stone for

the Duke of Wellington’, in Apollo, January 2001, p.34-40).

which the Works’ manufactories was most celebrated. It had

The proportions of this subject and the complex shape of the

been mined since the late 17th century, but the quarries were

bowl fully corresponds to the pattern of the oval example.

not fully exploited until the early 19 century. As with lapisth

lazuli and certain types of jasper, malachite - a stalagmitic


form of copper carbonate - has many inclusions, which make

Ludmila Budrina, ‘Two Malachite Vases by Yekaterinburg

such precious stones difficult to cut. To circumvent this, the

Masters in Imperial Diplomacy’ in Quaestio Rossica,

Lapidary Works used a technique referred to as ‘Russian

Volume 6, 2018, p.151–160

mosaic’ which involved cutting the malachite into very

Cataloguing with the assistance of Dr Ludmila Budrina,

small pieces of veneer between two and four millimetres

Associate Professor, Ural Federal University, Ekaterinburg,

thick, grouping them into patterns, grinding and polishing


them, and mounting them in a mosaic form. This technique necessitated a stone or a metal base which was covered

We are grateful to Ludmila Budrina for her assistance with

with warm putty. The thin pieces of malachite were laid on

these notes.

23 The Duke of Leeds’ George III Ormolu-Mounted Mahogany Wine Cooler attributed to Samuel Norman (1718-1779) England, circa 1760 HEIGHT: 25ins (63.5cms)


WIDTH: 28ins (71cms)

Supplied to Robert, 4th Earl of Holdernesse,

DEPTH: 20ins (51cms)

Hornby Castle, Yorkshire Dukes of Leeds, Hornby Castle

The ram is a classical symbol which is associated with

With Moss Harris & Sons, 1928

Bacchus, and consequently also with wine and feasting.

Private Collection

The ram’s head handles and hoof feet demonstrate a distinctive 18th century play on the theme of Classical


Antiquity; and the pairing of iconography with function.

Country Life, July 14th 1906, Hornby Castle, just visible in the window bay in a photograph of the Great Hall at Hornby. (‘Hornby Castle, Yorkshire, The seat of the Duke of Leeds’, Country Life, 14th July 1906, p. 57). Moss Harris, A Catalogue and Index of Furniture and Works of Decorative Art, Vol III, (circa 1930), illustrated on page 465.


his wine-cooler belongs to a distinguished group

The design of these wine coolers is seen to derive from

attributed to Samuel Norman of Soho, London;

a design published in Chippendale’s Director, plate CLI

all conform to the same basic pattern but vary in details,

(Thomas Chippendale, The Gentleman and Cabinet-Maker’s

particularly the mounts. In 1763, Norman was given a royal

Director: Reprint of the Third Edition, Dover Publications,

appointment as ‘Master Carver in Wood’ to George III's

1966, p.17, plate CLI). Chippendale’s notes declare that ‘the

Board of Works.

Ornaments should be Brass’. (ibid, p.17).

Among the closest parallels are the pair supplied to Sir Lawrence Dundas by Samuel Norman circa 1764 (A. Coleridge, ‘Sir Lawrence Dundas and Chippendale’, Apollo, September 1967, p. 165, fig. 8), sold by the Marquess of Zetland from 19 Arlington Street at Christie’s sale, 26 April 1934, lot 76. They were shown at the Grosvenor House Fair by Moss Harris & Sons in 1936. Either these (or an almost identical example) are photographed in situ at 19 Arlington Street in 1902 (John Cornforth, London Interiors, London, 2000, p. 56-57). They were sold again from the estate of the Late Edmund Vestey, Sotheby's, London, 4 June 2008, lot 185 (£1,049,285 including premium). Another virtually identical example is in the Gerstenfeld Collection, dated circa 1760 (E. Lennox-Boyd, ed., Masterpieces of English Furniture: The Gerstenfeld Collection, London, 1998, p. 225, cat. no. 66).

24 Spanish Colonial Coquera (Coca Box) Upper Peru (Now Bolivia), Moxos or Chiquitos, circa 1770 HEIGHT: 6.5ins (16.5cms) WIDTH: 11.5ins (29cms) DEPTH: 10.5ins (26.5cms)


n The Colonial Andes: Tapestries and Silverwork, 1530-

From 1572 until the expulsion of the Jesuits in 1767, the Jesuits

1830, Cristina Esteras Martín notes that: ‘[b]oxes used for

carried out a series of missions in Upper Peru, today known

storing cocoa usually contained at least one space set aside

as Bolivia. As part of their missionary activities, the Jesuits

for lime, and those intended for storing yerba maté usually

organised classes in art and trade for the native peoples –

had four interior compartments: the largest for the maté, the

the Guarani – in an attempt to convert, educate and train

a second for sugar, and two smaller ones for cinnamon and

them in arts and crafts. Coca boxes or coqueras were made

clove or orange peel, all of which were considered necessary for

of precious metals and carved wood. The missions in Moxos

enhancing the flavor of native maté’. (ibid, p.342). As a result,

and Chiquitos achieved a great deal of recognition for their

the interior compartments within this coquera suggest that

woodwork and carving, and these wooden boxes would have

it might have been a yerbera (or yerbera box).

been covered with silver leaf to resemble the more expensive

gold and silver versions. The boxes were exported as luxury

The form of this coquera was probably inspired by earlier

goods to the rest of the viceroyalty of Peru. Trade to the

silver spice boxes such as the scallop-shaped spice box

western Andes took place through Cochabamba and Potosí,

housed in the collection of the Metropolitan Museum,

which promoted an active cross-fertilisation of ornamental

New York, which is dated circa 1602/3; Accession number:

designs between the lowlands and the Altiplano. While some


boxes of this type can be quite simple, the box offered here incorporates the highest quality carving, and a complex and ambitious design (See The Colonial Andes: Tapestries and


Silverwork, 1530-1830, by Elena Phipps, Johanna Hecht, and

Elena Phipps, Johanna Hecht, and Cristina Esteras Martín,

Cristina Esteras Martín (The Metropolitan Museum of Art,

The Colonial Andes: Tapestries and Silverwork, 1530-1830,

2004), p.342).

The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2004.

25 17th Century Engraved Tortoiseshell Silver Mounted Casket Spanish Colonial, probably Mexican, circa 1615 HEIGHT: 6ins (15.5cms)


WIDTH: 8.75ins (22cms)

Presented by Juliana Castilleja y Altamirano (1565-1630) to

DEPTH: 4.75ins (12cms)

her niece Juliana Molina y Altamirano Toro, circa 1615, on the occasion of her wedding

Inscribed and partially erased on the reverse: De Doña

Latterly in the Private Collection of Sylvain Durand (1923-

Juliana / Castilleja y Altamirano.

2018) at Château de Renay


he coats of arms on the casket are those of the Herrera

Toribio de Benavente (1482-1568), also known as Motolinía,

and the Molina families, indicating it was very likely

was one of twelve Franciscan missionaries who arrived in

made for Juliana Molina y Altamirano Toro, whose father’s

‘New Spain’ in Mexico in 1524, entrusted with a mission

ancestry included those families.

to convert the native peoples to Christianity. In his book Historia de los indios de la Nueva España (History of the

The Molina coat of arms shows a centrally-placed silver

Indians of New Spain), which he finished in 1541, he writes

(argent) tower above a windmill’s half-wheel surrounded by

about the Native Americans who he was trying to convert –

three gold (or) fleur-de-lis set on a blue (azure) background,

the people, their customs, the landscape, and the fauna and

with a red (gules) bordure with eight gold (or) crosses. The

flora. Motolinía criticised the Spanish settlers’ mistreatment

fleur-de-lis on the silver lock decoration of the casket uses

of the indigenous people. His writings celebrate the

one of the main heraldic elements of the Molina coat of arms.

ingenuity of the native craftsmen: ‘the Indians have reached a high degree of perfection in the mechanical trades, both

The casket was made circa 1615 and was most probably given

those which they originally knew and those which they learned

by Dona Juliana Castilleja y Altamirano on the occasion of

for the first time from the Spaniards.’ He claimed that

the marriage of her niece and goddaughter, Juliana Molina

they emulated and then surpassed the skills of Spaniards,

y Altamirano Toro (daughter of her younger sister and

learning about European styles and incorporating them into

Cosme de Molina y Herrera, governor of Valdivia (Chile),

their own work. He states: ‘they never make anything without

son of Hernando de Molina and Elvira de Herrera) with

changing the style, seeking to create new models.’ The use of

Luis Núñez de Vergara.

tortoiseshell with sgraffito was a technique which was used

In 1521 Julian Gutiérrez de Altamirano (1521-1592), the

as this, sewing cabinets and mirrors.

in the Spanish colonies for luxury items such as caskets such father of the donor of this casket, was born in Huete, in the province of Cuenca, Spain. In 1550, he moved to Chile and founded the city of Concepción. In 1552 he was appointed


Governor of Valdivia and ruler of Los Confines in 1554. In

Martina Pall (ed.), Locked Treasures: Caskets and Cabinets

February 1558, by order of Governor Hurtado de Mendoza,

from Around the World, Hans Schell Collection, Graz, 2006,

he directed the expedition of Reloncaví with Alonso de

p.84, no.66

Ercilla y Zúñiga. He was Lieutenant general of the kingdom.

Francisco Marcos, Las Artes del Nuevo Mundo, exhibition

Julian Gutiérrez de Altamirano died whilst defending

catalogue, Coll & Cortés and Francisco Marcos,

Valdivia in 1599 in Chile.

Madrid, 2011

26 Relief Carved Gourd celebrating the Liberation of New Spain (Mexico) in 1821 Mesoamerica, second quarter, 19th century HEIGHT: 11.5ins (29cms) WIDTH: 10.25ins (26cms) DEPTH: 4.75ins (12cms)

Finely-carved composition incorporating a Victorious native Mexican Indian beneath a Latin inscription which reads VI & JUSTITIA INDEP[ENDENS] LIBERAQUE AMER[ICA] – By strength and by justice America is independent and free, with an angelic Indian figure with trumpet above; the remainder of the gourd's surface carved with abundant tropical natural motifs. PROVENANCE:

Private English Collection


he carefully-chosen symbols of this composition

The man is holding a flag attached to a spear which is staked

celebrate the triumph of America – Mesoamerica –

into the ground and a tethered horse in his left hand. He has

the pre-Columbian cultures of this region over Spain, the

taken control of the horse (which had been a symbol of the


Spanish), and the broken sceptre of Imperial power lies at his feet.

The central composition at the base of the gourd shows the victorious native warrior in traditional Aztec apparel,

Above the man is a banner inscribed in Latin: VI &

standing on two globes; The upper or ‘new’ world is


inscribed Ameri[ca] and the vanquished globe underneath

– By strength and by justice America is independent and free.

or the ‘old’ world is inscribed esp[agna].

The winged figure blowing a trumpet just above this banner appears to depicts a triumphant Aztec archangel, again

The warrior’s other foot is placed on the head of the lion

satirizing the traditions of the vanquished conquistador.

– perhaps the lion represents Spain and he is disdainfully tipping his bounteous cornucopia into the greedy mouth

The remaining surface of the gourd is decorated with

of the former oppressor with its tail between its legs, while

lush vegetation, palm trees and vines depicting a land of

it paws at the globe representing the old world. The lion

abundance and fertility, and notably the cacao plant, native

has an outstretched tongue on which to catch the flowers,

to Mesoamerica. The choice of a gourd as the medium for

fruit, and corn which are spilling from it, satirising the

this artwork roots it firmly in an organic sense in the folk

desire of the former colonial masters to gorge themselves

tradition of the native culture and in the land itself.

on the natural resources that they plundered. Alternatively, there is some similarity in the depiction of the face of the

We are grateful to Dr. Maya Jimenez, Adjunct Assistant

lion with the Aztec god Quetzalcoatl, so it could show the

Professor of Art History, Pace University & BMCC, for her

warrior returning the offerings to the traditional god, now

help interpreting the iconography of this object based on

supporting him.


27 A Mexican Viceregal Inlaid and Engraved Marquetry Coffer Villa Alta, Oaxaca, second half of 17th century HEIGHT: 15ins (38cms)

Of linaloe, granadillo and cedar. An oblong casket, with an

WIDTH: 18ins (46cms)

arched lid, ornamented with engraved decoration and with

DEPTH: 11.4ins (29cms)

iron lock, hasp and hinges. The zumaque-filled engraving, which imitates inlay, depicting a man and a richly-dressed lady flanked by two stylsed trees, the rear with a hunter and stag, the sides with a woman and a man each carrying and harvesting produce, within geometric borders, raised on turned bun feet. The interior lined with figured red velvet.


his casket takes the traditional form of a Spanish domed

‘arqueta’ (chest), which was popular within Spain and

its colonies from the 16th until the 18th century. Such caskets

a wide variety of goods. On this casket, the decoration is of secular subjects and includes native and European species of flora and fauna.

usually held esteemed and valuable personal effects. In the early 16th century, the Spanish Conquest of Mexico

Such coffers derive from “German boxes” which were

during the reign of King Charles V of Spain brought a vice-

decorated with inlaid bone, horn, ivory or woods, made in

regal and military presence to what was then referred to as

Augsburg or Nuremburg, and were admired and exported

“New Spain”. Beginning in 1521 and lasting three hundred

across Europe. The intricate ironwork on this piece indicates

years, the period led to a blending of cultures that produced

its luxury status and was probably created in Oaxaca.


Martina Pall (ed.), Locked Treasures: Caskets and Cabinets from Around the World, Hans Schell Collection, Graz, 2006, p.84, no.66 Miranda, D. Hector, and Houston Staff Museum of Fine Arts. The Grandeur of Viceregal Mexico: Treasures from the Museo Franz Mayer=la Grandeza Del Mexico Virreinal: Tesoros Del Museo Franz Mayer. New York: Museum of Fine Arts, Houston, 2002. p. 11 Curiel, Gustavo, et al. Taracea Oaxaquen: El Mobiliario Virreinal De La Villa Alta De San Ildefonso. S.l.: Artes De Mexico Y Del Mundo, 2012. Print. 80 Corrales, Juan M. Muebles Virreinales Oaxaqueños Realizados en Zumaque. Dialectology and Traditions, National Research Council, CSIC, Madrid. 2008

28 17th Century Indo-Portuguese Carved Jacaranda Cabinet on Stand India, Goa, circa 1650-1680 HEIGHT: 47.75ins (121cms) WIDTH: 29.5ins (75cms) DEPTH: 17ins (43cms)


ade in India under Portuguese patronage, the dating of such furniture is aided by comparisons with

European pieces. Cabinets such as these with many drawers were popular in the second half of the 17th century and had a wide range of intarsia, inlaid decoration or intricately pierced mounts, frequently of cast brass.

A comparable cabinet on stand (contador) is housed in the Museu Nacional Machado de Castro, Portugal.

29 Mid 18th Century Fretwork Mother of Pearl Tea Casket Mother of Pearl Casket: China, circa 1760. Silverware: England, 1760-61 HEIGHT: 7ins (17.75cms)

Containing three original chinoiserie repoussé silver tea

WIDTH: 11.5ins (29.25cms)

caddies with lids. The interior retaining its original red

DEPTH: 6ins (15.25cms)

velvet lining. With key. With the hallmarks: S. Herbert & Co., London, 1760-1. PROVENANCE:

Private European Collection


his tea casket demonstrates the collaborative nature

his term as an apprentice and was able to become a Freeman

of the ‘China Trade’ items made for export – with

of the Livery Company at which he was apprenticed. His 1st

the fretted and carved mother of pearl casket having been

‘mark’ was entered in 1747, and his 2nd mark as Samuel Herbert

made in China and then sent to England where a London

& Co was registered in 1750, with the initials ‘SH.HB’. This

silversmith made the silver cannisters, decorating them with

unnamed partnership was likely to have been with Henry

‘Chinoiserie’ scenes.

Bailey, who had also been apprenticed to Edward Aldridge. In 1763, Herbert took on Burrage Davenport as his apprentice.


Herbert’s workshop specialised in pierced platework.

Samuel Herbert (active 1747-73) was a London silversmith,

A silver Dish Cross by Samuel Herbert, made in 1764-65,

who was apprenticed to Edward Aldridge I of the

is in the collection of the Metropolitan Museum of Art;

Clothworkers Company, and goldsmith of Gutter Lane in

Accession Number: 13.41.62. A similar fretwork pattern has

1736. He was made ‘free’ in 1744, at which time he had served

been used in the production of this Dish Cross.

In the 1700s, tea-drinking was a ceremony in England. Tea

the manner of the Chinese, known as chinoiserie’ (ibid, p.96).

was an expensive commodity, as were the accoutrements

Chinese fretwork patterns were an important element of 18th

relating to its consumption. As tea drinking was very

century chinoiserie decoration, found on garden buildings

expensive, it required proper storage in order to ensure its

and furniture as well as, in this instance, on silver.

preservation. To keep them safe, the valuable tea leaves would be stored in a tea chest or a tea box which was

A similar Chinese export silver-mounted mother-of-pearl tea

normally kept locked. In Tea & Taste: The Visual Language

caddy can be found in Edward Lennox-Boyd’s Masterpieces

of Tea, Tania M. Buckrell Pos notes that: ‘[in] the second half

of English Furniture: The Gerstenfeld Collection (Christie’s,

of the eighteenth century… tea caddies became furnishings in

London, 1998), p.251, fig.117. This tea caddy is smaller, but

their own right’ (Schiffer Publishing, 2004, p.129).

also includes three tea caddies inside. It is also hallmarked for London, made slightly later in circa 1810.

Buckrell Pos remarks that the British traded silver bullion in place of minted currency: ‘Silver was one of the few items the English could offer to the Chinese in great quantities in


exchange for desirable commodities such as tea and porcelain’

Edward Lennox-Boyd (ed.), Masterpieces of English

(ibid, p.85). In the early days of tea drinking, she observes

Furniture: The Gerstenfeld Collection, Christie’s,

that: ‘to evoke the exoticism of taking the Chinese beverage,

London, 1998

it was desirable to surround oneself with works of decorative

Tania M. Buckrell Pos, Tea & Taste: The Visual Language

art directly imported from China or created in England in

of Tea, Schiffer Publishing, 2004

30 18th Century Anglo-Indian Padouk Chest on Stand India, Goa, circa 1750 HEIGHT: 31.5ins (80cms) WIDTH: 34.25ins (87cms) LENGTH: 21.25ins (54cms)


he bold carved cabriole legs and paw feet can also be seen on chairs from Goa during this time, when

furniture was influenced by Portuguese forms and the

growing community of Chinese chair makers working there. There are examples of Goan furniture with Chinese and English characteristics as well as Chinese and Portuguese characteristics. Legs of a similar form can be found on a pair of armchairs in the collection of the V&A (item number 312A-1879). These demonstrate the influence of the English form, while showing the characteristic continuation of carving flowing from the knee down into the foot, so often seen in 18th century Goan furniture.

The Model Room ©Sir John Soane’s Museum, London. Photograph by Tom Ryley

31–34 A Collection of Carved Cork Grand Tour Models Attributed to the workshop of Domenico Padiglione Italy, Naples, second quarter 19th century PROVENANCE:

The Berkeley Family, Spetchley Park, Worcestershire Whilst three generations of the Berkeley family completed Grand Tours, these models were most likely acquired by Robert Berkeley (1794-1874) in 1823 or 1845 or by his son Robert Martin Berkeley (1823-1897) in 1842-1843


his rare collection of models have, until recently,

his lectures at the Royal Academy, and to convince clients

remained in the same family whose ancestors acquired

of the value of a design. Soane accumulated a collection of

them in Naples in the first half of 19th century. They were

miniature buildings made out of cork which are still housed

predominantly souvenirs of The Grand Tour but Sir

in ‘The Model Room’ of the Soane Museum. Such models

John Soane also used them as teaching aids; to enable his

were also popular with the public in London, who flocked

students to examine Classical architectural design without

to see exhibitions of celebrated structures from around the

having to travel abroad. Soane often used them to illustrate

world in miniature form.

31 Façade of the Temple of Neptune in Paestum Attributed to the workshop of Domenico Padiglione Italy, Naples, second quarter 19th century HEIGHT: 3.5ins (9cms)

Domenico Padiglione was employed as the official model

WIDTH: 5ins (13cms)

maker of the Royal Museum in Naples in 1806, using

DEPTH: 3ins (7.5cms)

cork as his chief material as it was found very suitable for rendering the weathered stone of the temples. He worked to produce models to form a ‘Gallery of Models of Ancient Monuments’ in the Naples Museum and his models remained on view until the 1840s. Padiglione worked with his sons Agostino and Felice, but the family did not sign their work. Padiglione also led the Cork Model Workshop at the Museo Borbonico for more than twenty years. The Workshop was open between 1777-1859 and is now known as Museo Archeologico Nazionale di Napoli. Padiglione’s workshops made copies for private sale to Grand Tourists despite the fact that his contract forbade it.

32 Model of the Paestum Tomb Attributed to the workshop of Domenico Padiglione Italy, Naples, second quarter 19th century HEIGHT: 7ins (18cms) WIDTH: 7ins (18cms) DEPTH: 10.5ins (26.5cms)

The ‘Model of the Paestum Tomb’ in the Soane Museum’s collection is, as mentioned earlier, also attributed to Domenico Padiglione (Museum number: M1088). Made from cork and stucco, it is larger than our ‘Model of the Paestum Tomb’. The Soane Museum website’s listing for this model comments that: ‘Excavations outside the city walls of Paestum uncovered a series of particularly richly decorated and furnished tombs and this model is a synthesis of several of these sepulchres. The interior is adorned with paintings and decoration from a number of monuments taken from the cemeteries outside Paestum. As with the other tombs on display here, this model also contains a miniature burial along with a selection of grave goods. Again, these were based on actual archaeological finds’.

33 Temple of Neptune in Paestum Attributed to the workshop of Domenico Padiglione Italy, Naples, second quarter 19th century HEIGHT: 3.5ins (9.5cms) WIDTH: 11.25ins (30cms) DEPTH: 5ins (12.8cms)

The Temple inscribed in ink to the underside: ‘Mr Berkeley / Hotel Victoria / Naples’ The best known of Padiglione’s models, the Temple of Neptune at Paestum (also known as Temple of Zeus and Temple of Hera), was carved in various sizes. The ruins of Paestum are notable for their three ancient Greek temples which are some of the best preserved in the world. These three temples are in the Doric order, dating from the first half of the 6th century BC.

34 Model of The Nola Tomb Attributed to the workshop of Domenico Padiglione Italy, Naples, second quarter 19th century HEIGHT: 2.75ins (7cms) WIDTH: 10.25ins (26cms) DEPTH: 6.3ins (16.5cms)

Again, the Soane Museum website notes that the ‘Model of The Nola Tomb’ is based on the frontispiece to J.H.W. Tischbein’s 1791 publication of Sir William Hamilton’s vase collection (1730-1803) which depicts Sir William and Lady Hamilton standing beside an open tomb at Nola admiring newly discovered vases (see image). This engraving is by Antoine Cléner after a lost drawing by Christoph Heinrich Kniep. Pictured right: Frontispiece to J.H.W. Tischbein’s publication of Sir William Hamilton’s vase collection, 1791. Credit: Robert Halwas Limited, London

35 18th Century Carved and Polychrome-decorated Coat of Arms England, circa 1750 HEIGHT: 16ins (40.5cms)

Original painted decoration. The framed, carved wood

WIDTH: 16.1ins (41cms)

(probably lime) panel bearing the coat of arms for Sir

DEPTH: 1.5ins (3.9cms)

Thomas (1744-1786) and Lady Fowke of Lowesby Hall, Leicestershire. Arma Tuentur Pacem translates as ‘Arms Maintain Peace’.

36 18th Century Carved Relief ‘Bugbear’ Coconut Powder Flask and Ladle India, Gheria Fort, 4 July 1756 ‘BUGBEAR’ FLASK: HEIGHT: 5.25ins (13.5cms) WIDTH: 3.25ins (8.5cms)

A colonial coconut ‘bugbear’ powder flask with a silvered mouthpiece or nozzle. Carved in relief with a native climbing a palm tree harvesting coconuts with a carrying bag; a stag hunt with hounds and a man blowing a horn;


and a ‘Half Moon’ tavern with mica windows. The top

HEIGHT: 14.5ins (37cms)

depicting a man with mica eyes – his mouth being the silver nozzle or stopper. The silver stopper replaced.

Signed and dated: done by Henry Hill, Gheria Fort, July 4, 1756

Together with a ladle with a turned laburnum handle, white metal, with a coconut bowl carved by the same hand depicting a stag hunt and with stellar decoration. Henry Hill was no doubt part of the British forces from the East India Company – a sailor or an officer on one of the fourteen ships which attacked Gheria Fort in 1756 (see information below).


dward H. Pinto, in his book Treen and Other Wooden

were easier to carve before they dried, whilst they were

Bygones, describes the coconut shell as ‘the raw material

still fresh. Pinto comments that: ‘often they are valuable as

of all kind of nut treen. He comments that: Coconuts have

historic documents of costume and episodes’ and illustrates

also been used in their entirety as flasks, with carving used

three of the finest quality carvings (figures 203 and 204),

to accentuate the ‘bugbear’ marking’ (Edward H. Pinto,

which bear close similarities this flask with ‘the accentuation

Treen and Other Wooden Bygones (Bell & Hyman Limited,

of the natural bugbear eyes into grotesque faces.’ The largest

London, 1979), p.194).

of the nuts which Pinto depicts is a flask, also fitted with ‘eyes’ and a silver spout (ibid, p.194). There are examples

‘Bugbear’ coconut flasks were carved by sailors or soldiers

of goblets and treen of similar workmanship attributed to

on long sea voyages who visited the East or West Indies in

French, English, Portuguese and Spanish sailors. French

the late 18 /early 19 centuries. The ‘green’ coconut shells th


prisoners of war would carve them with a depiction of the Emperor Napoleon. ‘GHERIA’ (VIJAYDURG) FORT Vijaydurg or ‘Gheria’ is the oldest fort in the district of Sindhudurg on the coast of Western India. In the 18th century the fort was the base for a Maratha Sardar, Tulaji Angre, who disrupted the trade of the East India Company by attacking its ships. The Battle of Vijaydurg, also known as the siege of Vijaydurg, was fought between Tulaji Angre; and the joint forces of the East India Company and Nanasaheb Peshwa. In 1756, a large force from Bombay, led by Admiral Charles Watson and Lieutenant Colonel Robert Clive, assembled at Gheria on 11th February and began the

attack the following day. The Maratha ships were anchored


almost hull to hull at the mouth of the creek, close to the fort. Amongst these was the Company’s ship ‘Restoration’, which

‘Gheria’ fort was originally constructed between 1193AD and

caught fire. The fire spread until Tulaji Angre’s entire fleet

1205AD during the regime of Raja Bhoj II of the Shilahar

was destroyed. The bombardment of the fort had caused

dynasty. Adil Shahis of Bijapur captured the fort in the 16th

considerable interior damage. Tulaji, meanwhile had left the

century and it was rebuilt. It was originally called ‘Gheria’,

fort and gone to the Peshwa’s camp seeking to negotiate, but

due to its situation close to the village of ‘Girye’, but the

he was taken prisoner. The garrison was asked to surrender

Bijapur Sultans renamed it ‘Vijaydurg’ – the fort of victory,

and, in the absence of a response, Colonel Clive landed his

with ‘Vijay’ meaning ‘Victory’ and ‘Durg’ meaning ‘Fort’.

marines, entered and captured the fort.

The fort was further restructured by Shivaji Maharaj in 1654.

37 Pair of Baroque Anthropomorphic Bronze Wall Lights Germany, Nuremburg or Augsburg, circa 1650 HEIGHT: 10ins (25.5cms) (2) WIDTH: 4.5ins (11.5cms) (2) DEPTH: 10ins (25.5cms) (2) PROVENANCE:

Private Collection, Paris


he ‘Green Man’ is a carving, drawing, or other

Floris (1514-1575), who is credited with inventing a Flemish

representation of a face – generally male – surrounded

version of the grotesque style in about 1541. The print

by or made from leaves. Branches or vines may sprout from

below comes from a set by Huys, published in 1555 by Hans

the nose, mouth, nostrils or other parts of the face, sometimes

Liefrinck, an important Antwerp publisher and print-

called a ‘disgorging’ or ‘uttering’ head. The hair can also

seller. It is believed that the volume, entitled Pourtraicture

be made from leaves, as in the foliage which emanates from

ingenieuse de plusieurs façons de Masques, forts utile aulx

the bridge of the nose and over the forehead in this pair of

painctres, orseures, taillieurs de pierres, voirriers, & tailleurs

wall lights. Commonly used as a decorative architectural

d’images, contained a set of 18 prints and was intended as a

ornament, the ‘Green Man’ is frequently found in carvings

sourcebook for craftsmen and artists looking for inspiration

on both secular and ecclesiastical buildings.

or templates.

However, there is no common standard representation of a ‘Green Man’, and the symbolism of the motif remains elusive as many variations can be found in cultures around the world, although often related to natural woodland deities. The ‘Green Man’ appears in a variety of guises and moods. However, the most common interpretation of the ‘Green Man’ is that of a pagan nature spirit, a symbol of man’s reliance on and union with nature, primarily interpreted as symbolising rebirth and the renewed cycle of growth each spring. FLEMISH MASK DESIGNS IN THE GROTESQUE STYLE One of the source materials for the ‘Green Man’ is the Flemish ‘grotesque’. In 1555, the Flemish engraver Frans Huys produced a series of designs for masks rooted in the ‘grotesque’ style, which were used for a design manual. This ‘grotesque’ style of decorative art was derived from ancient Roman prototypes and was characterised by the combination of fantastical human and animal forms with foliage or vegetative forms, creating a style which later became known as ‘auricular’. Huys based this set of prints

Frans Huys, a print from a set of 18 entitled Pourtraicture

on original designs by the sculptor and architect Cornelis

ingenieuse de plusieurs façons de Masques, published 1555

38 Biedermeier Mahogany Globe-Form Work Table or Globustisch Austria, Vienna, circa 1820 HEIGHT: 49.5ins (126.5cms)


DIAMETER: 20.75ins (53cms)

Geoffrey Wills, English Furniture 1760-1900, Guinness Superlatives Limited, 1971, illustrated fig.156, p.197


H. R. H. The Duchess of Kent, Coppins, Iver, Bucks Frank Partridge, Inc., New York Walter P. Chrysler, Jr. Collection Sold Parke-Bernet Galleries, New York, 29-30 April 1960, lot 110 Private Collection, USA


he challenging mechanical elements of this work table

An engraving depicting ‘Pitt’s Cabinet Globe Writing Table’

showcase the expertise of a skilled master craftsman.

appeared in Rudolph Ackermann’s Repository in 1810, and

The ‘Globustisch’ form was a highlight of the craftsmen

is reproduced in Ackermann’s Regency Furniture & Interiors,

working in Vienna during the Biedermeier period (1815-

p.46, Plate 12. The engraving shows the different ‘stages’

1848). They were difficult to construct and, as a result, few

of the Globe Writing Table. The description alongside the

were made. This form of table contributed to the training of

image states that the table ‘is one of the grandest and most

designers and considerably more designs exist than executed

elegant pieces of furniture that ever decorated the modern

final pieces. The use of a human figure as a supporter,

library. It forms externally a handsome globe, which may be

requiring sculptural as well as cabinet making skills, is

constructed of any size. In this form it is represented in fig. 1. In

exceptionally rare.

fig. 2. it is seen with two of the quarters let down, in which state

In his essay ‘A Regency Sewing and Writing Table by

of the lower part fitted up with drawers, pigeon-holes, &c. for

it composes a circular writing-table. Fig. 3 shews the interior Morgan and Sanders’, James Parker comments that,

papers, and with only one quarter of the globe let down…. This

whilst convertible furniture had been in use for centuries -

writing table, which must be acknowledged equally convenient

‘ furniture with “ folding action” was known to the Eqyptians,

and superb, is likely to become an indispensible appendage to

who sat on folding stools and slept on collapsible beds in the

the library of every person of taste in the fashionable world.

second millennium before Christ’, little demand for this

It has already obtained the patronage of her Majesty and

type of furniture existed in England until the outset of the

the Royal Family, who are ever the foremost to encourage

nineteenth century when ‘convertible furniture came into its

real merit. Her Royal Highness the Princess Augusta has

own’ (James Parker, ‘A Regency Sewing and Writing Table

very recently ordered one of the inventors [Messrs. Morgan

by Morgan and Sanders’ in The Metropolitan Museum of

and Saunders, of Catherine-street, Strand.], and it was from

Art Bulletin, p.125-6). The firm Morgan and Sanders was

this that our drawings were made.’ (‘Ackermann’s Regency

one of the principal manufacturers of such furniture, and a

Furniture & Interiors’, Text by Pauline Agius, Intro. by

hand-coloured print depicting Morgan and Sanders’ ‘ware-

Stephen Jones (The Crowood Press, 1984), p.47).

room’, reproduced in Rudolph Ackermann’s The Repository of Arts, Literature, Commerce, Manufacturers, Fashions and

Martina Kirfel, in her article ‘Wiener Globus-Tischchen der

Politics in August 1809, shows ‘Pitt’s Cabinet Globe Writing-

Biedermeier-Zeit: Die Welt als Nähkästchen’, comments:

Table’ displayed prominently, standing against a pier just

‘Outside sky ball, inside sewing box - this is what one of the

left of centre. For marketing purposes Morgan and Sanders

most unusual of Biedermeier’s small furniture looks like’ [NB.

named this piece of furniture after William Pitt, the popular

Kirfel’s article was written in German and so the quotations

statesman who died in 1806.

here are a translation]. Predominantly produced in Vienna,

Kirfel observes that this form of Globe Table was developed

Atlas supporting a globe in figure 6. Whilst the interior of

before 1820 and that the notion of spherical furniture

these three tables is very similar to the designs above with

originated in England. James Parker comments that: ‘Small

three legs, the human figure supporters are unusual.

spherical inkstands of the sort produced by English silversmiths in the 1790s may have supplied the idea for this table to a little-

The classical source for this kneeling figure of Atlas

known inventor, George Remington, who in December 1807

carrying the world on his shoulders is the ‘Farnese Atlas’

took out a fourteen-year patent on a “globe table ... made with

in the collection of the Museo Archeologico Nazionale di

two moving parts or quarters which work upon hinges.” A few

Napoli in Naples. The Farnese Atlas is the oldest known

months later the rights to manufacture this invention were

representation of the celestial sphere, and is believed to be a

bought by Morgan and Sanders, who had produced a working

2nd Century Roman copy of a Greek sculpture.

model of Remington’s patent by 1809, when the first article appeared in the Repository.’ (James Parker, ‘A Regency Sewing and Writing Table by Morgan and Sanders’, p.128).

The craftsman who made this Globe-form Work Table chose to portray a kneeling figure of Atlas supporting the weight of the celestial sphere, demonstrating an intertwining of

Kirfel observes that, unlike its Viennese descendants, the

human and heaven. Mythology was seen as a way of making

English Globe Table could still be used as a globe. She

sense of the natural world through storytelling. Atlas was a

reproduces a design for a globe-shaped sewing table which is

Titan who, following Zeus’s victory against the Titans, was

housed in the collection of MAK – Österreichisches Museum

condemned to stand on the edge of the Earth and to hold up

für angewandte Kunst/Gegenwartskunst in Vienna in her

the celestial heavens on his shoulders for eternity.

article. This freehand drawing is by Karl Schmidt whose Drawing School, founded in the 1820s, gained a significant


reputation. She describes the drawing as documenting ‘the Viennese type of Globe Table in its purest form’ (Martina

There are examples of Viennese globe tables in several

Kirfel, ‘Wiener Globus-Tischchen der Biedermeier-Zeit: Die

museums of note, including the Metropolitan Museum

Welt als Nähkästchen’, 1986).

of Art, The Art Institute of Chicago, The Milwaukee Art Museum and the British Royal Collection.

Another freehand drawing in the MAK’s collection, originating from Vienna in circa 1800, shows seven different tables – with views from above and below. Both this and the


drawing above illustrate Kirfel’s comment that the Viennese

Martina Kirfel, ‘Wiener Globus-Tischchen der Biedermeier-

Globe Tables could not be used as a globe, but were spherical

Zeit: Die Welt als Nähkästchen’, 1986

tables. In both the designs the tables’ ball-shaped body rests

James Parker, ‘A Regency Sewing and Writing Table by

on three tall outwardly curved legs.

Morgan and Sanders’ in The Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin, p.125-132

Kirfel observes that most of the Viennese Globe Tables

Rudolph Ackermann, The Repository of Arts, Literature,

were raised on three legs; and that globe tables supported

Commerce, Manufacturers, Fashions and Politics,

by a kneeling figure are rare. She illustrates two examples

August 1809

of globe tables with human figures as supporters raised on

Geoffrey Wills, English Furniture 1760-1900, Guinness

a tripod base in figures 4 and 5; and a bronze sculpture of

Superlatives Limited, 1971

39 Attributed to Filippo Lauri (Italian 1623-94) The Infant John the Baptist Italy, Rome, first half 17th century HEIGHT: 40ins (102cms) WIDTH: 29.5ins (75cms)

Oil on amethyst, in the original carved, ripple moulded ebony frame with pewter string inlay and pietre dure panels of Amethyst, Lapis Lazuli, Sicilian Jasper and White Lace Agate. The central oval painted with the Infant Saint John the Baptist, identifiable by the reed cross he holds and the scroll bearing the words ‘ECCE [AGNU]S DEI’ (‘Behold the Lamb of God’)


he ground and surrounding hardstones of this panel are similar to those of a larger 17th century portable

altar at the Galleria Pallavicini in Rome. Also painted

on amethyst, a stone considered precious at the time, the natural grain of the mineral suggests a cloudy sky. Only a few such altarpieces ate thought to have survived and were used in the 16th and 17th centuries in private houses or when travelling. Filippo Lauri was the son of Baldassar Lauwers (c.1570/761645) who emigrated from Antwerp to Italy where the name became Italianised to Lauri. Lauri lived in the area of the Piazza di Spagna, where many foreign artists lived in Rome. Filippo’s small paintings of religious and mythological subjects, painted for collectors were influenced by French artists Nicholas Poussin (1600-1682), Claude Lorraine (1594-1665) and Gaspard Dughet (1615-1675). A Baptism of Christ by Lauri, also painted on amethyst, can be seen in the Gilbert Collection.


Wolfram Koeppe, Anna Maria Giusti, Art of the Royal Court: Treasures in Pietre Dure from the Palaces of Europe, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York Anna Maria Massinelli, Hardstones, The Gilbert Collection, Philip Wilson Publishers, London, 2000

40 Carved Mahogany Reclining Library Chair, Designed by William Smee (1805-1890) England, circa 1850 HEIGHT: 40ins (102cms) WIDTH: 29.5ins (75cms) DEPTH (UPRIGHT): 34ins (86.5cms) DEPTH (FULLY RECLINED): 68ins (173cms)

The reclining action is activated by depressing the mahogany buttons on the arms which releases the ratchets concealed beneath the arm pads, the pull-out footrest with adjustable upholstered pad.


t is likely that a chair of this form was exhibited at the Great Exhibition, London, 1851. The design is illustrated

in the publication: Illustrations of Furniture, Candelabra,

Musical Instruments From the Great Exhibitions of London & Paris with Examples of Similar Articles From Royal Palaces and Noble Mansions, John Braund, London, 1858. William Smee (1805-1890) was a London cabinet maker and upholsterer based in Moorfields. The business was referred to as William Smee & Son and later W A Smee & Son(s). By 1890 the firm was known as Smee & Cobbay. They supplied West End furnishing shops and provincial furniture makers such as Pratt’s of Bradford.


John Braund, Illustrations of Furniture, Candelabra, Musical Instruments etc., from the Great Exhibitions of London and Paris, With Examples of Similar Articles from

The design for this chair appears on p. 132 of Designs of

Royal Palaces and Noble Mansions Unknown Binding,

Furniture, William Smee & Son (London). Metropolitan Museum

1 Jan. 1858

of Art. Harris Brisbane Dick Fund, 1935

41 Pair of Charles X Ormolu and ‘Gorge de Pigeon’ Opaline Glass Ewers France, circa 1825 HEIGHT: 15ins (38cms)


WIDTH: 4.75ins (12cms)

Illustrated in F. Duret-Robert, ‘De Buonaparte et des

DEPTH: 5.5ins (14cms)

Bourbons’ in Connaissance des Arts, March 1991, p.40 Illustrated in P. Kjellberg, Objets Montés du Moyen Age à


nos jours, Paris, 2000, p.176

Collection Jean Chelo

One of the pair is illustrated in Edith Mannoni, Opalines,

Collection of Docteur and Madame Castille until sold at

Charles Massin, 1970, p.24

Succession Castille, Versailles, 17 March 1991, lot 170

Illustrated in Arts et Décoration, no.154 – no.22

With Didier Aaron, Paris Anonymous sale at Christie’s London, 5 July 2001, lot 86. Private European Collection


paline glass – ‘cristal d’opale’ – is a form of decorative

Baccarat factory was established. Baccarat rivalled and

glassware which was made in France between 1810 and

rapidly eclipsed the output of the English and Bohemian

1890, although it reached the peak of its popularity during the

manufacturers, which until then had dominated the

reign of Napoleon III in the 1850s and 1860s. Opaline glass

production of crystal glass. The Journal des Dames et des

has a high lead content, which makes it similar to crystal

Modes in January 1824 remarked that: ‘On a donné aux

in composition and defines it as semi-crystal. The glass is

dames, en cadeau de Jour de l'An, beaucoup de cristaux

usually opaque and either white or coloured by the addition

colorés en blanc laiteux dit opale; en rose dit hortensia, en

of other substances, the earliest colours being turquoise

bleu dit turquoise... [The ladies were given a lot of crystals as

blue, yellow and pink. Pink opaline glass, known as ‘gorge

a New Year's gift coloured in milky white called opal, in pink

de pigeon’ or ‘pigeon’s throat’ and also referred to as ‘rose

called hydrangea, in blue called turquoise...]’ (S. Faniel (ed.),

hortensia’, is rarer than the bright blues or milky whites and

Le Dix-Neuvième Siècle Français, Paris, 1957, p.126).

was not produced after 1840. The pink colour is formed by the addition of particles of gold and pewter to the liquid lead

The ewers’ design, with the swan’s neck handles, derives

crystal, which accounts for its rarity. Opaline glass is always

from a drawing for a ewer which appears in plate XVIII of

hand-blown. A variety of different pieces were produced

Réceuil de Décorations Intérieures by Charles Percier and

in opaline glass including vases, bowls, cups, decanters,

Pierre François Léonard Fontaine, which was first published

perfume bottles, boxes, clocks and other implements. The

in 1801. Percier and Fontaine served as the official designers

main production centres for this type of glass included Le

for Napoleon and heavily influenced the appearance of

Creusot, Baccarat, and Saint-Louis, Réunion.

Empire-style wares produced in both Europe and America through their serial publication which premiered in 1801 and was issued as a complete volume in 1812. This book

These vases are early examples of the coloured opaline

became the template for the distinct aesthetic associated

glass which first appeared in the Empire period when the

with Napoleon’s court which is now called the ‘Empire’ style.

42 Pair of Blue John Cassolettes in the manner of Matthew Boulton (1728-1809) England, circa 1770 HEIGHT: 7.5ins (19cms) WIDTH: 3.75ins (9.5cms)

A pair of ormolu-mounted Blue John cassolettes in the form of urns with reversible candle holders, each with a flaming finial to the top, a pair of shaped handles hung with swagged laurel garlands, a band of Greek key pattern to the top of the Blue John bodies supported on a laurel leaf cup above a splayed, fluted stem on a square form base.


lthough no drawings by Matthew Boulton have been found, it is likely that these cassolettes either came

from his workshop and any drawing is now lost, or they were manufactured by a firm with a close relationship to Boulton

and his Soho House works, using similar techniques. OTHER EXAMPLES OF THE MODEL A set of four cassolettes with white marble bodies and a pair with Blue John bodies of the same form were previously offered by Jeremy Ltd. A Blue John cassolette of the same model is housed in the National Trust collection at Cliveden Estate, Buckinghamshire (item number NT765970) and a pair in the Royal Collection, held at Frogmore House. Interestingly, there is also a pair at Osterley House, seen in an old photograph on the mantelpiece in the Tapestry Room alongside a pair of candelabra known to have been supplied by Boulton, amongst other Boulton items there. BIBLIOGRAPHY:

Nicholas Goodison, Ormolu – The Work of Matthew Boulton, Christie's Books, 1999

43 Anglo-Indian Inlaid Tripod Table in Ottoman Taste India, possibly Hoshiarpur, late 18th century HEIGHT: 28 ins (71cms)

The dished circular mahogany top with radiating star inlay

WIDTH: 30.25 ins (77cms)

incorporating multiple exotic timber specimens including

DEPTH: 30.25 ins (77cms)

satinwood, ebony, mahogany, cocus and yew together with mother of pearl and brass inlay. PROVENANCE:

British Noble Collection, by descent


he form of this tripod table is undeniably English but

There is no doubt that there was a fascination with the Orient

the highly unusual and complex inlay with crescent

in 18th century London; so the Ottoman symbols in the table

and star motifs appears to be unique. The decorative

do not necessarily imply a commission for the Ottoman

scheme achieved is clearly evocative of Ottoman taste but

market. The mosque in Kew Gardens, together with the

comparable examples are yet to be found. The winding

other Oriental building designed by Sir William Chambers,

floral inlay in the legs is reminiscent of the decorative motifs

introduced a unique and impressive array of architecture to

associated with artisans from the Hoshiarpur region of the

the capital in George III’s reign.

Punjab. Amin Jaffer discusses the significant number of Chinese and other foreign craftsmen working in India in the 18th century which brought various influences and styles together.

44 Pair of Regency Occasional Tables in exotic woods England, circa 1810 HEIGHT: 28ins (71cms) WIDTH: 19ins (48cms) DEPTH: 12.5ins (32cms)

Each with a rectangular top with a pierced gilt brass gallery, the solid figured mahogany panel with crossbanding in coromandel wood. The frieze panel in coromandel with satinwood crossbanding and boxwood and ebony stringing. The shaped, outswept, tapering coromandel legs headed by ebonized lion masks, and tied with a shaped stretcher, on ebonized paw feet.

45 Ebony and Pietra Dura Cabinet on Stand Depicting Orpheus Charming the Animals The Panels: Italy, Florence, circa 1620, The Cabinet: Flemish, circa 1650, The Stand: England, circa 1750-1775 HEIGHT: 55.5ins (141cms) WIDTH: 43ins (109cms) LENGTH: 15ins (38cms) PROVENANCE:

An English Private Collection A strikingly similar cabinet which depicts Orpheus under a lapis lazuli arch in the central panel surrounded by exotic animals on the drawers encased in an ebony cabinet can be found in the collection of the Detroit Institute of Arts; originally in the collection of the Frescobaldi family of Florence.


he central panel depicts the legendary poet, Orpheus,

of exotic animals. The cabinet was almost certainly acquired

charming the animals with his lira da braccio.

by Queen Hedvig Eleonora (1636-1715), who was married to

According to Greek mythology, Orpheus received a lyre

King Charles X of Sweden (1622-1660).

from Apollo and was taught to play the instrument by the Muses. He used his lyre to charm the animals, birds

‘Pietra dura’ or ‘pietre dure’ is an inlay technique using cut

and reptiles, which are shown gathered around him. The

and fitted, highly-polished colored stones to create images.

scene is based on an etching by Antonio Tempesta (1555-

The stones are sliced and cut in different shaped sections.

1630) entitled Orpheus Charming the Birds and the Animals

The stonework, after the work is assembled loosely, is glued

(Harvard Art Museums/Fogg Museum, object no. S9.26;

stone-by-stone to a substrate. It is assembled precisely so

and it became one of the Galleria de’ Lavori’s most popular

that the contact between each section is practically invisible.

subjects. There are at least twenty-two documented pieces

Grand pieces of furniture such as this were used as ‘cabinets

of furniture which reflect the high technical standards of

of curiosities’, as statement pieces in rooms and as statements

the workshop, each with a slightly varied central Orpheus

of wealth. The pietra dura pictorial panels were created by

plaque and different animal panels (Annamaria Giusti and

the Galleria de' Lavori, the Medici grand-ducal workshop

Wolfram Koeppe (Eds.), Art of the Royal Court: Treasures

in Florence. Whoever commissioned the cabinet probably

in Pietre Dure from the Palaces of Europe, New Haven and

collected the specimens on their Grand Tour, which was

London, 2008, p. 176-177).

an essential aspect of the education of young noblemen during the 18th century and early 19th century. Their premier

‘The Cucci Cabinet’, designed by 17th century Italian furniture

destination was Italy where they would immerse themselves

master Domenico Cucci, is one of the most elaborate of the

in the history, politics, culture and art of the country whose

series of cabinets with a central panel depicting Orpheus

ancient and Renaissance art awaited their discovery and

playing his lyre, and also shares similar surrounding panels


46 A Rare Double-barrelled Ottoman Blunderbuss Turkey, circa 1800 LENGTH: 28ins (71cms)

Signed in two teardrop cartouches with the maker’s seal in Arabic.


n Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History The Metropolitan Museum of Art says that the blunderbuss ‘had been

introduced to the Islamic world by trade and armed conflict in both the East and West, and the manufacture of cannon

and handheld firearms became a highly regarded craft in many regions under Islamic rule…. [They were] derived from seventeenth-century European prototypes in the construction of their locks and in the shape of their butts. Many were fitted either with European locks, acquired by trade or as booty, or with locks that were manufactured in Islamic regions but were in fact copies of European types.’ (‘Islamic Arms and Armor,’ in Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History) Ottoman blunderbusses are normally found with a single barrel; the double-barrel version is extremely rare.


Department of Arms and Armor. ‘Islamic Arms and Armor’ in Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2000

47 George II Carved Mahogany Tripod Table England, circa 1750 HEIGHT: 29ins (73.5cms) WIDTH: 31ins (78.75cms) PROVENANCE:

with Tom Devenish, Madison Avenue, NYC Private Collection USA

48 Regency Black and Gilt Japanned Secretaire Side Cabinet England, circa 1820 HEIGHT: 54ins (137cms) WIDTH: 34.5ins (87.5cms) DEPTH: 20ins (51cms)

With a long cedar-lined secretaire drawer incorporating a writing slide, pen tray and various compartments.


he Craces Chinoiserie decorative scheme for George IV at the Brighton Pavilion contributed to furniture

decorated with japanning continuing to be made through the Regency period. On this cabinet, the incorporation of small areas of polychrome within the decoration, together

with the pagoda and the figural compositions are typical of the Regency interpretation of Chinoiserie. The rather eccentric drop handles with human masks, which appear to be original, suggest a provincial workshop. Interestingly, it has been suggested that Brighton might have been a centre of production of japanned chinoiserie at this time.

49 George II Olive Wood ‘Mule Chest’ England, circa 1735 HEIGHT: 38.25ins (97cms)


WIDTH: 52.5ins (133.5cms)

with Christie’s, London, May 1976

DEPTH: 21.75ins (55.5cms)

Phillips of Hitchin Private Collection, USA

Veneered in a herring bone pattern. With shortgrain mouldings; and two oak lined drawers below. Mounted on square cabriole legs terminating in square pad feet. With original brass carrying handles.


n Early Georgian Furniture: 1715-1740, Adam Bowett illustrates a chest on stand and a chest with drawers to

show the various configurations of blanket chest or coffer

on stand which evolved, commenting that: ‘chests of this type are now relatively uncommon… On the whole surviving examples tend to be rather early (before c.1750).’ He continues: ‘the antiques trade calls these hybrid chests ‘mule chests’, but this was not a contemporary term’ (Adam Bowett, ‘Early Georgian Furniture: 1715-1740’, Antique Collectors’ Club, 2009, p.97).

50 Johann Heinrich Müntz (1727-98) The South East View of Strawberry Hill House, Twickenham Painted between 1755-1759 HEIGHT: 40ins (102cms) WIDTH: 29.5ins (75cms)

Oil on canvas. In a carved, giltwood frame. PROVENANCE:

Commissioned by Horace Walpole Collection of Gloria, Dowager Countess Bathurst (1927-2018)


trawberry Hill House was created by Horace Walpole (1717-1797), 4th Earl of Orford and son of the first British

Prime Minister, Sir Robert Walpole. Horace Walpole was an art historian, collector, and writer of the first English

Gothic novel The Castle of Otranto (1764). In 1747 Walpole leased a property at Strawberry Hill, which he went on to buy in 1749. His passion for the Gothic spanned his years at Strawberry Hill House and he added turrets, battlements and cloisters inspired by buildings such as Canterbury Cathedral and Westminster Abbey. The house was the first to be rebuilt in this style despite the fact its origins and style were not medieval. It was a key source of the Gothic revival in English architecture. This painting by Müntz shows the completed house. Johann Heinrich Müntz (1727-1798) was an architect, designer and landscape painter. He worked across Europe in Spain, Italy, France and the Netherlands as well as in Britain. He was employed by Walpole at Strawberry Hill for four years from 1755. A companion oil on canvas by Müntz View of Strawberry Hill, from the South, with Twickenham Beyond can be found in the Lewis Walpole Library (Yale Center for British Art).