Issuu on Google+

THINK Global School Proudly Presents Visual Arts Exhibition 2016

IB DIPLOMA

VRTS A

ISUAL

GRADUATE EXHIBITION BOSNIA & HERZEGOVINA

2 - 4 March 2016 Bošnjački institut Mula Mustafe Bašeskije 21, Sarajevo 71000 Exhibition Opening 7pm, 2 March 2016


Ronie Tene

John Ols

Tiana Seger

! Higher Level "

! Higher Level "

! Higher Level "

Cameron Shetler ! Standard Level "


FOREWORD

Chung Man Chan IB Visual Arts Teacher

2


Section 2

THE EXHIBITION OPENING

3


CLASS IN ACTION

9


Field Trip: Auckland Art Museum, Students getting hands at the Olafur Eliasson: The Cubic Structural Evolution Project


Field Trip: Auckland War Memorial Museum: World of Wearable Art Exhibition


Students working their drawings in class in Costa Rica


RONY


1

Volume, Photomedia, 50cm x 45cm, Dec, 2015


ad infinitum, Mixed media drawing (Acrylic, pastel, colour markers) , 120cm x 140cm , May, 2015


The Leaves Wi! Fa! From the Sky, digital photography, 180cm x 60cm, Sep. 2015


The Parts We Leave Behind , Costume Design # satin, linen, lace, jewelry" 160cm x 200cm, Sep. 2015


1

Poison, Acrylic on canvas, 100cm x 50cm, Jan 2016


IngĂŠnue, GIF animations on Ipads, 100cm x 80cm, Jun. 2015


‫באשמת עצבים רפופים‬ (in the fault of our shrouded nerves), Installation - mirror, cardboard; 70cm x 50cm x 10 cm, Mar. 2016


1

Closer to the Sky than I’! Ever Be, Installation # pointe shoes !found object" , cardboard, beads, jewellery and paint; 80cm x 70cm x 10 cm, Mar, 2016


1

Panacea, Lino print, 98cm x 67cm, Mar. 2015


Sketches from my own bookwork

Critical Investigation

PROCESS PORTFOLIO

Women representation in fairy tales

Kirsty Mitchell

An additional area of women stereotyping is in fairy tales. Whether it is the tales of the Grimm Brothers’ or modern Disney versions, fairy tales have permeated society for all ages. The question is whether they are merely stories told to children for entertainment or something more. Many claim that the influence fairy tales has on young children is much greater than it is thought to be. By representing young women as the ideal good girls. Each princess is unequivocally beautiful, kind, and compassionate. She does not complain or get angry. Instead, she takes her burdens as they come. She is also, in most cases, naïve and sometimes downright foolish. She never tries to save herself, nor does she ask others to save her from misery.

Mitchell specialised in “Costume for Performance” at The London College of Fashion, gaining a Higher National Diploma with Distinction. Her work ‘Wonderland’ began in the summer of 2009 as a small summer project born of grief for Kirsty’s mother Maureen, who died 7 months before in November 2008.

https://www.fictionpress.com/s/2126672/1/GenderRepresentation-in-Fairytales All photographs from Cindy Shrman’s website: http:// www.cindysherma n.com/

Women representation in the media

Sexism in the media

Western media often portrays women in television and magazines in a controversial manner. Throughout the years, women’ position within the society changed and with it the stereotypes and myths about women were reflected from these publishing tools. Looking at the more general image of the current state. Advertising is everywhere: the average American consumer sees over 3,000 commercials messages each day. In many of these messages women are depicted as sexual objects Women have always been expected to fill specific gender roles as the cleaning, cooking, or child-bearing sex machine. Today’s Western society has most certainly evolved to where such discrimination is extremely discouraged and looked down upon.

During the 1950s, sexism against women was something that was normal and expected by both men and women. Regardless of how insulting or chauvinistic ads were towards women, people were socialized to tolerate and accept the female house-wife stereotype.

http:// www.busine sspundit.co m/10-mostsexist-printads-fromthe-1950s/

http://

Ads in the 1950s most commonly womenin advertised wives being completely ads.wee controlled and influenced by their bly.com/ husbands, feminine products to help history.ht ml impress their husbands, cleaning http://www.forbes.com/sites/kathycaprino/2014/11/21/whats-wrong-with-theproducts, and endless cooking and medias-portrayal-of-women-today-and-how-to-reverse-it/#1f2047e371b2 references to the benefits of staying in the kitchen. The 1950s could be called the advertiser's dream decade. World War II was over. The postwar economy had rebounded. Prosperity seemed like a sure thing. Americans were ready to buy Sketches from my homes, cars, clothes and products to validate their leisurely own bookwork lifestyles. And advertisers were eager to sell goods. This time they had a more powerful tool than print ads: television. Due to such faulty representations of women, women’s rights movements originated in the 1800s, but only in the 1960s and 1970s after influence from the Civil Rights Movement did a wave of women’s rights activists successfully gain enough momentum to gain recognition as the true Women’s Movement (Pandhe, 1988). http://mediasmarts.ca/gender-representation/women-and-girls/ media-portrayals-girls-and-women-introduction

https:// kirstymitchellphoto graphy.com/

Cindy Sherman The American feminist artist Cindy Sherman (1954) is famous for the Untitled Film Stills series (1977–1980) that consist of black-and-white photographs of the artist posing in different stereotypical female roles. http://www.theartstory.org/artist-sherman-cindy.htm

In these photos, the artist alternates between different stereotypical female roles: the professional, the femme fatale, the fallen woman. A transformation that reveals identity as role-play, where femininity appears as something that is shaped by male expectations.

How are fairy tales related to my own work?

As the series grew, it developed a global fan base of over 300,000 followers online, resulting in the photographs achieving a viral status and mass international media coverage around the world. The acclaim for her work and escalating demands of the project led Kirsty to finally leave her fashion career behind at the end of 2011 to commit her future to the completion of the collection and producing the book.

https:// kirstymi tchellp hotogr aphy.c om/ gallerie s/ wonder land/

What mostly drew my attention to Cindy Sherman’s works is her use of postmodernism that can be seen in her photographs. Postmodernism art movement rejected traditional values and politically conservative assumptions. What I mostly https:// appreciate in Sherman’s work is I the kirstymitchellp hotography.co brutality yet innocence that show in her m/galleries/ facial expressions and poseurs throughout wonderland/ her staged photographs. Society’s interpretation of beauty has significantly changed over time and will always continue to change. For example, in the early to midtwentieth century, women were considered beautiful if they had fair skin and a full, curvy figure. Having tan skin simply meant that you spent too much time outside, which was further associated with the working class (Sebastian, 2008). Having a voluptuous body meant represented a fertile and wholesome woman. As years passed, women gradually became slimmer and darker skinned. In today’s society, beauty is almost the exact opposite as it was in the early twentieth century. Women are socialized to want to have tan skin with a very thin body frame.

https://kirstymitchellphotography.com/ galleries/wonderland/

As said before, fairy tales are a great tool to establish the relationship between women’ beauty and women’ role within the society. In my own work I therefore bring my models into the woods, into the frosts and into wherever magic seems to take place. Just like in fairy tales, I want my models to represent pure beauty and innocence that shows in their face expressions and body poseurs. The eyes, which are a crucial element of expression of innocence and virginity must be pure. The eyes must talk instead of the mouth in these cases and reflect how fragile and weak these women are. Additionally, another focus should be on the dress. As one might spot from watching a fairy tale movie, the dresses are extravagant, expensive and have a magical touch to them. I will then try to make the dresses match the vibrate feeling of the women’ personality which back in these days was not seen by her actions and beliefs but from her physical appearance. xxiii

http://scholarworks.uvm.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1022&context=hcoltheses


Critical investigation Islamic Culture How are the islamic culture and muslim religion distributed over the map?

en.wikipedia.org

According to quartz.com, 2016’s distribution of muslims stands on about 1.6 billion people. With such high distribution of the religion around the globe, I decided to delve into its roots and perceptions. Some characteristics of Islamic culture: ! 1. God-centered or theocentric: First of all the culture is God-centered.! 2. Egalitarian, tolerant and fraternal: Secondly the Islamic culture emphasizes that all people are equal. 3. Dignifying and moralistic: the culture places great emphasis on the dignity of human beings and their morality. 4. Dynamic, progressive, world affirming and not world-denying or ascetic: the culture emphasizes struggle, change, social justice, removal of oppression and evil. 5. Non-exclusivist but Da`wah-oriented and optimistic: Finally the Islamic culture emphasizes promoting good things with wisdom and patience. http://www.preservearticles.com/2011122419214/what-are-the-importantcharacteristics-of-islam.html

What I find mostly inspiring in Islamic culture and muslim religion is its art. Islamic art encompasses the visual arts produced from the 7th century onwards by people who lived within the territory that was inhabited by or ruled by culturally Islamic populations. Islamic art is not at all restricted to religious art, but includes all the art of the rich and varied cultures of Islamic societies as well. There are repeating elements in Islamic art, such as the use of geometrical floral or vegetal designs in a repetition known as the arabesque. The arabesque in Islamic art is often used to symbolize the transcendent, indivisible and infinite nature of God. www.metmuseum.org www.democraticunderground.com patterninislamicart.com

meraeman.com patterninislamicart.com

mvslim.com

Sketches from my own bookwork

However, going back and defining culture, many people think that culture means art, music or some social habits. The word “culture” has many meanings. In Arabic it is called “thaqafah.” In my opinion, culture is defined as patterns of behavior and thinking that people living in social groups learn, create, and share. Our culture distinguishes one human group from others. A people’s culture includes their beliefs, rules of behavior, language, rituals, art, technology, styles of dress, ways of producing and cooking food, political and economic systems. Hence, in my own investigation of Islamic cultural elements and their application in art, I decided to focus on the contrevasray between the old fashioned islamic beliefs and the modern, developed ideas of Islam. Some shared dubious beliefs regarding the Islam in countries like Iran and Iraq include the questions of terrorism, gender inequality and human rights. Specifying on the questions of gender inequality and human rights, laws regarding dress code, ! behaviour and rights are considered to be undeveloped. What is the hijab? Islam has strongly emphasised the concept of decency and modesty in the interaction between members of the opposite sex. Dress code is part of that overall teaching. Additionally, there are multiple types of it. The most referred to as the hijab (!"#$), is the square scarf, which covers head to neck but leaves the face clear. Another type is Khimar (%"&'), which is a long, cape-like scarf that is wrapped the head and hangs to the middle of the back This type of hijab covers the neck, head and shoulders. However, the Burqa ( ()*+ ) for example is a type of hijab that covers he entire face and body leaving only a small piece in which the woman can see through. What I find most interesting about the hijab is its controversiality between different cultures. Some may perceive it as an accepted, beautiful element of the islam while others will associate it with gender roles and domesticated women.

Researching bout the islamic culture, i came across Shadi Ghadirian’s work Like Everyday Series (2001). Being interested in the way in which the society accepts women and portrays them in the media and other social platforms, I decided to investigate on the cultural significance of Ghadirian’s work. A striking idea that came across her work was the Quran’s influence on Muslims understanding of the world. Generally, gender roles in Islam are simultaneously coloured by two Qur'anic precepts: (i) spiritual equality between women and men; and (ii) the idea that women are meant to exemplify femininity, and men masculinity. Interpretation might coe in different forms to people who read the Quran and specifically, Like Everyday may represents such saying in which women’s place should be in the kitchen while taking care of the children. By covering the muslim women with colourful hijab and putting physical objects on it the audience is fully exposed to the controversy in the position of the woman within the family.

Connection to my own work:

In my art work,I choose to look at the use of hijab in order to portray the message beauty is found everywhere and has many different shapes and ideas behind it. My idea is to show the lack of understanding which is frequently present in understanding other cultures’ rituals and laws. Through the use of different islamic art patterns and the use of women as my centre idea, I seek to emphasise my theme of pure beauty. ! ! http:// www.alislam.org/ hijabmuslimwomensdressislamic-orculturalsayyidmuhammad -rizvi/quranand-hijab

!

On a different note, during my last visit in Israel (April 2015) I heard the sentence "we fight for our peace" multiple times in several ceremonies during the memorial day for soldiers fallen for our country. Disregarding the intensity of such a day, this sentence contradicts itself- and the ideas of war and peace are mixed in an unnatural, faulty manner. In order to make peace, war should be prohibited. Since I was born in Israel, all of my life I was taught there's the "right" and the "wrong" sides to the conflicts of Muslim countries and Israel. This has led me to associate Muslims with danger and threaten. Never in my life I was taught about the “enemies”’s habits and rituals. ! Therefore, this work also serves as my exploration of the “unwanted”, “dangerous” Muslim religion and islamic culture.


www.gorentals.co.nz

Critical Investigation

I visited the Auckland museum in September 2015 and saw the WOW exhibition

*In booth exhibitions taking photographs was not allowed and therefore I had to use online photos.

I visited an exhibition in Liljevalchs konsthall museum in December 2016. blogs.ft.com

Utopian Bodies Exhibition

Visiting the World of Wearable art exhibition in Tate museum in Auckland museum, I was inspired by the use of simple elements of the arts in designing costumes. “Wearable art enables designers to step out of the constraints of fashion and see the body as a blank canvas for any idea that comes to them. The more provocative, unorthodox and original, the better!” Quote from Dame Suzie Moncrieff, founder of WOW.

“The central aim of the exhibition is to present the possibilities of fashion, and inspire visitors to search for their vision of the future”. Sofia Hedman and Serge Martynov, curators of Utopian Bodies. Photo taken by me

“ The World of WearableArt®, known as WOW®, is a renowned international design competition that attracts hundreds of entries from all over the world.

Finalists compete for over $165,000 in prize money plus internships with leading creative companies such as Weta Workshop ”. ! islandtravelhawaii.com ! (worldofwearableart. com) All works shown to the left and bottom have made me rethink the connection between beauty and human magical creations. What I mostly enjoyed in the WOW exhibition was the magic felt in the air. The dresses in addition to the quotes by Suzie Moncrieff stressed the passion the designers have had for designing the dresses. The first thing you want to do as you get inside the exhibition area is to go back to the magical era during the romantic movement where all dresses were elegant,

The section of the show showing several garments from one of the world’s largest private collections of Alexander McQueen, Prada’s sparkling rainbow look from spring/summer 2014 and a look from Rick Owen’s autumn/winter 2015 collection that caused a media stir due to the strategically cut holes revealing the models’ genitals were the parts which influenced me the most. As I am a big fan of fashion trends and innovations, I found it interesting to see how great designers who are usually interested in marketing their products took the time and connected their works to the greater purpose of exhibiting them in a museum. Below are ideas I could possibly use for my dresses in my design costume. As you can see, i was very inspired by the use of elements and clouds from nature in my designs. Going off the theme of pure beauty and its connection to nature, I was able to manipulate my works to stress the femininity, royal part of women.

http:// makeitlast.s e/ 2015/10/22/ howcreativitycanrevolutionize -the-fashionindustry/

makeitlast.se

Connection to my own work I was greatly inspired by Utopian Bodies exhibition. The glamorous, unique and chic style it had amazed me and inspired me to create a design of my own, this eventually turn out to be my piece The Part We Leave Behind in which I seek to show my audience the importance of true representations of human personality and the unnoticed parallelism between our soul and nature.

These are the final dresses I’ve made, showing both the fire and ice elements.


Critical Investigation In the light of my appropriation of Damien Hirst’s work, I wanted to investigate the field of contemporary art.

Sketches from my own bookwork

Contemporary Shock Art More specifically, Shock art is “contemporary These presented sketches are part of my stream of consciousness where I decided to explore shock through a mental illness. this might come as a consequence of societal faulty perceptions of the ideal beauty.

In my own work, I seek to shock my audience and make them rethink about the message portrayed through my art creation. What started from my awe towards Damien First’s work, developed into my interest in shock art in general, which is actually an art component by itself. This investigation enlarged my understanding of controversy and further developed my next artworks ideas about beauty shock.

Contemporary art is “the art of today, produced by artists who are living in the twenty-first century. Contemporary art provides an opportunity to reflect on contemporary society and the issues relevant to ourselves, and the world around us”. (Art Education - NYU Steinhardt)

ripitup.com.au

Damien Hirst’s works then shocked me with their innovation and developed thinking. From his artworks I discovered for the first time, anything can be art. Art has no limits and this is often a problem.

Art indubitably has the power to shock. Artists following this theme sometimes go further the legal boundary of creation in order to truly awe their audience. Banksy’s art for example has the shocking element Hirst has in his works. His work not only includes many powerful, often controversial images, but they may also be found throughout the Internet as viral images.Banksy attempts to show his audience his view from his political and social commentaries.

art that incorporates disturbing imagery, sound or scents to create a shocking experience. It is a way to disturb "smug, complacent and hypocritical" people”. (wikipedia.com)

In addition to Banksy’s works other artists like Jenny Holzer, Tracey Emin and Takashi Murakami are contemporary artists who share the common theme of shocking and influencing the viewers.

What I mostly like about his works is the transparency shown in each of his work’ themes, no matter where it is presented as you can always tell it is his work and he has a very specific idea of the message behind it.

Fountain (1917), by Marcel Duchamp, a "shock art pioneer."

Takashi Murakam i's manga style lifesize sculpture titled “My Lonesom e Cowboy” Tracey Emin's provocative installation My Bed (1998)

Jenny Holzer, Untitled (Men Don't Protect You Anymore) 1983–85.

These artworks presented above all inspired me to create and produce more of my own art. They inspired me to think, think about who I am and how I define myself. They inspired me to think about prejudices ad discriminations. They took me in a journey , moving from a happy state to a sadder


Critical Investigation

Sketches from my own bookwork

Ritual It is believed dance was i n v e n t e d hundreds of years ago as it was used as a ritual in multiple tribes in Egypt. Especially, the dance ceremony served as a prayer to god or as an imitation of cosmic patterns. Focusing on women’s role in ritual and religious dance, one can see that w o m e n resembled

Ecstasy

Entertainment

The ecstasy dance is mainly practiced in tribes where most participants share the belief that dance has the power to transpor t them from earthly planes into ethereal realms, and every tribe has its own tale to tell about why that’s so. Women, in this case are there to support the shaman or tribe leader who leads the dance.

Egyptian paintings, from as early as about 1400 BC, depict another eternal appeal of dancing. Scantily clad girls, accompanied by seated musicians, cavort enticingly on the walls of tombs. They will delight the male occupant during his residence in the next world. In the context of the 16th and 17th century, the upper classes were interested in dance as enertaicamnt which led to the creation of ballet.

Ballet A favourite entertainment in Renaissance France and Italy involves ladies and gentlemen of the court being wheeled into the banqueting hall on scenic floats from which they descend to perform a dance. Nowadays, ballet serves as a base ground each dancer has to go through when attempting to learn any kind of dance.

Contemporary Contemporary dance is a style of expressive dance that combines elements of several dance genres including modern, jazz, lyrical and classical ballet. Contemporary dance stresses versatility and improvisation, unlike the strict, structured nature of ballet. Contemporary dancers focus on floorwork, using gravity to pull them down to the floor. This dance genre is often done in bare feet. Contemporary dance can be performed to many different styles of music.

seraknight.co.uk

By definition (dictionary. A brief com), pointe shoes are “a history of dance slipper fitted with a Sera Knight Pointe thick, reinforced toe to Sara Knight is a painter enable the ballet dancer to Shoes who was born in Ankara toe-dance”. Surprisingly, Turkey. Knight’s paintings pointe shoes were only are mostly made of created and added to the watercolours, acrylic and mixed media. From world of dance later on in observing dancers in ballet the timeline of ballet. More studios and ballrooms, the explicitly, the first pointe artist uses contrasting www.historyworld.net/wrldhis/PlainTextHistories.asp?historyid=ab82 www.centralhome.com › Dance Info shoes to be worn were colours such as yellow What are some preconceived ideas heeled slippers. However, Artists who inspired me : and blue, red and green about ballet? and blue and orange to due to inconveniences https://dancer.com/ballet-info/about-pointe-shoes/pointe-shoe-evolution https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pointe_shoe create a complex and - Gender roles. Male dancers are regarding technical issues historycooperative.org/the-pointe-shoe-a-history/ Edgar Degas interesting story behind the homosexual as they adore a habit with the shoes structure in which women are usually associated Degas is a painter who was born painting. What I mostly particular, these shoes with. in Paris, France to a wealthy liked about her art is the were not used for a long - Since it looks simple, it probably is family. In his paintings, Degas use of various contrasting time. Subsequently to the simple. focuses on his own style while colours. I therefore tried to - In order to stay in shape, the dancers use of heel slippers, pointe painting to an original observation create my work keeping in are constantly on a very restrictive diet. of contemporary life. The artist mind her simplistic yet shoes were created and - All dancers must be skinny and tall. was mainly inspired by the complex use of paint first used by ballet dancers. They must have long legs and great classical beauty and modern colours. The creation of pointe www.seraknight.co.uk/ pointed feet. realism that was present in ballet shoes allowed - Since dancers, just like other sports www.russianimperialballetschool. dance. More specifically, most of org/sara-knight.html choreographers to people, devote all of their life to their his paintings show dance Sketc profession, they therefore lack an hes elements such as balance, grace strengthen their dancers’ from educational background. and radiance. Lastly, his paintings technical skills in addition my - All dancers must be flexible and have remain among the most popular www.pbt.org own to their overall an extremely good technique. images in the 19th century. book http://historycooperative.org/the-pointe-shoe-a-history/ performance. Throughout work - As competition in the field of dance is Inspired by him, I decided to the years however, the common, dancers tend to become focus my attention on the pointe more sabotaging, ensuring their own s h o e s t h a t w e re c o n s t a n t l y structure of the pointe place within the dance company. present throughout his works in shoes changed rapidly to fit - All ballet dancers wear pink. addition to their simplicity and the dancers’ exhausting - Women are more likely to be better at delicacy. and demanding routine. ballet than men. www.smithsonianmag.com/arts-culture/degas-and-his-dancers-79455990/


Symbolisms:

Sketches from my own bookwork

Critical Investigation

http://www.teleflora.com/floral-facts/flower-color-meaning

Sket ches from my own book work

The Sleeping Princess by Edward BurneJones

The colour of sun. Represent s life, energy, happiness ope and wisdom.

Blue Morning Glories (1935) by Georgia O'Keeffe

Aestheticism Who is Georgia O’keeffe?

Georgia O’Keeffe is one of the most significant and intriguing artists of the twentieth century, known internationally for her boldly innovative art of her time. Her distinct flowers, dramatic cityscapes, glowing landscapes, and images of bones against the stark desert sky are iconic and original contributions to American Modernism.

American Modernism Art This artistic and cultural movement began at the turn of the 20th century with its core period between World War I and World War II and continuing into the 21st century. (boundless.com) Abstraction and realism are characteristics that represent this era.

is a late 19th-century European arts movement which centred on the doctrine that art exists for the sake of its beauty alone, and that it need serve no political, didactic, or other purpose (britannica.com). American modernism art movement is considered to be influenced by its simplicity. The movement began in reaction to prevailing utilitarian social philosophies and to what was perceived as the ugliness and philistinism of the industrial age. Its philosophical foundations were laid in the 18th century by Immanuel Kant, who postulated the autonomy of aesthetic standards, setting them apart from considerations of morality, utility, or pleasure. However, contemporary artists now criticise the movement for its dichotomy between the value of art and the idea of mortality.

Angel Trumpet

Sunflower

The colour of plants and grass , the colour of nature. Green is associated with health and growth however is also used to represent negative traits such as envy and inexperience.

Rose webneel.com

www.joekaz.com

Resembles angelic sensations and spirits of ancestors. It is considered toxic and historically was used for poisons.

All images are taken from: http:// www.teleflora. com/floralfacts/flowercolor-meaning

www.artsb2c.com

Represents the magic of life and the sun. Resembles healing and recovery.

Used as a symbol of spiritual enlightenment. Has strong connection to religion by its pals and petals that represent the wounds of the killed

Represents peace, purity and goodness. Symbolises perfection and equality as white holds within itself the whole colour range.

represents creativity, change, energy and endurance.

represents danger, anger and violence. ! Associated with affairs of the heart: love and passion.

Creates a calming and cling feeling in the viewers,. It The colour of is used to royalty, health represent and power. heaven and Historically, the skies, he purple dyes were gods, the rare and ocean, expensive. Only freshness, the rich and purity and powerful could hygiene . afford to wear clothes of this luxurious color.

Represent s grace and elegance in addition to femininity and romance.

Considered to be youthful and vibrant . Pink is sensual and passionate without being too aggressive.


sketches from my own bookwork

I wanted the back to be open, showing her skin.

Making a representative fabric was essential for the viewers relatedness with the element.

Communication of ideas and intentions Resembling fire and ice, these costumes’ main purpose is to emphasise the bridge between women and their connection to earth and the Cosmo. What started as a costume representative of all elements (fire, water, air, earth) became a representation of women’ associated features such as ice and fire (examining from the behavioural perspectives). T h e m o d e l ’s back will be h a l f covered half bare while the covered part will be made of m e s h fabric. These sketches were possible ideas I had for the dresses which were eventually not used. As I considered to mix both jewellery and accessories with my dress, these possible outfits were ideals. However, i essentially decided I’d like to have a red, yellow, orange dress for the fire element and a white cream dress for the ice element.

ICE COSTUME For the ice costume, I decided to make the dress elegant, just as ice had these very firm shapes. Pointy or flattened, ice always holds the impression of being set and still yet erratic and volatile. My costume then had to be both well shaped and representative of the message I wanted to portray using my costume. As ice is represented in fairy tales and movies, I wanted to bring about the comparison between the softness and purity in the women characters’ physical appearance and the coldness and viciousness seen through the characters’ personality.

FIRE COSTUME In order for the dress to show fire’s elements, it is necessary to layer the skirt using different fabrics. By doing so, I will be able to create a flowy, elegant dress. An additional idea I had in mind was covering the model’s whole back with mesh fabric in addition to using a redder fabric.

upr.org

For the fire costume, it was essential to ensure the costume flows. Just like fire flames either decrease or increase with the wind, the dress could move from smaller to bigger with the model herself, who holds the burning personality. I wanted the costume to include multiple colours, just like fire holds within itself various colours ranging from blue to yellow. Therefore, I decided I want the dress to have multiple layers that will create this variation of shades. At this stage, i had to decide how i want the costume to look like. Knowing the colours and the message that is supposed to be portrayed in the costume, I decided to make the bottom part 3/4 quarters instead of covering the legs fully. This is in order to bring about both the skin tone of the model and also to enable the model to move freely, just like fire spreads and halt easily.

For the the ice dress, I decided to use this shape of dress, stressing on the symmetry and the simplicity of it.

For the fire element, I decided to use this shape of dress, keeping the flow and the mysterious element to it.

All are sketches from my own bookwork

The intention behind my ice dress is to create an elegant, simplistic dress which will fit my model perfectly.

commons.wikimedia.org

The open back might not be as open in reality as I would still like to keep the dress very elegant and minimalistic without showing too much of my model.

Again, t h e re should be a represe ntative fabric t h a t would remind t h e readers of the i c e element.


How to shoot the subject?

Communication of ideas and intention

Before starting the photoshoot I needed to decide what I want to present through the use of my model. From investigating and viewing different magazines and children books, I discovered the way in which most princesses and models are postured affects the message passed to the audience. I then decided to give more attention to the very specific postures I wanted my model to preform in order to convey my message of pure natural beauty behind the photo series. Hence, I examined multiple poses varying from standing or sitting with the back to the camera to being very close or very far from the camera. The question of which one to choose then rise and made me think about the fact there should be indeed some sort of connection between the environment and the model. Photographing her in a forest, I decided to make her climb few trees in addition to sitting on by the them. The issue with that was that I had 3 main aspects I mostly wanted to show in this photo series which are: the landscape, the model and the dress. I therefore had to manipulate the photoshoot to fit all of my needs while still focusing on the idea of pure beauty. I thence chose to aim my attention in photographing towards few closeups to my model’s face, her and the environment (photographing her from far away) and her dress (photographing her from different angles at a 5–10 meters distance.

http:// www.lucian arose.com/ foxandbam bi/

http:// www.bloglovin.co m/blogs/dustjacket-11619201/ lazysunday-17707765 65

Where to shoot the subject? Attempting to find an area where my subject would blend in the best, I considered the three following locations: forest, lake and a field. Living Sweden during autumn, I could use any of the options. Yet, for the purpose of blending my subject in the natural environment, the forest was found to be the best match. Lighting the maple leaves and creating shadows of the trees, the forest enabled me to change locations while still keeping the mysterious- royal sense of the photographs.

Forest?

Lake?

Field?

http:// www.photo dom.com/ photo/ 2072374

Which subject do I choose?

http:// www.trendhu nter.com/ trends/ serenebeauty

How to plan my photoshoot? 1. Find an idea/ concept- in this case, the photoshoot’s concept is women in society and their representation in fairytales and other cultural stories as pure and innocent. 2. Experiment with location and timings- this photoshoot was selected to occur during sunset and the location was the forest in Sweden 3. Choose a model who will present your theme the best- my model, Lisa Grages was selected as she represented fall and nature the best n my opinion n. 4. Choose a crew that will help you during your photoshoot- the crew helped me with the makeup, the model’s posing postures and filming and taking photographs of the process. 5. Edits- use photoshop of illustrator- to edit photos I used both platforms.

For this photoshoot I knew that I need a model whose face has very soft lines and her eyes create a sense of tranquility. Her skin tone must not be too light nor too black as the costume and settings are very peach and the model should blend in with the environment rather than protrude.

What is the message behind the subject? Embracing the fact my audience will have specific pre-knowledge about the ethnicity and gender of whichever subject I choose to photograph, I’d like to take the focus as away as possible from the subject’s features in order to emphasise the dress and settings of the image. Hence, concentrating on the message the image will impose, I decided the whole atmosphere will mainly be centred on the magical, euphoric and royal vibe of the dress, setting, subject and lighting. Doing so, I’ll be able to portray the theme of pure beauty society dictates as its main goal.


Communication of ideas and intentions

Photography

The photography medium will show the model in different positions and from different angles.

One possible outcome of such theme is a photography piece. I will therefore be using the theme of purity and innocence which will be portrayed through the dress and the settings the models will be put at. Through photography I will establish a mysterious- naive impression which will reflect women’ stereotypical roles within society. Using photography as a tool to communicate my ideas behind royalty and purity, I was able to create one image that carries all of my perspectives in one physically appealing creation. As through the IB art HL course I experimented with photography, I decided to create more of my works using photographs as agents to portray my opinions.

The model and the environment

The model from close at her calming moments.

The model’s hand , showing her fragility.

sketches from my own bookwork

Costume

The model’s jewellery , The model’s perfect features, showing her luxury. showing her commitment to the ideal beauty.

The model’s eyes , showing her soul.

The costume design medium will show the more materialistic part of beauty and purity as seen from women’ style.

Through photography I'll be able to persuade the idea of pure beauty and legends. In order to bring the character to life and make it extravagant, I'll be creating a dress, which will help me portray my ideas. The dresses will be influenced by the 19th century's clothing style. As seen in the drawings and paintings of the Pre-Raphaelite brotherhood, I was inspired to make a dress similar to their designs. Following my elements I will apply my skills to create the costumes needed for the photography and film. For example, I will follow different artists to inspire myself while creating different shapes and colour matches in my dresses. !

sketches from my own bookwork

Different shapes will be used for the dress.

Each costume will hold a different story behind itself.

The video medium will hold both the costume and the photography parts within it. Documenting the dress, the model, the environment and the light, the video piece might be a good idea for imposing the theme of seasons and the passing beauty ideals on the viewers.

Video Another possibility for portraying my ideas is through film. ! My film then will combine new technological features of Final Cut Pro with the dress and model influenced by Pre Raphaelite brotherhood, Grimm Brothers books and films, Disney women characters and other influencing movements. Focusing on the dress I'll make and the postures in which the models will follow by researching 19th century paintings of women, I'll film a video following my idea of the elements. 1. Fire & Water 2. Air & Earth 3. Fall & Winter

Different model sizes will be used to show the variety in beauty.

sketches from my own bookwork


Idea number 1:

sketches from my own bookwork

The point shoes themselves will not be touched. However, inside them I’ll place beads and other particles that will resemble the pain dancers go through when practicing ballet. In order to stress the idea of pain in comparison with beauty, I will create wings that will portray the “flying” ability dancers get once they dance ballet. What i like most about this idea is that it is showing ballet from both ends of the spectrum. It shows the beauty and simplicity of the ballet pointe shoes while also reflecting upon the injuries it may create on dancers’ feet. This will also enable my to convey my theme of accepted pure beauty in contrast with its applicability in real wold.

The wings connect the euphoric catastrophic feeling dance gives you.

sketches from my own bookwork

Idea number 2:

The pointe shoes hold in them beads and other itching particles which remind one of the pain dancers go through when dancing ballet.

Base off idea number 1, I decided to settle the colours of the shoes and wings and emphasise the particles inside the ballet shoes that create the pain and injury in the dancers. This way. my theme of pure beauty as represented through culture will be portrayed the best.

sketches from my own bookwork

Ideas and development Idea number 3:

sketches from my own bookwork

The pointe shoe is distinctively pink, exaggerating on the girly sense ballet holds.

The pointe shoe is distinctively black, presenting the dark side of dance and its consequences on your mental health.

Idea number 4: Showing the difference between the shoes, I thought I might want to create one shoe that will be covered with pearls and diamonds, showing the luxury of staged ballet in contrast with the “backstage” shoes, which are damaged and over used. Doing so, I will be able to accentuate my idea of distorted beauty created by the western culture.

Idea number 3 is mainly focused in colours connotation in western culture. Showing on the one side the shoe that is pink and decorated while in the other side the shoe that is black and raw, the audience is reminded of its own prejudices and known perspectives.

sketches from my own bookwork

The pointe shoe is old and “rotten”.

There are holes and stains on it, showing its bad history.

The pointe shoe is white, new, and very delicate


“When I touched her body, I believed she was God. In the curves of her form I found the birth of Man, the creation of the world, and the origin of all life.” ! Roman Payne

Ideas and development sketches from my own bookwork

The Hands

Hands are a tool women use to convey their thoughts and feelings. Hands can resemble sadness and be in the state of being limp, however, when being excited, the hands will be stretched and full of life. In the cinemagraph’s case, the hands are either opening the buttoned shirt, holding the cigarette or receiving a flower.

The Composition For my artwork, I would like to present my cinema graphs in a squared like composition. Accordingly, I decided to place the cinemagraphs in terms of the shown elements: the bodily sexual elements and the controversial acts. Both themes will be mixed within one another and will create 2 “v” shaped structures. where the bodily closures are placed in the left bottom, middle upped and right bottom squares while the practices are placed in the left upper, middle lower and right upper squares.

The Themes: The Eyes The eye theme will help me convey my message as people often say “the eyes are the window to the soul”. In this case, the eyes will represent the sexual, inviting gesture women have when attempting to attract someone.

sketches from my own bookwork

Women sexuality was anode I had in mind which raised from my theme of beauty and purity. I constantly thought; why do we attribute features of femininity to sexuality? And if so, why doesn't it apply for men? From this point I knew that in my next piece I will show features and actions women usually have and do, which will trigger the questions I usually ask myself in the viewer. Although I had multiple ideas in mind regarding the medium of this piece, once I found cinemagraphs, I knew it- this is the right medium. Manipulating a still image to partially move fit my theme the best. Hence, from there, I just had to decide- what do I want to show throughout the cinemagraphs and how do I want to show them?

sketches from my own bookwork

The Shoes

sketches from my own bookwork

The Lips

sketches from my own bookwork

The use of lips here imposes the question “how do different positions of lips affect our perception of attractiveness?” By choosing to loop the kissing lips in my cinemagraph, I will be able to create a sense of attraction and fascination in the viewers, which will establish their hypocritical thinking.

As women are often portrayed as “shopaholics”, the use of shoes will enable me to draw the line between obsession and beauty. The shoes that resemble the glamorous part of women elegance will portray elements of royalty and extravagancy.


Skills and Techniques –Photography The photography piece was chosen in order to establish a mysterious, baffling feeling that follows with dramatic yet delicate photo editing. The photography piece will be focused on the process and skills in which one needs to establish while practicing photo-shooting. I will therefore be using Adobe Photoshop and Lightroom programs which will allow me to play with the effects and the edits to the most detailed levels.

1

To o darkneeds higher highlights and exposure

To o o r a n g e colour needs to be less saturated.. Less exposure, less vibrant. The whites should be more equal with the blacks.

Needs more exposure- looks too unnatural. More whites rather than the blacks.

1 After choosing the blur gallery button- choose field blur.

3

2

2 A good balance between variance, exposure and highlights. Additionally, there is a good balance between blacks and whites which creates a natural feeling to the image.

How to shoot?

Shutter speed is ‘the amount of time that the shutter is open. Shutter speed is measured in seconds – or in most cases fractions of seconds. The bigger the denominator the faster the speed (ie 1/1000 is much faster than 1/30). The faster the shutter speed, the shorter the time the image sensor is exposed to light; the slower the shutter speed, the longer the time the image sensor is exposed to light. Fast Shutter Speed Slow Shutter Speed

Shoot wide – to show the environment

Shoot downward – to get a sense of scale (ie, that the child is small), to eliminate distracting elements in the background, or to get natural catchlights in your subject’s eyes

Start with putting the points according to the areas in which are needed to be blurred. This will make the whole picture be blurred.

3

sketches from my own bookwork

Now one will need to select the points which will be focused and contrasting the blurriness. The level of blur can be selected from 0 to about 400.

Aperture

refers to the opening of a lens's diaphragm through which light passes. It is calibrated in f/stops and is generally written as numbers such as 1.4, 2, 2.8, 4, 5.6, 8, 11 and 16. The lower f/stops give more exposure because they represent the larger apertures, while the higher f/stops give less exposure because they represent smaller apertures. Aperture f/5.6

Shoot behind things – to make it feel like you’re peeking into a private moment

Shoot upward — to turn tall scenery, like trees or cityscape, into the backdrop

Why f/5.6?

1/400

1/200

Here is an example of a low shutter speed which was supposed to ensure high rate of lightness in the photograph. The issue with the lighting here might be due to a wrong aperture.

If the shutter speed is too low, the sensor would get a lot more light than it needs and the light would start “burning” or “overexposing” the image, This image is an example of a low shutter speed in relation to the light source in the background.

While we can get the maximum or minimum depth of field by working at each end of the aperture range, sometimes we want a more intermediate level of depth of field, limiting focus to a specific range of distances within the overall photograph. One way to do this is to choose a mid-range f/stop, like f/5.6, and shoot a test frame. In image playback, use the magnifying function of the LCD to zoom in and check the depth of field; make adjustments if necessary and reshoot.


Plan

sketches from my own bookwork

Beauty theme The idea of beauty is a repetitive theme throughout my works. Hence, I seek to impose in my own work questions like: “how do humans understand beauty?”, “how does the idea of beauty changes in time?” and “what do I perceive as beautiful?”.

Purity theme From the idea of beauty, I associated pureness with our pre knowledge regarding the ideal charm. Purity is a vital element in some religions groups such as Judaism, Islam Buddhism and Christianity.Purity determines women’ representation in the society. It sometimes even determines whether women can marry, given they are not pure and virgin.

Playing off the idea of modernity… Once asking myself how is the hijab portrayed in the islamic culture versus how it is portrayed in the western culture, I had to even question myself because even I have preconceived ideas about this topic. However, when talking about modernity, the western culture would claim that since we developed over time in our rituals and habits, so should the islamic culture with its rights for women. Women should be allowed to show themselves. They should be allowed to have the right to speak, wear and act which ever way they want to. Contrary, in the Islamic culture, the hijab is often previewed as a good thingwomen are able to dress elegantly while keeping their www.bbc.co.uk/newsround/24118241 modesty.! Based on these contrasting ideas, I decided to explore the different types of hijab women wear. From open area for the face to more tightened version of the hijab, to almost fully covered face but the open space for the eyes and into a fully covered face.

www.nairaland.com

Cultural theme Base on the idea of culture’s role in creating the image of elegance in innocent women, I then thought misconceptions such as the use if the hijab should be discussed throughout my work.

From the different types of hijab, the form which intrigued me the most was the circled one above. This is due to the unrevealing yet suggesting area of the eyes. Just from looking at someone else’s eyes, you can see their history, their pain and happiness and their affection towards you. Following my decision to use the discussed form of hijab, I had to pick a colour as there are various of these to choose from.

Modernity theme The belief women should wear a hijab which will cover their faces and bodies is often questioned in the western society. I therefore would like to stress this issue of contrasting ideas of beauty in my work. As on the one hand, the western society conveys the unethical use of cloths to cover women’ personalities, the islamic culture embraces the use of the hijab and associates it with its culture as an essential item for women.

Using prints for this artwork, I decided I wanted the hijab to have restfull, calming colours such as the ones circled above.! Printing the layers one after another, I was aiming to create an interesting deep colour containing a range of these colours.

Showing only the woman’s eyes, I decided to follow the theme of beauty and show how fragile it is given the state of content war between Israel, the country I was born in, and countries like Gaza, Lebanon, Egypt, Iraq, Syria and etc. I therefore decided to add an extra layer onto of the muslim women of 5 soldiers spread across the woman’s bottom part of the hijab. These soldiers would represent the dangerous and life risking position women have within war in addition to their maintenance of calmness and innocence.


Butterflies were everywhere in costa Rica. Even in the rooms and classrooms. The photo was taken by me.

Ideas and Development

Representing the butterflies of Costa Rica’s forests, I attempted to create a common theme of natural beauty. However, beauty comes in different shapes and forms. Beauty varies in colours and size. I therefore decided to create the butterflies using different material for each of them in addition to making each different in size.

What kind of material would I use? Water colour

Touche

Pastel colour The pastel colours of this are usually "soothing", "soft", "near neutral", "milky", "washed out", "desaturated", lacking strong chromatic content. Which are all important elements of my drawing.

Which butterfly should I choose?

Oil Paint A slow-drying paint that consists of particles of pigment suspended in a drying oil. Opaque passages can be thicker without a risk of cracking, and transparent effects can be controlled more easily since the thinned paint remains wet for a longer time. This paint could possibly enable me to create the realistic feeling to my painting.

uk.pinterest.com

My work will also show the untouched beauty seen in nature. From the egg to the caterpillar to the chrysalis and eventually the butterfly, a theme I want to represent throughout my work is the change in the ideal beauty and who versatile it is to the given time.

How would I present my pieces? butterflyart.date

What colours would I use? Given butterflies capacity to hold an enormous amount of colour, choosing some was not an easy task. However, living in Monte Verde for a while, I constantly saw the Morpho butterfly around me and was therefore inspired by its unique variety of blue colours. I elected specific colours which I thought would fit my creation the best. These were:

sketches from my own bookwork

After deciding upon the butterfly I wanted to create, I had to visualise how it would look like in terms of its composition. One possibility was to create clones of the same butterfly in one shape but use different material for each butterfly. Another idea was to move by colour and manipulate the original one to many different colour while keeping its features set. And lastly, there was also the possibility of arranging them from the smallest to the biggest. The last possibility intrigued me as I thought that by arranging them in this manner, I will be able to bring about the difference between the butterflies (both is size and medium used) yet reflect upon the repetitive theme of beauty shared by all of them. A sketch I’ve made of the possible butterfly I might use.

sketches from my own bookwork


Ideas and Development Choosing a flower When attempting to decide which flower I’d like to use in my piece I had multiple ideas varying from the sunflower, to a rose, and so on but I felt like all of them were beautiful yet didn’t have a story behind them or had a very known story behind them. However, once I came across Angel Trumpet flower and after exploring the story behind it, I knew that this flower fits my theme of dangerous beauty the best.

Following my theme of women and their representation in society, the idea of purity and royalty came to my mind. Flowers just like butterflies and other beautiful forms of nature, represent calmness and purity- therefore this connection acted as the bridge between these 2 worlds.

Once knowing I’m only going to use Angel Trumpet as my flower, I had to bring the flower to life by adding either a human feature to it or a human subject. At this stage I first had to decide what colour I want to use for the flower, in addition to its direction. Using the red element of the rose in combination with the yellow element of the sunflower, I chose to give my flower a touch of both. I didn’t dislike this composition of flowers with colours but it didn’t attract me as much as I thought it would. This was possibly due to the fact the human element was still missing. Additionally, from having multiple flowers distributed on paper, I decided I want to focus on one flower, emphasising the unique story it holds.

Sketches from my own bookwork

All sketches from my own bookwork

I therefore had to think about the human feature i wanted to join to my pointing in order to bring it to life. I first thought about a face, but a face rivals too much about the individual and their own story. I then though about an eye (half a face), but even that was too private and personal for me. I had to think about a different organ that still reflects my theme of pure beauty. Thence, my final idea was the use of a hand. The hand which will offer the flower to whoever it’d be. This hand will show woman’ femininity yet wouldn't disclose her story. Just as the flower is used as a drug, the person who delivers it will be anonymous and mysterious.

Sketches from my own bookwork

This position was too awkward, cresting an undistinguished shape to hand which does not fit with the theme of delicacy.

I indeed like the hand gesture and the shape created by it however, the “flower” in this case is not fully seen.

In deciding which hand position would fit the message behind the painting the best, I had to experiment with taking an object that will represent the flower and thinking about possible hand gestured to hold it.

The hand is placed in an odd distance from the camera The positioning of the thumbs cut the fluency of the hand gesture which interrupted my message.

The perfect shape. The hand gesture resembles the fluency and the flower is distinctively seen .


There are 2 primer directions to painting. From top to bottom/ bottom to top and left to right/ right to left.

Skills and Techniques: In attempting to experiment with the material and the techniques, I created mini versions of my possible painting. Starting with real experiments using paint and white cardboard, I learnt how to paint the type of flower I was seeking to paint in addition to the techniques which are used to make a painting seem natural.

Test

Test

Sketches from my own bookwork

To make the painting more realistic, there should be a mixture of colours varying from very light to the darker tones while there should also be middle tones to make transitions more natural.

Sketches from my own bookwork

When using acrylic colours…. Acrylics dry very quickly, therefore I had to work fast. Using multiple brushes and between 2-3 palette eased the process of painting. Additionally, I was firstly introduced to the painting knives. Never in my life I used them, I discovered the process of mixing colours is actually easier than I thought it is. Moreover, when using the acrylic paint, I noticed that unlike using watercolours or oil, acrylic paint flows off the brush elegantly and has great “body.” It’s just the right amount of thickness to give good coverage without getting gloppy.

How to spot where the darker and lighter parts are? While I was trying to create my flower, I noticed that in order to make the flower look real, it is extremely important to emphasise the lights and shadows that are reflected on the flower. From experimenting with the direction and location of the lights and shadows, I observed there are 3 main types shadow.

Sketches from my own bookwork

The light here fell on the opened parts of the flower while the inner closer side had more shadows.

1. Shadow that is created by the further distance one side of the flower. In this case, the side of the flower which is closer is more exposed to the light while the further side is hidden from the light. This creates the shadow.

2. Shadow that is created due to lack of light in the environment surrounding it. In this example, all flowers will be darkened as they are all located where there is shadow. However, it is important to notice that even with the presence of shadow, there are parts which are more exposed to light than others. This creates the contrast between the plants. 3. Shadow that is created through the touch or almost touch between the flowers. This happens as the flower has its own shadow, which is reflected on the adjacent flower.

Sketches from my own bookwork

In terms of transitioning between colours, I learnt that more “in between” colours are needed to be used in order to make the conversion more realistic. In order to emphasise the contrast between the darker and lighter parts of the flower, white is a good colour to use.


Just before I started the process of making the lips, I had to decide which shape fits the dost with my theme and the message i attempt to portray, below are few quick sketches from my book in which i considered to use for this piece.

Process Starting from drawing the 3D model of the lips, I was able to visualise how these would look like when building them from cardboard.

I then decided I’d like to make the drawing bigger, hence creating bigger sized lips. I drew the lips shape using squares and triangles that could also be used to lean on each other.

This position of the lips was chosen for my artwork.

Following, I had to cut the shapes and name them according to their location within the bigger shape.

Reflection Subsequently, I was in need to cover the pieces which had sellotape on them with a different material than mirrors. This then will enable the audience to differentiate between the lips and the background, which will be black. I hence covered another cardboard with black acrylic paint and then cut it into shapes that will form the black mosaic in the background of the lips. This stage shows the fully covered mirror. Although my initial drawing of the lips was very clear and realistic, my finial instillation might not be as obvious. Thence, I decided there should be a contrasting colour that will emphasise the lips.

Reflection: in order to ensure 3D positioning, I had to use another person who held the pieces together. In order to make the illustration 3 dimensional, I had to reshape some of the cut shapes to almost overlap each other. By doing so, I was able to give the lips parts the shape and realistic sense they have in real life.

The next step is to cover the whole shape with 2 sided sellotape. This is done in order to ensure the immobility of the illustration once the mirror particles are covering it.

At this stage, I just had to stick the mirror parts into the 3D lips demonstration.

After joining all the mortar piece together, I cut the black cardboard into triangles which were then pasted onto the existing cardboard. Basically, it was like making a mosaic as I put the cut pieces according to the best fitting location on the board. I used the double sided sellotape in order to ensure the immobility of the pieces.

As the mirror pieces were not cut into same sizes, I had to try and fit the small particles within the larger one in an attempt to cover the whole lip. The use of mirrors for this art piece was challenging due to the emphasis of care when using them and the reflection of light that would come to your face when working on the piece.

The use of sellotape for this art piece was also challenging as the gluey part of the sellotape that was being revealed once I took the upper part of the sellotape off was extremely thick and strong and any times if I wanted to change a position of one of the mirrors, I could not do it as it was immobilised by the glue.


Ideas and Development

Emphasising the difference between

In appropriating Damien Hirst’s work I am become death shatterer of worlds (2006), I had multiple ideas concerning the ideal representation of my theme of pure beauty. Damien Hirst i am become death shatterer of worlds 2006

individuals alongside in a on the largest circular shape. I will then

one way I could appropriate Hirst’s artwork

repeat this process of pasting on

without disturbing the message portrayed in

different circular layers over an over

the original work. Therefore, in order to

until I’ll reach the smallest circle. By

preserve the idea of elegance and

doing so, I will create my own mandala

decided to copy his use of mandala and create my artwork using layers on layers of

All sketches from my own bookwork

paste the images of the different

I approached the piece thinking there is only

extravagancy seen in Hirst’s own creation, I inhabitat.com

each individual, I will next be able to

circles. These circles will differ from one another in size in order to create the outer and inner perimeters of the circle.

from the individuals whom I All sketches from my own bookwork

photographed. However, differing from Hirst’s work, an idea I had in mind is to replace the various butterflies Hirst killed with human beings, showing their own vulnerability and beauty that comes in masses. Hence, I thought about repeating the circles of life seen through the images of the individuals while decreasing their size within each layer. This will add the hypnotising feeling to my multimedia piece which will consists of both

However, differing from Hirst’s work, an idea I had in mind is to replace the various butterflies Hirst killed with human beings, showing their own

human beings and butterflies, showing the harmony in life and the bridge between these 2 sources of beauty.

vulnerability and beauty that comes in masses.

Moreover, the use of photography, painting or drawing might be used in this piece as it each could possibly help my convey my message of beauty. However, when looking at the most efficient, easy to make version of appropriation, I decided to use the medium of photography. This then enabled

This is me, as I was trying to visualise how the work would look like on paper. By doing so, I was able to decide

me to truly represent different spectrums of the

how I want to represent

emotions and stories (told or untold) behind my

in 2D using Adobe

subjects.

Photoshop.


Skills and Techniques

What is a cinemagraph? “ A cinemagraph is a living moment in an otherwise still photograph. It exists in the world in between a photograph and video to bring to life the image and make it last forever” (cinemagraphs.com//). Jamie Beck and Web designer Kevin Burg make these animated gifs they now call “cinemagraphs”.

Filming the video:

How to create a cinemagraph? 1. Open Adobe Photoshop Me and my subject as i was attempting to take a video of her eyes.

Filming the video was divided into multiple stages which included:! 1. Positioning the model 1. Positioning 2. Positioning the tripod the model: in 3. Ensuring immobility this case, the positioning had 4. Filming multiple times to be in consideration to the light source, the background and the model’s best angle.

2. Positioning the tripod: thereby, putting it at the right distance where I believed it’d be most fitting for the cinema graph’s theme.

2. Insert the wanted video

6. Now duplicate the first group layer by merging it into a photo.

3. Cut the video according to the place you want to show in your cinemagraph

4. Duplicate the layer, place it at the end of the first layer so both would start and end at the exact same place and move the second layer so that it’ll start earlier, then draw the end of it to where the end of the first layer is.

7. At this point, you want to focus on the specific movement in the photo. Therefore, you will press this button and draw over the parts which are supposed to move. The rest of the picture will remain still but only the covered parts will move. 8. Now in order to see how the cinemgraph would look like ads a GIF, Press the following button and enable loop playback.

5. Change the opacity so that at the beginning of the second layer, the first layer is at 100% opacity while by the end of the second layer, the opacity is 0% 3. Ensuring immobility: this stage was possibly the most important one. If the camera moves, even by a centimetre, the whole film would not be fitting for the GIF. 4. Filming multiple times: in order for me to evaluate the quality, immobility, lighting and etc.,I had to film each loop multiple times, ensuring at least 3 of them are good in terms of positioning of the model.

Reflection:

Basically, the process was relatively simple and following it was uncomplicated too. The only problem which was constantly happening was the loop malfunction. In order for the GIF to properly work without “jumping” from one end of the film to the other, I had to ensure the subject’s activity started and ended exactly at the same place. Therefore, if the subject was to open her hand and close it, the resting part before opening the hand had to be exactly in the same location as the resting part after closing the hand. As you may imagine, with human subjects, this task was quite hard to control. However, it was a question of persistency, we tried filming again and again, until the beginning and end were physically similar. As mentioned above, the image had to begin and end at the exact same position


The original pattern Here, I change d my photo from full of colours to black and white only.

aawproductions.wordpress.com

Process

The next step was choosing colours for the print. In my Arab woman artwork for example, I first carved the hijab and printed it on multiple papers to see which one

I started with thinking what kind of a subject I want in my work and decided it’s going to be a woman who is wearing the hijab, covering all of herself, but her eyes.

works the best with which colours. I first started with one plane colour such as black but then decided that there should be a more extensive use of colours. I

Using a photo I found online, I was able to edit the photo in Adobe photoshop, making the image black and white which later on helped me distinguishing between the parts i needed to copy to the wooden block and the parts I had to leave untouched.

therefore had to place the colours on the platte, and avoid mixing them but rather letting them remain separated. Doing so, an interesting mix between the colours was created, which emphasised the beautiful, unpredicted part of purity.

The edited black and white version of the pattern. A sketch I created when I was thinking I should draw my original image and later on print it.

Before printing, I had to choose the type of paper I would like to print the image on. I then decided I’ll try multiple papers to see how the colour looks on each paper. Essentially, I decided to use white, black and gold paper as these were all the best in terms of translating the colour on the Lino to the paper and also, they were all suitable for my

The gold paper The black paper

desired colours which were later on printed on them. The white paper

Possible colours were red, blue, green and yellow.

The interesting mixture of colour that created a mysterious and deeper feeling to the piece.

Generally, in order to create lino prints, there should be a use of multiple layers which mean that the lino printing process happens in time fragments. Starting with the first layer, then waiting for it to dry, then adding the second layer and on and on. For example, in my Arab woman print, I first started with the hijab, this means that I had to shape the Lino in the hope of the hijab by carving into it horizontally and vertically. After printing the hijab, I added the eyes layer and following the 5 soldiers layer. These layers were then all dried. All I had to do from the moment they were dry was to place the pieces next to one another. I decided to put them all in one horizontal line. Starting from the left, my orange pattern print, my purple woman, my gold pattern print, the orange woman, and the multi colour pattern print.

Subsequently to printing the edited images, I used the black charcoal on the back of the paper (either black, white or gold) to make the black charcoal lines pass on to the wooden block. From here, it was simple, I just had to follow the lines and carve them using a handheld gouger.

Printing on the gold paper was not very efficient, coping only the original image partially. I therefore decided not to use this type of paper,.


COMPARATIVE STUDY

THE VIRGIN OF THE LIGHT

! 2002 - 2006

Women of Allah, 1993–97.

Like Everyday Series 2001

Maimouna Guerresi

Shirin Neshat

Shadi Ghadirian

xliii


Cultural Significance How does Maimouna’s work reflect upon Mouride Islamic sect’s perspectives? “The Mouride Brotherhood (Muridiyya) is a Sufi Muslim fraternal organisation that stresses self-help and hard work. Founded in Senegal at the end of the nineteenth century by Amadou Bamba, a mystic, leader, and intellectual, the group faced resistance from French colonisers until 1926 but has quickly grown to become an influential political and social movement”. " http://berkleycenter.georgetown.edu/ organizations/mouride-brotherhood

Within the Mouride Brotherhood , followers are expected to give generously or work to support the economic ventures controlled by the Brotherhood. This fact might make one question Maimouna’s motives in creating the work; did she create it in order to fit in within the brotherhood? Or did she create her artworks through her own will of representing the elements of the Mouride Brotherhood? https:// upload.wikimedia.or g/wikipedia/ commons/thumb/d/ d8/ Touba_moschee.jpg/ 300pxTouba_moschee.jpg The Great Mosque at Touba

“Virgin of the Light” (2002-2006)" is one photograph taken from a series of them, " which resembles the theme of women in society and the ! spirituality of peace and beauty. Given her beliefs in the Muslim religion, " she started looking at muslim art and used it as a tool to express women and their bodies as beautiful temples of the soul.! Guerresi was born in Italy, in 1951, as Patrizia Guerresi, to a religious Catholic family. " In the early nineties, she made several trips to sacred sites in Islamic countries in Africa. There she became interested in Islamic mysticism, particularly in the Senegal Muridiyya Sufi order – to which she eventually converted, adopting a new identity and the Muslim Arabic name Maïmouna (‘divine protection’). This also marked a turning point in her career, taking her work in a new direction as she began exploring reiterate themes relating to multicultural symbolism and feminine spirituality.$ She adopted a new name when she married a Senegalese man and converted " to Sufi Islam, in 1991. Since then, the mysticism of Sufism su#uses her work. $ Her works are not only intended on talking to muslims in Africa but to educated people who enjoy the celebration of the arts. Hence her audience can vary from children to elderly.! In this photograph, taken some time between 2002 to 2006, Maimouna represents her beliefs regarding the physical body and its connection to earth and nature.! This work has a connotation to women and their role within the Muslim society, with particular reference to those countries in which the role of women is most marginalised. " In her work Maimouna is attempting to create a connection between the audience (educated and art interested people) and the general interpretation of the world (the world as di#erent religions and political wings). Connecting the linked candles on the woman’s abdomen to the current global issues with radical Islam, Maimouna’s works resemble the sense of humanity that is rooted in the Muslim culture, yet is captured wrong in the media. In terms of the Islam in Africa, the majority of Muslims in this continent are Sunni or Sufi and have many perspectives regarding Muslim religion, revealed in the various schools of thought, traditions, and voices that constantly contend for dominance in many African countries. A point that should be raised when talking about Maimouna’s commentary about put beauty, self connection and peace is that the Islam in Africa is not static and is constantly being reshaped by prevalent social, economic and political conditions.1. This fact then changes Maimouna’s motives for creating this art work as Muslims who live in countries where the Islam is more static and set are more likely to have contrasting ideas about women’ role and contribution in society. 1. Hussein D. Hassan."Islam in Africa" (RS22873). Congressional Research Service (May 9, 2008).

How are women portrayed in the Mouride brotherhood? Though in many ways, Senegalese women do not have a high status in society, they are active in Sufi brotherhoods. They usually play a public role in the community and volunteer to help with the brotherhood’s di#erent organisations. Though rare, women can even become spiritual leaders or marabouts within the brotherhood. Establishing this knowledge, I thought the intentions behind this artwork may actually be targeted towards bringing gender equality and spirituality into the brotherhood. By creating Virgin of The Light, Maimouna showed her audience there is a pure, natural connection between beauty and acceptance, which should come in terms of gender equality. http:// www.eve ryculture .com/ images/ ctc_04_i mg0956. jpg

Women harvest rice from a field in Senegal


Function and Purpose

Why?

When attempting to guess why Mainmouna created this work, I faced some difficulties. A possible purpose of the work might be to represent and bring forward Mainmouna’s deep connection to the Islam, and specifically, The Mouride Brotherhood. By creating her works based on the spirituality and primary beliefs the brotherhood holds, Maimouna might have aimed to enlarge the pool of Islamic believers. However, from the use of candles attached to the model’s abdominal, there might be a connection to terorism and violence. In this case, Maimuna’s intention in creating this piece might have been to stress the need in peace while decreasing rates of terrorism. This is indeed a possibility as Maimouna strongly believes in purity and calmness. Her work is inspired by personal experience and cultural contexts that reference universal myths, the sacred realm, and the female condition, all of which are seen as vital expressions of the human form: an essentially spiritual and mystic body. The mystic sense of the work is inspired from her fascination in Islamic faith, in particular for the extraordinary inner strength it teaches.

http://www.newyorker.com/culture/photo-booth/maimouna-guerresis-mystical-portraiture

How? Creating The Virgin of the Light, the work’s primary function is being exhibited and later on sold.

Through the presentation of her works in

multiple exhibitions throughout Europe and the United States, Maimouna is able to reach a broader audience.

!

Sketches are from my own bookwork


Women of Allah Cultural Significance

Sketches are from my own bookwork

Neshat's commentary on the Islam Nest left in the mid-1970s, pursuing her studies in California as the environment

The Women of Allah photo series contains a set of four symbols that are associated with Western representations of the Muslim world: the veil, the gun, the text and the gaze. The art work reflects changes that have taken place in Iran since 1979, the year of the Islamic Revolution in Iran.

Neshat’s connection to the Islam

http:// www.smithsonianmag. com/smithsonianinstitution/shirinneshat-newexhibition-expressespower-art-shapepoliticaldiscourse-180955389/ ?no-ist

seventeen years before she returned to her homeland. When she did, she confronted a society that was completely opposed to the one that she had grown up in. One of the most visible signs of cultural change in Iran has been the requirement for

Shirin Neshat was born in 1957 in the town of

all women to wear the veil in public. While

Qazvin. In line with the Shah’s expansion of women’s

empowering and affirmative of their religious

rights, her father prioritized his daughters’ access to

identities, the veil has been coded in Western

many Muslim women find this practice

eyes as a sign of Islam’s oppression of

education, and the young artist attended a Catholic

women. In this work the 4 symbols become alive- the veil has the revolutionary meaning,

school where she learned about both Western and

the words resemble the daily pain these

Iranian intellectual and cultural history. http://www.artnet.com/artists/ shirin-neshat/biography

How Does Women of Allah Reflect Upon Gender Issues and prejudices in Iran? This work is very much a representation of Muslim women after Iran’s revolution in 1979.

women are feeling, the gun mirrors the need www.khanacademy.org

Post-war Iran was an ally of Britain and the United States, and was signsjournal.org

for protection and the fright of being hurt and last, the gaze in this context becomes a

markedly progressive with regards to women’s rights. The Shah’s

Until then, Iran had been ruled by the Shah (Mohammad

regime, however, steadily grew more

Reza Pahlavi), who took power in 1941 during the Second

restrictive, and revolutionaries

World War and reigned as King.

eventually rose to abolish the

His dictatorship was known for the violent repression

monarchy in favor of a conservative

of political and religious freedom, but also for its

religious government headed by

modernisation of the country along Western cultural

Ayatollah Khomeini.

models. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shirin_Neshat

in Iran grew increasingly hostile. It would be

http://signsjournal.org/shirin-neshat/

charged signifier of sexuality, sin, shame, and power The Veil- Why do Muslim women wear the hijab? 1. Women are more respected by men- the hijab protects women’s bodies from becoming the sexualized object of the male gaze.  2. It’s a cultural feature- it is considered part of being a muslim.  3. First impression- women believe that when they are wearing the hijab their individuality determines what other people think about them rather than how they look like.  4. Religious purposes: it’s God’s request that women will wear the hijab.  5. Fashion statement. 


Formal Qualities Value Looking into the use of light and shadow in this photograph, the dark parts strengthen the noticeable age woman’s noticeable wrinkles and dark spots which develop with age. These parts distinguish the woman’s roughness and give the audience a a reason to believe this woman went through a lot in her life. ! The value also contradicts between the white and black spectrum and in this particular art piece the black might overcome the white in first

Contrast the woman. The contrast is used with elements of design such as size, color, shape, texture, line, value and space. The contrast between the size of the gun and the woman’s face which is combined with the contrast between the colors and

terms of the message passed to the audience.$

Why Black & White?! " #"

Adapts to all lighting situations$!

" #"

No distractions- straight into the photograph itself- the message can

the roughness and smoothness gives one the idea that this woman and many other women might be facing many life threatening events on a daily basis which justify their use of guns.!

glance though by taking a second look into it, the white parts are much more important in

Colour

The contrast in this piece helps strengthening the idea behind

be passed more easily$! " #"

Noticeable tones: many shades in between these extremes$!

" #"

Flashbacks of the past!

" #"

For more detail and stronger texture$!

Line Lines can convey mood or emotion, they can organize the design, create movement and texture and define a shape. In this artwork the lines are very important. Generally, the lines are important to create the feeling of calmness and relaxation (can be seen from the woman’s eyes

Space

and shape of lips). Additionally, the lines are

The space regards to the layout of the artwork. Therefore,

the arabic poem on the woman’s face. the lines

the woman’s position is clearly in the middle of the picture

are essentially important in order for other

and the gun is straight in the middle between the woman’s

arabic speaking people to understand the

eyes for example. By the specific use of space in this

message behind the piece that could not have

artwork, harmony which adds a calm and relaxed sense to

been conveyed using only the photograph.$!

the photograph in portrayed. $

specifically important in this piece because of

Medium B&W RC print & ink, photo by Cynthia Preston.!


Sketches are from my own bookwork

Function and Purpose Why? The series, "Women of Allah," visualises personal and public lives of women living under extreme religious commitment. The poetry i n t h i s s e r i e s i s b y Ta h e r e h Saffarzadeh, who expresses the strong conviction many Iranian women have for Islam.! Neshet's main purpose in creating this work most likely was to create a conceptual dialogue that visually identifies and explores some of the negative and stereotypical characterisations of Muslims, in particular women. Each of her images are constructed to magnify contradiction.! The traditionally feminine traits such as beauty and innocence on one hand andcruelty, violence, and hatred on the other coexist within the complex structure of Islam itself.

HOW? As an outspoken, feminist and progressive artist, Neshat is aware that it would be dangerous to show her work in conservative modern-day Iran, and she has been living in exile in the United States since the 1990s. For audiences in the West, the "Women of Allah" series has allowed a more nuanced contemplation of common stereotypes and assumptions about Muslim women, and serves to challenge the suppression of female voices in any community. The function of this art work is mainly to market Nest’s photography book “Women of Allah”- Shirin Neshat's startling photographs series which convey a power that is more than merely exotic. Veiled women brandish guns in defiant stances, with Arabic calligraphy drawn upon the background of the photos.

Additionally, most of the texts shown in her series Women of Allah are transcriptions of poetry and other writings by women, which express multiple viewpoints and date both before and after the Revolution. Some of the texts that Neshat has chosen are feminist in nature.


Formal Qualities Quantity

artobserved.com

Shape

In this series, Ghadirian photographed 17 images which include different veils and different kitchen tools. These were put one next to another to create a squared cell shape composition. A possibility for the reason behind the choice in this specific composition is the simplistic stricture which enables the viewer to focus more specifically on the images rather than their positioning. The message behind them is maybe better portrayed this way…

In this photograph, the shapes are abstract, or stylized. The shapes here are natural shapes that have been manipulated to reflect the essence, rather than the actual representation, of the actual kitchen objects as the appear in real life. In first glance though as one observes the photograph, s/he would not know how to perceive it and

Texture

Texture refers to roughness or smoothness and in this specific photograph I believe people have different opinions about it. On the one hand, the hijabs are decorated with different textures- of flowers or leafs and are supposed to resemble the simplicity and beauty of women when they are not restricted to one color and shape.

Medium C-print 183 x 183 cm photography

Line

www.kitchensisters.org

The lines in this photographs are very delicate and the curved lines created by the hijab are making the photograph seem natural and organic. Additionally, the lines reflect the true softness of the hijab fabric and the demanded woman’s characteristic by the muslim society. Very light fabric

edelniccaba.tumblr.com

might get confused distinguishing between the natural world and the imaginary world.

Color

500photographers.blogspot.com

Emphasis The emphasis in this work is created by the contrast. The placement of the kitchen related objects on the hijab where the woman’s eyes are supposed to be emphasizes the idea behind the photograph. therefore, one’s attention is going into the misplacement which makes him/her rethink women’s role in Muslim society.

Unity

Replacing the expected monotone of the black chador with vibrantly patter ned fabrics, each portrait suggests a vivacious individuality and c h a r a c t e r, b e l y i n g t h e limitations of stereotype. S i m i l a r l y, t h e m u n d a n e objects, when transformed into faces, become highly poised and charismatic caricatures, embodying individual personalities.

Unity states that the eye of the viewer seeks a gestalt or unified whole. This means that the viewer is actually looking for a connection between the elements, for some sort of organization, for unity in the design.In this photograph the viewer’s eye is not fully capable of organizing the gathered info with the photograph. I believe this was intensionally done in order to drastically change the viewers’ perspective about this issue.

Very dark fabric

www.saatchigallery.com


Why?

Function & Purpose

This art piece was created in order to mock the stereotypical kitchen wedding gifts and make the women who have been through this process of eliminating unwanted wedding gifts relate to Ghadirian’s concepts and her ideas.!

“Finally, when all was said and done, the certainty (so often experienced, yet always new) that female charms, the kind that inflame the senses, are no more than kitchen smells: they tease you when you're hungry and disgust you when you've had your fill.” " M. Ageyev, Novel with Cocaine

Moreover, the art piece resembles the household duties of a newly married wife in Iran are meaningfully restricted to cooking and cleaning (most of the items were apparently wedding presents), providing little in the way of societal mobility. This piece is there to remind women this is time to change the current reality by developing and progressing so that their voice is heard too.

The title of Ghadirian’s Like Everyday Series refers both to the materials she uses in her photos and the derogatory social perceptions that women regularly face. Her cast of crudely rendered women cleverly reinvents the sources of negative stereotyping as attributes of empowerment.

Sketches are from my own bookwork

www.pinterest.com

Ghadirian’s works are sold as posters and are composed of multiple photos she had taken

How? Through using the plethora of domestic gifts Ghadirian received after her wedding – items completely foreign to a young professional, her photos ironically portray a onedimensional interpretation of housewives, absurdly reducing their identities to cooks and cleaners. She used tablecloths and strips of material draped over women like chadors, placing a household object - an iron, a grater, a broom - where the face should be, thus raising issues about domestic drudgery and the cruel anonymity of many Iranian women. Some were acidly funny, parodying universal stereotypes of females, from the shrewish mother-in-law to the doormat wife, using the utensils to represent well-known characteristics. Her photos are sold online and are constantly exhibited in different areas of the world, cantering in the United States.


Cultural Significance

Sketches are from my own bookwork

Born in 1974 and raised in Tehran, Iran,“[Ghadirian’s] own childhood was deeply marked by the war” that involved her home country, Iran. The Iranian Revolution happened in 1979 when Ghadirian was just five that consisted of violent events that led to the overthrow of Mohammad Reza Pahvali’s monarchy and was soon replaced by Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini’s Islamic republic.

As a Muslim woman who has lived in Iran her whole life, her perspective has been influenced by wars that not only occurred within Iran but also its neighboring countries. Her broad themes ranging from censorship, tradition versus modernity, and war told from a woman’s point of view reflect her unique perspective and it connects to women globally. In Muslim societies the confusion between men’s roles and women’s roles might come from the Quran . In the Quran the gender roles in Islam are simultaneously coloured by two Qur'anic precepts: (i) spiritual equality between women and men; and (ii) the idea that women are meant to exemplify femininity, and men masculinity. Therefore, this piece represents such saying in which women’s place should be in the kitchen while taking care of the children. By covering the muslim women with colorful hijab and putting physical

“In my photos you see women wearing flowery chadors,” described Shadi. ” It’s a kind of chador that women always wear inside the houses, faces.

they are colorful. In these photos you cannot see their You can see, for example, a cup or

housewife things instead of their face. This is in order to strengthen the difficulty of integrating in the Muslim society and progressing from the old stereotype about women and their placement in the kitchen.

objects on it the audience is fully exposed to the controversy in the position of the woman within the family. The Qur'an assumes male dominance, and normally talks of women in terms of their ownership by men; it is assumed that males are reading the Qur'an, and that it is they who are enforcing its rules. Muhammad is recorded as saying, from God, that "when a man calls his wife to his bed, and she does not respond, the One Who is in heaven is displeased with her until her husband is pleased with her" (3367) So, from the Qur’an: “They ask you about menstruation. Say: 'It is an indisposition. Keep aloof from women during their menstrual periods and do not approach them until they are clean again; when they are clean, have intercourse with them whence God enjoined you. God loves those that turn to Him in penitence and strive to keep themselves clean.’ Women are your fields: go, then, into your fields whence you please. Do good works and fear God.”

things related to the

Sketches are from my own bookwork


Criterion

Similarities

Differences

Line

All works include fluid lines which reflect upon the hijab’s very light fabric. The fluid lines also create a natural, real life sense to the photograph, which usually comes in comparison with very straight lines. Hence, for example in the her Like Everyday Life, Ghadirian puts the very specific and set lines of the kitchen tools alongside with flexible, infirm veil fabric.

The works differ from one another in their positioning of the lines. While in Women of Allah the lines come in contrast with the woman’s face, in The Virgin of the Light, the lines come in the form of the candles and the hands.

All photographs show a similar shape of a woman wearing a hijab. Therefore they all hold similar features.

Shape

Colour

Emphasis

Balance

Hijab shape

While the Virgin of the Light is specifically shaped in a cut manner, Women of Allah is shaped around the woman’s face and in Like Everyday, the general shape is around each subject’s body.

There are no similarities in terms of the veils’ colours yet there are similarities in terms of the colours unity, which comes into place with the patterns, the skin and the gestures created through the images.

In The Virgin of the Light, there is a very distinct, unified white colour which covers the mode’s body, skin and face while in the Women of Allah the photograph is taken in black and white, and the veil is black. However, Like Everyday series shows the veils in their natural varying colour.

In all photographs there is a main subject where the centre of attention needs to be contributed to. The centre of attention in all works is a woman who is wither showing her face or hiding it.

Within each subject, there are different areas in which the attention goes to. For example, in Like Everyday series, the centre of attention goes to the object the subject in hold gin while in the Virgin of the light the centre of attention in mainly directed towards the candles and hands of the subject.

All works share the symmetrical feature as they very strictly present the models photographed from a relatively similar distance and similar positioning of the model in the centre of the picture.

As human subjects are shown in the images, although symmetry is present, there are small exceptions. For instance, in Women of Allah, although the revolver is placed in the centre of the woman’s face, both sides are not equal in their shape and light on them.


Func!on Similarities All works’ primary

Virgin of the light

While in The Virgin of the

exhibited and sold,

Light, the work’s primary

either as the work by

function is being exhibited

itself,

book

and later on sold. In

containing the work,

Women of Allah, the main

posters of the work

idea is to sell a book that

and etc.

contains all photographs

Purpose

taken by Neshet.

Differences The art works may be directed towards different audiences, which will then create a difference between the final purpose. For example, in Virgin of the

Light for

example, the work might b e d i re c t e d t o w a rd s viewers from Europe, to Africa, to America while Women of Allah is mainly directed towards european and american audience.

Women of Allah

Differences

function is being

a

Like everyday

Similarities While the purpose of Virgin of the Light may be to bring about women’ purity and the human connection between mind and soul which interacts with our representation of peace, the purpose of Women of Allah is addressed to show the connection between gender roles. Similarly, in Like Everyday gender roles are also presented in addition to old-fashioned traditions.

In all photographs physical objects are present. In one it is a ruler, in another candles and in another these are home materials. All of which cover some parts of the women’ bodies. By doing so, the artists show the absence of clear and natural sight of these beautiful women by the society. Of course each object has a different connotation in one’s mind but they all represent some sort of method of hiding what’s really inside the women’ minds.

Following the purpose of each photograph one can see that although all photos involve women with the hijab and a special twist in the known perception about how these women are supposed to look like, much more than that can be seen here.

In all photographs the woman in the picture is supposed to resemble a metaphor and provocation. The woman might look innocent, unreachable, superior, extremely beautiful or in “like everyday” case, unseen. Each sense gotten from the photograph is supposed to awake a part of the audience mind and remind one that there are many other women out there who have to deal with stereotyping on a daily basis.


Cultural Significance Similarities Ghadirian’s Like Everyday ! series and Neshat’s rebellious silence ! emphasises the close relationship ! that these artists have to their country. ! They often describe social issues ranging from stereotypes to ! war in a woman’s point of view in their works. Ghadirian! and Neshat both understand the social structure ! that they are in today and through their art, they attempt to deconstruct ! these expectations of women in society. The most significant cultural part seen in all photographs involves women’ rights. All these photographs derive a literal need for the development of cultural and religion related conventions which are still very traditional and not very open towards new ideas and beliefs. Below are few oppressing laws regarding women in an islamic community which might seem shocking to western people. “Men have authority over women, for that God has preferred in bounty one of them over another, and for that they have expended of their property. Righteous women are therefore obedient … and those you fear may be rebellious, admonish them to their couches, and beat them”. ! (The Koran, Women, verse 38) In Islam women earn God’s grace by obeying their husbands. The message is clear: men dominate, women obey. These obligating rules and opinions about women’s role within the society are quite rigid and harsh. Therefore, it is very reasonable for women to stand up and revolt against such absurd restrictions. In Islam, women are considered dangerous both sexually and in other ways. ! Therefore women should not to be allowed to have any authority in society ! other than in their roles as wives and mothers; ! they become mere! extensions of men.

Differences Ghadirian and Neshat! both share common themes about veiling ! and conflicts, the only difference being how they are ! approached and portrayed their subjects. Shirin Neshat’s ! Woman of Allah is an image of a veiled woman with the! barrel of a gun pointing straight up dividing her face. ! Her gaze looks straight at the viewer evoking a sense of courage and ! confidence. However, her eyes tell a different story since it seems blank ! and empty. Women of Allah is much more subtle and has a stronger dark! appeal than Like Everyday. Neshat’s Rebellious Silence deconstructs the ! Western idea that the Islamic women are oppressed. Neshat and Ghadirian are different in their creative expression. Ghadirian’s work is less forceful than Neshat’s piece primarily due to visual and mental stimulation from Neshat. Ghadirian tends to display a visual piece and leave it up to the reader to deduce the situation of the unknown person in a particular photograph Additionally, unlike Ghadirian and Neshet, Maimouna was not born in Iran and does not know what it is like to live in an extreme muslim country. According to Arab oral tradition, Islam first came to Africa with Muslim refugees fleeing persecution in the Arab peninsula. It quickly spread West from Alexandria in North Africa (the Maghreb), reducing the Christians to pockets in Egypt, Nubia and Ethiopia. Islam was a modernising influence, imposing a consistent order among different societies, strengthening powers of government and breaking down ethnic loyalties. Unlike Christianity, Islam tolerated traditional values, allowing a man to have more than one wife. For many, this made conversion to Islam easier and less upsetting than conversion to Christianity.


Connection to my own work- Like Everyday Like Everyday series mostly inspired me to use the theme of shame and prejudices in our society.

Moving towards my next piece, Like Everyday also inspired

Looking at the ideal position of a woman in her natural space (the kitchen), I was mainly interested in

me to contradict the fragility and innocence women are

creating my own version of this theme by reconsidering where women are supposed to be and what

sometimes thought to have with the edgy, more sexual side

they are supposed to resemble. Following my theme of pure, natural beauty, I found a connection

of beauty. Unlike Like Everyday, the women in my piece were

between women’ innocence and lose.

not covered, they were not controlled nor restricted to behave

From there, i was inspired to create a photo series, just like Shadi Ghadirian,

in a certain way. In this work I wanted to challenge the idea of elegant, delicate beauty.

but replace the covered, hidden women with a specific subject, still

Starting with the motif of the lips,

using the theme of prejudice and

which were not seen at all in Like

preconceived knowledge.

Everyday piece, I intended on

Although Ghadirian’s photo series took

showing my viewers how the

place in a studio, I decided to bring my image into life by photo shooting

different forms of lips change the way we perceive sexuality.

my subject in Sweden’s national park.

I then moved on to a habit which women are usually not associated with. However, given the edgy- rough theme in this cinemagraph, it was essential for me to connect between the social representations and the mental representation of smoking.

Lastly, showing my model’s uninterested face, I intended on making the viewer question the future consequences of such an edgy behaviour. Connecting it back to Like Everyday, I wanted to make the audience question women’s role within society and their faulty representation through different platforms such as media and the news.


Connection to my own work- Women of Allah Neshat’s photographs often show distinctive contrasts and polar opposites: black and white, male and female, life and death. Each of her photographs includes calligraphic poetry by contemporary Iranian women, superimposed on the (often female) bodies of her subjects. “These verses cover topics such as the role of women in the Revolution, exile and martyrdom, topics particularly close to Neshat’s heart having seen and experienced first-hand the struggles faced by Iranian women in contemporary Islamic societies.” I think what mostly inspired me about Neshat’s work is her honesty, her true representation, whether it'd e shocking or pleasing, of our society. Additionally, I decided to use 3 out of 4 of the elements the artist often uses in her works: these include, the gaze, the veil and the guns. By using these 3 elements, I was able to enforce the viewer to think, to really think about his/her purpose of existence. Specifically at such hard times of war, we think about why we are alive. Yet through my work I wanted stress the audience to question the idea of safety and immortality they might hold in order to spot the holes in their safe plans in addition to the beauty there is behind life. Similarly to Nest’s photography, I decided to use the photography medium in order to capture my subjects. However, keeping in mind as an Israeli passport holder is not allowed to many Islamic countries and introducing myself to a Musilm group as Israeli might be quite controversial, I decided to use the photograph if the woman in the hijab from the internet. Additionally, as I am not allowed to get close to Israel’s boundaries, I could not see the soldier fighting at real time (disregarding the fact my presence in the battlefield is extremely dangerous), this then led me to the conclusion I should use an online photograph of Israeli soldier fighting. Living in Israel for most of my life, I was constantly reminded of the war and the danger of living in such a chaotic country. Using my personal experience of running to the shelters and losing my relatives during the war, I decided to combine between the woman copied throughout my work and my representation of safety and risk. Based on my idea of combining both elements of beauty and danger, I selected a specific picture of a Muslim woman wearing the hijab, which is covering most of her face but her eyes.

http://theculturetrip.com/middle-east/iran/articles/iranian-artist-shirinneshat-a-life-in-self-imposed-exile/


Connection to my own work- Virgin of the Light Lastly, Inspired by Maimouna Guerresi’s theme of spirituality and inner connection, I decided to look back at the connection between nature and beauty through my lens of the world.

After staying in Costa Rica for about 2

months, I looked back at the experience I found out I learnt a great deal about beauty in its most natural forms. Starting with my painting of the flower and the hand holding it, I was attempting to connect the idea of nature and danger. The flower the woman holds named “Brugmansia”is flower mostly used as a drug which eliminated any clear thought from its user. Based on this issue, a common myth is that the flower might be used by women to seduce men and once

Another idea inspired by nature and spirituality was the painting of a very common butterfly in Costa Rica. The connection between body mind and soul Maimouna Guerresi seeks to impose in her audience is similarly seen in my own work. Moreover, the evolution of the butterfly, just like Guerresi’s transition between different religions, resembles the process one goes through when being accepted by the society as ‘beautiful’ and the very long journey it takes in order to get there.

they are drugged, steal their property from them. In using this flower, I was able to connect my painting to the theme of pure beauty and preconceived myths that guide our representations of the world.

Hence, the butterflies presented above are a more generalised version of my theme, calling for peace and settlement. For me, Maimouna Guerresi’s work resembles more than the message women’s role in society is distorted but that peace should be discussed more often. Living through more than 10 wars in my life time (I am currently

Similarly to the Virgin of the Light the painting show the hand(s) that are the main focus in the artwork. However, in contrast with the hands in the Virgin of the Light, in my artwork, the hands are not innocent nor come for peace. The woman knows exactly what she’s doing, and hence she seduced an imaginary man/ woman using her sexuality and the smell of the flower.

17 years old), the line between battlefield and civilians life is quite ambiguous. Therefore, when I look at the artist’s work, the first thing I think about is how much I wanted to be a butterfly while I grew up in Israel and how the idea of peace and calmness is ruined by the awful reality. Taking a step forward, the idea of beauty is deeply rooted within such ideas mentioned above. The idea of beauty is not just about physical appearance. It’s about acceptances and awareness, and butterflies are the perfect way to represent both ideas while showing a species which is portrayed as beautiful by the society.


JOHN


1

Poverty sur l'herbe, Digital media, 54cm x 36 cm, Dec 2015


1

Monteverde, Mix media drawing, 180cm x 42cm Feb. 2015


1

Protest, lino print, 59cm x 42cm, Apr. 2015


1

When You're Sad That You Missed the Masquerade Party, photography, 318cm x 70cm, Jan 2016


1

Interior, digital media, 54cm x 72cm, Jan. 2016


$

Material, Digital media !web coding", Nov. 2015 Material


1

Inequality, Photography, 189cm x 18cm, Sep 2015


Guns Don’t Kill, Americans Do, Video, 0.8 seconds !loop", Dec. 2015


PROCESS PORTFOLIO Le Bain, created by Manet between 1862 and 1863, marks the turning point from realism to impressionism; sparking a new art movement in the late 19th century. Contextually, this piece represents a transitionary process away from artistic techniques of the time towards the start of modern art.

Critical Investigation

PROCESS PORTFOLIO

For this piece, I am focused on commenting on the social and economic inequality and stratification that has been created in our society. There are many issues associated with this heightened inequality, such as access to necessities, oppression, violence, etc. and as a result I feel very strongly about it. Appropriating another piece to create a new meaning is common, and by doing so I feel that I can voice this issue of inequality more strongly if it is done through the decontextualization of a well known piece.

Another idea I have for this piece is an appropriation of Leonid Afremov's piece 3G2. The bright and vibrant colors, for which Leonid is most well known for, gives me a point of manipulation that could be very powerful. This piece features rich and vibrant color, and without it would be hardly recognizable. The message it creates is based off of Afremov's use of color, and by manipulating simply the color I can easily change it’s message. Poverty Le Déjeuner sur l’herbe and despair is commonly depicted by dark and Venice Grand Canal Édouard Manet Leonid Afremov http:// gloomy environments, and as a result the Painting: 1862-1863 Painting: 2005 d17ol771963kd3.cloudfront.n manipulation of this piece into sending a http://www.londonfoodfilmfiesta.co.uk/ et/88800/zo/ http://alatmony.com/leonid-afremov-3g2.html message on wealth or socioeconomic Artmai~1/images~2/manetGkH4T3V7aQU.jpg inequality would be quite easy. However, one dejeunersurl'herbe-large.jpg Supreme clothing drawback as a result of this is how easy it is to appropriation of Le recognize. The color scheme and the use of Le Bain by Monet originally come to mind as a Bain. short-dashed paint strokes are what is Again, appropriation by photograph result of the Supreme Clothing appropriation Sweatshirt: 2014 recognizable about the painting, and without seems like a good option, however I that they did. The presence of humans allows these featured in the appropriation it would be The appropriation of Le Bain in this would have little control over in making for me to manipulate them to directly voice my hard to recognize. piece of streetwear clothing can the appropriation like the original. views on social and economic issues we are seem arbitrary, but as the current Alternatively, I could do it as an oil currently facing. Inequality is a huge issue, and trends of high fashion through the panting on canvas and thus have more I plan to use the human figures in the piece to likes of Kanye West and Kim control over the outcome. Because the portray this idea and give it new Kardashian continue to prevail, it is goal is to create a depressing meaning.Currently, I am thinking of very fitting a piece that in its original atmosphere through a lack of vibrance demonstrating gender roles or socioeconomic context represented a new and thus happiness, this could be easily inequality. Both are seemingly possible with an movement was chosen. As this accomplished using painting as a appropriation of this piece, as there is already aspect of fashion evolves, it medium. Although, I do have to keep in the role of woman featuring wealthier signifies a similar movement that mind my abilities and how easy it would individuals featured. Additionally, I can play on the visual arts has faced through be to accomplish my message. The the context of the piece much like Supreme the move towards impressionism message for this piece is similar to the Clothing did to put it into a new era. and modern art. one of Le Bain, which is socioeconomic inequality and wealth inequality. Like stated, I can play off of the vibrance and Appropriating piecesit would be most © Lorem ipsumthis dolor amet eros color in the piece and replace it with effective photographically. This leaves emptiness and dilapidated housing, and me with almost a blank slate as to what a dirty river with then a certain section canipsum be changed. I’msit able to manipulate Sketch of lack of color/darkness I wish enim integer ad Lorem dolor amet, ligula suspendisse nulla pretium, rhoncus tempor placerat fermentum, vestibulum volutpat. similar to the original with no in-between the piece’s setting, characters, and to portray within the piece. color (ie. colorful andnostra. vibrant) to better appearanceturpis almost freely. Appropriating Nisl rhoncus est, vel elit, congue wisi enim nunc ultricies sit, magna tincidunt. Maecenas aliquam maecenas ligula demonstrate the lack of spectrum. this into a modern time period is lxvii additionally a method of manipulation.

How it relates to my work:

How it relates to my work:


Process

Above are the photos I began with, shooting at 8 different locations in order to find a location that encompassed the atmosphere I was looking for and would be right for the photoshoot.

In order to create my piece and portray the idea I wanted to, I had to find the right location for the photoshoot. I took photos at 8 different locations that I believed would create the atmosphere needed for my piece. However, after shooting at these locations and taking photos of my models at the one I believed would work best, I found myself realizing it didn’t have tho perfect effect that I was looking for. Instead, I decided to use photoshopanq mesh the photos together, one of my models and one of the perfect location. After shadows were added and the photos merged, I touched up any of the areas that were surrounding the shadows, such as the foot that you can see below. As this part of the image connected with the image below, making this connection realistic was a must for the photograph to look realistic. By trimming the extra parts of the connecting image, and adding a layer mask over this area and adjusting the curves, I was able to darken some of the shadows and make the connection look more realistic.

I began with the photo of my models, and took them out of the original photo, as although I liked the photo of the models, the atmosphere was not correct. At the other location, where it had the better atmosphere, I began photoshopping the models into that location. I would have liked to have created a more authentic photo at that location, however that location would not have worked very well for a photoshoot (it did not necessarily have enough room to get all the models on top of the rooftop, and I also did not wish to put them at risk during the photoshoot). Overall, I feel that I was still able to create the image I wanted through this technique, and also added photoshop to my arsenal of tools.

First, I imported my base photo into photoshop before I began merging the two photos together. This photo I took on a rooftop in Auckland, NZ, and it shortly became one of my favorite locations. The atmosphere created by the city backdrop was surprisingly difficult to accomplish in Auckland, and this building created a very nicely framed photograph.

After I imported the previous photo, levels had to be tweaked. I created a layer mask on top of each different photograph, and changed the brightness and contrast of the images to better fit each other, which was slightly difficult because the lighting conditions were more harsh on top of the rooftop than the other location where I took my photograph with my models.

After the photographs were layered, masked, and the brightness and contrast adjusted, I had to work on editing out the background of the previous photograph. Using a magnetic lasso tool, I was able to remove most of the background of the image. However, I had to make sure it was properly feathered - as feathering allowed the two images to integrate much better while reducing the sharpness of the foreground. Additionally, certain parts that were cut with the magnetic lasso tool had to be touched up, as a very precise curve had to be made in certain parts of the photograph. After I finished merging the photos and cutting out all remnants of the background, adjusting for shadows had to be done. Like stated, the lighting differed between the two locations, and as a result there were obvious shadows that weren’t present within my photograph.


Building Knowledge Because I already have knowledge about photographs, I mostly developed skills in photoshop and how to appropriate and re contextualize a piece during this project. When creating the piece, I had a lot of trouble portraying what image I wanted within the time frame I was working under.

Skills All photos on this page were taken by me, in Auckland, NZ

Location Scouting

Curves + Exposure

Problems Faced Finding models was similarly difficult, as I was working with student models that have a very tightly packed schedule. My pictures required a lot of scouting, as I needed the proper background. Rooftops turned out to be a great solution, but it is also hard to create a piece from them due to the amount of time needed to set up models, and their safety. As a result, I scouted many rooftops beforehand to accurately plan for my photoshoot, which turned out to take place at two different locations due to inaccessibility of the location for the photoshoot.

As I found out that I would be unable to take my photoshoot at my desired location, I had to scout out many different places so I could utilize photoshop to create this piece. Above are a few locations that I visited, as I attempted to find the right atmosphere for my piece. The photo on the top right actually turned out to be the location where I shot the photo that I used for my piece. When looking for locations, the main component was the backdrop of the city, as it had to create an overbearing atmosphere. Secondly, a place where I could place my models was needed, as it would be very unrealistic to have them floating around in the sky.

Solution Because photoshop was the only solution to this, I had to develop skills that would allow me to create the right image. I found using the lasso tool worked very well, but using the eraser tool to get rid of edges was time consuming and not as effective. Sharper edges could be created from the lasso tool, while feathering and blending the edges helped create a balanced affect. After the image was edited, I created a making layer that allowed me to edit all of the photograph. adjusting the shadows, contrast, and curves allowed for a more blended and realistic tone, as this was meant to be a realistic piece. After that, I adjusted the color balance, midtowns, and shadows to create the dark and heavily contrasted view that my work is portraying.


Ideas and Development Since arriving in London, I have been thinking of my idea for a photo series; either alone or with the combination of a mural of my recent stencil. Yesterday I took a trip to the City of London, where I was looking for subjects or areas to demonstrate the affluent portion of my photo series. I didn’t have much time to capture photos, but got some ideas of places or areas that could work for what I would like to capture for my series.

Chicago, Board of Trade II Andreas Gursky Photograph 1999

Above is a photo I took when exploring London. I find myself focusing a lot on the symmetry of the buildings, but the patterns and abstract portions are lost.

Above is one of my previous pieces on income inequality. I’d like to capture both extremes to demonstrate the wealth inequality that is present just within one city. Although London is extremely big, the fact that there is so much inequality involved I feel is important to showcase and bring attention to. Before I focused on more of a corporate influence with inequality, but now I’d like to create something more personal. I haven’t felt that I’ve created something that speaks to this idea well enough yet, and a photo series in London is definitely the perfect way. My only concern right now is whether I wish to focus on people or not. Obviously, inequality affects the people involved. However, I’m not sure if it’s best to focus on the area’s specifically or the people specifically. If I focus on the area, the idea of inequality can be demonstrated through the massive gap in wealth through the architecture or material items involved, where if I focus on the people it’s more personal. Although it’s more personal, I’m not sure if it’s more superficial. I’m essentially focusing on their appearance, which is not necessarily a bad thing but it could take away from the message I’m trying to portray. The area I’m currently living in is fairly wealthy. There are brown stones with expensive luxury cars- perfectly manicured in every way. I spoke with my teacher about my ideas, who introduced me to the artists Andreas Gursky and Michael Wolf, who have some very interesting concepts and express their ideas through their photo’s and serie’s perfectly. I like the use of pattern or repetition used frequently by Gursky. Rather than having a specific subject such as a building or person, he captures the entire scene absolutely perfectly. I really like the aesthetic of this, and has me questioning exactly what kind of shots I am aiming for.

Kuwait Stock Exchange II Andreas Gursky Photograph 2008

In this piece I love the way the people fill up the entire frame. Rather than having one person, or subject, it’s a mirage of people that causes your eye to be drawn strictly to the red accent color.

Photo of mine, Cleveland OH USA

Seen above are two photos of mine. One is a photo of from Cleveland, Ohio. which shows architectural photography is an obvious theme for me, and I feel that the symmetrical aesthetic is a style that I really enjoy (that can be seen in the second photo). However, I’m still not sure how this can exactly work for my current series.

People are rarely a focus of mine for my past work. As seen before, architecture and the art and symmetry that they result in are a primary subject area of mine. Above is a photo of mine from Cleveland, that although I don’t necessarily like, I like the concept. People are a very interesting subject because they tell a story. However, I’m still not sure whether I wish to focus on buildings or people for this series. I’m hoping to capture both and then decide which way I’d like to go. I rarely have explored the type of photos taken by Gursky and Wolf, so I’m very interested in these kinds of images. Larger subject areas, containing many subjects rather than a specific focus could be very interesting to explore. I feel that single subject photos like mine may limit the message that I’m trying to portray.


Process All photos on this page were taken by me So far these are a few of the shots that I’ve taken for my project. I had wanted to go for a black and white aesthetic at first, but I’m planning on playing around with the colors and curves to see what looks best next. For comparison sake though, I’m going to leave them black and white for now and then explore - as I want my series to look unified (color may turn out to be too distracting in the end).

I’ve taken some inspiration from Gursky and Wolf and played around with some of the way they photograph (ie. somewhat conceptual, larger subjects, patterned buildings). I’ve always done a lot of architecture, but the patterns in buildings is something I haven’t really explored. So far I’ve only had time to go to the “richer”, more prosperous areas. However I hope to be able to capture other areas in both London and the other cities in the UK, as expanding this project to photograph more than just one city will demonstrate how much economic inequality truly exists within a single country. Overall I’m happy with the way that this series coming along so far. I want to capture better photos of people, though. I had such a perfect situation for the photo in the top left, but failed to get the shot that I wanted. Next time I feel shooting with a 50mm, instead of the wide 14mm f/2.8 I’ve been using for the wider shots will produce a lot better results for my human focused work.

Above are the contrasting photographs that are going to be displayed in the series. I changed the composition of my photos here in order to bring out the contrasting aspect. Having a definitive change between the two types of photos will allow me to bring out my message easier, and draw the reader towards the two separate composition types. The bottom photos I left in color, with the exception of the middle photo so I could compare. I believe that color does add some value to the differences between the photosthe photo on the left hand side, in the second row, has a type of rich grandness to it that cannot be captured in black and white. Therefore, I’m choosing to mix my photos, and have some photos in black and white and some in color in order to create contrast while keeping the richness of the photographs in tact. Gursky does this quite often, and although many times the color scheme, rather than the structural qualities, of the photographs are the subject, I took some inspiration here again from his photographs.


Critical Investigation

Color

“ Material takes cues from contemporary architecture, road signs, pavement marking tape, and athletic courts. Color should be unexpected and vibrant.”

Background Material design is a new kind of design trend created by Google. I hope to use these design standards ironically, as technology creates a symbol of corporate America. Because these design standards become ingrained in many minds subconsciously, I hope my piece is instantly recognizable and relatable to these design standards. The idea I’m still playing on is wealth inequality, and I feel combining it with technological trends will be extremely ironic, as many tech firms frequently raise tens of millions in funding, while we have a rising lower class.

Simplicity/current design trends

Google frequently features these types of adverts in their marketing. I feel appropriating this idea, with changing the media to play into wealth disparity would create a very interesting and bold idea. Because of the monopoly on phone software (Google and Apple), designers are confined to the predetermined standards that these companies have created, with only slight room for change.

Colors, like mentioned, are extremely important for the design. Aesthetically, gradient designs allow for better eye focus on the content inside, drawing the eye to the foreground content while giving a nice soft background for the content to rest on top of - a layering technique that abides by design standards.

Color is the most important part of the piece. The rich and vibrant colors that are used in material design can make or break the piece. First, they have to comply with the material standards, and secondly that have to draw the viewers attention, and be laid out so that they keep the viewers eyes moving across the piece, and not fixated on one point.

Concepts Because this is a technologically focused piece, wealth inequality can be displayed directly to the viewer through a variety of methods. I feel doing it graphically, or through certain texts is the best option. To the right are two images I created demonstrating this idea.

Additionally, I can display it directly through text. As a programmer, I’m thinking of trying to tie some type of obscure text or function that can relate to wealth inequality, but not cause the piece to become too direct.


Ideas and Development

Idea #1

Idea #2 Another idea is to make the piece more minimalistic piece, similar to Robert Indiana’s style. My idea is having a very blunt word, such as poverty, displayed upon a wall. The idea that words can be artistic, and have a big impact upon the viewer is interesting to me. Combining certain web/tech design aesthetics could be very interesting.

When one hovers their mouse over a section of the layout, there will be a specific message or design that is displayed to the viewer. Beyond Love Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur

http://whitney.org/image_columns/ 0050/0714/indiana04_800.jpg

POVERTY

Layout #1

Wall

Presented digitally upon a wall or iPad, with tex to create the marketing illusion used by google.

Individual compartments where material elements will be present.

Text Choices For the overlays, I wanted to have words/sentences that came directly from Google’s material design spec sheet. After reading it through the first time when studying the design concepts, I realized the complete lack of substance in a lot of the writing. I found it incredibly ironic how this “simple” design concept had so many pages of spec guides. Using parts or words from the design guide can contrast the amount of time/ effort spent on design concepts vs. many of the real world problems they are attempting to fix.

Layout #2

Layout

In order to be recognizable, I’m going to lay my piece out in a similar fashion to Google’s usual advertising pieces. This also gives me flexibility in my structure, as I can easily create a variety of layout positions out of this tiled effect.

Examples from Spec Sheet from Google for Overlays

Center focused design Smaller compartments

Layout #3

Layout #4

“A material metaphor is the unifying theory of a rationalized space and a system of motion.” “Material has certain immutable characteristics and inherent behaviors. Understanding these qualities will help you manipulate material in a way that’s consistent with the vision of material design.” “Reinforce spatial relationships between elements with consistent incoming and outgoing motions.”

Larger Compartments

Equal compartments, spread out feel

Layout #4: Color Layout #4 showing the colored components


Skills and Techniques Material Design Because of my app development experience, I’m already familiar with Google’s material design guidelines. In order for the design to “click” in the users mind, Google developed a standardized design pattern for developers to follow in order to prevent confusion amongst UI/UX patters.

Google announced Material Design on June 25, 2014, at the 2014 Google I/O conference.

Basics of Material Design

There are three basic principles of material design. “Material is the metaphor”, “bold, graphic, intentional”, and “motion provides meaning”.

Material design is concerned with firstly, the principal that design is contained within 3D space, having the x, y, and z-axis for design. For mobile design, the z-axis is meant to extend to the viewer, while on web the z-axis is used for layering and not perspective. The 3D world is emulated by manipulating the y-axis.

Material design is also focused on grid-based layouts, which is what I’m going to create my piece as. Depth effects and shadows are also a strong part of material design. The ultimate idea behind material design is that it’s based upon the traditional paper and ink.

These are my own skills that I’ve been developing from working with material design guidelines. As you can see, I’ve applied depth and shadow via the cancelled check on the left, and the gradient background. Gradients are one of the ways that you can portray depth, and even movement within the piece.


I graph was something I originally really wanted to have in my piece as a way to bring quantitative data into the piece. I feel it’s easy to portray ideas or images to be powerful, but when you have numbers that are just as powerful I feel it can have a huge impact on your message. The numbers are the amount of funds that Medium has raised to date (not including bootstrap funding). The date on the graph is also the day that they raised their second round of funding. I created this part in Sketch as well using a top gradient for the nav and bottom graph. The bottom section was created to balance out the composition of the component and produce a more realistic looking section.

To create some of the elements and give them a more realistic feel, I used the TETH UI Sketch UI Kit that I use for iOS Prototyping and design. It helps create a lot of the layout components a lot more quickly, and allows for similar construction.

The cancelled check element is the most prominent part of my message for the piece. I wanted to create something that was fairly blunt, in case parts of my other message were lost or too technical- this way allowing the viewer to understand the message no matter what. I created the check in Sketch, giving it a basic outline and a 1px (at 1x rendering) drop shadow to add to the depth of the image. Obviously, there’s a large cancelled stamp over the check (which is for only $35). I chose $35 as it’s the number of millions Medium raised after it’s first round of funding - which plays off of the other component showing a graph of their VC funding. It’s a comment in the millions being pored into Silicon Valley, while we’re ignoring the growing wealth inequality and families that struggle to even afford basic necessities.

For my final version of my piece I broke it apart and added my motion component, with the pieces fluidly moving with the tilt of the screen or movement of the mouse. Additionally, I added the text from Google’s material design guide as well.

Gradient elements were created via a smooth gradient between the two color schemes. I used the hex codes #FF5E3A —> #FF2A68 for the gradient, as it kept a nice range of oranges and reds, with a smooth middle but not bright enough to take away from the boldness of the text.


Critical Investigation

Andy Warhol (American, 1928-1987) Gun, 1981 acrylic and silkscreen ink on linen http://www.warhol.org/collection/art/work/1998-1-275/

Photographs Gregory Berg 2016 Baltimore Riots Serios https://www.instagram.com/p/ BCTzWTlS7If/?taken-by=gbergphoto

Above is a piece by Andy Warhol, which I truly admire due to it’s quality and composition. The use of color in Warhol’s piece is truly amazing. The red and accented black is an aesthetic that I really hope to have in my piece, as it brings the piece to life. While I hope to portray some of the brutally honest facts about guns and the rise of gun violence in my country, I still need the type of visual appeal that Warhol’s piece contains. It draws the eye back and forth, giving it both 3D and 2D properties through his use of color and shadows.

http://www.gbergphoto.com/portraits/ z17yv953uurb6x6phgp9jj3eggu2u4 http://www.gbergphoto.com/portraits/ vlw9phzccdjyikgi5kaj6s1mjpwofh http://www.gbergphoto.com/portraits/ 43yuui7zxn911j2nxiiv2xrxfwo4zk http://www.gbergphoto.com/portraits/ yt6x1d1nvq22gkibh7ckivfefswbse http://www.gbergphoto.com/portraits/ jjjkfxb2f09kb4pugj1r27d52q0ksb

Above, there is a photographer Gregory Berg who has done some fairly extensive portraits of the Baltimore riots. The riots were originally started after the death of Freddie Gray, a 25 year old who died after suffering a spinal cord injury after being transported in a police van. This incident sparked outrage, and riots that included looting, assaults on police offers, and chaos broke out. Berg sought so bring light to the racial tensions, chaos, and divides that have been occurring in the United States through a series of photos featuring the grime of the reality of many people’s lives in these areas.

States United to Prevent Gun Violence Video Mar 17, 2015 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1nAfWfF4TjM

There is a recent video about gun violence, called “Guns With History”. The video features a pop up gun store that sells guns to first time gun buyers. They begin with normal sales techniques, and then continue to explain the “history” of the gun, which includes deadly shootings it has been involved with and the number of people it has killed. This really brings attention to the real dangers of guns, and the damage they can cause. I really like the idea behind this piece, and like its satirical element. For my piece, I’m trying to portray the same message and the inclusion of real statistics and data can be very moving, especially in an area like gun violence where the statistics are so shocking.

Background: Previously I have done a lot of work on socioeconomic inequality. Two subjects I haven’t touched on though is race and violence regarding inequality. Because I come from the United States, the subjects I’ve had to speak at length about are gun violence and racial discrimination, which I realized is something I definitely have to speak to in one of my pieces. With school shootings becoming the norm, the Ferguson riots and the riots in Baltimore, the United States really is facing a lot of problems in racial tensions and violence relating to guns.


Communication of Ideas & Intentions Idea #1

This idea encompasses all of what I wish to portray. The color component is the one aspect I’m still unsure of though - black and white is somewhat traditional, and it doesn’t directly speak to the idea of violence if one fails to view guns as elements of violence. I could choose to add in a direct response to this, such as the occurrence of blood on the gun handle - but that may be too blunt for my liking. Overall, I really like the idea of having a 3D piece to represent these ideas. Having the gun is one option, however this idea could be expanded to include multiple guns - such as two with one featuring a white color scheme and the other black. This use of color subconsciously plays on the occurrence of racial tensions, as black and white tensions have been drastically affected by gun violence. Allowing these pieces to be viewed in 3D brings the reality of the situation to light, per se, as I could position them with the barrel directly facing towards the viewer, creating an extremely shocking effect.

Idea #2

This second idea plays down the bluntness of my first. I hope to achieve the power of the piece through the lack of substance and the lack of size. A bullet is obviously very small, however it still is responsible for the deaths of thousands of Americans per year. Having a piece that is simply this single bullet, displayed within the absence of space could have a very powerful effect yet again. Like stated, this power is derived from the size of the piece. It’s somewhat satirical, as having a single room dedicated to the display of a single bullet could be considered quite ridiculous, however having the viewer ponder this is what I hope to achieve. Bullets are incredibly important within the violence we’re experiencing today, and making them question their presence is exactly what we should be doing.

Idea #3:

My third idea is a combination of both, as obviously guns and bullets go together. I want to place the viewer into a fearful situation, as this is what guns do when they’re used violently. Having the viewer walk into a room with outward facing guns, with bullets suspended in the air like they are being fired mid-shot is about as blunt and powerful as you can get within the world of gun violence. Making the viewer think about being in a situation where they are going to be shot is certainly one way to provoke the emotions I wish from them, however I’m still undecided if this is the best way to go, as the shock aspect may overplay what I actually want them to feel.


Air-dry Clay

Skills and Technique 3D Modeling

Key Frames After I created the gun in 3D, I now had to find a way to record the model and animate it. Creating animations of the gun required yet again, a different set of skills. To create animations, I used the website Clara.io, an online application that allows one to import their 3D model, add cameras to the scene and create an animation based off of the camera’s key frames. By adding key frames, I could allow my model to rotate itself to the different positions defined.

Camera Placement

Because I have not created a 3D piece before, I chose to begin by testing out the materials and options that I have. I began with seeing how viable air-dry clay would be for my gun piece. I used two blocks of clay to create two pieces - one small (4in x 3in) and one slight larger and thicker. Although air-dry clay is usually fairly easy to work with, I found it quite difficult to produce the type of machine-made details that my piece requires. As you can see, the pieces produced are not incredibly realistic and as a result would take away from the power of my piece. Thus, I know I need to explore more options and materials I can use to produce my piece.

Because of the required detail in my piece, I decided to explore the idea of 3D modeling my piece and using a 3D printer to produce it. This is one skill I have only tinkered with before, and have never made anything substantial with 3D printers before. The software I’m using is 123D, produced by Autodesk. It has a very clean and intuitive user interface for creating the 3D project, as well as other downloadable molds and designs one can work with.

Working with animations was actually a really interesting part of this piece. Because I am dealing with a 3D model and using the website Clara.io, I was able to take my individual model and apply cameras towards it. The cameras allowed me to film my model from multiple points of view, and preview how the animation would look. Additionally, I could apply lights towards the model to change the way it created shadows, or to create a dramatic effect.

Gif Making

Sadly, I realized that this option wouldn’t be available. Understandably, printing 3D guns is not something that is commonly acceptable to do, even if they’re non-working. As a result, I explored different ways I could display my piece if displaying it physically would not be an option. Because I created a 3D model, I wished to experiment with the projection of this model.

Animation and Rendering As I wanted to display this animation continuously, a GIF would obviously be the best way to do this. I experimented with online GIF makers, as they easily allowed me to change the duration, delay, and speed of my animation.


Creating 3D Model

Process

Rendering

Setting up Animation

First, I began creating the 3D model using 123D, a program created by Autodesk. I first began by outlining the model in cubes, to get the dimensions needed to create the cylinders for the gun.

After setting up the cubes, I recreated the piece using the appropriate dimensions for the cylinders using the same dimensions.

Adding the cylinders, I was able to import the metal gun texture for the piece using an Autodesk preset.

As I exported my piece as an .stl file, I was able to use an online software called Clara.io to animate and render the 3D piece. The first process was creating the animation. To create the animation, I first had to import my model into Clara. After importing, I set up a camera that would define how my model was viewed during the animation. After creating the camera, I had to define how my model was going to rotate. To do this, I created key frames, which then the animation uses to determine where it should move. I created one key frame at the beginning with the placement of the gun, and then one more at the end with the ending placement, and the animation inferred how it should rotate based upon those key frames.

Finally, I finished my animation and now had to export. To export the animation, the website Clara uses a service called V-Ray to render. To do this, I selected the timeline of my animation, and rendered all 200 frames. The animation filmed the model from the view of the camera that was defined by the key frames, and exported each frame as a JPEG image that I could then make into a GIF.

Making into GIF

Because the cylinders are hallow, an end-cap was needed to be created on the end of the piece, so one could not see directly into the structure of the gun. Closing up the rest of the holes and exporting the project as an .stl file, the creation of the model was now finished.

The next step was to make all these images into a GIF. As I had all of the images, I first attempted to use an online service, known as GIF Maker (http:// gifmaker.me/) However, the gif had too many frames and thus the website was not able to handle it. After searching online, I found a way I could do this from the command line. Being a programmer, I found this approach fairly exciting. I installed a program called Image Magick, where I then was able to take all of the JPEGs that I had exported and combine them together into a GIF by running the command: convert -delay 0 -loop 0 source*.jpg animated.gif This can be seen in the left hand picture. Now, a GIF was created with all of my images compiled together.


Original Photos

Ideas and Development During my time in Costa Rica last year, I did a series of leaves (pastel, charcoal, pencil) that were in a process of deterioration to speak to the cycles of life. After developing my ideas through my photo series in London around wealth inequality that was built off of my first piece in Auckland, I thought of the combination of wealth inequality and cycles of debt and poverty. After coming to Bosnia a few weeks ago, I realized that this was a country that is very well demonstrated by “cycles”. Cycles of war, poverty, invasion, and distress are apparent all throughout Sarajevo. Combining the process of deterioration through images of the deteriorating buildings, as well as the natural element of leaf shapes is extremely fascinating to me. On the left hand side of the page, you can see my first experiment. I chose to keep the entirety of both images, as I wanted to see how well they hold up the artistic value when both are included in entirety. Additionally, on the right hand side of the page I have the same image, except slightly more visible, and without a background. Although I believe both designs are okay, the left hand design emphasizes the atmosphere of the leaf. Because my purpose is to demonstrate cycles of poverty, inequality and destruction, the shape and health of the leaf are extremely important, and thus I believe the left hand design is the right choice for this piece. The deterioration of the leaves comes from my previous idea, and can emphasize the message I am sending with this piece the most.

Combination/Layering of Photos

Final Idea

For my final idea, I’m choosing a series of 2 different photos layered over 2 different leaves. Each leaf will create a different effect than the other leaf, perhaps one being multiple leaves while the other compliments it as being singular. Because I have not decided on color vs. black and white, the example below has been left in color.

Additionally, color scheme was really important. On the right, there is the same leaf but in black and white. I haven’t completed decided if black and white is the way to go for this piece, as I’m going to compare the colored verses the b&w as I approach my final version. The reason I chose to experiment with black and white is that it, again, puts an emphasis on the shape and texture, and thus doesn’t distract from the message.


Skills and Techniques

Types of Shading: Techniques

Combination After I learned more about proper contouring, which can be seen on the far left hand side, I began playing with light more often. As photography is one of my favorite mediums, it required a paradigm shift for me to look at light from a shading perspective, rather than the way I usually do during photography. With photography, one either works with natural lighting or uses a mix of light boxes or other lights to create the effect. However, gradation is not something that I’ve found myself having to worry about as much, as softening whatever light source usually results in the effect I need. However, I found very quickly that gradation is very important for my pencil and charcoal drawings, as with very little gradation I produced harsher images, which was not necessarily what I was going for. For this piece, I chose to expand my skill set by working with a mix of pencil, charcoal, and pen drawings. Previously, I had not had much experience with this medium, and thus had many skills to develop. First, I explored shading techniques, and had to explore light. Determining how light would fall onto an image was somewhat difficult at first, as I commonly found myself shading too darkly, and not leaving of a spectrum to create a balanced image. Additionally, I found myself not knowing much about contour and how to define the shape of my images.

Perceiving the Image: Form

After experimenting with pencil and pen drawings and working on shading and contour, I decided to expand into oil pastel and then mixes the different kinds of drawing together. Above, there is an experiment where I pasted multiple kinds of paper on top of each other, and crafted my image using pencil, charcoal, and pen together. This let me play with multiple surfaces and techniques within the same image. As I progressed with these skills and techniques, I decided to add in some color. Because I had previous experience with contouring, I experimented with the affects of contour using oil pastel.

After focusing on balancing light, contrast, and contour, I found it was equally important to focus on the form of my drawing. Being able to see the shape of an object in two dimensions, outside of it’s physical form is something that I feel all beginning artists have problems with. By drawing different leaves with various kinds of structure, I was able to work on the way I perceived objects and focus on the best way to draw them. Specifically, different kinds of lines was something that I had to figure out. Straight vs curved lines, hard drawn lines vs soft lines, wavy lines, etc. were all things I focused on.


Thessaloniki, Greece

Ideas and Development Athens, Greece

Medium

Photo I took during a protest in Thessaloniki, Greece

Above is a photograph that I took during a recent visit to Thessaloniki, Greece. My current theme of socioeconomic inequality was very apparent during this time, as the Greek financial crisis was fully fledged. However, I was exposed to many of the effects of inequality, such as oppression. Obviously, political and social tensions are very high.

After looking at some of my photographs and thinking about the current situation in where I am living, I began to think of ways that I could tie together my personal experiences here and the theme of my work. Currently, I want to expand upon my theme of socioeconomic inequality to show more of the human aspect, and the effects that it has directly on the people. The relationship between inequality and that of oppression is very apparent, and thus I wished to express the human effects of oppression and inequality. As I already had many photographs, I wished to explore a different medium. Because I was in a location where print making was readily available, I chose to explore printmaking through making print of one of my images.

Photo I took during a in Athens, Greece

Above is a another photograph that I took in Greece. This photograph was taken in Athens, during a street ceremony. With the current situation, I wanted to try and capture some candid photographs of everyday life in Greece. I was originally drawn towards this photograph, due to the emotion captured in the police officers face.

To the left is an example of the type of print that I am hoping to be able to create. The sky has texture, although it does not distract from the piece as a whole. However, it is a single color print in just black and white, and I hope to create something with more richness and contrast, similar to the print seen on the right. The print on the right is a 2 color letterpress print by Shepard Fairey. I quite like the texture and contrast that he creates through his use of color and shadows, which I feel is missing from Lisa Deyner’s print.

Lisa Deyner Rubber Print 2013 Size: Unknown https://se.pinterest.com/source/lisa-denyer.com

When creating my own print, I feel a mix of both is perfect. The contrast and atmosphere of Sherard Fairy combined with the grain and style of Lisa Deyner seems to fit the type of piece I’m producing, as I feel Shepard Fairey’s style may be too tightly rendered and clean for me to achieve. Shepard Fairey MUJER FATALE LETTERPRESS Size: 10 x 13 Inches Edition: 450 Year: 2015 http://www.blackbookgallery.com/store/shepard-fairey-prints/


Process

Because this piece was being created based upon my photograph that was taken in Thessaloniki, I first went through my photos to decide upon which was best for my piece. Creating the correct atmosphere through this print was vital, however as most of my protest photos were similar, and as a result I needed to find the photo that had the most unique angle or unobstructed view.

Beginning the process, I had to prepare my image to be transferred to my linoleum. I stared by converting my image to black and white, and flattening it by getting rid of many of my mid-tones to leave a clear and simple black and white image. This was done to allow me to accurately know which areas to carve into my linoleum.

From there, I transferred my image onto my linoleum using charcoal. By printing out my image, coating the back with charcoal, and then tracing it onto my linoleum, I was able to get a carving outline to structure my print.

After outlining my print, I began to start carving out the light areas, as I plan to print in a dark layered color.

As seen in the picture on the right, I strategically caved the large areas in the same direction, in order to add some grain to my print. Paint would still be applied to this area, and the difference in depth would allow streaks of grain in a unified manner. Printing like this would add a more dramatic affect to the piece, as well as drawing the viewers eye towards the protestors in the piece.

After my piece was carved, the next step was to determine how it was going to be inked. As I took inspiration from Shepard Fairey, and liked how the mix of harsh and dark colors contrasts to create a dramatic look, I chose to go with a mixed red and black print with red and black printed together. I did not allow the first layer to dry, as I wanted the colors to mix slightly to create an almost granular affect.


Ideas and Development Message/Relation to Theme:

Emotion

Until now, my theme mostly contained demonstrations of inequality and deterioration, however it lacked the human element and raw effects of inequality and oppression. With this piece, I hope to represent the facelessness of individuals that struggle with poverty and inequality.

Serdar“Trash Hand” Ozturk Photographs http://blog.trashhand.com

Similar to my first piece I created, location plays a role in this photoshoot. Ideally, I would love to find a similar location to the ones seen on the right. These are a series of photographs by the photographer Sedar “Trash Hand” Ozturk. Sedar is an urban photographer based out of Chicago that frequently photographs abandoned and desolate buildings and spaces. Ideally, I would like to create a work similar to that of Humza Deas, featuring a location like the one’s pictured right. The dirtiness of the buildings gives it an extremely emotional feeling, where I would be able to combine the facelessness aspect that I want to portray very vividly.

Humza Deas Photographs http://humzadeas.tumblr.com/

One of the most inspirational photographers to me has been Humza Deas. Not only does he create some very amazing landscape scenes, but there’s always an emotional depth within his portrait pieces. Because for this piece I am trying to create and demonstrate the human element, I find his work and use of color (or lack of) very inspiring. The main aspect is the facelessness of many of his photographs. As I’m incorporating the human element into my piece, I like the way that Humza incorporates humans, but they remain simply humans. The lack of the presence of a face is defining, and I feel more representative as the focus is on the fact that there is a human in the photo, rather than the focus being on the humans qualities.

Display:

Photograph #1

Location

Photograph #2

Subject On both sides are two small sketches representing the type of pieces that I want to create for this series. I believe the best idea would to have a series of photographs in which I could display the same nondescript individual in multiple situations, furthering the human aspect but yet keeping it “anonymous”. I believe using a mask would be the best option, as it essentially rids the individual of their humanity, while leaving their presence intact within the photographs.

Photograph #3

When displaying my photographs, I feel the best way would be with a series of three photographs. The middle photograph being a close up of the face/mask that is being used for the photoshoot, with the two other photographs being the model in the aforementioned areas, giving it a balanced feel but a slight focus on the facelessness of the individual.


PROCESS Above are all the photographs that I took during my photoshoot. I chose to go with a dark mask to add a contrasting aspect, as well as touch subconsciously upon the role of race in socioeconomic inequality. There are a mix of close up shots, poses, and candid photos of my model in different positions so I have a wide variety of photographs to choose from for my series.

Select Images

As I decided to go with three photographs for my series, I began sifting through my photos to see which would fit best. Originally, I planned on having a close up shot of my model’s face wearing the mask as my center photo. I liked this idea, and thus I chose the pose of the model holding his hands up to his face to be the center shot, as it adds a sense of symmetry and emotion to the piece. This will draw the viewer in, and allow them to explore the photographs on both sides, but keeping them occupied from multiple points of view. Additionally, I chose two other photos to accompany the center photo on either side. The photo on the left was chosen due to the nondescript nature. It has a clean background with blended colors that match the jacket worn by the model, and feature the model under normal circumstances thus furthering the contrasting view. The photo on the right was chosen due to the background, and position of the model. The “grungy”, dirty atmosphere further adds contrast and additionally balance to the series.

Editing

As many photographers do, I have a fairly regimented editing procedure that I go through when editing photographs. First, I make the major adjustments (exposure, white balance, tones, color balance). However, for this piece, I wanted a more contrastive approach. Starting off, I manipulated the curves of the photograph to a well known “S” curve, to give more contrast and an increased dramatic effect. After that, I added some grain to the photographs, giving it a somewhat film-like feel. I felt that grain would add to the atmosphere of the photo, as the dirtier atmosphere and desolate theme behind the photographer seemed to call for it.


COMPARATIVE STUDY

COMPARATIVE STUDY Artworks

Banksy

Michael Wolf

JR

GRAFFITI #8

THE ARCHITECTURE OF DENSITY #57

A PORTRAIT OF A GENERATION

Painting: June 2009

Photograph: January 2014

Photograph, 2004 - 2006

N/A

ed. 9, 101 x 152 cm; ed. 9, 122 x 183 cm

N/A

http://nelsonndhs.org/2014_spring_per4/streetart/assests/picstreetart9.jpg http://www.newrepublic.com/sites/default/files/u180951/building_large.jpg

http://www.jr-art.net/projects/portrait-of-a-generation

lxxxvi


Michael Wolf: The Architecture of Density #119

In addition to the previously mentioned composition, the mix of vertical, diagonal and horizontal lines in Michael Wolf’s photograph of a large building in Hong Kong,the photograph is quite intriguing. The scale of the photograph itself is very large, with edition nine being 101 by 132 centimeters, and edition three being 183 by 244 centimeters. The use of vertical lines, combined with the lack of sky or ground, shock the viewer by the mere height and mass of the building. His use of space is also quite interesting - negative space is created through the pattern of the buildings, and thus as mentioned, from far away his piece appears as a pattern before one can look closer and derive its origin. This caters to the megacity idea that Wolf is fascinated with. The city and buildings take on a life of their own; captivating and drawing the viewer in.

Formal Qualities

Lack of Sky Horizontal Lines

Color is also manipulated and used well by Wolf. His patterns are not only created through his brilliant use of lines, but by the color sequences that can furthermore trick the eye. The color intensity is fairly unsaturated,

Diagonal Lines but appears vibrant against the bland grey of the building. The building features a rough texture, with peeling paint and objects and clothes hanging from the balconies.

Focal Point

Architecture of Density #119 uses a triptych of colors against a gray

The title of Michael Wolf’s photo speaks to many of its elements. The Architecture of Density #119 is an accurate title for a photograph that layers color and texture in a painterly way, while still holding on to its photographic properties.

scale background, with vibrant green on the left, stripes of pastel blue and bright red in the center, and bright red to the right. Juxtaposing the red and green (complementary colors) give the The Architecture of Density #119 Photograph: January 2014 ed. 9. 101 x 152 cm http://www.newrepublic.com/sites/default/files/u180951/building_large.jpg

The photograph features elements of many painting techniques, giving it a beautiful and rich composition (cubism, pointillism, and abstraction See figures to the right). Viewed from afar, or perhaps even greatly enlarged, the work at first reads as a well-designed abstract painting. Overall though, it refuses to withhold to a single standard or message, and that is why it works on so many different levels. As one can see above, traditional art techniques and elements are prevalent within Georges Braque Wolf’s piece, giving it merit not only in the Oil and Charcoal with Sand on Pablo Picasso Guernica Canvas photographic sphere, but as a contemporary, 3.5x7.8 metres 65.4 x 54.9cm abstract and phenomenal piece as a whole. Painting http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/ http://www.pablopicasso.org/ images/h2/h2_1999.363.11.jpg guernica.jsp

Lack of Ground

composition a dynamic feel and keeps the viewer’s eyes moving across the photograph.

Georges Seurat Circus Sideshow (Parade de Cirque) 99.7x149.9cm Oil on Canvas https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/5/5d/ Seurat-La_Parade_detail.jpg/170px-Seurat-La_Parade_detail.jpg


Michael Wolf: The Architecture of Density #119 Function and Purpose Produced as part of a series in 2005, the purpose of the artwork is to demonstrate the conglomerate of people in Hong Kong, through showing the density in which they live, as this is shocking and uncommon to many people who have the luxury of living with more space. His work is directed at both the viewer who has perhaps never experienced life in such crowded conditions, and also to the inhabitants of Hong Kong themselves, who take these conditions for granted. The “density” in the title speaks not only to the obvious density of the human inhabitants of the building, but the density of the texture and layering of color in the photograph. Interestingly, this works to point the viewer in multiple directions. The first The Architecture of Density #119 Photograph: January 2014 ed. 9. 101 x 152 cm http://www.newrepublic.com/sites/default/files/u180951/ building_large.jpg

Figure B

direction is conceptual, and forces the viewer to ponder the idea of population density and the implications of housing as the earth reaches critical mass. This photograph was taken in Hong Kong, which is known to be one of, if not the, most packed megacity/cities in existence, which is an issue Michael Wolf has said himself to be interested in 1. The second direction speaks to the dense layering of the shape and color within the photograph, and the repetition of a basic rectangle to create a complex surface for the photograph. This surface is segmented into a basic, traditional “triptych” design of three equal areas, which are most frequently seen in panel painting (See Figure B). The left side consists of a mixture of dark grey and green rectangles, the center contains lighter grey, white, black, red and light blue squares, and the right side reflects the left with a complementary color of red rectangles,

Master of Frankfurt Sagrada Familia con ángel músico, Santa Catalina de Alejandría, Santa Bárbara Painting: 1510-1520 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Master_of_Frankfurt

along with lighter grey squares. Viewed in the abstract, these shapes are very dynamic, and keep the viewer’s eyes moving across the work outward from the center, and back again, and thus captivating the viewer from many directions.

1

http://www.newrepublic.com/article/115209/michael-wolf-photography-hong-kongs-architecture-density


Michael Wolf: The Architecture of Density #119 Cultural Significance

About Michael Wolf

is a contemporary photographer

who was born in Germany in 1954, and grew up in the United States, Europe, and Canada. He attended Universities in the US and Canada, and in 1976 he received his degree in visual communication from the University of Essen in Germany 2. It was in Germany that he studied with photographer Otto Steinert.

His time with

The Architecture of Density #57 Photograph: January 2014 122 x 183 cm http://www.designboom.com/art/michaelwolf-photographs-the-architecture-ofdensity-01-16-2014/

Steinert is important as Steinert was himself a founder and part of the Fotoform photography group.

This group concentrated on

The Architecture of Density #91 Photograph: January 2014 102 x 127 cm http://www.designboom.com/art/michaelwolf-photographs-the-architecture-ofdensity-01-16-2014/

The Architecture of Density #45 Photograph: January 2014 120 x 180 cm http://www.designboom.com/art/michaelwolf-photographs-the-architecture-ofdensity-01-16-2014/

experimentation, and the fine art aspects of photography, and was a reaction to the Nazi

Additional Photos from Architecture of Density Series

cultural policy of a lack of experimentation and creativity in photography 3.

Architecture of Density

Career

Architecture of Density #119 was his exploration of Hong

Wolf began his career as a photojournalist, and

Kong’s tall buildings. First published in 2005, the series

spent eight years working in Hong Kong.

He

explored these buildings as "abstractions, never-ending

currently resides there. During this first eight year

repetitions of architectural patterns 4. In a recent exhibition

time period,

he created several series of

at the Flowers Gallery in London (2014) 2, one reviewer

photographs exploring aspects of life in Hong Kong.

captured how relevant this series still is : “Wolf investigates

These include “Bastard Chairs/Sitting in China”,

the socio-cultural phenomena of hong kong’s rapid

“The Real Toy Story”, “100 x 100”, “Copy Art/Real

expansion and ever-expanding architectural anatomy, while

Fake Art”, and “Architecture of Density” 2.

also allowing for a unconventional peer into the inhabitants who occupy it.” 5

2

m97 Gallery: Michael Wolf Artist Information

3 Besprechung 4

Fotoform und Toni Shneider

Feustel, Marc. Towards a New Street Photography.Foam Magazine #22, Spring 2010

5 http://www.designboom.com/art/michael-wolf-photographs-the-architecture-of-density-01-16-2014/

Cultural Effects Culturally, this work is modern in tone, and knocks on the door of being conceptual, but can stand on its merits as a beautiful, welldesigned photograph even if the conceptual aspect is ignored.

It is significant in that it

captures a unique view of a major city in a beautiful, painterly fashion.

This piece was extremely interesting to investigate, as it operates on so many levels, and is a direct reflection of the photographers’ experience of living in a particular city.


JR: Portrait of a Generation Formal Qualities

Because JR almost exclusively shoots in black and white, composition and lighting are crucial in his pieces. In the foreground, there is a male holding a video camera in place of a gun,

This super-enlarged photograph was one of a series displayed on public buildings in Paris. The portrait of a generation project by JR features his signature process of taking his images, often of enormous sizes, and plastering them up in the street for all to see. Some images are done as “wraps” and encompass entire buildings. This piece, with the main subject holding a video camera in place of a gun, is part of the project that was shot between 2004 and 2006 in La Forestière, France. This image is in black and white; another signature of JR. Between a rugged, dilapidated background and choice subject matter, a vibrant scene is captured.

with younger children in the background making faces, and

Highlights

Tonal Curve

posing. There is heavy contrast between the shadows and lights/ highlights, as well as a nice tonal curve - which most likely resembles a sigmoid curve due to the disparity between highlights

Focal Point

and shadows. Placing the main

Large-Scale Presentation

subject facing the camera, JR places the viewer directly in front of the group.

Placement

A Portrait of A Generation Photograph, Wall Mural: 2004 - 2006 http://www.jr-art.net/projects/portrait-of-a-generation

A Portrait of A Generation Exhibition Photograph http://www.jr-art.net/projects/portrait-of-a-generation

This photograph at first glance is deceivingly modern and “in your face”, but hearkens back to very traditional, even Renaissance portrait roots. On the surface, the photo is a basic image of a group of young black men and boys “shooting” with a camera. Their dress is casual, and they appear to be randomly arranged. However, the design and placement of people in this portrait is very well planned out, and nothing, even the clothing worn, seems to be left to chance. This is why the title is especially important. Portraits historically were done in very staged, formal settings, and tried to capture and reveal the best aspects of a person. Therefore it is no surprise this photograph uses very traditional design elements to complete a portrait of a generation of the black youth that this gentrified area wish to ignore.


JR: Portrait of a Generation Function and Purpose “After a first illegal exhibition on the walls of the Cité des Bosquets, JR settles in the heart of this neighborhood and the neighboring projects of La Forestière, in Clichy-sous-Bois, where the 2005 riots started in the French suburbs.” http://www.jr-art.net/projects/portrait-of-a-generation

Exhibition of Work

Portrait of a Generation, by JR, was created to challenge “social media representation of this generation”. Commonly, generations or youth are portrayed to a predefined standard that is decided on by the media. By changing sides, JR allows himself to express a generation accurately, through his raw photographic portraits, directly to the people of Paris. His piece plays on these media representations, by including the video camera as a gun, he’s attacking the stigmas and stereotypes of violent, thug-like youth, thus showing the people of Paris that this generation is comprised of normal people, and putting them in front of the gentrified areas where they commonly would not be seen.

Although these photographs only feature this generation in Paris, it speaks to many misconceptions and automatic thinking that we have grown accustomed to across the globe. We find A Portrait of A Generation JR Exhibition Photograph http://www.jr-art.net/projects/portrait-of-a-generation

ourselves with preconceived notions based upon visual appearances, and by breaking down these judgements we allow ourselves to fully immerse ourselves and detach ourselves from our own weaknesses.

JR’s work in general, (and this particular series and piece are a good example), function to confront and challenge society’s perceptions of current events. He uses large photographs to address modern issues such as women’s rights, war and economic injustice. By posting large images in densely populated major cities, JR can challenge mainstream media ideas and communication that many times miscommunicate issues or just don’t tell the whole story. He is also turning the idea of the advertising billboard on it’s head, and instead communicating directly without slick marketing messages.


JR: Portrait of a Generation Cultural Significance

A Portrait of A Generation Exhibition Photograph http://www.jr-art.net/projects/portrait-of-a-generation A Portrait of A Generation Byron, La Forestière, Clichy-Sous-Bois, 2004 http://www.jr-art.net/projects/portrait-of-a-generation

A Portrait of A Generation Omar, Les Bosquets, Montfermeil, 2004 http://www.jr-art.net/projects/ portrait-of-a-generation

A Portrait of A Generation Exhibition Photograph http://www.jr-art.net/projects/portrait-of-a-generation

Other works from JR’s Portrait of a Generation (http://www.jr-art.net/projects/portrait-of-a-generation) JR, born in 1983, is a contemporary photographer, who began his career as a graffiti artist. After he found a camera in the Paris Metro, JR and his friends began to document their graffiti painting. When he was 17, he started pasting photocopies of these photographs to outdoor walls 6. Now, in 2016, JR is internationally known for his large scale, wrapped photographs that appear on buildings and rooftops. Portrait d’une Generation (Portraits of a Generation, (2004-06) are a series of photographic, black and white images of young African immigrants; these were put up in the Paris suburbs in the aftermath of major rioting. In the years after completing Portraits of a Generation, JR has gone on to travel to many parts of the world, particularly to areas of conflict, and his work continues to challenge viewers in these areas regarding their assumptions about each other and these conflicts. What is very interesting, is that during the pasting phase, when he is completing the “wrapping” technique, community members take part in the artistic process, making the audience part of the project, thus truly making his work public art 7. As one critic states: “JR remains anonymous and does not frame his huge portraits, he leaves a space for an encounter between a subject/protagonist and a passerby/interpreter, and this is a major component of his work 8. Although these photographs only feature this generation in Paris, it speaks to many misconceptions and automatic thinking that we have grown accustomed to across the globe. We find ourselves with preconceived notions based upon visual appearances, and by breaking down these judgements we allow ourselves to fully immerse ourselves and detach ourselves from our own weaknesses. This piece was very interesting to investigate, as JR continues to develop as an important public art artist in the truest from of public art by involving the public in the process of creation.

6

2011 TED Prize Wish Speech in March 2011 Art Participatif (Participative Art), Christian Caujolle- “Women Are Heroes” Alternatives, 2009 ISBN 978-2-86227-613-7 8 Interview of the artist broadcast on France 2, lon the 1 pm news, August 6, 2007 7


Banksy: Graffiti #8 Color Scheme Formal Qualities This piece

is a combination of stencil and painting on

canvas. Like many others images of Banksy’s, it borders on cartoon, and it is hard to decide if it works as a piece of art or falls short due to its’ blatant and obvious message. The artwork is a tightly rendered, traditional image of what is assumed to be an overweight, American or western, couple being pulled by a small impoverished child, while taking a “selfie” – a nod to our focus on non-real social media presence rather than the presence we have in the real world. The couple is rendered in technicolor, and the rest of the image is done in black and white. The primary

Blatant Message

colors used to render the couple are red/orange (flushed flesh tones), purple, blue and bright white. The medium is acrylic paint and painted stencil on canvas, size 81 1/4 inches x 120 1/8 inches.

Graffiti #8 stencil and painting on canvas: June 2009 N/A http://nelsonndhs.org/2014_spring_per4/ streetart/assests/picstreetart9.jpg

The overall design of the piece is good, but there is nothing terribly rich about the composition, and the use of light and dark color could be argued to be fairly weak. It is the small grey child at the bottom right corner that really continues to draw a viewer’s attention. This weakens the overall message of the piece, as the American couple in color does not hold the viewer’s attention and can’t balance the rest of the piece.

Captures Attention


Banksy: Graffiti #8 Function and Purpose Stylistically, the image works on many levels, and the rendering of the couple being pulled in the rickshaw is well done, featuring Banksy’s cartoonish style with an Andy Warhol feel to it. The small figure pulling the rickshaw is the most successful part about the painting, as it captures a certain despair and grittiness that is in stark contrast to the rest of the work. This small figure would work perhaps even more powerfully if it were a stand alone work of art,

Nolan Pelletier “Obesity Lessons" New Yorker Article http://www.newyorker.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/08/ Obesity-290.jpg

Daniel Berehulak Photograph http://www.1800politics.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/01/ child-labor-in-america-by-www.whatisusa.info_.jpg

without the rickshaw. The light and dark and stance of this figure is much more powerful and effective

Above are two of ideas and concepts that Banksy is attempting to target in his piece. Child labor and western society, represented by the overweight couple and severe contrast of the two positions.

than anything else in the piece. This emphasizes the Banksy’s conceptual idea of a Western or American world of wealth and over consumption, with disregard to the grey dull impoverished third world. This over simplification of world poverty, along with pigeon holing of poverty with lack of love, family, or any type of joy is the images’ downfall conceptually.


Banksy: Graffiti #8 About Banksy Banksy is a contemporary, anonymous, British based street

Lack of Balance

History

artist, who utilizes graffiti (particularly using large stencils) for social commentary.

Banksy's stencils are generally

provocative, and feature dramatic and humorous images occasionally combined with slogans. The messages are usually anti-war, anti-capitalist or anti-establishment.

Focus

Effects on Culture In 2011, Banksy was part of a group of 50 artists, when the Museum of Contemporary Art, Los Angeles put on its comprehensive survey of street art and graffiti . The show was a sort of demonstration of the phenomenon that has come to be known as the “Banksy effect”—the artist’s success in bringing outsider art into the cultural mainstream 9.

Graffiti #8 This piece is displayed publicly, adding to the significance in a cultural aspect. It is not specifically being viewed in a critical artistic sense, and thus Banksy can get away with his overbearing style to a degree, due to his strong reputation of creating pieces focused on social and political messages.

Graffiti #8 stencil and painting on canvas: June 2009 N/A http://nelsonndhs.org/2014_spring_per4/streetart/assests/picstreetart9.jpg

Cultural Significance

Past Work Banksy has produced numerous pieces of

Banksy began doing street art and Graffiti around

street art in England and abroad since early

Bristol, England in the early 1990s, but he soon

2000, and also began creating works on

turned to stenciling as a faster way to produce art,

paper and canvas during this time period.

and thus both increase production, and avoid

He steadfastly insists that his work is a form

police arrest. He also told his friend, author Tristan

of public art, and dislikes traditional auction

Manco: “As soon as I cut my first stencil I could

house, gallery and museum exhibitions. He

feel the power there. I also like the political edge.

did however, retain an agent in England to

All graffiti is low-level dissent, but stencils have an

represent him. Even as his popularity grew,

extra history. They’ve been used to start

and prices of his pieces rose, he does still

revolutions and to stop wars.”9

offer free, downloadable images of his work from his website to anyone who chooses to

9

http://www.smithsonianmag.com/arts-culture/the-story-behind-banksy-

reproduce them.


Making Comparisons and Connections Banksy

Michael Wolf

JR

GRAFFTI #8

THE ARCHITECTURE OF DENSITY

A PORTRAIT OF A GENERATION

Graffiti #8 stencil and painting on canvas: June 2009 N/A http://nelsonndhs.org/2014_spring_per4/ streetart/assests/picstreetart9.jpg

The Architecture of Density #119 Photograph: January 2014 ed. 9. 101 x 152 cm http://www.newrepublic.com/sites/default/ files/u180951/building_large.jpg

A Portrait of A Generation Photograph, Wall Mural: 2004 - 2006 N/A http://www.jr-art.net/projects/portrait-of-ageneration

Purposes

Similarities All pieces have a social tie to them, and wish to inform or influence the viewer on the artist’s choice of social messages. However, Banksy’s and JR’s pieces are displayed physically in a public setting and share the illegal aspect, where’s Wolf’s photograph was not displayed in this setting. This could be considered a drawback of the power of the piece, as inspiring social change is easier to accomplish by reaching viewers that would otherwise be unreachable. Although this could be attributed to JR and Banksy’s particular style and their more overbearing messages that are portrayed within their pieces, where Wolf’s piece lies with traditional roots and qualities. All of the pieces are modern in production, and culturally international. They are all meant to provoke the viewer on some level, but JR and Banksy’s works specific purpose is provocation. Wolf’s is more personally interpretive in nature, and he reminds the viewer that this is his personal view of part of Hong Kong; he doesn’t ask the viewer to either agree or disagree with him, but just to experience this view.


JR Exhibition Style

A Portrait of A Generation JR Exhibition Photograph https:// markdamianphoto.files.wordpress.c om/2013/10/jr14947-2007cl03.jpg

Making Comparisons and Connections Formal Qualities Architecture of Density #119 is a photograph that becomes a painterly abstraction; the heavy use of vertical lines and complementary colors are used to create a dynamic, abstract composition. The piece is very large in scale, yet meant to be viewed in a traditional, gallery or museum setting.

Banksy Exhibition Style Graffiti

#88 is an illustration/painting and stencil with cartoon like quality, as it is also large in scale like Architecture of Density #119, it can be viewed in a traditional, gallery or museum setting. The provocative subject matter is meant to point out social injustices. However, it has a weak composition, and is thus mainly conceptual in nature.

Public Exhibition Graffiti #8 Banksy Exhibition Photograph http:// thumbs.media.smithsonianmag.com//filer/ Art-Attack-sewingmachine-11.jpg__600x0_q85_upscale.jpg

Portrait of a Generation is a large scale, photograph, public art that is mounted on building or wrapped on building facade. It works conceptually but also has thoughtful, beautiful composition being black and white with strong diagonal composition of positive and negative spaces.

Cultural Significance All three artists are not shy about confronting what they feel are modern problems using large scale artistic techniques. They are all modern artists, and although Banksy would appear to be the most conceptual, it is surprisingly W o l f a n d J R ’s p i e c e s t h a t w o r k conceptually on many different levels. Wolf’s piece works as it reflects how one person (Wolf) views the huge verticality of Hong Kong’s modern buildings, and additionally how this affects the people living in them. At the same time it becomes a beautiful abstraction when being viewed in different aspects, and Wolf takes what many might view as an eyesore and turns it into this thing of beauty. The cultural significance of overpopulation and scant resources is also clearly addressed by Wolf. JR’s piece shows how a traditionally composed, black and white photograph, when blown up, and put in the right place at the right time, can become powerful public art. When JR adds the element of inviting the public to help mount his photos and become part of the process, he takes it a step further into the truly modern public art concept.

Functions and Purposes Banksy, Wolf, and JR are all contemporary artists, and although they have some similarities, their sensibilities are very different. Banksy is very in your face, and likes to provoke and confront his audience, and has very little sympathy for modern society and thus by default his audience. Wolf is intensely personal, and rather than provoke, he simply attempts to communicate his very personal observations and views to the audience, without antagonizing them. JR goes a step further, and reaches out to his audience by inviting them to participate actively in his creative process, and actually bring about change t h ro u g h i d e a s h e h a s c a p t u re d i n h i s photographs, but also inspiring and empowering his audience to do the same. All three artists do have the purpose of pointing out facets of modern life that they feel their audiences have overlooked, but they go about it in very different ways. Wolf very elegantly uses a traditional, large scale photography technique; Banksy uses traditional stenciling with a twist, and creates what are meant to be temporary images, but they have become “permanent” through reproduction, and JR takes thoughtfully composed black and white photographs and makes them a public art movement, entrapping entire communities and bringing many different individuals together.

Both JR and Wolf’s pieces have elements of traditional design and artistic roots, giving the pieces multiple perspectives that the viewer can see them from. Additionally, these traditional design elements help the viewers eye to travel around the image successfully, and thus keeping them interested. Banksy’s piece fails to have multiple concepts easily within the piece due to it’s overbearing message, which is the pieces downfall. Additionally, the style of exhibition, as previously mentioned, in which the pieces are displayed differs amongst the three. Banksy has the most permanent style, as his stencils have now became iconic and are visible long after they are completed. JR also displays his pieces publicly, but in a less permanent manner. If they are not taken down by business owners, police, or other general public they are deteriorated by rain and the elements. Lastly, Wolf has no method of public exhibition.


Connections to my Own Work

Photograph Taken by Me

Photograph Taken by Me The Architecture of Density #119 Photograph: January 2014 ed. 9. 101 x 152 cm http://www.newrepublic.com/sites/default/files/ u180951/building_large.jpg

As you can see, cities are a common reoccurrence in my photography works. I recently did a photo series on wealth inequality while I was in London (the two black and white photos taken when exploring perspective for that series), and drew inspiration from Michael Wolf and his series Architecture of Density. I’ve forced myself to expand my work to pay attention to pattern as well as shape. Frequently in photography I find myself focusing on composition and shape, but fail to properly address pattern, texture, and the surface of my pieces. I find subject matter the most important, but when photographing it artistically sometimes fail to broaden my horizon and use other artistic techniques within my work. Stylistically, taking composition references from Wolf and how he is able to incorporate a huge variety of techniques into his photographs has helped me a lot. Conceptually, I have also expanded as a photographer. Instead of just focusing on subjects or moments, I have progressed through finding a scene in which I can express my ideas or opinions throughout my work.

Photograph Taken by Me


Connections to my Own Work

Graffiti #8 stencil and painting on canvas: June 2009 N/A http://nelsonndhs.org/2014_spring_per4/streetart/assests/picstreetart9.jpg

Mixed Media Piece Created by Me

In addition to the photographic style and elements I have studied by Michael Wolf, ideas of wealth inequality and oppression have been very important to me as well. Banksy is without a doubt, one of the most expressive and vivid artists giving social commentary on not only a wide variety of social issues, but wealth inequality and oppression. Creating an atmosphere in which one can portray a suppressed class and demonstrate the problems we are facing in society can result in a wide array of changes, and nothing does this more powerful than art. My piece above is a mixed media piece I created, appropriated from Le Bain by Monet, in which the suppressed subjects are portrayed sitting on the ground sick with the wealthy allure of capitalism in the background. Modeled after Banksy’s striking subject matter, I attempted to portray this scene of my own. !


Connections to my Own Work

Photograph Taken by Me

A Portrait of A Generation Photograph, Wall Mural: 2004 - 2006 N/A http://www.jr-art.net/projects/portrait-of-a-generation

Photograph Taken by Me

Although portrait work has been a subject that I have only dabbled in, my work through portraits has definitely been influenced through JR. Black and white aesthetics are a signature of JR and many other artists, such as David Bailey. The weight they give to the human subjects cause the viewer to focus on the subject rather than the less important details of color. Although portrait photography styles vary, those that are exceedingly striking to me are those that focus on the subject matter and composition as the artistic viewpoint rather than the quality or photographic style. Setting up perfect composition and meaning in portraits is something I find difficult, but the attention to detail that JR has in his portraits is incredibly inspiring. After studying his works and, not only his style of presentation, but his documentary-style social commentary has allowed me to see the extraordinary messages and stories that an artist is able to create through their portraits, empowering not only the subjects themselves but the artist through their work.


TIANA


1

Masked, Mixed media drawing, 82cm x 90 cm, Feb. 2015


Masked !Detail 1"


1

New Age, Lino print, 81cm x 81cm, May 2015


1

Gold Harmony in Chaos, Spray paint on paper, 71 cm x 56 cm Jun. 2015


1

Silver Harmony in Chaos, Spray paint on paper, 71 cm x 56 cm Jun. 2015


1

Change of Season, Acrylic and pen on leaves, 50 cm x 36 cm, Nov. 2015


1

Concept of Identity, Digital illustration, 86 cm x 104 cm, Dec. 2015


Firecracker, GIF animation, 7.24 Seconds, Jan. 2016


1

Weeds, Digital illustration, 85 cm x 75 cm, Feb. 2016


PROCESS PORTFOLIO

Masked Communication of ideas and intentions

This idea is much better. The idea is about making fun of the stigma around insects. I believe insects can be very beautiful, so if I make the insects beautiful, the audience that does not like insects might be torn between liking the artwork and disliking it. I can make the background also depict different scenarios that an insect might not be found in. Another question is what insect should I depict? Ants are too common, bees are often cute, butterflies are beautiful. I think I will use a cockroach because it might be the insect with the strongest stigma of discussed around it. The background, on the other hand, should have a variety of scenarios. I don’t think they should be very specific, as to not add too much unnecessary distractions. The background will be: - hand prints - newspaper - stars - stipes - floral - industrial I think these background are simple and not very exceptional, which is exactly what I am trying to show: commonality.

Inspired by Damian Hirst’s artwork, I am Become Death, Shatterer of Worlds, in the next artwork I would like to make will be a contrast of stigma and perception. I have been in the forests of Costa Rica for the last couple months, and I have noticed something that I find absolutely ridiculous, and that is that some city kids are terrified and disgusted by small insects. I find that very silly, especially with the awareness of the world and environments that we have learned in class I would expect people to be more used to them at least. but non the less, I want to make fun of this ridiculous stigma, because I don’t understand it and feel that insects deserve better as they are an important part of the ecosystem. I also want to make an artwork about insects because I am very against pesticides, which are not only harmful for the farmer and the consumer, but also for the ecosystem. The way I see it at this point I can take a few different approaches, the first being one related to life, in order to present insects as an essential asset to life. The first idea I have is to connect insects to a feature of life and death. I think it can be possible with the connection to a heart monitor and a flatline.

Sketches from my notebook

Here is another attempt but still q u i t e unsuccessful as it can be interpreted the same way as the previous sketch. Maybe I should go back to the idea of making fun of the stigma around insects.

In this first drawing, I tried to put the shape of an insect into the flatline in order to convey that insects are essential to life, but I think the effect is the opposite, death can be seen as an insect in a certain way. Or in another the only sign of life is an insect on the flatline. Either way this idea is not very direct and leaves too much room for unguided interpretation.

Sketches from my notebook

In terms of exhibition, I think all of the pieces should be put together in order to be a little overwhelming the simple variety. the intended effect is to cover different bases of life with cockroaches. Having all the insects face different ways, may create a sense of movement, but on the over hand if they all face the same way, it might become more uniform, and noticeably planned rather than natural. The effect is a sense of intention in Sketches from my notebook Sketches from my notebook the piece, as if the insects themselves have plans. While looking at picture of cockroaches I encountered this photo of a cockroach with the wings extended, I like it because at first I didn’t think it was a cockroach, but then I realized and was surprised. I believe it can be kind of deceiving, Image from http://listverse.com/ 2009/03/30/10-fascinating-talking-pointswhich I can use to my advantage to about-cockroaches/ create a camouflage effect.

Sketches from my notebook

Sketches from my notebook

Page 1

I think this piece will be named Masked, in reference to the fact that insects are important but not very many people are concerned as to why.

Masked is inspired by the way Damien Hirst combines death and beauty in an unexpected way. I will take a different turn on this type of combination and combined cockroaches and common patterns because people do not expect, and hope there to be any insects anywhere. At first, it is not noticeable that the insects are cockroaches and their stigma of disgust, but then there is a realization, just as in Hirst's work; it is not noticeable at first that it is about death but then there is a realization. Another main difference is that I am slightly making fun of the stigma while Hirst is creating intrigue. In terms of medium, I will use paper, acrylics, news paper and pen. I will make the same pattern on two different pieces of paper, and on one I will draw a flying cockroach, which I will then cut out and glued on the other paper. In such a way, the patterns are still the same but they no longer match up, creating a scene that although they belong to the same place, they are separate entities. This in turn, creates a feeling that the cockroach, and the feeling of disgust that comes with it, belongs there. The artworks are all put together to express the variety of aspects the theme of this piece relates to. Although all the individual components are small, the cxiemergent size is large, which is intended to confound the viewer with the combined variety.


Masked

Skills

Page 2

Sketches from my notebook

In the second medium tried out, wait paint and charcoal on brown paper, although it creates a wonderful contrast in light and dark, the medium is difficult to control and may conflict with the artwork in terms of coloring and background.

In this project, I had to learn how to draw, with proper technique . Here is evidence of pen techniques, where i did some gradients, hatching and cross hatching, and contouring. Pen technique is useful in creating strong and dark figure, especially in comparison to pencil drawing.

Sketches from my notebook

Techniques The foreground with the background are essential to the artwork. By using pen drawings, I am able to separate the color difference and association between the foreground and the background. The pen is black, which is a basic neutral color that can represent very many things, the background on the other hand, are colorful and may transmit a variety of emotions. The patterns of the background are also not complex enough to mean one thing for everyone, therefore, they are up to the interpretation of the audience as hoped. Sketches from my notebook The foreground with the background are essential to the artwork. By using pen drawings, I am able to separate the color difference and association between the foreground and the background. The pen is black, which is a basic neutral color that can represent very many things, the background on the other hand, are colorful and may transmit a variety of emotions. The patterns of the background are also not complex enough to mean one thing for everyone, therefore, they are up to the interpretation of the audience as hoped.

Sketches from my notebook

In the final techniques, there is the mixed media, which includes white pain on black paper, charcoal and white pain on brown paper, and finally coloring pencils on white paper. white paint on black paper was the most difficult to manipulate of them all, and when the paint was to concentrated the image was too strong, as seen in the veins of the wings, The coloring pencils were easy to manipulate but, after consideration color is not something I want to use in my artwork. Charcoal and white paint is difficult to manage.


Page 3

Carlos Gildemar Pontes photography

New Age

Sketches from my digital notebook


New Age

Sketches from my digital notebook

Page 4


New Age

Sketches from my digital notebook

Page 5


religious patterns, or simply patterns associated with religion through the temple they are on, I might as well use these resources while I am here. I went down to the temple of Agora, Athens and did some scrapings onto tracing paper using charcoal. This brings in the ‘old’ factor that the new age face is contrasting, in other words it adds the word to religion, exactly what I am trying to say in the artwork, that religion is outdated for this times and places. It adds to the contrast. Selected rubbings The final background is a compilation of four different patterns, one islamic, two christian and two religious rubbings from the temple of Agora. Originally it was upside-down but logic and reasoning told me it would be better if I flipped it and there was space to put the face/ portrait of the protagonist.

The image was placed in photoshop to turn it T h r e s h h o l d w i t h o u t black and white with the thresh hold mask. burning and dodging The image did not become as defined as I hoped so I undid it to highlight the main features.

burning and dodging

Other rubbings

Brayer, photo by me

Baren Photo by me

The burn and dodge tools come from when adding more light (burn) made the photo develop more and become darker while the opposite can be said for removing light (dodge). I then compiled four different patterns, one islamic, two christian and two religious scrapings from the temple of Agora. Originally it was upsidedown but logic and reasoning told me it would be better if I flipped it and there was space to put the face/portrait of the protagonist.

History Known to have started in Chinese art, fine art printing later became established during the German Renaissance. Later developed into different techniques from 1700-now.

I first selected a base image, which I inserted into photoshop and thresholds it to get the outlines

chr i

sti

an

Then I did a little experimentation with different combinations with the gay rights flag and think I will continue with my original idea of having the skin different colors and the features black.

Carving Process 1. I printed the background out. 2. I c o v e r e d o n e s i d e o f t h e background with charcoal 3. passed it on to the linoleum sheet

Gouge, photo from http:// linocutboy.com/linocut-tools-setavailable-from-etsy/

Tools Brayer: rolling tool that is used to spread ink everywhere. Baren: round smooth pad used to press paper on wood or linoleum. Gauge: tool used to carve on wood or linoleum

Process

Photo I have taken

mic

There are three different main types of printmaking: Relief: usually uses wood and linoleum. This technique involves carving out the background, or what is not going to be printed, then ink is applied to the raised surfaces and a paper is pressed on to the carving. Intaglio: used for engraving, etching, mezzotint, aquatint, chine-collé and drypoint. In this process a metal plate is engraved with a tool called a ‘burin’ or is coated with an acid resistant waxy substance called ‘ground’ and applied with a metal needle. Using one of the two methods a design is drawn on the metal plate which is then soaked in acid which eats into the areas exposed by the drawing to produce an image. Planographic: This process involves one surface that is then treated in certain areas to retain ink that is later applied. The treatment can be with lithography, which involves a greasy crayon.

Thresh hold

Isla

Skills - PRINTMAKING

With the dodge and burn tools, the main features of the carvings where highlighted.

New Age

Page 6

rubbings

Skills and Techniques Since in Greece there are a lot of ruins depicting

Field work- photo taken by me

The carving part took a long time, but it is a meditative process. I tried to carve deeply in order to have finer lines and more defined shapes, but more than once I carved through the lino, but it didn’t seem to effect the printing. While carving the protagonist/face, I did the same, I tried to carve out defined lines and such but then realized a face is not exactly defined as defined edges, rather it has more natural transitions. I later fixed it by adding some fields of depth in the hair especially.

Photo of pasting the charcoal on to the linoleum sheet carving process photos

Photo of carving process

The all are visually pleasing but the last one is the most state forward, because features can be manipulated more easily than skin: hair can be dyed, lips can be painted, eyebrows can be plucked, but skin can be covered only up to a certain extent. It also covers our whole body, giving a more wholesome feeling.


techniques and processes

Experimentation- techniques Photo I have taken

I first tried to make a couple of silhouettes with red for practice. At first I was not pressing hard enough with the baren the paint for the paint to properly stick to the paper.

I really liked the effect of the mixed paint, which went very well with the intentions I had in mid for all of the

Here I am making grey for the background

Photos I have taken

Here I made yellow for a failed experiment as the paint was too light colored and blended in with the white paper so I decided to mix some of it with red

This is when I started trying to mix colors in order to make a flag. The flag did not turn out as I hopes, as seen with the mixed edges, but that opened up another door into the the possibility of color representing feelings, in contrast with the background that is either grey or black, the bright color of the skins would be much more vivid, saying that religions of the past are not as human as the people living now. I tried to make different fields of depth and add more color to the background as seen in this picture where there are traces of red. The background was more difficult to do as there was a more complicated details, and I was always afraid to miss something with the baren.

Photo I have taken I started to make many more with colors, one of the ones I am the most proud of is one which I put the three primary colors and mixed them into a rainbow, which not only goes with my intention of representing possible homosexuality but also that the person is colorful and complex. In turn, this is a technique I will use for the final works

On the left is a badly printed background as it is faded. On the right is a well printed background as the shapes are defined

New Age I chose these Four to be in the compilation I am naming New Age. By naming this series New Age, I think I am giving a hint to what the artwork is about. In other words, I am giving the audience the factor of time, and ages, when looking at the artwork. Final work - New Age

New Age

Page 7

I then started to experiment with different papers and background colors. I tied a yellow background with a blue subject to create a contrast, The problem was the yellow was too light and was not very noticeable. I also tried to make some on gold. It turned out to look really good, but it changed the meaning drastically to emphasis well on the religious sector I was not Photo I have taken trying to praise, as the background was gold.


Critical investigation My last artwork, New Age, took a very drastic and violent take on harmony. In this new artwork I want to take more peaceful take on the artworks while including chaos. I realize that the 6 months I spend studying in Japan have influenced me to pick the theme of harmony and chaos more that I thought. In Japan I learned about Buddhism and Shintoism, where the saying “born shinto die buddhist,” reflects the philosophy of growth and development Japanese culture has. In shinto religion, there are spirits, or Kami in Japanese, for every object and living being. People build small and large shrines to these kami in order to pray for them and give offerings. In turn, the kami like the attention and offerings and bring good luck, health, wealth and other success. Shintoism, although it is classified as a religion, it is treated more like culture and rituals, and integrated into the customs of everyday Japanese life. This allows shintoism to be able to coexist with buddhism which is differently, considered a religion. New Age, by me This leads to the saying “born shinto, die buddhist,” while shintoism is something that one are born into, just as culture is something one While I was looking at photos I took in is born into, while on the other hand, buddhism is something that Japan for inspiration and ideas, I you learn and develop. came across this photo of two koi Now that the context is set in terms of shintoism and buddhism, I fish. They made me thing of balance can explain how this affected the development of my theme, and and yin yangs. Therefore, I decided specifically the inspiration for this artwork. Shintoism and buddhism, to look into the symbolism of koi fish although they are both religions, have a coexisting relationship like and the meaning of yin yangs. no other religion. The two religions actually contradict each other, in Koi fish: Koi fish can draw many terms of Shintoism believing in god like spirits, Kami, that are parallels to Samurai, or at least said prayed to in order to bring the people success, while buddhism to in Japanese culture. It is said that refers to training one self in order to develop success. In other Koi fish clim waterfalls and go against words, shintoism relays on an outside force while buddhism relays the current of a river with bravery, just on an inside force. The two religions contradict each other yet they like the ways of the samurai. I found coexist in harmony and chaos at the same time. this part interesting because I believed that Koi fish where more mellow representations. It is also said that Koi fish, when caught for food, lay completely still under the knife awaiting death, as honorable as a samurai. This part I found less surprising because I had an idea that the Koi fish where not too energetic, following with my belief that they are mellow. Although this information goes against my initial beliefs and reasons for representation in my next ar twork, I actually prefer this information. I like these symbolisms of Koi because I believe I can utilize the confidence through bravery and calmness through honor of the koi fish for my next artwork. Since this artwork is going to be related to chaos, I don’t want there to be any panic in it, rather I want the chaos to be welcomed and accepted, which I believe can come through by the confidence, bravery, honor and calmness. Picture taken by myself in the streets of Hiroshima Bbc.co.uk,. "BBC - Religion: Shinto". N.p., 2016. Web.

Harmony in Chaos duo

Page 8

Yin Yang: The yin corresponds to the black section while the yang corresponds to the white section. These two complementary forces make up all aspects of life and the universe, as they are complete opposites and yet the dots in every section mean they are not absolute. I will try and transfer the meaning of nothing absolute into my artwork. The yin represents earth, darkness, femininity, passivity and absorption, On the other hand, the yang represents the heaven, light, maleness, activity and penetration. I like the philosophy of having a pushing and pulling forces, and that is what creates harmony and dependance. The following of the fish creates the same sense as the pushing and pulling forces, in turn harmony and dependance. This aspect I want to be able to include strongly into my artwork, representing the relationship between harmony and chaos. Image of Yin & Yan taken from http:// www.vectorportal.com/Symbols/Religious/YIN-YANGCane Dojcilovic is a Serbian artist who now works in New York. Cane Dojcilovic His artwork, Memories Can’t Wait #2, depicts the profile of a woman who is shattered and fragmented connected and loosened by lines, or thread, or veins even, as if her skin is threading apart. This creates a very complex and chaotic feeling for the viewer. Her spine is showing because all the skin an muscle on her neck look like they have turned into lines, which support the look veins being everywhere, adding a gruesome feeling to the work. One can also see the skin on her forehead cracking, or fragmenting off, and what look like tendons, muscle or hair seem to be coming from below. One would usually feel the work is very gruesome after a description of the body parts, but that is not the case; it is beautiful, clean and chaotic. This may be because it is black and white, and that adds an element of calmness. Her facial expression is calm, almost asleep, in a trans. I admire the way Dojcilovic uses the calm facial expression within the complex, and almost gruesome work. I admire that the calmness seems to have the upper hand on the final atmosphere of the picture, giving it the feeling that this is meant to happen. I want to be able to achieve this in my artwork, the feeling that the combination is meant to be, that within the Dojcilovic, Cane. 2002. Memories Can't Wait #2. Oil on canvas. absolute chaos there is harmony, because that is the way it http://www.saatchiart.com/art/Painting-Memories-Can-tWait-2/28908/1138307/view works. This work is a reflection on war, which I will not be addressing in my next artwork.

Takashi Murakami

Takashi Murakami’s artwork, Flower Mantango, is a commentary on the contrast between Japanese pop culture and western influences. Murakami follows the genre of super flat, which he himself created in a combination of different aspects of Japanese culture. Murakami depicts the Japanese pop culture the center with the brightly colored ball of smiling flower and vines coming out of the top with no apparent order. He placed this installation in a sophisticated looking room of browns and golds with Renaissance paintings on the walls and roof. The contradiction and complete opposites of these two different elements demonstrates a list between the two cultures. Although they are both extremely chaotic, these are representations of norms or history of different cultures, where one might not understand the other. What I admire about this artwork that I will take into consideration for my next artwork, is the extremes to which Murakami is able to demonstrate the differences between the two elements represented. I also admire the genre he created, super flat, because it is a chaotic genre that is characterized for anime style colorful and chaotic figures. I am inspired by this genre to create something colorful and complex to represent the chaos of my artwork. Flower Mantango taken fromhttp://www.wikiart.org/en/takashi-murakami/flower-matango-2006

http://www.everything-ponds.com/koi-symbolism.html Encyclopedia Britannica, 2014. "Yinyang | Eastern Philosophy". http://www.britannica.com/topic/yinyang.


Communication of ideas and intentions The intentions of this artwork are to combine harmony and chaos, as well as represent that there is never an absolute. The means are though koi fish, as it is also a reflection on my time in Japan. Another inspiration is the Yin Yang. The main components are the complex background and the soothing foreground. After doing linoleum printing for my latest piece, New Age, I was inspired to try the medium of stencils and spray paint as it is more manipulable than linoleum prints due to the facility of being able to do them over and over again in a short amount of time.

Background The background has to be complex in order to express the chaos component of the piece. For this to be able to be possible, I believe the bet approach would be a similar one that Takashi Murakami used for his artwork 727. He created a background that looked old and deep at the same time through many layers of paint that then were rubbed off. I believe I should take him as an guide to creating a deep and complex background. Bright colors should be used to make the background as there should be a sense of chaos. The patterns and forms in the background should not be cohesive in order to further emphasis the feeling of chaos.

Foreground

Picture taken by myself in the streets of Hiroshima

Harmony in Chaos duo I have this image of the koi fish I took in Japan (on the left) and this is what really inspired me to work with Koi fish. My first compositional idea (to the right) has a complex background, which would be dark, and the fish in the foreground would be a lighter color than the background in order to create a contrast. since the fish would be moving to the right and the background will also have a movement to the right as the shapes would have a movement. There would also be a color gradient moving to the right side. The color gradient and sense of movement combined would create a balance as seen in the drawing. The problem about this is that the balance would be on the whole work rather than the individual piece of the fish in order to express the components of harmony and chaos as separate.

Page 9

Sketches from my notebook

Looking back at the picture of the two koi fish on the sidewalk in Japan, there is indeed a sense of balance and movement at the same time since they are moving different ways they balance each other out. Maybe in the end I can use the shape of the fish from the photograph. To contrast this perfect sense of balance and movement I would have to create a background that does not have movement, rather is like water, it does not have a sense of direction, rather simply acts on the force of gravity. The color gradient would not have to be included in the next background for this to be created. This work is going to be an appropriation as I will be using the tile from the streets of Hiroshima as my base. The finished drawing on the left is an ideal piece as it fulfills all the components I set before in the background and foreground. There would be multiple layers of bright colors that are set in forms with no cohesive pattern to follow, creating a sense of chaos. The foreground would be a different color from the background and there would be a sense of harmony within the movement and balance of the fish. The color could be gold for the fish, which will be experimented before decided on. After finding the set format for the artwork, I decided to take it one step further and create a link, or connection, between the harmony and chaos, similar to the concept of nothing is absolute of the yin and yang. I will be integrating that aspect into my piece through the use of chaos in the foreground and harmony in the background. The chaos in the foreground will be created through the use of forms and shapes on the fish themselves, to slights match with the background, therefore, making the connection of the theme of the background to the foreground. The harmony in the background will be created thought a set color theme. The problem now is what color should the set color theme be. There are a couple of separations I can make:

In the requirements for the foreground I would have to say a sense of movement and balance to show harmony. The colors should be solid, may be with the exception of the features of the fish so the fish is a fish and not a blob that seems to be in the form of a fish. The colors have to contrast the background so it is noticeable that they are different entities. Maybe the fish in the foreground should be a noble color, such as a metallic color, or sparkles. But on the other hand color should be solid and not too complex in order to contrast the background more. The idea of the color of the fish as being a noble color is a good idea, it would make the artwork look good. But the problem with that would be that it could be saying that the harmony fish component is better than the complex chaos background, it is higher up and wealthier. But non the less, it would create a very good contrast with the background if the colors of the background are completely different from the ones in the foreground. Making the fish a metallic color might also be complementing life itself, saying life is wealthy, as there would be no components of living beings in the background. In the end, this will be put into serious consideration once the other components of the artwork are established. The exhibition of this piece would be straight forward, and since I will be doing two (see bottom right), I have to figure out the best way to arrange the two. I believe that one on top of the other might suggest that one is better than the other. The best outcome I believe would right next to each other, so that it can be seen that they are from the same concept, but taken from different approaches.

Sketches from my notebook

Primary colors

Secondary colors

Warm colors

Cool colors

I believe if I separate them into warm colors and cool colors rather than primary and secondary the harmony would work better as these colors radiate the same feeling. This separation can lead to the creation of not one but two pieces as I feel there should be a balance between the cool and warm colors, I can’t just choose one. The foreground will indeed be a noble metallic color, for the cool it would be gold and for the warm it will be silver as gold is warmer than silver, which, one again, creates a balance.


Skills, techniques and processes I decided I wanted to try out spray paint and stencils because it is a very manipulable medium to work with. I got three different pieces of thick paper, one for the basic fish outline, another for the outline of designs I am going to put on the fish to express that not everything is absolute. The first thing I did was to Put my base image into photoshop, and threshold the image to get the basic shapes of the fish to be outlines. I next projected it and draw a basic outline. I then grabbed a stiletto knife and cut out the lines I had drawn.

Base image Outline stencil

Picture taken by myself in the streets of Hiroshima

I then spray painted the first stencil onto the second piece of paper in order to make the designs on the the fish. Then I used a stiletto knife to cut out the edges.

spray painted base

Example of the drawings, markings made on the fish I then did some experimentation on scrap pieces of paper, I aligned the fish outline and the markings. It is essential that they are different stencils so I can make the markings different colors. I noticed I had to be careful about the spray paint splashing out of bounds, in order for it to do exactly what I want it to do.

After making the two first stencils, I decided I needed to have a stencil that was just the fish outline with nothing on the inside, in order to have a base color for the fish If I was going to make a background and I want to have the fish be a separate Identity, so that is what I did. I also ended up with a cut out of a fish, which I experimented with as well. This technique I did’t like as much because it gave the illusion that the fish was glowing. Glowing can indicate that it illuminates the way, or that it is something special in comparison to the rest of the picture. The later is the reason why I decided against using the cutouts.

Harmony in Chaos duo Page 10 I then experimented using the filling for the fish, as well as the outline on top of a background using s t e n c i l s o f fl o r a l designs from a generic pack of stencils from the art store. I really liked the floral designs but when I placed the stencils on the paper and spayed them, the paint would be on the borders of the stencil as well, which gives everything a boxy feeling. To combat this, I put scrap paper around the stencil so the paint would go in it instead of the background. I then applied the s a m e b a c k g ro u n d with better technique on the background of my work. The colors I used where blue and two greens, a light and a dark. I filled the fish with gold and then the outline with black and the markings with silver.

Gold Harmony in Chaos

I then followed the same process with the next fish, which is named Silver Harmony and Chaos, as the color scheme of the fish and background are swapped.

Silver Harmony in Chaos


Change of Season

Communication of ideas and intentions

Idea #1

Page 11

Outline made at http:// permadi.com/java/ spaint/spaint.html

This artwork is intended to connect inspiration of Guernica by Pablo Picasso to my own work, with the theme of Harmony and Chaos.

Symmetrical shapes are very pleasant to the eye, and tend to represent unity, harmony and beauty. I want to combine a symmetrical image with the one of a historical event of importance in order to show how in it has unified the community, giving it a new light, in a sense trying to look at the event as a fork in the road that has lead to the place we are now. A day and age where peace is highly valued and strived for. In a sense this can be seen as a anti war artwork because it is trying to promote peace for the future by trying to find the results of peace from past events. Image source: http://www.todayifoundout.com/index.php/ 2013/11/nuclear-bombs-createmushroom-cloud/

Idea #2 - it’s fall right now and there are leaves everywhere Taking inspiration from the last idea, I could connect the idea of giving the crisis another view point, or statement through a visual. Unlike the other idea, I would like to make something for the future not about the past. This would mean I would change the crisis I use will have to change from past event to present events and maybe even suggest a solution. I realize that if a view point is changed from one conflict to another the blame can change. I would like to express the fact everything can be over come, even more when it involves violence or danger toward other people. The problem is there is no one solution to every problem. Through this artwork I would prefer to share my opinion to finally overcome everything. I am completely aware that it is not that easy to find a solution, but non the less I believe it should be strived for in a non violent manner. In total this will be an anti-war pacifist artwork

I am considering using symbols for events that have changed the course of the world or large bodies or people. After WWII everyone said NEVER AGAIN will there be a war like that one. Yet there are still a large amount of conflicts going around the world.

Screenshot from www.cfr.org/global/global-conflict-tracker/p32137#!/?marker=

This is a very nice map of conflicts that are going on around the world. I was very surprised by the quantity.

In this idea I will be painting different conflicts/crisis around the world on a leaf. Leaves that have fallen everywhere during Autumn are symbols of passing. The season are irreversible and repetitive, but non the less the trees let go of their leaves and move on into the next season, indicating the future. By combining the symbolism of leaves and the conflict depicted on each leaf I will be combining the idea of passing, impermanence and letting go to the concept of the situation. Through this I would be making the primary message to let conflict pass, or rather to move on, to progress and not let the events drag on.

Sketches from my digital notebook

Another event that h a s i n fl u e n c e d a large body of people is the 9/11 twin towers plane crash. This event triggered the “War on Terror” by part of the USA. Many people say this war is an excuse to have a right to go and attack, with the potential of gaining economic power through exploitation.

I believe the message will be more direct and clearer if it cannot be confused with a conspiracy theory

Sketches from my digital notebook


Communication of ideas and intentions Sketches from my notebook

Change of Season

Page 12

The ways I want to display it also determines what I will do with the leaves. Piled up can be able convey the fact there are so many conflicts. but I don’t want there to be a pile of leaves as my exhibit because it can look grungy.

One design created by multiple leaves can become very complicated and the message can be lost through trying to seen the image, Sketches from my notebook

Each leaf having their own design is the best choice while then I can address multiple conflicts at the same time. Could also look very sleek when laying on a table on canvas, intentional even.

Sketches from my notebook

Palestine-Israeli


Page 13

Change of Season

Critical investigation

Background research: Conflicts around the world

Narc wars in Mexico Mexico experiences hight levels of violence due to illegal drug trafficking. Since 2006, an estimated 60 thousand Mexicans have been killed in order to be able to traffic 90% of the cocaine that enters the U.S. By replacing the crest of the flag with a symbol for drugs I am saying that the country is run by drugs rather than the government.

Iranian nuclear crisis “Renewed threat of Israeli military strikes against Iran as a result of a breakdown in nuclear negotiations and/or clear evidence of intent to develop a nuclear weapons capability” By replacing the crest by a nuclear symbol I am changing the value system of the country from the crest and national pride to shift view to the unclear crisis

Meyer is an inspiration to me because of her choice of medium being leaves

Unnamed at http://design-milk.com/ painted-leaves-by-gabee-meyer/

The medium of leaves is very unique, which strikes the viewer as a more interesting work, as it is not very common to see painted leaves. The warm browns and reds create a warm feeling, She does not name her artworks Unnamed at http://design-milk.com/ painted-leaves-by-gabee-meyer/

Increased violence in Afghanistan

I chose to look at Meyer and Wirazka for the medium they use. I chose to look at Robert and Picasso for the theme they use.

Joanna Wirazka

This conflict has been going on for about 100 years. It is an issue of what territory belongs to which religious group. The conflict includes widespread protests, armed confrontations, bombings and death. By including this I want to say that the 100 year old conflict should finally be let go.

Gabee Meyer

Palestine-Israel conflict

Meyer uses leaves in order to paint contemporary-indie patterns on them. She is graphic designer from Brazil.

Wirazka uses leaves as canvases for landscape and celestial works. She achieves this through the use of acrylics and colored pencils.I will be using acrylics with my artwork as well. Meyer, Wirazka does not name her artworks.

Wirazka has commented on the difficulty of precision due to the roughness of the leaves. I will try and combat the roughness of the leaves through flattening them in books. She is an inspiration to me through the technic she uses as well as the beauty of the artworks she creates.

The withdrawal of coalition combat forces resulted in the Taliban strengthening and violent instability emerging in Afghanistan.

Violence in eastern Ukraine

Image from http://www.ba-bamail.com/ http://www.boredpanda.com/autumn-leavescontent.aspx?emailid=17624 paintings-joanna-wirazka/ Guernica by Pablo Picasso http://www.pablopicasso.org/guernica.jsp

North Korean nuclear crisis Civil war in Syria Fighting between the government and rebel forces have internally displaced 7.6 and externally 4.1 million Syrians who seek asylum from them bombs of the fighting.

Civil war and Sectarian violence in Iraq The violence arrises from clashes between the Iraqi security forces, the Islamic State and shim-sunni conflicts.

South China Sea Armed confrontation Armed conflicts between China and other south-east Asia arise from territorial disputes maritime areas.

Sectarian Violence in Lebanon Increase political instability and violence has spilled over from the conflict in Syria.

Intensification of Violence in Nigeria Due to the general elections and Boko Haram, leader of an islamist group, there has been political instability and violence. http://www.cfr.org/global/global-conflict-tracker/p32137#!/?marker=32

Pablo Picasso

North Korea has been threatening to use nuclear weapons, as well as internal political instability and military provocation.

Francois Robert

Continued violence, as a result of an invasion, between Russian military forces and Ukrainian security forces intensify in eastern Ukraine.

Image from http://www.ba-bamail.com/ content.aspx?emailid=17624

Pablo Picasso’s Guernica, was the first strong anti war work of all time, and has become a monumental reminder of the horrors of war. The artwork has a lot of symbolisms with different meanings, some connect to the Spanish culture, others connect to the Spanish war in specific and some even connect to the World War II as a whole. Despite the specific references, the artwork has since become a world wide recognized anti war symbol. Although some of the symbols are only understood when the viewer is knowledgeable with context, the suffering and and targets of war is a universal symbol. The emotional symbolism is something, no matter what culture someone is from, everyone can identify, because we are all human with feelings. The strength of this artwork as an anti-war symbol is something I admire about this artwork. I strive to make my work stronger. Rather than looking at it through a sentimental view, I would like to make it more direct and bland toward the conflicts I would like to represent. The strength of this anti-war artwork is what inspired me to look more at war, and try to make a statement about it with my art. http://www.pablopicasso.org/guernica.jsp

I specifically took inspiration from Robert’s photography series titled Stop the Violence. The individual artworks are not named. I admire the way he uses symbolism to create his message. The use of human skeletons form different shapes that represent war indicates the only outcome of war is death.

Stop the violence from http:// www.telegraph.co.uk/culture/ culturepicturegalleries/7745257/Stop-theViolence-art-made-of-human-bones-byFrancois-Robert.html

Stop the violence from http:// www.telegraph.co.uk/culture/ culturepicturegalleries/7745257/Stop-theViolence-art-made-of-human-bones-byFrancois-Robert.html

"Each image is a symbol of war or violence, such as a gun or a tank, and I wanted to show that sadly the human skeleton is often all that remains from such acts of violence. This is what you are left with after war - a body count” - Robert The directness of his antiwar artwork is something I would like to include in my artwork.


Change of Season

Skills, Techniques and Processes At the start of the making, I faced the decision of having the leaves in black and white or color. I started experimenting with the PalestineIsraeli conflict leaf. I tried making it in black and white. The most representative symbols of the conflicts where the corresponding religious symbols of the different sides. The problem was, I would be addressing the religion as a whole rather than the specific conflict. I decided to make the leaves in color because I would be able to address the flags, making it more conflict specific.

Process photos Firstly I painted the leaves white with acrylic paint, so the leaf is a blank canvas, so that it better connects to my theme rather than nature. It did not turn out as soft as I hoped it would, and proved difficult to paint over.

Process photos

SKILL It is better to spray paint all the leaves with acrylic spray paint than to paint them all white individually. I then tried white spray paint. The technique was a little difficult due to the spray paint being thick and I was working in a windy area, I was able to spray a white layer on each of the 40 leaves I had.

Experiment photos

I also had to think about how I was going to display them. I considered putting them on the wall, but that would defeat the purpose of having them be leaves that fall and pass, because they would be framed and suggest an intent to be preserved.

I put some of them on the ground in order to see if it is was plausible, and I believe it is. With all the leaves I painted, I will mix them up and put them in a corner of a room to be presented.

Test

I experimented with designs, such as pills, or a syringe on the leaf of the Mexican Narc Wars. In the end, I replaced the crest of the flag with a pill I experimented with leaves with in the center, rough edges or smooth edges. as it was the most direct symbol of For the techniques and skills I practiced on different leaves and tried different drugs. methods of make a straight line. The best straight line came from pencil and ruler on the leaf, then I would fill in the color that corresponds with acrylics.

Test

Process photos In the making

With the spray paint, I was able to make all of the surfaces uniform and soft, but I encountered the problem of the paint cracking off. I started to paint the cracks over with white acrylics when they arise. This make me realize that my artwork was very delicate. My Process photos solution to it being delicate is simply to be more careful. I flattened all the leaves within books so they where easier to paint on, as well as easier to see for the viewer. I also decided against painting acrylics on the leaves because they unflattened and the brush strokes where visible.

In the making

In the end I was able to create eleven, my proposed number of conflicts, represented on leaves. The final product turned into a good amount of sleek leaves, with sharp colors and simple designs. SKILL I used a ruler in order to make more straight lines on the leaves. the side of the paintbrush is then used to make the straight line possible

Page 14


Concept of Identity

Critical investigation Screenshot of Ted Talk by Taiye Selasi

The golden ratio and pentagon In beauty, the global standard of what is beautiful in a human face have been deducted to calculations. One being the golden ratio, derived from phi and Fibonacci’s sequence.

Don't Ask Where I'm From, Ask Where I'm a Local This is a TED talk by Taiye Selasi about nationality and culture, how they come to being and what they suggest. Here are some things she said I found interesting, and I can relate to in the manner that it is similar to what I want to express. “How can a human being come from a concept?” “I’ve fallen into the limiting trap that the language of coming from countries says: the privileging of a fiction, the singular country, over reality, human experience.”

Image taken from: http:// www.livescience.com/37704-phi-goldenratio.html

A “mask” was created as a guide of all the ratios and positioning of feature on a human face. It was created by Dr. Stephen R. Marquardt, who is a plastic surgeon and studies beauty standards. The mask is the result of the ideal beauty across the globe according to multiple studies, which fits in with the golden ratio. The mask represents what is pleasing to look at, representing the harmony part of this work

Page 15

“My introducers also called me multinational. ‘Nike is Expanding on culture, there is no such thing as one culture, rather multinational,’ I thought, ‘I am a human being.’” there are millions, and everyones culture is absolutely unique, there is no repetition in culture. This makes us all very unique beings in the More important than nationality, which is a concept, as sense that there are so many variables in the world that affect us all Selasi says, is culture and experience. in different manners. Expanding on the idea that we are a composition of nature and nurture, I want to represent the nature part, related to harmony, through my own use of the golden ration. I want to represent the nurture part of a human being through the designs and patters I will represent in triangles and shapes that compose the mask. Information and ted talk from https://www.ted.com/talks/ taiye_selasi_don_t_ask_where_i_m_from_ask_where_i_m_a_local?language=en “All identity is is experience.”

Giuseppe Mastromatteo

Mastromatteo is a Italian artist with a focus on photography and media. In his Independence 2009, he created 27 pieces of works out of photography, looking at three in specific, that do not have names, rather they have numbers (17,18 and 19), that directly refer to identity and the representation of identity. In the pieces the paper with the picture of a face lines up with the body holding it and ripping it. The effect on a audience is the feeling of a fragile identity. By putting a face on a piece of paper the piece is comparing identity with the value of a paper, and by ripping it, the piece is further reenforcing the association with the lack of value. In this artworks I will be looking at the means Mastromatteo uses in order to convey his message. I want to specifically see the way the expression and posture of the subjects change the meaning and feeling of the artwork.

Image of development of the golden ratio on faces from http://vali.de/?p=1117

The mask itself already looks like a face, I can take the mask and adapt it to fit my own uses, or make my own mask. Since it is I identity I would like to create I or address I will make it to represent a face, with the harmony and the pleasant effect the golden ratio mask strives to achieve as well as my own twist of chaos. http://www.goldennumber.net/beauty/

Julian Opie

Image taken from http://www.goldennumber.net/beauty/

I had the fortune to see Luc and Ludivine get married (pair 7) by Julian Opie in person, at the Victoria and Albert Museum in September of 2015. Opie’s style is to simplify things in manner that makes them the most basic figures. As seen in Luc and Ludivine get married, the subjects could be anyone because they do not have figures that make them different from anyone else. The majority of the world has eyes, eyebrows, nose and mouth, the most basic features still remaining on the subject. I want to be able to represent my subjects as human, who could be anyone, divorced from race, ethnicity, nationality and so on just like Opie has done in hi artwork. The difference I want to make is the incorporation of other thing that are not related to human geography or any such thing, but personality. I want to make a representation of a soul rather than a expectation based on the physical appearance.

Interdependence taken from http://www.giuseppemastromatteo.com/indepensense-2009

In the one above, number 19, the head of the subject is tilted to the left, creating a sense of curiosity. Her face is relaxed, but her eyes are focused, further amplifying the sense of curiosity. I believe the sense of relaxation looks natural, something I would like to include in my piece. Luc and Ludivine get married (pair 7) Taken from http://www.julianopie.com/#/ search/luc and ludivine/large

The head of the subject is tilted to the bottom right, his eyes are focused and his eyebrows are tensed, his lips are pursed. This created a sense that he is angry and determined. I will make sure my subject does not have this body language while I do not want this feeling in my piece

Hey eyes and mouth are relaxed but her eyebrows are concerned, giving her a feeling that she is concerned and lost in thought. The angle of her face is straight, making it more connected to the audience by not including any other angle. The lost-in-though feeling I would like to include in my artwork.


Communication of ideas and intentions Considering my most recent artwork, that took into account appropriated flags as the representation of the conflict going on in that country, I would like to look at the more human side of nationality. Culture per say, is something I would like to see in my art. I realize that there are a lot of different people in the world with a great variety of different culture. And I would like to be able to represent different cultures from a human point of view, how our ethnicity might not represent our nationality nor our culture. Especially with globalization there have been more people traveling abroad, maybe falling in love and having mixed race children. My idea for this would be to paint the flag on a person with the respective nationality. it would be a comment on ethnicity and race being directly correlated with nationality. Although I like the idea, I don’t think I will follow through with it because painting the flag does not represent culture, only nationality.

The patterns and designs that fill in the triangles will be taken from my previous artworks, where I make references to culture, chaos and utilize simple patterns. By combining all of these themes I will be able to properly express the complexity, the chaos, that is a person while at the same time expressing them in triangles, representing the harmonies. I also hope to be able to express the variety of aspects a human can have within them through the variety of patterns represented within the triangles.

Concept of Identity

Page 16

The chaos from my works of Harmony in Chaos

Idea 1 Idea 2

The choice of who’s face is irrelevant while the face will not be in the final product, simply it will be a reference while making the mask. But non the less, since this is my first time making a mask on someones face I will likely ask someone with not outstanding features.

Patterns from my artwork Masked

Techniques

Here I do some experimentation with composition and medium, testing out some of the mediums I could create my piece in

Sketches from my notebook In the drawing above, one can see that the basic shape of a face is present, and the triangles would be used to create a shape of a face, The filling of the shapes would be used to represent the personality or persona behind the skin, as windows to the soul. The fillings would be a variety of patterns, colors and shapes to represent the variety a person can be, having so many different qualities and stories. Some of the patterns will be taken from my previous works to already tell some stories. I believe this will be successful in inspiring the viewer to think about how much there is that one cannot see on a person, and I want this to be able to be applicable to everyone, no matter the race.

The angle and expression of the face The angle and expressing of a face is body language, which transmits a message. From looking at Matromatteo’s series, Independence 2009, I believe the correct body language and expressing for my artwork would be relaxed face and focused eyes while the angle of the head is facing the audience. This will create a sense that the artwork is made directly to impact the audience and the identity of the audience rather than directing the attention to somewhere else the subject is looking at or thinking about.

My Drawing Experiment in Paper 53

In this project I want to express that there is more to a person than just race, I want to do this through the depiction of a person without any association to race, I can do this through either through a commentary on race through the inclusion of symbols involving race or through the complete disassociation of race, and looking through what can be seen on the outside and simply looking further. I believe the second option might be more difficult but even more interesting personally as I believe that this is not a course often taken. I believe I want to convey an interest for the person themselves, to explore deeper because there is so much to get to know. This sort of passion, one that seeks to know more, understand how a person feels, what a person thinks and so on is what I want to be able to spark in my audience. The question is how can I make a visual piece that conveys the description above. So I will make a list of possible requirements and how I can make them possible: - there has to be a human connection - this human connection I think I can make possible though the depiction of a human symbol, shape or representation. I could use measurements of an average face to create a sort of mask, such as the golden ratio mask that is used for plastic surgery. In such a way, I can create my own mask, but it would not be centered around beauty, rather it would be centered around simply being human. - it has to be disassociated with race - If I make my own mask, I could not include any feature that are associated with any race in particular, I can make it more ambiguous racially, and if I make a mask, then the color of skin will not be included. - there has to be a way of representing that there is more to what can be seen from the outside - Maybe if I include shapes to the mask, I can fill in the shapes as “windows to the soul.” Although eyes are usually the windows to the soul, I want to make it more obvious and strong, so I will put the windows everywhere. In conclusion I will be making my own mask and disassociating it with race. The mask will consist of triangles, because triangles are good shapes to show the curvature of a face.

Someones face

Someones face

Applied with my own “golden ratio”

Applied with my own “golden ratio”

My Illustrator experiment

Flag taken from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flag_of_India

Photo from Sofia Wild

Done with adobe illustrator*

Then the triangles are filled with representations of chaos

Deleted the photo for a more holistic effect


Concept of Identity Skills

Logo of Adobe illustrator from http:// www.brandsoftheworl d.com/logo/adobeillustrator-cs6

Adobe illustrator is essential to the project, as it contains tools that are easy to use in the creation of digital media. Some of the important tools that will be used are: - Line segment - this tool allows the creation of lines, where thickness can be adjusted and color as well - ruler line - this tool is important as the face will be symmetrical to add harmony. A line is drawn in the middle of the face to know where the middle of the face is and where exactly the triangles would go - reflect - this tool will be essential in the creation of the symmetrical face. As the title suggests the tool reflects, or mirror the selected components. This will be used to reflect one side of the face to the other side, to create a whole face. - anchor feature - this feature allows for the easy navigation of the line segment tool, rather than guessing where the lines on the line segment tool connect, the anchor feature guides you to where the lines connect.

Adobe photoshop will be used for the second half of the process where the filling of the triangles happens. This is a wonderful software for the manipulation of existing digital media, in contras to illustrator that is wonderful in the creation of new digital media. The most important feature of photoshop for the creation of this artwork are: - Magic Wand - the magic wand tool allows the selection of an area with a similar or exact color in common. In this process it is used to select the space within the triangle (being careful that it is on the mask layer) and then going to the layer with the pattern on it. - Copy and Paste - although this feature is quite well known and can be used on almost every program, it was very much used in this process as it entails a lot of copying and pasting with consideration to the layers. So following with the explanation of the magic wand tool, once the space is selected but on the pattern layer, the space is copied and paste, creating a new layer. The previous layer with the pattern then is deleted leaving only the previously selected area that then looks like it fills the triangle.

Techniques and processes

The subject is a woman, in a way to represent harmony and peace as well as beauty. In the mask it can be seen by the pink lips and the eyelashes, which through comics have become symbols of females. It is a mask because it has no neck, or on could say its a floating head but I want it to be a mask I also used photos from the making of my artwork New age while rolling the paint.

First I experimented with making triangles on adobe photoshop. The triangles where difficult to make as the lines were difficult to connect and the thickness was difficult to adjust with the line draw tool.

^ Experimentation in Illustrator

The lines that for med the triangles where much more easy to manipulate on adobe illustrator with the line segment tool

^ My Experimentation in photoshop

I put a Ruler line on the center of her face, and made triangles on only one half, with the intention of Reflecting, an option on illustrator, to basically mirror one side to the other.

Page 17

The lines on illustrator allow me to know when a line anchors another line, in other word when they touch. This helped me a lot when I was making the triangles.

I started to fill in the face with designs. To do this I Using the reflect tool, I made fi r s t t r a n s f e r r e d i t t o the piece symmetrical. Photoshop. In photoshop I used the Magic Wand tool and selected the triangles I wanted.

^ My Experimentation in Illustrator

13 patters were taken from http:// pattern8.com/ and http://www.freepatterns.info/100-random-patterns/ That have creative commons license,

The I added a pattern and Copied the selection on the pattern layer. I chose a 30 x 36 cm canvas on illustrator. to create the image.

I Pasted it as another layer and deleted the previous layer and ended with the triangle the same size as the ones on the mask. I always did the same pattern one both sides of the face, but different areas of the triangle so its symmetrical but different and chaotic.

Logo of Adobe Photoshop from http:// www.diyourself.ru/ technology/turn-avideo-into-a-gif-do-ityourself.html

Photo taken by me of Danielle Richardson, to be used as a base image

Important tools Illustrator: Line segment tool - creates lines Ruler tool - for measurements Anchor - there things connect Reflect tool - mirror Photoshop: Magic Wand - selects everything of the same color that is connected.

I did the process explained above with all the triangle except the ones around the irises so it looks like an eye and not a horror film

I ended having more than 80 layers.

Final


Firecracker Page 18

Communication of ideas and intentions Following the idea of my latest artwork, Concept of Identity, and the idea of chaos and harmony within a human complexity, I hope to create a gif visual piece inspired by George Redhawk. George Redhawk has created gifs in order to recreate the feeling of going blind, as he has. In order to communicate such a outstanding feeling he incorporates movement into his pieces, which combines a stagnant person and moving inanimate objects of nature. This gives the feeling that everything has a life of its own and cannot be expected to be immovable. Redhawks successful artworks have inspired me to create another piece where movement is involved to create more of a chaotic feeling. I can make things such as painting in the background to represent the chaotic feeling I want to represent. A cluttered painting with vivid colors might do. But looking at more things that can be found in real life, say to day life, I can put natural environmental aspects. This would be able to connect the real world and the coldness of the triangle face. This is essential because the face with the triangles is very cold, almost lifeless, but the chaos gives it life. In my artworkConcept of Identity, the color gives the artwork life, makes it more welcoming through recognizable patterns. But they are only patterns that cannot be associated other than the color, giving the face fictional characteristics.

Sketches from my notebook

Fire behind the person can create a passionate feeling of passion and drive for me. But I know that fire is something that can vary widely in meaning. One thing is for sure, fire is wild, hot and uncontrollable, something I want to incorporate in my piece in order combat the cold feeling of the triangle. The result may even be a “hot and cold� feeling combining two polar opposite, similar to my theme of harmony and chaos. The combination may be chaotic and end in complexity, which is ideal.

Wa v e s a r e n a t u r a l phenomenon of the word and if I combine it with the triangle face then it can adopt a feeling of human connection with the water. I gives the ocean a face. Waves can be brutal and dangerous, which can completely connect with the theme of chaos. Sketches from my notebook

Neck

Torso

Sketches from my notebook

Concept of Identity, made by myself

The presentation of the piece will of course, be a triangle person. But in difference of the last piece, this piece would be a male in order to cover a variety of genders. I want to be able to cover both main genders, because genders a concepts other than sexes. Race is not a concept and is easy to get rid of in the formation of triangular people. Ethnicity is also easy to not include as it is also a concept but cannot be seen when you look at a person immediately. Sketches from my notebook

Sketches from my notebook

Sketches from my notebook

Complexity in the piece would be ideal because humanity is complex, and identity is also complex, something I strived for in my last artwork. This artwork would further develop that idea of chaos and complexity within a concept of identity. After consideration, I believe I should name this piece Firecracker, because I have heard people being called firecrackers before, not only for short tempers but for passionate people. I believe this gives the audience a direction in terms of what I want this piece to represent.

Concept of Identity, through the facial expression and position, is emotionless. I want to add a component of humanity in the artwork by incorporating a different expression. I also want to incorporate a neck and shoulders to be able to m a k e t h e fi g u r e m o r e human and less like a mask. In ter ms of exhibition, movement is essential considering it is going to be a piece that involves movement. There are two ways I am considering: using a screen or a projector. The good thing about the screen is that it will be moving without inter ference, such as shadows. But the bad thing about a screen is that the size is limited. The good thing about a projector is that it can be very large and still move. The bad thing is that is can be affected by the light and by people walking in front of it. This affects the interaction one can have with the piece. Which in a way is good, that the audience can affect the piece. In the end the benefits of using a projector are created then the ones of using a screen. The final piece would be a combination of fire in the triangles being projected on to a white background. I believe this is the best way to create the size I need to represent the flame inside the person, the passion, the drive that is always moving,


Page 19

Techniques and processes Firecracker

Illustrator work

I then deleted the image and exported the mask in a png (short for portable network graphics) form. This format allowed me to make the lines the only component in the picture, in other words, the background and inside the triangles is transparent. I was unable to add a white background to the image in illustrator. I solved the problem by putting it into photoshop and adding white with the bucket tool. I then exported it again as a png file. In photoshop I also filled the background in red to check for hole or unclosed triangles, from with I found a few, I also assets the proportions better. I then fixed the proportions of the image. As seen in the red image on the left, there is a large space around the mouth and one postal is quite large. I didn’t like this so I went to the original illustrator file and corrected the mistakes. I made the triangles surrounding the mouth larger and closer to the lips, and I added a couple triangles. I also added a triangle on the nostril and closed any triangles I was missing. Then I exported the image as a png again and put it back in photoshop where I added the white background with the bucket tool again and added a black background to check one more time. This time the proportions and the triangles were good.

Here I work on illustrator, as following with the previous piece, named Concept of Identity. Illustrator is a great tool as it is easy to manage an create completely digital pieces. As with the las piece, I use the line segment too in order to create triangles on the face to show a shape, the indentation of the face and such. In the creation of this piece, differently from the other piece, I use larger triangles intentionally to show areas where there is more light.

2.

Once I filled the face I had the problem of making the head shape, as the hair of the subject mold is very fluffy and the shape of the head cannot be seen very well. In that case I started guessing and experimenting what the head of the shape was. His hair is dark, and therefore, I couldn't see the lines very well, in retrospect I should have changed the color of the lines for this part of the project. Anyways, on the left large triangles where used to shape the head. The effect was that it did not look like it would curve back and round. This gave it the aspect of a crown. There was also a lack of depth by the ear, as if the head didn’t go far enough to be round. I then aded a little triangle by the ear to show it did have depth, but the result was the same as the difference didn’t seem to be large enough.

Gif making

1.

Next I went to Final Cut Pro, where I inserted a video of a fire, by Lindsay Clark with her permission.

Customized the video properties to have a frame size and shape similar to my mask. In this case it was a resolution of 1440 x 1270. This was a new skill for me because I was unaware how to do this and had to do extensive research on the help manual.

Image of step 2

3.

Next, I chose the video I wanted, I took the sound off, and Selected the area of the clip that focused and zoomed into the flame. Images of step 4 Image of step 3

4.

I then Cropped and trimmed the video to make the fl a m e s e e m closer in order to make sure the fl a m e s t o u c h every triangle.

7. Image of step 5 Image of step 5

5. Then I put the image with the Images of step 6

6. I finally exported I then cut the triangles around the edges into smaller triangles, in the hopes of making them seem farther away and darker in contrast to the forehead. It worked well.

the video as a Image sequence. I then had 180 frames to make a moving gif out of. I chose to make the gif on the internet.

clear triangles and the white background on top of the flames. I also made the flames slower by 50 percent.

The animation speed is set to 40 milliseconds per frame.

The final step involved the online gif maker called gifmaker.me. This is where I uploaded all of the 180 frames. I uploaded them knowing the would go in order as they are n a m e d chronologically. In the gif maker, I adjusted the dimensions to reflect the dimensions of the video format, in other words, 1440 x 1270.

Image of step 7


Weeds

Page 20

Communication of ideas and intentions

As a commentary on my last artwork, Firecracker, I want to take a less human approach to the idea of a mask. I notice there are a lot of descriptors for humans that involve fire, such as “the fire in his eyes” or “she is a firecracker.” It is much less common to say something like “she is like a river,” or “he grows like tree.” In this next artwork I want to try and combine plants with the triangle human. Another objective of this piece is to connect it back to other artworks I have made in the past. This would be a thematic connection because there is already a structural connection with my artwork Concept of Identity. I want to make a connection with my artworks Gold Harmony in Chaos and Silver Harmony in Chaos. I drew a lot of my inspiration for the two artworks from the time I spent in Japan. In turn, I looked through my photos from that time. I then took some of the images as possible backgrounds for the triangles. Silver Harmony in Chaos by me

I particularly liked photos from the bamboo forest called Arashiyama in Kyoto. As seen in the two photos of bamboo, they are pretty blurry, which I chose because they where blurry, so that it can indicate that it is not absolute, it is a hazy representation. Another reason why they are blurry is that there was so much wind that day that the bamboo trees were waiving everywhere and I was unable to get a clear picture. Although I know that this is not something that will be too noticeable in the final piece, I believe it adds to the symbolism in terms of the nature component being stronger. Bamboo is a very noble plant, but here in these photos it’s not completely noticeable that it is bamboo, rather it would be any tree, especially in the second photo. This works well with my goal as it can be whatever the audience interprets, yet the bounds of it being a tree is set. I like this picture because there is the rule of thirds in it, the green leaves, the stocks and the ground. Heaven, man and earth, connecting all the components. This could translate will in terms of representing that there is a past, earth, present, man, and future, heaven. This would add to the complexity I want to represent. I think it can also work against the function of the piece the earth, man and heaven part, because it may add a mother layer of meaning that can derail the interpretation of the viewer. I believe I have to experiment with this image before I am able to select one or the other image.

Firecracker by me

Photo taken by me

This artwork would be the third in the series named Triangles, which, following the theme of the series, would mean that the function of the artwork is separate the racial stigma from the human and representing something that is further than what the eye can see. I hope to be able to create an artwork as successful as the others of the series. The fact that it is a bamboo plant, which is known to be beautiful plant, means that the person on the inside can be beautiful no matter what the outside may be.

I like this one because there is a rift within the trees which can be interpreted as a crack revealing the inside, or in this case the beyond, the sky. I might create a visually pleasing effect of the white sky in combination with the white background of the triangles.

Photo taken by me

From my sketchbook

Gold Harmony in Chaos by me In terms of possible names, or titles of the work, I want a name that goes with the naming conventions of Firecracker. Some of the possibilities are forest, origin, transcendence or weeds. So far I like the idea of weeds, because bamboos are noble plants and I want to challenge that idea. Naming it that is saying that one mans trash can be another mans treasure in a way. Or similarly, you can't judge a book by its cover, as the triangles are an indication of the humanity part of a person, the internal part. So, in other words, one may see a person not worth getting to know, or racial prejudice toward the person, but the person that does not meet the eye may be better than expected, and that racial prejudice is completely blinding. Through the name of Weeds, I believe the contrast with the bamboo trees would achieve that effect.

In this piece, it will only be displayed as a print, as it is not moving so it does not need to be projected. The size would be large in order to show there is more to meet the eye, in other words, the physical appearance is smaller than the person behind it. The work would be displayed on a wall, along with Concept of Identity, the first in the Triangles series.

From my sketchbook


Techniques and processes

Weeds

Page 21

First trial

I believe I have gotten much better with photoshop skills in the series of Triangles, I have no problem manipulating the image to fit my purpose, and since I have worked with these tools (such as layers) for a few months, I have gotten quite comfortable with them.

Process screenshot

I put the mask into photoshop. Then I added the image and rearranged the layers so the mask is on top and the photo is on the bottom. In the bamboo photo I manipulated the vibrance, brightness, contrast and color levels. I did this so the picture stands out more. First I turned up the brightness and increased the contrast in order for the colors to stand out more. I then adjusted the layers to have a stronger green. I then lowered the vibrance, because it looked to manipulated to the point it was not real any more.

In the first trial, including the image with the bamboo forest and the ground, I liked it, but it is not as significant in terms of a connection to a person as I hoped it would be. None the less, I still like the connection made with the earth, man and sky effect, that can also be interpreted as the layers of a person. It can also be interpreted as the foundation of a person, that grows, as in the growth of a person. Parallels can be drawn between trees and people in terms of growth. I like the effect of the trees with the ground and the white background, it is visually pleasing due to the contrast. Nonetheless, the piece is not as successful in terms of a connection to the theme of the series. Unfortunately, it is not as strong in terms of variety such as in the piece Concept of Identity nor as interactive and unique as Firecracker. I think if I was part of the audience, I would like this piece because I would think it looks cool, but I am sure I would not dig deeper for another meaning. This, I think is a crucial aspect of my series, the involvement of though on the part of the audience.

Second trial

Skills In this artwork, the new skills I use are levels, vibrance and brightness. These tools in photoshop are used to add a different effect on the photo, I used them to add more color to the photo within the triangles.

I really like this piece because it does achieve the predicted effect of crack into the person someone is. I think the combination of the white sky behind the trees and the white background and space between the triangles to make the piece look very delicate and fragile, yet complex. In a way I very much like this effect, it changes the meaning to give almost the impression of a delicate exterior, with cracks in it that reveal the person. I can also be interpreted as the concept of identity is a fragile contraction, that is partially true and partially just a shell of a person. This will definitely be the chosen piece of the two, because it brings a new light to the Triangles series.


COMPARATIVE STUDY

!"#$%&'() !"#$%&!'("))%*&+,-./

*)+,)-#'.,#)/#(012) 31(00#$#$).4) 5.$6782 0"1'23&4'5)6*& 7889/

9:9*&:;5"<"1'&="<")>'*& +,,9/ cxxxii


!"#$%&'() !"#$%&!'("))%*&+,-. ,-.*&-/+&0&.12&(3

Guernica, sourceshttp://global.britannica.com/biography/Pablo-Picasso

The purpose of Guernica is to demonstrate the tragedy and pain inflicted by war on innocent civilians. After the completion of the piece, it went on a worldwide tour gaining fame and becoming widely acclaimed. The painting has become the figure that Picasso intended it to be; a reminder of the tragedies of war. The tour helped bring the Spanish War to the world's attention. Guernica has become Picasso’s most well known piece, turning him into a prominent political figure in the day. He shared his pacifist values through his art and politics. Resources: http://www.pablopicasso.org/guernica.jsp http://www.pablopicasso.org/picasso-biography.jsp

Interpretation of function and purpose Pablo Picasso was born in Malaga, Spain, 1881 and started his artist career from his father who was also an artist. Picasso later became a player in the creation of cubism and surrealism as well as creator of one of the most influential pieces of the 20th century: Guernica. Guernica was created in 1937 as a response to the casual bombing of the city of Guernica, Spain. The bombing was conducted by the German Nazis as a practice bombing with the permission of General Francisco Franco, leader of the Nationalists who was fighting against the Republicans. Guernica was of no significant political value to either forces. The target was a bridge in the city, but rather than hitting the bridge the bomb fell on the city plaza. The bombs fell all over the city center for three hours. This was the first aerial saturation bombing of civilians, it was conducted as an experiment, or test run, by Nazi forces. The symbol on the top of the painting is a light bulb, the function is to connect the Spanish word “bombilla" to the word is sounds like, “bomba", bomb in Spanish. Pablo Picasso at the time was working on a mural for the Paris Exhibition due to be presented in the summer of 1937. Having found out, through an article in The Times, about the bombings of Guernica, Picasso stopped the project he was working on for months and started the painting the piece that would become an anti-war symbol. The project that Picasso was working on was a mural on the Spanish Pavilion on request of the Spanish Republican government. The project did not fill Picasso with passion like the following events of the bombings would. The Nationalists wanted Spain to go back to its roots in terms of law, order and catholic family values. The function of the woman on the left holding her dead child is a representation of the Virgin and Child. The purpose of depicting the child as dead and the woman in extreme anguish is a way of saying that the event is going against catholic values, one of the aims of the Nationalists.


Guernica is an oil painting by Pablo Picasso. The piece has simple lines forming multiple angular shapes. Picasso combined cubism and surrealism in the creation of the piece. The colors are mainly black and white. The negative space is black while the figures are white or similar colors, this creates a strong, stark contrast making the figures more eye catching. White is also a symbol of purity, in contrast with the black background it forms a concept of a corrupt, or even evil environment. The shadows of greys and black translate the feeling of the sombre. There is also a triangle of focus from the fallen warriors hand leading to the top of the flame then down to the knee of the fleeing woman. The light bulb serves as a illuminati sign at the top of the triangle of focus.

Guernica, sources http://global.britannica.com/biography/Pablo-Picasso

! All of the figures that represent the Side of the civilians are looking toward the left, as if there is a way out. The bull is guarding the way out.Guernica was made into a big size, so that rather than the viewer looking at the painting, the painting engulfs the viewer.!

Analysis of formal qualities Guernica

Resources! http://www.slideshare.net/uzrman/guernica-by-pablo-picasso-16009460! http://www.spanish-art.org/spanish-painting-guernica.html! https://www.mtholyoke.edu/~nigro20e/classweb/guernica.html! http://totallyhistory.com/guernica/

The symbolism is the strongest structural aspect of the piece. Starting from the left there is a woman holding her dead child, crying in anguish to the sky. This symbol is meant to resemble the Virgin Mary and baby Jesus, but infected by war. Then comes the bull looming over the woman and child is said to represent General Franco, who assisted in the bombing, although Picasso says it represents darkness and brutality. Then is the dead soldier underneath, whose body parts are partially missing or unseen. The soldier represented defeat and death. The left hand pain through the little symbol on the palm and the right other hand under the horse is still clutching the sword but the sword is broken. There is also a flower growing out of the hand, representing hope springing. Between the horse and the bull there is a pigeon or dove, symbolizing broken peace through the faded and incomplete image of the bird. On top of the horse there is a light bulb that illuminates the chaos of the time. The horse is screaming in agony in a stamped. There are also two hidden symbols within the horse: a skull on the muscle of the horse representing death and the bull trespassing the body of the horse symbolizing that there is an attacker. The horse is also made with a different texture than that of the rest of the piece. The texture appears to be that of a newspaper and is intended to symbolize how Picasso found out about the bombings; through the morning newspaper. Then comes the symbol of the woman floating near the right side of the piece. She is holding a flame that is challenging the light of the lightbulb, in other words is challenging the caos and therefore represents hope. Under the floating woman there is a woman who is trying to flee but there is something holding on to her leg not letting her run, representing the hopeless side. Then there is a woman on the right being engulfed by flames from above and below, throwing her arms up in agony.!


Woman holding her child that died in the war

Stigma sign on the hand symbolizes pain

A dove, The light bulb symbol of illuminates the broken Bull Hidden chaos and terror peace below symbolizes skull, Flame General representing symbolizing Franco death hope

The fallen warrior showing defeat and death

Horse screaming in agony in a stampede

Broken sword showing defeat

Faint flower symbolizes there is still hope

Floating woman holding a flame that challenges the light of the light bulb

Woman who is trying to run away but is being held back

Bull hidden in the horse that seems to be trespassing the horse

Screaming woman being engulfed by flames from above and below, arms showing terror


Evaluation of cultural significance The piece was completed within a month of starting it and was presented in the Spanish Pavilion in the world fair of Paris. Guernica at the time was not the center of attention of the fair, rather it was the Advances in Technology Pavilion. The piece acts as a portent for the world war to come, and ever since, has grown in acknowledgement and recognition. The piece is now more known than the tragedy the painting is based on. The piece has become a worldwide known monument of the tragedies and pains of war, yet there are some differences in more specific meaning of the painting across the globe. Patricia Failing, art historian, said, "The bull and the horse are important characters in Spanish culture. Picasso himself certainly used these characters to play many different roles over time. This has made the task of interpreting the specific meaning of the bull and the horse very tough. Their relationship is a kind of ballet that was conceived in a variety of ways throughout Picasso's career." Different cultural lenses create a different a different interpretation for each viewer, but nonetheless, the pain and suffering is an aspect of the piece that can translate into any culture. Nonetheless Picasso refused to give any concrete symbolism to any of the aspects of the painting: “This bull is a bull and this horse is a horse,” Picasso said, “If you give a meaning to certain things in my paintings it may be very true, but it is not my idea to give this meaning. What ideas and conclusions you have got I obtained too, but instinctively, unconsciously. I make the painting for the painting. I paint the objects for what they are.” The purpose of the painting is an anti-war statement, expressing the horrors brought with it to innocent people and a tapestry replica has been hanged in the U.N. Security Council, a institute that emerged after the wars, for that very reason. It serves as a reminder as to why the Security Council exist: to prevent such terrors from happening through peaceful negotiations. Yet in 2003 the Security Council covered it with a blue curtain on the request of unknown sources because of the announcement by United States at the U.N. John Negroponte and Secretary of State Colin Powell. The announcement was the war on Iraq. In this case the purpose of Guernica was clear, but was unable to affect the Security Council.

“This bull is a bull and this horse is a horse. If you give a meaning to certain things in my paintings it may be very true, but it is not my idea to give this meaning. What ideas and conclusions you have got I obtained too, but instinctively, unconsciously. I make the painting for the painting. I paint the objects for what they are.”

Patricia Failing

"The bull and the horse are important characters in Spanish culture. Picasso himself certainly used these characters to play many different roles over time. This has made the task of interpreting the specific meaning of the bull and the horse very tough. Their relationship is a kind of ballet that was conceived in a variety of ways

UN Security Council Resource: https://www.oneonta.edu/faculty/farberas/arth/arth200/guernica.html http://www.pablopicasso.org/guernica.jsp Image Source http://global.britannica.com/biography/Pablo-Picasso https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EGUCHsqUuJc


!"#$"%&'($&")&*+,-".,*++&/&/"(0"1(/2341#,'0"(2'+&/3(4556 4789(:(;889(,,

!"#$%&'&()*(*)+,#$(-.#$'/'0&

!"#$%&'&()*(*)+,#$(-.#$'/'0& !

! This piece, I Am Become Death, Shatterer of Worlds, is composed of two mandalas of butterflies. It was made with butterfly wings and household gloss on canvas. The piece depicts two mandalas, or kaleidoscopes, made with butterfly wings in concentric circles creating to points of radial balance. There are two focal points one on the center left and center right of the canvas. The two focal points with concentric circles around them can be identified with eyes staring at the viewer, as if looking at someone's soul. The left circle is slightly bigger than the right circle, which could suggest an intent to break the uniformity.! ! The symbolism of this piece has a lot to do with the link between butterflies and death, ultimately meaning reincarnation. As John Harricharan says, â&#x20AC;&#x153;The caterpillar dies so the butterfly could be born. And, yet, the caterpillar lives in the butterfly and they are but one. So, when I die, it will be that I have been transformed from the caterpillar of earth to the butterfly of the universe.â&#x20AC;? Hirst separates the beautiful part of the butterfly with the ugly by not including the body of the butterfly, simply the wings.! ! The main colors that can be seen are orange, blue and yellow. The yellow is a color that creates a happy sense of energy with the viewer, the orange creates a sense of anger due to its red hue and the blue is calming. The combination in turn is a inexplicable combination of emotions that overpower the viewer. The orange and the blue are complementary colors that make each other more vivid. The background is orange but the butterflies are right on top, making it seem 2D, because of that, there is no perception of negative space. The balance is played with by the patterns set in the circles, making the circle on the left appear larger than the one on the right. this affects the balance of the piece by attracting the viewer's eyes first to the circle on the left. The movement of the piece pulls the viewer's eye first to the center of the circle on the left then the center of the circle to the left. There is variety in the pattern creating a sense of rhythm as the circle expands.! ! The scale of the piece affects the way the viewer perceives the piece, in this case, the piece overpowers the viewer with the combination of the size of complexity.!

!I Am Become Death, Shatterer of Worlds, !

Image from: http://www.christies.com/lotfinder/paintings/damien-hirst-i-am-become-death-shatterer-5363059details.aspx Resources:! http://www.damienhirst.com/texts1/series/kaleidoscope! http://www.damienhirst.com/i-am-become-death-shatterer-o! http://www.faktoider.nu/oppenheimer_eng.html! http://www.telegraph.co.uk/journalists/charles-spencer/9217107/Alas-Ive-now-seen-Damien-Hirst-in-his-truecolours.html


!"#$%&%$#'#()"*)+*+,"-#()"*'".*&,%&)/$ ! Damien Hirst is most known for his pieces involving dead animals or strong colors, as well as being one of the richest artist today. Some people say Hirst simply creates art that follow his patterns now in order to receive more money, yet his functions and purposes for his art pieces go beyond.! ! The piece is the last of a series named Kaleidoscope. Damien Hirst constantly and purposefully plays with the motif of death in his pieces, Hirst says, “I’ve got an obsession with death … But I think it’s like a celebration of life rather than something morbid.” The piece has the wings of over 2,700 butterflies. The piece only has the butterfly wings, not the body. Hirst said he once heard someone say, “Butterflies are beautiful, but it’s a shame they have disgusting hairy bodies in the middle,” and based the piece on it. The function being to separate the beautiful and ugly, along with the concept of death, the romantic side of death is shown on the piece. Hirst only used real butterfly wings, Hirst said he "wanted to use real butterflies and not just pictures of butterflies, because I wanted it to shimmer when the light catches it like only real butterflies do."! ! The title of the piece, I Am Become Death, Shatterer of Worlds, is an appropriation of a quote by J. Robert Oppenheimer, who said, “Now I Am Become Death, Destroyer of Worlds,” from Bhagavad Gita, came to mind after the first nuclear bomb was created. Oppenheimer is also known as of the ‘fathers of the atomic bomb’ due to his work as theoretical physicist in the development of the bomb. The development of the atomic bomb was going to cause a lot of death, and everyone involved in the development of the bomb knew that. By purposefully naming the piece I Am Become Death, Destroyer of Worlds, Hirst makes a direct connection to death. Although Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombings were atrocious events, Hirst is connecting them with the beauty of butterfly wings, the function being a sense of sublime.! Resources:! http://www.forbes.com/sites/jonathonkeats/2012/07/20/is-damien-hirst-the-worlds-most-misunderstoodartist/! http://www.biography.com/people/damien-hirst-20683781#early-years


!"#$%#&'()*(+*,%$&%-#$*.'/)'+',#),0 "There would be national outcry if the exhibition involved any other animal, such as a dog," a spokesman for the Royal Society for Prevention of Cruelty to Animals says. !

!

"Just because it is butterflies, that does not mean they do not deserve to be treated with kindness." The chief of Butterfly Conservation says the group "is concerned that this work represents a throwaway approach to living creatures and encourages a lack of respect for the environment."

! Hirst, born in 1965, is known as one of the most controversial artist of the time, dealing with death in sometimes a beautiful manner. One of the influences in his life that have influenced his life have been the postwar economy of the UK, although it is also speculated that he was born as a morbid child. The piece, I Am Become Death, Shatterer of Worlds, one can feel the sublime oozing out of the negative space. It glows with beauty but reeks of death, making it controversial. Death is usually connected with ugliness while life is usually connected with beauty, Hirst gives a new light to death, challenging the minds of the viewers. It not usual to see a person who is willing to put out work that challenges the viewer's perspective of death.! ! This piece has been looked at under a negative light by animal rights activists, along with a lot of other pieces by Damien Hirst. He has also not released any information about how the wings were collected to create the art piece, whether they were collected after the butterflies died or if they were killed for the purpose of the piece. This second impression, after the astounding beauty, is usually the animal cruelty, but Hirstâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s intentions are are to represent the beauty of death, the sublime, not animal cruelty. Rather he is one of the UKâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s 100 top environmentalists because of the large amount of solar cells on his property. ! ! Damien Hirst is also assumed to make pieces for the economic profit only. Although there is a possibility that the monetary benefits might be the reason Damien Hirst does such challenging art it does not change the fact that Hirst has been able to create art with such a unique vibe. His mother always said he was a morbid child, giving hints to Hirst's innate connection with death.


Analysis of Formal Qualities The piece is composed by three different panels put together with a wave connecting them, representing traditional ukiyo-e woodblock prints from Japanese, specifically referring to artist Hokusai who made the infamous Great Wave off Kanagawa. The wave also resembles the the depiction of water and clouds in paintings by Japanese artist Kano Eitoku (1573-1603). The three panels also allude to Japanese folding screens or sliding doors. The piece is also Super Flat, a formal quality Murakami invented that is somewhat a mix between anime and surrealism. This piece depicts Mr. DOB, a signature character in Murakami’s work. Mr. DOB is a play on the Japanese word “dobojite,” meaning why, who was created as a statement that Japanese art does not have to imitate American art. The big eyes on Mr. DOB are from Japanese anime, which are used to make a character cute and sexy. In contrast the ear to ear smile on the character with the sharp teeth give Mr. DOB a menacing look. Although Murakami said, "The work is not particularly representative of anything. It is simply a combination of all the available techniques that I had at the time." It has been speculated that the superficial, or 2D, look, texture, lack of negative and positive space of the piece is referring to the Japanese culture: consumerism, sex and violence without a profound social and political consciousness. This effect was made through over twenty layers of the background. Murakami usually often uses methods to make his pieces look manufactured and industrialized, but 727 is an exception. Here Murakami uses a technique 727, Murakami Takashi, called Nihonga, a term developed in the 1800 to differentiate traditional 1996. Acrylic on canvas Japanese techniques to the western techniques being introduced to mounted on board, 299.7 Japan, Nihonga referring to the Japanese techniques. x 449.6 cm! The size of the piece changes how the piece impacts the viewer, giving it strength. It also gives the piece a connection to doors

The Great Wave off Kanazawa Resources: http://visartonepointone.wikispaces.com/Takashi+Murakami%27s+727 http://web.stanford.edu/group/sjeaa/journal41/japan1.pdf Image sources: http://heiup.uni-heidelberg.de/journals/index.php/transcultural/article/view/6175/1766 https://louviq.wordpress.com/2012/01/31/critique-of-the-great-wave-off-kanagawa-by-katsushika-hokusai/

The color of the piece is mainly blues and whites, but the eyes and mouth of Mr. DOB are red, drawing the attention of the viewer and creating emphasis on the protagonist of the piece through the contrast of the color. In the background, or empty space, there is also traces of yellow, making the piece look worn and old. This effect was done by using sandpaper on the twenty layers of paint. The color scheme copies that of The Great Wave off Kanagawa. The colors are very limited in comparison to other pieces made by Murakami, making this piece an exception in terms of color. The main components of the piece, the wave and Mr. DOB, are made with lines creating a rhythm and movement, the wave moving to the right while Mr. DOB surfing the wave toward the left. The lines bordering the edges of the figure is an anime style of drawing. When looking at the symbolism of the wave (referring to The Great Wave off Kanagawa) and the symbolism of Mr. DOB (why does Japanese art have to copy American art) the movement is suggesting that Japanese pop culture is going against traditional Japanese culture.


Interpretation of Function and Purpose Takashi Murakami was born in Tokyo, Japan, 1962. Murakami studied art at the Ph.D at Graduate School of Fine Arts, Tokyo National University of Fine Arts and Music. Murakami is the father of the post modern art genre ‘superflat,’ the purpose is for his pieces to be colorful, flowery, animeish psychedelic imagery inspired by pop art. The function of superflat is mix contemporary and historical pop culture of japan in graphics. Murakami created superflat based on Warhol, Roy Lichtenstein, other pop artists as well as traditional Japanese art. Murakami created his alter ego in anime for in the 1990 and named him Mr. DOB in order to connect him to his art in a way that combines Japanese pop culture and American culture. This unique persona was originally based on a stylistic figure of Murakami himself, but then given a twist based on characters such as Mickey Mouse (American character), Sonic and Doraemon (both Japanese characters), directly connecting Mr. DOB to popular American culture. In the New York Times, Roberta Smith wrote that Murakami’s work “[gives] the Japanese culture of cuteness a rude jolt.” In the piece, Mr. DOB takes a alternative mutations in the form of multiple eyes and sharp shark-like teeth with the function of creating and alter ego dubbed chaos.!

Mickey Mouse

Sonic

Doraemon

Mr. DOB

The piece, 727, was named after a cosmetic company that was named after Boeing aircraft, a U.S. based aerospace manufacturer. The meaning of the name is referring to how Japanese pop morphs the idealism of ‘cool’ around America. The ad for the cosmetic company can be seen from the Shinkansen (speed train) in Tokyo. In this way Murakami also wants to refer to how life is full of gaps and voids, such as that in the way the advert means nothing.! ! By combining traditional Japanese art, Nihonga, and popular Japanese anime style, Murakami connect high art and low art while traditional Japanese arts are regarded high and anime low in Japanese contemporary art. The otaku (anime fans of Japan) culture of Japan is very frowned upon by Japanese culture, and by creating a combination of aspects of otaku culture, traditional Japanese art as well as American pop culture, Murakami is shedding a new light on to the views of art in Japan. This way he is working toward the acceptance of different types of art in Japan, not only traditional but also that that has developed in the country. Resources:http://web.stanford.edu/group/sjeaa/journal41/japan1.pdf! http://www.artspace.com/magazine/interviews_features/close_look/ the_psychedelic_world_of_takashi_murakami-5204! http://www.artspace.com/takashi_murakami! http://visartonepointone.wikispaces.com/Takashi+Murakami%27s+727! http://heiup.uni-heidelberg.de/journals/index.php/transcultural/article/view/6175/1766! https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=spLyMB8f5S8!

Image sources:! https://paddle8.com/work/takashi-murakami/25923-field-of-smiling-flowers! https://teachartwiki.wikispaces.com/Takashi+Murakami-+And+then+and+then+and+then+and+then! http://www.computerweekly.com/blogs/open-source-insider/2012/08/mickey-mouse-open-sources-his-fourdimensional-cg-rendering.html! http://www.giantbomb.com/sonic-the-hedgehog/3005-73/images/! https://www.reddit.com/r/stevenuniverse/comments/39t45u/doraemon_takecopterhopter_reference_please/


Evaluation of Cultural Significance A interpretation of the piece, 727, specifically refers to the relationship between Japan and the United States of America after World War II. After the U.S. bombed Hiroshima and Nagasaki, in the recover y and reconstruction of the Japanese cities as well as the development into an industrialized culture, Japan started to idealize American pop culture. After the bombings, Japan surrendered to the U.S. in 1945, while the Americans started to occupy Japan in order to demilitarize and democratize the nation. The Americans took control of the government, allowing the communist party to exist, decentralized the education system and dismantled finances to the military in an attempt to weaken the government. The U.S. did not care about the economic state of Japan, yet it still made treaties between Japan and other Asian. Japan's economic recovery is known a miracle, but the Japanese economy relied a lot on the USA. Japan also became an industrialized country revolving around a consumerist culture. Japanese anime culture also arises during the post war time along with other cultural changes, in the end creating a divide between Japanese culture before the war and after. Murakami sees arts as part of the economy of Japan. In such a way Murakami carved a new entrepreneurial model from his art. The model in essence is the shift from a consumer based society to a service oriented economy.

Hiropon Miss Ko2

Flower Matango

Collaboration â&#x20AC;&#x153;His expert melding of the popular with the time-honored has resulted in this humorous and celebratory representation of the past, present, and future of Japanese art.â&#x20AC;? - MoMA

Resources: http://faculty.georgetown.edu/irvinem/theory/LA-MOCA-Murakami-Guide.pdf Image source: http://www.thecityreview.com/s03ccon1.html http://www.ifashionnetwork.com/say-farewell-louis-vuittons-multicolore-monogram/9017 http://s304.photobucket.com/user/rocco_fire/media/ohmylord.jpg.html http://www.wikiart.org/en/takashi-murakami/flower-matango-2006 http://arttattler.com/archivepoplife.html

Flowers Consumerism (as seen in the Louis Vuitton Collaboration) is one of the themes that Murakami has repeated in his works, as well as other motifs such as anime (as seen in Miss Ko2), pop art (as seen in Flowers), western influences (as seen in Flower Matango) and sexuality (as seen in Hiropon) as well as traditional Japanese art. In the piece 727 Murakami combines his motifs of consumerism and western influences through the name of the piece, anime through the character Mr. DOB and traditional Japanese art through the making and panels of the piece.


727 Takashi Murakami,1996

727 is a piece that has been constructed from Japanese style, Nihongo, as well as anime style.

727 and I Am Become Death, Shatterer of Worlds have symbols represented in the painting that is very representative of the artists work such as the connection to pop culture and the connection to death through the use of dead animal respectively. In other words, both Hirstâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s piece and Murakamiâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s piece follow common trends in the artworks, which have become motifs, or repetitive use of symbols. 727 and I Am Become Death, Shatterer of Worlds have a energetic feeling because of the colors. Vibrant color are themes of both the pieces as well as multiple other pieces from the artists. They are both flat pieces, painted, or made, on a flat canvas.

Comparative study Structure:

Both 727 and Guernica have symbols relating to tragic events, being the atomic bombs in Japan and the Spanish war respectively. In the case of Guernica, it is the Spanish war and all the necessary death of the town of Guernica. While for 727, it is the a commentary on the result of the second world war bombing. They are both are surreal. Both of them have aspects of the painting that cannot be seen in real life. More specifically, the subjects in Guernica, although they are people, they cannot be seen in real life because of their proportions. On the other hand, 727 has an anime character as the main subject. They are both made with oil/acrylic paint. They both combine two different art making techniques. Picasso combined cubism and surrealism in the creation of his artwork, while Murakami used Nihonga and anime style art making processes. They both, consequentially, have styles used that use line boarders around the characters. The composition of the picture in different in terms of layout and negative space, as 727 has a large amount of negative space and Guernica does not leave very much room for negative space.

All three of the pieces, 727, I Am Become Death, Shatterer of Worlds and Guernica are large in size, and is the most evident connecting feature in the structure of the pieces. Due to this feature, they are all able to convey stronger emotions as they engulf the audience. The size can also be related to the importance the artist put on the piece, and clearly with the size of the three pieces at hand the artists wanted the importance they put on it to be noticeable.

I Am Become Death, Shatterer of Worlds,

Damien Hirst, 2006 I Am Become Death, Shatterer of Worlds is unique in the sense that is was not made with traditional art materials, by using butterfly wings, in other words it is not very common to make a piece out of butterfly wings and household glue.

Guernica Pablo Picasso, 1937

Guernica is Black and white, giving it a morbid feeling, Picasso uses Cubism in this piece, a new (of the time) style. Guernica is a sensational piece that has been able to hold vary many symbols within a contracted structure as the figures and symbols fill the whole canvas.

I Am Become Death, Shatterer of Worlds and Guernica use a symbol to represent death, in Guernica depicting actual dead person, while the I Am Become of Death, Shatterer of Worlds has actual dead butterflies. Both pieces have symbols relating to eyes that are watching. In Guernica it is the illuminati, and in I Am Become Death, Shatterer of Worlds is the concentric circles, but these eyes also face different ways.


727 Takashi Murakami,1996 The purpose of 727 is to show how war has affected the Japanese culture Murakami, through this piece, talks about consumerism while connecting other typical themes Murakami uses in his artwork.

I Am Become Death, Shatterer of Worlds and 727 refer to the Atomic Bomb, although Hirst intended the connection to be made through the title and Murakami intended it to be made through the depiction of a symbol of the culture of Japan after the atomic bomb. The biggest influence on Japan from the war is the dropping of the first nuclear bombs, which is commented through the representation of the mutated Mr. DOB. Furthermore, I Am Become Death, Shatterer of Worlds is directly taken from the words of a developer of the atomic bomb, with a few alterations. Hirstâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s intention was to symbolize a new age, one where death may be common.

Comparative study Function and Purpose:

Both 727 and Guernica refer to a specific culture and make a statement about the current state of it. In Guernica Picasso uses Spanish symbolism to convey his displeasure about the Spanish war as well as the suffering of those directly affected. He directly, though symbolism, fights against the reasons to fight by representing the reasons not to fight. 727 addresses the Pablo Picasso, culture less aggressively and emotionally but non the less makes a statement about the Japanese culture that is present today. Murakami addresses the Western influence that has morphed traditional Japanese culture in order to This one, Guernica, is make a statement to let Japan follow its own cultural calling instead of the only piece that becoming Westernized. promotes peace Both the artists, Murakami and Picasso, intentionally. convey how the war has affected them and their culture. Clearly, though his artwork, it can The purpose of Guernica is to be seen that Picasso is extremely hurt by the demonstrate the pains and terrors suffering of those affected by the war. of war, unlike the other pieces. Murakami addresses more about how the war has affected the culture in the long term.

Guernica

727, I Am Become Death, Shatterer of Worlds and Guernica connect to war, but they all do so with different purposes, commenting on different aspects of war and death. 727 argues about to the long term effects of the atomic bomb in Japan. I Am Become Death, Shatterer of Worlds challenges the perspective on death and the effect on the value of life of the development of the atomic bomb. Guernica conveys the suffering of war through the depiction of the Spanish war.

I Am Become Death, Shatterer of Worlds, Damien Hirst, 2006 The function of the piece is a celebration of death rather than a comment on the horrors of death. The connection to war is through the title, but the main purpose of the piece is to transmit the sense of sublime. Only piece to transmit a sense of beauty as a main purpose.

1937

I Am Become Death, Shatterer of Worlds and Guernica intently relate to death but with the intention of conveying death in a different way than is typically perceived. While in Guernica the death of all the people of the town of Guernica happened because of a bomb test, Picasso wanted to shed the light of it being a tragedy on it, and since became a iconic piece about death considering there has never been a piece to convey the terror of war so fiercely. On the other hand, I Am Become Death, Shatterer of Worlds takes the feeling of death to be beautiful, more beautiful than usually conveyed, almost even mystical and immortal. Both are intended to challenge or change the viewers perspective. As in Guernica the purpose was to basically say that it is enough of this war and suffering and terror and opened eyes to the feelings of being in the middle of it to the audience. While in I Am Become Death, Shatterer of Worlds, there is a shock element because the first thought usually involve how beautiful and cheerful it is, but then the realization of the piece being correlated with death comes in and changes the viewers perspective through the connection with something that is supposed to be ugly and avoided.


727 Takashi Murakami,1996 This piece is much more peaceful than the other two works. This is the only piece to use pop culture to depict an idea. This piece is unique in the way that it connects more than one culture, in fact, it connects three.

Both I Am Become Death, Shatterer of Worlds and 727 were made after the event it is related to, the war and the atomic bomb. They are both associated and inspired by the influences of the atomic bomb. I Am Become Death, Shatterer of Worlds and 727 are commentaries on the culture, or towards culture in order to bring a new perspective of the way of life.

!

I Am Become Death, Shatterer of Worlds addresses death is a beautiful light as the new age has come when death is more easy to cause, as seen with the devastating influences of the atomic bomb. However, 727 is a commentary on how the atomic bomb has complete changed the culture of Japan, who now, according to Murakami, wants to become western.

!

Both artists have a tendency to create colorful/ vivid pieces through color. This has brought a lively feeling to the pieces although the may have dark meanings.

Comparative study Cultural Significance

Both Guernica and 727 depict how war has affected the culture, but Guernica does so though the suffering of the people while 727 does it though the criticism of the people who want to be more wester as an influence of the bomb and destruction of the culture.

!

Both use symbols from the culture they where created in. Guernica uses Spanish symbols such as the bull while 727 uses anime and the use of ukiyo-e panels.

!

Both pieces deal with international relationships. Guernica, obviously, by addressing the war that was going on between multiple countries. 727 addresses international relations by the dependency Japanese culture has made on the influences of western culture.

All three of the artworks connect to war, but they all do so from different standpoints, resulting from different cultures. Interestingly enough, they all came from the influence of a bomb. All three are also know for transmitting new ideas and emotions. In the case of 727, it is the revelation to the audience that the country is striving to westernization, presented in a poisonous manner. In Guernica, the emotions of the piece are what most appeals to the audience. I Am Become Death, Shatterer of Worlds, on the other hand, persuades the viewers to rethink what they think about death, and the value of death after the development of the atomic bomb.

I Am Become Death, Shatterer of Worlds,

Damien Hirst, 2006 The piece is part of a series, Kaleidoscope. This is the only piece that is known for itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s superficial beauty, in other words, the beauty part of the piece without considering the meaning of it. This is the only piece to be looked at through a breach of animal rights lens.

Guernica Pablo Picasso, 1937 Out of the three works shown here, this is the only piece to be censored politically Made during war time, in other words, during the time/event that the piece depicts.

Both pieces, I Am Become Death, Shatterer of Worlds and Guernica received criticism as well as praise. For Guernica it was a development from criticism to praise through time and understanding, from which it has had time to be able to become as iconic as it is now. While I Am Become Death, Shatterer of Worlds is still currently being criticized, by animal rights activists, and praised, by art enthusiasts, at the same time.

! !

I Am Become Death, Shatterer of Worlds and Guernica have a shock effect, as they are unexpected from the audience standpoint. Both pieces play with the morals of the viewer. Guernica addresses the morals in terms of how can the audience let war even happen when it brings so much pain, suffering and terror, which is exactly the reason there is a replica in the security council in the UN. I Am Become Death, Shatterer of Worlds challenges the standpoint of the audience because he is representing death, something usually ugly, in a beautiful manner and the audience does not always want to make that association. Differently from 727, both pieces where made in western cultures.


!"#$%&'() !"#$%&!'("))%*&+,-. ,-.*&-/+&0&.12&(3 My own artwork has been greatly influences by the captivation of Picassoâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Guernica. Guernica can be looked at for hours and hours; it has so many symbols and themes, so many feelings transmitted through the expressions, so many feelings that can be related to even when someone has not experienced them exactly. The facial expressions and the thought gone into the piece makes it come alive. I, and countless others, hold this piece in high regards and I hope to be able to create a piece with as much feeling as Guernica. Guernica encouraged me to look at my pieces more politically and emotionally, while trying to make an emotional connection with the audience even when they cannot relate.

Making connections to my own art-making practice

In my piece, Change of Season, I look at conflicts around the world in a political manner, something Guernica inspired me to do. I also tried to make it connect with the audience on an emotional level as Guernica did, although I did not use human figure nor facial expressions as Picasso did. I believe I need more practice in terms of emotional connection as I believe this piece falls short. It also does not relate to Guernica as it does not have any human figures/symbols. Rather I took my own twist to it and make it connect to nature

Facial expression example from Guernica

New Age In terms of human figures and their expression, I was inspired by Guernica in my piece New Age. I decided to make the subject of the piece to look slightly in pain as well as shielding herself, just like in Guernica, how the figures gave signs of the purpose of the piece, and adding the intended atmosphere. Although I may have been bias when making this piece in terms of I wanted to create a more negative look in her face because I felt very impacted by Guernica, I believe because of this piece I now know that just as Guernica was made through the feelings about the subject of Picasso, I need to find my own way of conveying my feelings in my pieces through the choices and symbols I use. What I want to focus on now is relaying them through symbols as in Guernica. Change of Season


Making connections to my own art-making practice !"#$"%&'($&")&*+,-".,*++&/&/"(0"1(/234"#$%&'!(%)*+,!-../0 Damian Hirst has created so many pieces that connect grotesque aspects and beautiful presentation, making a unique sense of awe and discussed that stabs at your moral compass. In my function and purpose I have taken this strange combination as inspiration for some of my pieces, such as Masked. Although I do not combine death and beauty such as in I Am Become Death, Shatterer of Worlds, I do combine cockroaches and camouflage in a way that the audience has to think about what this flying insect is. Although it is not noticeably a cockroach, it is still an insect but on top of colorful, childlike pattern, combining a insect that is often though about as gross and common innocence. I had the opportunity to see most of the Kaleidoscope series in the exhibition in Doha in 2013. The shear size of all the pieces was impressive, but most of all, the contradicting feeling I was having about the series. On one hand I was thinking that it was beautiful and on the other hand I was wondering if I should support this because of all the dead butterflies. I want to be able to cause conflicting emotions in my artwork as well. I think combining two very separate themes, that no one wants to be together is a very good way of making the audience think about it in a new manner and question what they knew, just as Hirst did. Although in I Am Become Death, Shatterer of Worlds, Hirst is presenting the topic of death, something that can be very touchy and usually respected and not played with along with beauty, which death is not often and even might be the end of beauty. I take a different look into it and slightly make fun of being disgusted by insects by presenting them in a series of different other themes, such as the hands for childlike qualities and the news paper for a common everyday feeling. In a way my piece is trying to almost shock the audience and make them think about the themes just as Hirst’s piece does.

Concept of Identity,

In my piece, Concept of Identity, I do not take any of the themes of Hirst’s work but rather I take some of the formal qualities as inspiration. My piece is perfectly symmetrical in terms of shape, yet the patterns make it intricate and complex, just as in Hirst’s I Am Become Death, Shatterer of Worlds, In both pieces, the audience can look at it for a long time without getting bored because they share the same intricateness that can be captivating through the use of color and shape. Both pieces have a feeling of life as well as a slight stale lifeless feeling, through the representation of something that is not alive in very lively ways, because butterfly wings are not alive and triangles are not alive. I found that this is a aspect of Hirst’s art that has worked very well with my style of art and was very worth getting inspired by.

Masked


Making connections to my own art-making practice

727 follows very well with Takashi’s other pieces, as it was build on the themes from his development as an artist. The cultural significance of his piece is prominent in Japan as a cometary of westernization utilizing art making processes. Since the significance of his pieces are strong when the audience understands his motifs, I hope I can adopt a feeling of understanding in my pieces as I improve my art making techniques and follow a theme. Just as Murakami has his signature anime developed themes, I hope to be able to create themes that can be identified, such as patterns in Harmony in Chaos and in Concept of identity, as well as Concept of Identity in relation to Firecracker.

Harmony in Chaos Concept of Identity

Firecracker Animation screenshot

!"!!"#$%&'&()"*&'&+,)!"-../0 I used to live in Japan and I studied Murakami and his influence while I was there. This influence me to look more at him in relation to Japan. The culture of Japan was very different from my own Latin-American culture. For me it seemed that the culture was very harmonious and aesthetic,yet at the same time kind of chaotic from an outsiders standpoint. In my piece, Harmony in Chaos, I try to connect to these feelings of living in Japan and the culture shock I experienced. I very much liked Murakami’s interpretation and it made very much since while I was there. The formal qualities and art making processes of 727 reflect very well in the purpose of the piece. This is something I want to be able to include in my piece and have done so successfully in Harmony in Chaos. Just as in 727 I used multiple layers to achieve a complex background, although the function is slightly different, 727 uses the layers to give a sense of rusted, warn and complex, I use the layers mostly for complexity and to express chaos. In Murakami’s piece, 727, he uses a medium that intentionally does not look perfect, by using multiple layer and repeatedly rubbing part off, somewhat faulty through age and wear. This use of ‘faulty’ or imperfect is something I hope to be able to use to my advantage, combining the the roughest of the background and the softness and smoothness of the fish. This can mirror the traditional Japanese style Murakami uses combined with the anime style motifs. My themes do not have as much life in theme as Murakami’s, but they do have the contrast of themes.

Harmony in Chaos


CAMERON


Predator or Prey? (Tarantula) [Detail 1.]

Predator or Prey? (Tarantula Hawk) [Detail 2.]

Predator or Prey? Pencil, charcoal, chalk, cartridge paper; 113.8 cm x 118.4 cm; 113.8 cm x 118.4 cm; Mar. 2015


1

The Inside Scope: Virgin Mary, Lino Prints, 139 cm x 129 cm


We Can Be Anything You Need, Digital Video on Ipads, 17 sec. Nov. 2015 ! display of film stills of video loop "


We Can Be Anything You Need, Digital Video, 17 sec. Nov. 2015 !Film detail"


Window to He!, Installation, Found object# strobe light, plastic toy spiders, fabric, mirror, canvas150 cm x 50 cm x 50 cm, Jan 2016


Window to Hell, Installation, Found object- strobe light, plastic toy spiders, fabric, mirror, canvas150 cm x 50 cm x 50 cm, Jan 2016


Communication of Ideas and Intentions!

Idea #2! ! Aside from some spiders and bugs, I also share a room with scorpions. Never before in my life did I expect to share a room with scorpions, and it is extremely surprising to find one in your closet. "! "! I thought a way to capture these element of fear and awe would be through drawing them. Not only would the process be mildly therapeutic for me emotionally handling my arthropod roommates, but I would gain a greater sense of appreciation for these species and the detail that makes them up. ! "! I have seen many still life of plants, humans, and landscapes, but I honestly haven’t seen many drawings of spiders, scorpions, or bugs. Maybe this is a chance for people to pay more attention to them - find the beauty in something that scares them. ! "! I also thought a lot about perspective, and how different things and people see the world. It is more often than not, people get caught up in their own life and how they see the world - myself included. A hope with this piece is that it draws people out of their eye sockets and into a different place, with a different perspective and empathy. ! "! I sure am not incredibly empathetic to the mosquitos in my room - I could be and think twice about this ! "! "! Idea #3!

PROCESS PORTFOLIO

Idea #1 Predator or Prey?! ! One of the naturalists at University of Georgia (UGA) Costa Rica, the university campus my school is staying at, gave our art class a presentation on different insect species in the area. At the presentation, I was introduced to the Tarantula Hawk. Essentially, this wasp was a predator of the Tarantula - paralyzing the spider to insert its eggs into it, the eggs eating the spider from the inside out. ! "! When he showed us a video of a battle between a Tarantula Hawk and a Tarantula, I was mildly horrified. For one, the pair was brutal, violent, and savage. The two beings fought for their survival with such ferocity that my eyes were glued to the screen in a mix of nausea and fascination. ! "! In my time in Costa Rica, our classrooms, bungalow rooms, and campus had a couple of local residents. By local residents, I mean scorpions, tarantulas, snakes, mosquitos, and other critters. I’ll be the first person to admit that I don’t exactly enjoy the company of such creatures, yet I found a place in my gut to become interested in the species that was, in a sense, my roommates. ! "! I thought about the scale at which this was happening. If had seen this in real life, I could have stepped over the fight in one stride; however, if I was an ant, a beetle, or some other bug, I would be terrified. ! "! Through this piece, I want to insinuate that fear of being between these two forbidding creatures by creating a piece with them. ! "! Science records finding through drawings and sketching. "I "realized the most powerful way was to create a still life drawing on a grander scale. Since the tarantula and spider wasp are enemies, I wanted to show the contrast between the two. For the tarantula I used "black on white with pencil and paper and then for the spider wasp I used white on black using pencil, charcoal, chalk and black paper. !

The past two were mostly centered around fear. I had to stop and ask myself the question - do I really want to do a piece on fear? What about doing a piece solely on something beautiful, delicate? What about a butterfly?! "! I did an experimentation of the butterfly and I realized how grotesque the butterfly is. Often we get distracted by the beauty of the wings and neglect the furry body and legs. ! "! I felt that doing a piece on the butterfly would almost be counter productive in making an audience appreciate the beauty of something and instead make a little nausea because the drawing would have a poetic facade and a more grotesque reality. ! "! . "! Beauty or the Beast. The more I studied these bugs, the more I saw the beauty and complexity of these amazing creatures. Being scared of things can paralyze and cause people to do irrational things, however, if you take time to understand and get to know the things you are afraid of, your perspective will most likely completely change. It’s similar to getting to know your enemy. If you take the time to open your eyes, you will soon appreciate many beauties that the have to offer. !

#

My intention with Predator or Prey is to reach down into the dark fear zone of the viewer. Everyone is afraid of something and I want to evoke a scare factor when the viewer sees my drawings. I want the spider to be overwhelming to the viewer, the proportions similar to how a preyed upon beetle would view the spider. This effect would make the viewer contemplate their own relationship with the world around them, as well as triggering the fight or flight response. ! !

My planning sketches – I was deciding which paper I wanted to use for the Tarantula and Tarantula Wasp. !

A photo I took of a scorpion in my room. !

#

A photo I took of a tarantula taxidermy at UGA Costa Rica!

Would it be reasonable to make an idealized state of these bugs? To hyperbolize the beauty of them?A! photo "!

I took of a tarantula taxidermy at UGA Costa clvi Rica!


Drawing: Skills and Techniques!

Source image: photograph from me!

Drawing was something that I have always enjoyed. It is a simplest form of communication and probably the most primitive way that human beings started to communicate. I never really took a formal drawing class, and this class was my first real introduction on drawing techniques. Making notes and reflecting while going through the art-making process really allowed me to understand the skills necessary. Perception, visualization and practice seem to help advance the necessary skills for effective drawing. ! !

General Drawing Techniques!

Sketching and Drawing! The technique I used for these were pencil and paper for the tarantula and. I kept a small book and made quick sketches to get a sense of proportion and how I wanted it the pieces to look. I reviewed numerous pictures and sketches for the final drawings. Since my drawing was to be on a large scale, I decided to break the drawing up into (12) sections. This way, I could break down the drawings into segments and focus on each section. One of the things I noticed about drawing was that I was very particular in the instrument that I used. I was partial to certain pencils and also how sharp the point was at the end. I started my drawing with an under drawing and then started to build from there. The under drawing gave me the basic structure and then I could add details as I progressed. ! ! Your pencil should be sharp and, especially when using white paper, be careful about the cleanness of your hand. A lot of the time, the graphite, chalk, or charcoal will end up on your hand and you will smudge the paper. Also, if you rest your hand on a part of the illustration when you are drawing a different part, most likely you will smudge the other part. Be careful of that so that you don’t ruin an area that you spent a while trying to perfect the details of or !

On the butterfly, I tried out pen, pencil, chalk, and charcoal. I didn’t really like pen, partially because I couldn’t go back and correct what I did. I liked pencil the most because I felt like it is simpler to understand, but I can really see the value of chalk and charcoal. ! I experimented with different papers and their effects. I liked the contrast of the white and the black paper, although the look of the brown paper is cool. However, if I want to show a contrast, I think that the white and the black paper are more effective. !

Experimentation!

charcoal drawing and paper for the spider wasp! ! Shadowing and shading was a technique that I learned in class with my instructor. It was the technique of adding different degrees (or levels) of darkness or lightness to a drawing. Adding shading and shadowing to my art gave it depth and a more realistic feeling. Using small precision lines and blending it with a soft feel enhanced the look of the drawing. I used different pressures with my pencil -- hard in some areas and then light and soft in other places. Building on your shades was something that was really enlightening as I realized that you can build up or tone down based on how you shade the areas. Blending was another technique that I used with shadowing and shading to give a more integrated look and pull the areas together. ! !

Different mediums!

Different papers!

Sketching and Drawing! Shadowing and Shading !

Experimentation!

Tarantula! The tarantula was definitely my learning curve for drawing ability.! ! It was here that I really learned how to look at something as a shape and figure out how I can create that shape instead of think ‘oh! That is a leg,’ and overwhelming myself about how I could draw the leg. !

Me shading the center of the spider!

Tarantula Wasp"! A key technique for the Tarantula Wasp was blending. The paper that was used wasn’t the smoothest surface, and the drawing ! ! Therefore, I mostly used a a mix of tonal shading with crosshatching and regular hatching. !

Details of the spider wasp!

Darkened the spider wasp through shading! Details of the spider wasp!

Details of the spider wasp!


Process: Making the Tarantula and Tarantula Hawk! Tarantula"! In general, this drawing took me a while to do. It was large, and my perfectionism definitely took hold of my hand and attention to detail!

Sketching it out!

! I actually spent a while sketching out my spider. I used Photoshop to split the photo into relative squares so that I could really draw it accurately. !

Tarantula Hawk! By the time I was drawing the Tarantula Hawk, I was a more confident drawer. !

Sketching it out out!

! I used the same process with Photoshop to draw out the basic ! of! Structure of The body. I ! an! created an underdrawing! underdrawing to help get ! the ! tarantula proportions ! wasp correct ! progress!

General Darker Areas! ! After sketching, I used a duller pencil to put down general color in the spider – where it was darker I would put more graphite. ! ! During this process, it was emphasized that I need to shade lightly and gradually – that way, if I mess up there aren’t huge repercussions for erasing. !

General Lighter areas and darker areas! The wings, lower body and highlight details were the light areas. I used a very sharp pencil and held it very lightly. I also created a chalk powder and used my fingers to blend it in. Charcoal was used to add darker details. I used different pressures with the chalk ad charcoal to achieve different effects. !

tarantula wasp progress!

Section by Section Section! For the spider, I took it ‘leg by leg’ before tackling the center. I worked ‘outside in’. ! ! I started with the bottom legs of the spider, partially because it looked way less daunting that the very detailed center. ! !

Finer Details!

Details of the tarantula!

After I had finished the tarantula, I went through and made any last corrections – erasing my finger smudges, putting down a little more detail in certain areas, and really just cleaning up my image. ! ! !

Details of the tarantula!

Screen of the part I was drawing!

section Work section by section! Having the creature divided up into 12 sections allowed me to get a more accurate drawing. It was easier to analyze each segment and ! Make sure the ! proportions ! matched up. ! Also, the smaller! boxes were easier! to work with and! I didn’t smudge! the piece as much ! as I could have if! tarantula it was a large ! wasp Illustration. ! progress!

Details Final Details! Adding in more details to the spider wasp was a little more involved than the tarantula. The white was a little harder to work with and chalk is not! easy to sharpen. I used charcoal to! add more shading and give more! contrast. ! The black! paper was fun! to work with! as it can pick! Up a lot of! details you ! don’t expect. ! tarantula wasp progress!


Communication Communication of of Ideas Ideas and and Intentions! Intentions! Idea #1! Mary’s cover is an instance of religious market theory. Religion has become a business. Churches and people have monetized the selling of religious goods and services. Also, churches rely on a continuous stream of financial donations. ! Photo I took of a Monastery in Meteora, Greece Greece!

Idea #3! When traveling to Meteora in Greece, the monasteries for Eastern Orthodox monks, my class was given an in-depth explanation for the history of the era - from the initial monks early as around 300 A.D to present. I noticed a trend there as well. The guide explained in one of the oldest standing churches there, that iconography was used to illustrate stories because the general population was illiterate. The stories that were depicted on the front entrance were the stories of the horrors the Martyrs went through to ! Photo I took of a Monastery in Meteora, Greece!

Idea #2! During my time in Athens, Greece, I was shocked by the use of iconography and commercialization of religion. Never before had I seen shops that would sell priests robes, crests with Jesus Christ and Virgin Mary on it, or crucifixes by the dozen. After recovering from that shock, I became a tad bit frustrated. Why are they selling and making a private profit off of something that is supposed to be universally good and spiritual? Is this part of a scheme? Is this what is done for the sake of spreading the ‘word of god?’ Possibly, this is what is done to compensate for the decrease in popularity of Christianity in Europe; however, within Greece, the Eastern Orthodox faith was still going strong. I happened to be there during Greek Easter, and the amount of people present and participating in the holiday was absolutely baffling. The streets were populated with people! ! ! This experience got me thinking about iconography and its purposes. ! Photos I took of a Monastery in Meteora, Greece!

I Idea #4! In a Monastery in that area as well, there were cardboard cutouts depicted the story of how a monk founded this monastery. In the same area was also a depiction of Jesus Christ on a crucifix in probably to most idealized for I have seen. He was surrounded by flowers, washboard abs (showing strength?) and ribs (showing suffering?) ! Then I began to contemplate why a religion would do such a thing. !

Idea #6! A lino print allows you to use the same image with different effects and colors. It allows you to layer colors and give each piece a different feeling and showing different perspectives on the same illustration. Each one tells a different story and can elicit different emotions and feelings. Just like religion, people can perceive the same story in a different way and it has different effects on the way they internalize it. !

Idea #5! “Syrup,” a movie about marketing. According to the movie, all marketing is about making the product ‘sexy’. Their ongoing theme was that, for marketing, it wasn’t so much as the substance that got being going, but how you packaged it. !

Photos I took of a Monastery in Meteora, Greece!


Critical Investigation! In our art class, we were exposed to the art of printmaking and linocuts. The technique and process fascinated me. Linocut prints have a distinct look and feel to them and I could immediately identify works of art that came from this print making process. ! ! The most inspirational artist that I researched was Andy Warhol. He used innovative techniques for producing impressions and were similar to printmaking. He would apply ink to paper and then blot it while it was still wet. This technique was use for rendering commercial objects for advertising. !

â&#x20AC;&#x153;El inventor del inflantos scopioâ&#x20AC;?! I found this Spanish artist on Instagram. He posted a photo and was able to view his work. I found his printmaking style to be similar to some of the work I was doing. He has a similar visual to my cover art. His work is a commentary on commercialization within religion. The Virgin Mary holding the cell phone and baby Jesus Christ in the other depicts the modern mother projected onto a well know icon. The technique for this piece of art is dry point. Many of his works are with linocuts and lithography. !

Jacques Hnizdovsky is a Ukrainian-American printmaker born in 1915. He is know for over 375 prints from linocuts, woodcuts and etchings. He worked in the commercial design world and then wanted to make it on his own as an independent artist in NY. His complex linocuts received awards for this complex composition. One of his greeting cards depicted a similar image as my cover image. ! Jacques Hnizdovsky Christmas card 1950. Linocut.!

Andy Warhol began screen printing in the 1960s. Back then there were many trade secrets for printmaking and it was not widely shared information. The process was lengthy and not well understood. His first silkscreen image was of Marilyn Monroe. Marilyn Monroe had just committed suicide and Warhol wanted this haunting photo to be the subject of his piece. The first series was of Marilyn Monroe and Warhol used a variety of color combinations for the series. The series inspired Warhol to develop other series using the same process.! After researching about the methodology that! Warhol used for the Marilyn Monroe series, it ! seemed befitting to include him as part of my! inspiration for the Virgin Mary Cover. ! Warhol has been an influential artist of his! time and has been at the forefront of the! modern movement of art.! !

! ! Syrup is an edgy movie about! the world of ! concept of the marketing and advertising. The ! sells. The film is about new concept â&#x20AC;&#x201C; sex movie is about moving quickly!! up the later and how advertising and marketing ! can drastically influence the decision making! process for ! consumers. ! ! !

Links:! !"#$%%&'()*+*,-)*./0+10(1-2'3%0(1%4*56#0#*(72'8809*71*:1,(*7;<=>?@<=AB !"#$%%8/"8*C*6,60+)3*-D8'96#'1-2'3BB https://iconreader.! !"#$%%555-2'#E2-+*1%F+2G28'#*)/0H'#E20%B !"#$%%*8/+.*+1'()*8/+&0+1'62'#/'-D/920(1*8-2'3%BB !"#$%%555-2'63'#'8/10+-2'3%BB !"#$%%0(E28*-5+-2'3%./*5%<=I>%=;%I?%J!GK)'K5'3*+K6E88K*0(+K6'K3,2!K8*66K1!0+K3*+%B


Skills and Techniques: Developing the Image and Carving! #$%&'()*%&+"%,"-$.)/&+"0$%&',"1$")&"%(0$.,,%1&"2$1(" 1&.",13$-.4"5)-6"0$%&'"%,")"3&%73.")&8"1$%+%&)9"0%.-." ::"&1'")"-10;4"<"9%&1:-3'"1$"0%.-."12"9%&19.3(")&8"=: ,6)0.8"+13+.">-3?&+"'119@"%,"3,.8"'1"8.=.910"'6." %993,'$)/1&4"A6)'"2),-%&)'.8"(."B%'6"0$%&'"()*%&+" B),"'6.")(13&'"12"=%=%8"-191$,"C"-1398"3,.8"'1"+.'")" 9);.$.8".D.-'4"E%F%&+"'6."-191$,"%&"8%D.$.&'" ,.73.&-.,")991B.8"(."'1"6)=."8%D.$.&'"2..9%&+,")&8" 911*,4"C'"B),"'6."0.$2.-'"'.-6&%73."'1",61B"'6." 8%D.$.&'"2)-.,"12"'6."G%$+%&"E)$;"H1=.$4"" I6."'.-6&%73."12"0$%&'"()*%&+"B."8%8"B),"$.83-/1&" 0$%&'"()*%&+J"B6.$."B."3,."'6.",)(."9%&1"0%.-."'1" ()*.")99"12"'6.".8%/1&,"K"-)$=%&+")"9);.$J"0$%&/&+J" -)$=%&+"'6."&.F'"9);.$J")&8"0$%&/&+"3&/9"L&%,6%&+" '6."0$%&'"B%'6")99"12"'6%,"0%.-.,4""

Experimentations! Y.$."C" B)&'.8"'1" .F0.$%(.&'" -$.)/&+" &.+)/=." ,0)-.4""

C&"'6%,".F0.$%(.&')/1&J"C" B),"0$)-/-%&+"'6." $.83-/1&"(.'618J"'6." 9%&1"(.'618"'6)'"C"B1398" N."3,%&+"%&"'6."-$.)/&+"12" (;"1'6.$"0%.-.4"" C")-'3)99;"'6%&*"'6)'"%'" -)(."13'"&%-.9;4""

!"

Actual Piece! I6%,"%,"(;",*.'-6%&+"12"'6."N3$%&"'6)'"C"3,.8"%&"'6."0$1-.,,"12"-)$=%&+"(;"%()+.4""

Actual Piece! !"#"$%&'()*'$$+,-./0%(" C"3,.8"#61'1,610"'1"-$.)'."'6%,"%()+.4"" O4! C"213&8")"=.-'1$"%()+."21$"'6."H1,(1019%')&"91+1"" O4! >9%&*@" P4! C"3,.8"'6."()+%-"B)&8"'119"'1",.9.-'"'6."N)-*+$13&8"12"'6."%()+.")&8" 8.9.'.8"%'" Q4! I6.&"C"3,.8"'6.",6)0."'119"'1"09)-."-$.)'."-%$-9.,J")&8"'6."'.F'"'119"'1" %&,.$'"'.F'"" R4! I6.&"C"3,.8"'6."S'6$.,6198T")8U3,'(.&'"%&"#61'1,610"'1"-$.)'."'6."V)W.$" %()+."K"B6%-6")991B,"'6."061'1"'1"N."'$)&,2.$$.8"'1"'6."0$%&'"21$()'"

X1$"'6."'.F'J"C"B),""

Z&-."C"6)8"(;" 8$)B%&+")&8" 8.')%9," L&)9%M.8J"C" $.=.$,.8"(;" 8$)B%&+4"I6." %993,'$)/1&"1&" '6."9%&1:-3'"%," '1"()*.")" 0$%&'")&8"%'" (3,'"N." V%00.8"%&" 1$8.$"'1"()*." '6."0$%&'," -1(."13'" -1$$.-'9;4""

I6%,"'6." &)$$1B.$"S[T" ,6)0.8"'1194"C'" %,"+118"21$" )$.),"B6.$."C" 81&T'"&..8"'6." 0$.-%,%1&"12"'6." &)$$1B.$"\G]" N3$%&")&8"B)," (1$.".^-%.&'" B%'6"-)$=%&+4""

I6%,"'6." B%8.$"S[T" ,6)0.8"'119J" '6)'"%,"N.,'" 21$"-)$=%&+" B%8.$")$.)," '6)'"81&T'" 6)=.")"91'"12" 8.')%9,4""

C"3,.8")"-6)$-1)9"'1",')$'"'6.&" 8$.B"B%'6"0.&-%9"1=.$"'6."9%&.," '1")--3$)'.9;"%993,'$)'."(;" ()+)M%&."-1=.$4"A6.&"C" L&%,6.8"13'9%&%&+J"C",')$'.8"'1" -)$=."13'"'6."0%-'3$."B%'6"'6." =:,6)0.8"+13+.4"C" .F0.$%(.&'.8"B%'6"8%D.$.&'" 8.0'6,"12"-3',4"C"$.)9%M.8"'6)'" '6."%'"B),"01,,%N9."'1")88"%&" '.F'3$."N;"3,%&+"8%D.$.&'" -3?&+"'.-6&%73.,")&8")9,1" ()*%&+"8%D.$.&'"9.=.9,"12"-3'," B1398"+%=.")"8%D.$.&'".D.-'4""

I6%,"'6." &)$$1B.$"SGT" ,6)0.8"N3$%&4" I6%,"'119"B)," '6."(1,'" N.&.L-%)9"'1"(." 21$"-)$=%&+"'6." 9%&1"N.-)3,."C" B),")N9."'1" ()*."-9.)&")&8" ,'$)%+6'"9%&.,"N;" 3,%&+"'6.",%8."12" '6."N3$%&4""

I6%,"'6."B%8.$" SGT",6)0.8" N3$%&4"C"8%8&T'" 3,."'6%,"'119" ),"(3-6" 3&9.,,"C"B)," /$.8"12"'6." B%8.$"S[T"'119" )&8"B)&'.8" '1"-9.)&"30" 9)$+.$")$.)," ,/994""

I6%,"'6."S'6%&T"" ,6)0.8"N3$%&J" '6)'"%,"N),%-)99;" U3,'")"N9)8.")&8" %'"+118"21$" 13'9%&%&+")&8" -9.)&%&+"1D" ,%8.,4""

C"B1398"N91B"1D" 1$"N$3,6"1D"'6." ,6)=%&+,4""


Skills and Techniques: Printing Printing!

Inking the Lino !

Ink on the Pallet Pallet!

The key for inking the lino is to evenly spread the ink, with about 3-5 layers of ink. !

Mixing the Ink Colors Colors!

Drying Dry ying Time !

Two different layers of reduction, showing the process of inking! I added a liquid to the pallet if the ink was too old and had begun to dry up.! When the paint on the lino-cut is applied correctly, you are ready for printmaking. The easiest technique is to have the paint covered "lino-cut facing up and then apply the paper on top of the paint. Use the roller or brayer to go over the back of the paper. This allows an even application of the paint to the paper. !

Printing! Printing

Drying time is a key part of printmaking because it dries very slowly. Each layer needs to be completely dried and took approximately 2-4 days. If you added more ink on a layer that hasn’t completely dried, then that wet color could blend and mix with the earlier paint layer. The effect could be different and give a muddied effect. !

Gold Paper Paper! Pri Printing on the gold paper was more difficult than I thought but it was a unique experience. There is less texture and pores on the gold paper and the paint doesn’t stick to it as it does other paper. The drying time for the gold paper was longer and took 1-2 days more. "!

Ink side up up!

I put the ink in a line here, ! then take my roller and drag it down, and then roll vertically and then horizontally. ! I also had to mix different inks together to make the color that I wanted, which is shown in the photograph here. !

Ink! Ink

This is my set up! A sketch explaining how I print! Don’t put too much ink on the lino because I did and it didn’t turn out too good for me. In a run where I did about 12 prints, I put too much ink on the lino, and ended up with about 8 prints that never dried past their first layer.!

Example of a print ink! with too little ink The two photos below are also example of a print with a bit too much ink!

When separating the paper from the lino block, I would first check to see how much ink pressed onto the paper. If there was enough, I would pull from one corner until the paper was off – usually with another person helping me. If there was not enough ink on the page, I would continuing ‘printing’. !

I also had to be careful how hard I pressed the paper into the lino, because some of the ink came off from the previous layer, for example in these two photographs. !

When rolling ink on the pallet with the brayer, it is important to note the thickness and texture of the ink. As stated in this photo, it should make a ‘sticky’ sound, but there should be a decent amount of ink on the roller and pallet still. !

To press the ink into the paper, I had to first line up the paper within a certain corner so that the image lines up with the previous image. I also used newspaper over the And then, I used my hand to just rub down edges so that I wouldn’t get ink on the paper so it is pressed into the paper. the tool as I went Then I used a baren, a over the edges. ! ruler, and a rubber tool to rub the back of the paper, pressing the ink into the paper from the lino. !


! s s

ce

o r P

The initial Carving ! After a series of brainstorms, I decided on my image. !

I had to print my image ‘backwards’ – a reflection of the image so that the words would read regularly. !

The initial Carving !

The initial Carving ! After printing my image on to a series of different sheets of paper that compiled the image, I taped the papers together and then rubbed charcoal all over the backside. Then, I taped the paper onto the lino that I used for this piece and drew my image out. ! ! ! ! After finishing drawing, I went over the lines in sharpie so that the lines wouldn’t disappear with washing the lino sheet in between prints. !

Printing!

Carving ! Then I began carving. ! ! This first carving took me longer than the other because I had more to carve out. I also was learning more techniques. !

Then I began carving!! ! This first carving took me longer than the other because I had more to carve a!

Printing!

Final piece! I thought the most efficient ways !


Idea #2 Best of All the Worlds!

Communication of Ideas and Intentions! Idea #1 Jesus’s Cover! After concluding my piece “Mary’s Cover”, I felt very influenced by commercialization and what it does to moral compasses and actionable intentions. The first significant icon that came to mind in the process of developing this ideal was Jesus Christ. ! In more aspects, Jesus Christ is a more iconic icon in the Church than the Virgin Mary – thus, required an even bigger and shocking advertisement. ! In a recent trip to New York City, I encountered advertisements in the Technicolor. There were billboards, posters, magazines, fliers, and the large flashing animated billboards of Times Square. From this experience, I concluded that I wanted to do a more digital piece, because that was the new age of advertisement. !

New York City! August 2015 – photo by me!

Sketches on the iPad ! June 2015 – sketch by me, time template from: !

Idea #3 We can be everything you need! After attempting Best of All the Worlds which developed from Jesus’s Cover – I realized that what I wanted to do was a sort of ‘cult advertising’ piece. I want to communicate with my audience that there is this ideal that religion adapts to the consumer – religion has a capitalism. Therefore, advertising and marketing to is a necessity for a religion to remain existent as an ideology. We can be everything you need is an advertisement for a cult that has picked and chosen elements from all of the most popular religions in the current modern world, mashed them all together in a pretty package, and is now trying to . Its tagline is “We can be anything you need,” implying the versatility and adaptability that this ‘cult’ or ‘new religion’ has to remain a popular choice. ! ! This piece is a satirical commentary on the lengths to which a desperate ideology would go to remain competitive in the capitalism and power struggle of the modern religious market. !

Story Boarding!

Street Art in Athens, Greece! June 2015 – photo by me!

Stills from experimentation!

After developing Idea #2 and Idea #3, which are extensions of the foundation laid by Idea #1 and each other, I questioned how the communication of these ideas ! ! Was it a commentary that was telling people so blatantly that it was a commentary? Or did I want it to be a commentary through how something was supposed to be advertised?!

I knew that I wanted to make it a shorter film. By making a shorter film, I would be able to loop the footage and it would have a more animated feel – as the advertisements in New York I saw. Another advantage of a short, looping film is its ability to communicate a message quickly and repeatedly – one of the qualities of consumers is their impatience and how digestible they want it to be. This piece has many layers, by embracing these qualities of other marketing videos, the video will hit the superficial first layer and the deeper layers will be visible to the audience as they watch it again with a more critical eye. !

When talking to my Art Teacher, Chung Man, I realized that remaining within Christian iconography is narrowing the scope of the message. If I went through with “Jesus’s Cover” I was, essentially, replicating the ideology and composition of “Mary’s Cover” with a different face and a very similar angle. She suggested looking into the iconography of various religions, thus making the implication more broad and providing me space to develop a more complex commentary. In the name of diversity, I thought about incorporating a variety of people of different genders, ethnicities and cultural identities. After establishing the diverse group, I would then dress them with a mishmash of religious clothing, items, and symbols. ! I also thought about and attempted to Photoshop paintings of religious icons on to one image, representing a harmonious ‘cult’ that incorporates all of the popular religions into one: ‘best of all the worlds.” !

Composition!

Religious paintings of Muhammad, Buddha, and Jesus Christ! ! Finished Gate Composition! For “Best of all the Worlds”!

Finished Gate Composition! For “We can be everything you need”!

I drew 9 different compositions for how the gate could look – I ended up selecting this one. I liked how it was simpler with two Christian crosses as the supporting the Torii gate, and the subject is the center of attention. !

When brainstorming this piece, I had multiple ideas on how to exhibit it. ! 1. 1.!

! 2. 2.!

! 3.! ! 4.! ! 5.!

Multiple iPads (3, 5, 6, or 10) – by having multiple screens, it would enhance the ideal of consumerism, mass reproduction, and would almost ‘stress’ the audience with the amount of flashing lights and chaos. ! Multiple iPads (4, 6, or 9) – edit the video so that, cumulatively placed together, they would create the image, then coordinate so that they would alternate between individually displaying the video and together displaying the video ! same ideas enhanced as the other iPad idea, except displayed differently. ! One Projection – by having a large project, it would make it impactful. ! One Laptop Screen – This is the backup plan if logistically, none of the others work out. ! Multiple Laptops (3 or 5) – Similar to the iPad idea, except with laptops and less screen – although high resolution!

I’m like ideas 1 and 2, but I think idea 1 is more realistic. !


Critical Investigation! In a TOK class, we touched on the extremely postmodern Religious Market Theory. In a paper by Robert A. Wortham titled “Religious Choices and Preferences: North Carolina’s Baskin Robbins Effect?”, Wortham cites another sociologist in explaining Religious Economics, a major component of Religious Market Theory. “The religious economy is comprised of the set of competing firms within a given geographic landscape (Stark 2004) (…) New products will continue to be offered until the religious market is sufficiently penetrated and reaches a saturation point.” In very blunt language, the Religious Market Theory is a postmodern perspective on how religions evolve in the capitalist economy. To gain popularity and ‘sell products’, Religions need to evolve with the society and the culture if it wants to continue to thrive.! ! Through such research, I came to the realization that, although the theory was not explicit in the development of my piece, “Mary’s Cover”, I was making similar if not the exact same argument. What differs “Mary’s Cover” from the piece I am currently developing is that “Mary’s cover” was a satirical piece targeting a specific Religion. As mentioned in the “Communication of Ideas and Intentions” page, I want to communicate a broader message by involving more religions. ! ! With this ideology in mind, I investigated different methods of visually incorporating different religions (icons, symbols, etc.) The practice of religions, over time, has evolved to adapt to the globalization and ‘needs of the people.’ Philosophies and ideologies in practice did not always uphold the purest of beliefs. I was looking how religions have evolved in the commercial world – the existence of ‘religious fusion’ where philosophies from a multitude of religions !

Mori Mariko! An inspiration for this piece is Mori Mariko. A Japanese artist born in 1969, she grew up with the age of technology and her art “explores universal question at the intersection of life, death, reality, and technology.” (skyny.com) A lot of her works in the late 90s contain religious symbolisms, namely religions of Asian decent such as Buddhism and Shintoism. ! I thought that the almost ‘comical’ compositions, and video-gameesque animation not only related back to her Japanese background where video games and anime are extremely popular, but also was that merging of surrealism and technology.! In particular, I was influenced by Pure Land, in which she took a photo/video of the black sea. !

Julian Opie!

Saint Hoax! This self proclaimed “PoPlitically incorrect artist” is “a pseudonymous Middle Eastern artist and sociopolitical activist.” He or she has retained their identity for safety purposes as their art is stirring. ! Saint Hoax main method of satire includes the appropriation of iconic public figures in compromising positions, thus commenting on culture, news, and reality. Saint Hoax claims to be “creating beautiful visual lies that tell an ugly truth.” How I actually found about about this artist was through a magazine called Plastik. According to its website and instagram bio, “Plastik is a magazine of culture and things related to creative culture.” “Visual magazine dedicated to new Creative Talents.” !

Massurrealism ! In my investigation, I came across a movement of art known as Massurrealism. It is essentially surrealism, but focused on technology created surrealism. ! http://www.skny.com/artists/mariko-mori/bio/! http://intersections.anu.edu.au/issue23/holland.htm! http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/picturegalleries/howaboutthat/10695841/In-pictures-Artist-Saint-Hoax-transforms-world-leadersinto-drag-queens.html! http://www.ncsociology.org/sociationtoday/v21/religion.htm! !

Pure Land, 1996-97, Glass with photo interlayer on five panels !

Still from Sissi. 2014, Continuous Computer Animation 146x83.5x8.3cm!

It was actually looking at Julian Opie’s animated figures that gave me the idea to make a more digital piece !

Stills from People.11. 2015, LED Wall Mounted, 168x168x12cm!

Eadweard Muybridge! As one of the first people to use photography to show motion, I looked at Muybridge to see how he put together a series of photographs to show motion. I looked at him when I was still thinking of doing only an animation not a video. I actually saw his work in person in Sweden at the Modern Museum of Stockholm. ! https://www.facebook.com/SaintHoax/videos/vb.1460339264177458/1695483340663048/?type=2&theater! http://micklestreet.blogspot.se/2014/03/interview-saint-hoax-drag-queens-disney.html! http://thewildmagazine.com/blog/saint-hoax-satire-art-interview/! http://www.julianopie.com/! !


Skills and Techniques: Photoshop !

Experimentation: Best of All the Worlds!

The Photoshop application I used is the Adobe CC 2015 version. Many of the skills I figured out were through exploring the program, tips from my teacher, and a little bit of internet research. The Photo-shopping skills was the construction of the pieces that would be pulled to get in Final Cut Pro. Here, I adjusted images in ways that I could not in Final Cut Pro. Also, the process was faster as I was already familiar with many editing functions within Photoshop that I did not the other application. The skills and techniques that I learned and used in each of the experimentations is permeable in the other experimentations. ! !

In creating this compositions, I did a lot of work with editing different pieces from different images into one. As seen, the end product was comical because it was so obviously stitched together; however, I didn’t like how messy it was. !

Experimentation: Faces, Colors, and Speed!

In an experimental with animation and movement, I evaluated how the speed, color, and composition affect the video/ animation. The composition of this was selected to test my Photoshop abilities and the effect of color. ! For each image I did the following steps: !

Layering the photos, I adjusted the opacity the person whose face was being cut out to line up the facial features of each photo. !

Then, I used the eraser tool to erase the photo until the face had replaced the other face. !

As a result, I was able to ‘place’ the faces of three individuals onto the body of a fourth person – creating the effecting of a morphed human being.!

Finally, I placed a rectangle over the image, adjusted the color and occupancy to give a tint – which also smoothed over any imperfections from editing the composition. !

Transformation tool (shortcut command+T), was very useful in arranging the composition. I was also How I used the eraser is very similar to able to duplicate the edit I just made how I used the eraser in the that on the silhouette of Jesus, and reflect experimentation. Except, since that was it so that the two posts would be the tool that I mostly used to edit, the symmetrical. ! process took a really long time and was not an efficient tool. !

Headshots for Experimentation: https://www.flickr.com/photos/thinkglobalschool/albums/72157648596213060!

Actual Piece: We can be anything you need need!

The Torii Gate!

Initial Image! The most extensive thing that I did on Photoshop was the removal of the background in the image of the Torii Gate. I had a lot of trial and error in the most effective way that would leave me with a clean image. 1. After experimenting ! with the magic wand tool ! and the eraser tool, ! I didn’t think that the lines were sharp enough. !

Images: ! Torii Gate: http://thumbs.dreamstime.com/ z/torii-gate-13400451.jpg ! Buddha: !"#%&&,,,+$=$1**/#120-3(*+0/& :=00!1&! Mohammad’s fire: http:// www.zombietime.com/ mohammed_image_archive/ islamic_mo_face_hidden/!

2. I then tried the Polygonal Lasso Tool. This tool was able to make quick, clean lines, and resulted in the image that I used for the final piece. I first outlined the Torii gate, and needed to right click and “select inverse” so that the background, not the Torii gate, was selected. I then deleted the background. For making the Torii gate look like it was being supported by two crosses, I did a similar technique with making a box with the Polygonal Lasso Tool, and then deleted the portion I did not want. !

Torii Gate: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/63/Shimogamo_Jinja_no_Torii.jpg!

Final ! Edited ! Torii Gate!

Symbols: !"#$%&& '())(*$+,-.-)/0-1+(23& ,-.-& 4-5/%6/5-3-7*/89):(5/+$;3< ! For the religious symbols, I used the same method, but also took individual screen shots of each symbol. symbol.!

To place a ‘green screen’ behind the Torii gate (so I can layer the footage in Final Cut Pro by adding the effect ‘keyer’), ! ! ! ! ! I first used the magic wand tool to select and then delete the white background. ! ! ! ! ! I then made a green rectangle, and put is under the Torii gate layer layer!

Green Screen!


Skills and Techniques: Final Cut Pro X and Filming! When I began working on this piece, I was not sure whether or not this piece was an animation or a video. The lack of clarity arose in the fact that the video is rather short, loops, and the ‘choppiness’ of some sections has animation elements. Nevertheless, I concluded that this piece is some sort of hybrid between the two mediums. According to Vangie Biel, “video takes continuous motion and breaks it up into discrete frames” and “animation starts with independent pictures and puts them together to form the illusion of continuous motion.” ! citation! !

Photography/Filming! The Live footage was shot on a Canon 70D with Canon 24-105mm f/4 lens. !

Studio! This footage was taken in a studio with a green screen. Unfortunately, I was not very familiar with the artificial lighting in the studio, so I used natural lighting from the window instead. In fact, I think this was to my benefit because it made the her look more natural. Besides mascara, the model is wearing no makeup – attributing to the realism. The camera was stabilized on a chair and moved slightly so the footage was not perfectly still – making her look like she was floating when put into the video. !

Actual Piece: We can be anything you need! I heavily relied on layers to create the video composition.! Blade tool, arrow tool, and the ‘drag and drop’: used to change the duration and order of the animation! Ken Burns effect: used to put footage in motion across the screen, or gradually zoom in or out of a footage!

Through this experimentation, I realized color filters are a powerful tool to differentiate the frames easier when put in a sequence. ! Crop: used to adjust the composition of certain footages! Adjusting the occupancy and fading in or out of footage: used to make transitions between cuts, allowed more opportunities for layering – also assisted with smoothed over imperfections in the ‘seams’!

Green Screen!

Background! The Background is a video I took of the Sicklasjön, a river in Stockholm. Since I was on a bridge with a railing, I rested my camera on the bridge railing to stabilize the shot – similar to what I did with the chair in the studio, but here I was able to get a perfectly still shot because the camera’s entire weight was supported by the railing and I did not purposefully move the camera to create that floating effect I was intending for the studio shots. !

In an experimental with animation and movement, I evaluated how the speed, color, and composition affect the video/animation. The composition of this was selected to test my Photoshop abilities and the effect of color. !

Editing!

Transformation: used to adjust the size ration and placement of different footage on the screen !

Stills from the shoot!

Experimentation: Faces, Colors, and Speed!

Through Tutorials on Youtube, I learned how to do the ‘Green Screen Effect’. Essentially, you film on a green screen and then drop the ‘Keyer’ effect onto the footage in post-production, which automatically detects the green screen. ! With this effect, I was able to layer footage in creative and isolated ways – giving me the freedom to manipulate the composition into a surreal way cleanly!

Speed: I also learned that I need 10 frames per second using still photographs for the viewer to feel comfortable watching. !

Effects! The effects are located underneath the icon here:! ! ! ! ! ! ! From there, you select the effect you want to use and drag and drop it on the footage you want the effect to affect. ! ! From there, you are able to adjust the saturation, opacity, and other features that are specific to each effect. For example, when using ‘tint’, you are able to change the color of the tint. This controls the intensity of the effect which controls the effect the effect has on the whole footage. !


Pr oc es s!

Story Board!

Photoshop 1 1!

I originally planned on doing the Best of All the Worlds. Although, after some reevaluation, I developed a storyboard for We can be anything you need and executed it. ! This is the chosen Story Board from my initial planning. It has the main still that I want to be in my animation. !

Photoshop 2 2! Added the symbols because it made the piece more comical. Chung Man, my teacher, pointed out that I wanted to make this a satirical piece and I might want to make the composition more busy to reinforce that message. !

Stills from video!

Final Cut Pro X Clean up!

This piece was reconsolidated in Final Cut Pro. Through a lot of editing with Ken Burns effect with the symbols, changing the end and the beginning to a blackout so there is a smooth transition for the loop, and nitty-gritty finessing on the transitions, timings, and composition, I finished the animation/video. ! ! ! ! ! ! One thing that I do want to talk about is this part of the animation: when the image almost ‘breaks’ and than catches itself by going black and reiterating “We can be anything you need.” This break is representative of how this ideal is flawed – a religion or a cult completely embodying the religious market theory is failed because the substance is not present. !

Photography: Onsite! I walked around and scouted the area that I was in with a camera. I took videos of trees, bushes, grass, streets, and buildings, in either a static shot, a trucking shot, or b-roll. ! As you can see, I took a lot of shots of nature, but one of a globalized scenario for variety. !

Selected Stills Contact Sheet Sheet!

I Photoshoped a Torii gate so that I would be supported by two Christian crosses. Thus merging two symbols of two different religions into one. ! Link to original:!

Background!

Final Cut Pro X! Font Font!

Selecting the background: of all the footage I got, I chose the one of the river because I thought it was the nicest composed and alluded to Vs. ! many other religious locations which are connected to water. ! I chose Faux 3D because it had an interesting ! pink shadow, which gave it a surreal, techno, ! and advertisement like quality. ! ! ! ! ! After deciding the background, I had to decide The Clouds: ! where I wanted to place the gates. I placed I discovered that there was built in them just off center, on a bend in the river. I footage in Final Cut Pro of clouds – also decided to leave the gates there and not I decided that they would be have them travel with the girl – almost like she perfect for adding mystical is arriving to them. ! elements. !

Position of the Gates Gates!

Video Effects Effects! I played around with the effects in Final Cut Pro X on the composition of the video. I ended up selecting “Bad Tv”, “Dream”, “Tint” as effects to put on the footage. Like was I learned from my experimentation #1 with the faces, color is a very powerful tool in making the change immediately noticeable.! noticeable.

Photography: Studio! Green Screen Screen! The footage of the subject the was taken in a studio with a green screen. In this Process, I asked the model to be as still as she could, hold her hands in a similar way to buddha (show below), give a, a,!

Inspiration for the dress of the subject ! I noticed that most traditional clothing Monks! Buddhist Monks is simple, white, Muslim traditional dress! dress and involves some kind of draping. ! sadhvis Jainism sadhvis!

Buddha! Buddha

http://www.artoflegendindia.com/images/images_big/ pbca025_buddha_painting.jpg! pbca025_buddha_painting.jpg https://muellezen.files.wordpress.com/2014/04/ ropa-2.jpg! ropa-2.jpg http://paulfdavis.com/wordpress/wp-content/uploads/ 2012/08/islamic-men-clothing.jpg! 2012/08/islamic-men-clothing.jpg http://paulfdavis.com/wordpress/wp-content/uploads/ 2012/08/islamic-men-clothing.jpg ! https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/ 6/63/Shimogamo_Jinja_no_Torii.jpg !


or to at I ugh istic ir

Communication of Ideas and Intentions! !"#$%&'!

Through combining motifs from all of my works, heaven and hell for the religious symbolism, and the spiders for the additional fear factor, I came up with the ultimate everlasting fear - a window to hell. Getting a glimpse into Hell while you are living is a scary experience. Itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s a fear that ties all my pieces together.!

Viewing into hell could be a horror of blood, terrible images and darkness, but I wanted my display to be a little more abstract. I wanted the viewer to use their own imagination to conjure up images of hell in their mind. The display triggers the feeling. The images and creatures people can imagine are probably more vivid and lifelike than anything I could provide for viewing. Also, when an visual is in your head it probably is accompanied with an experience and/or feeling. !

drew

t that ok

t nding map

ed da ct. I nd

Originally, I wanted to display another scary scene or possibly a shrine of your fears, and I thought a two-way mirror was a unique prop. The purpose of a two-mirror is to allow one person to view activities and not being seen. What type of scary scene do people want to see but not be seen? Viewing into hell without the devil knowing what you are doing is the only way you would want to see Hell. !

!"#$%&*!

ation,

er it!

!"#$%&(!

! !"#$%&)!

Window to hell is another abstract peek into the dark spaces of internal fear and touches into the area of the religious fears. Marketing plays a role in how people develop fears and their perceptions about hell. Often times a person seeks out religion because they feel a spiritual loss in their life. That desperation and fear of the oblivion is what drives people to religion. Most religions use a form of hell to evoke good behavior in"#$%&'!! the living.!

()*%+,-.$/'!012'334445)*67,5*-834)992)2:,&3;(&<,)*<3;(&<,)*<=>#,:=?:&%<-2=@)992)2:,=?-4$9-)/!!! ! !


Critical Investigation!

!"#$%%&&&'()*++,-./01'2-%+1% 3.44+35.1*%*3)4#6)-+*%786+*,!+44!

Welcome to Hell, Paul Yore, 2014, mixed media! ! The composition is made up of textiles, beads, wool, cotton thread, buttons, sequins and plastic flowers. The art display give subtle messages of people in Hell and also how to not lose hope. The art piece has a chaotic feeling but doesn’t portray Hell in a negative or horrid manner. Instead the art piece conjures up feelings of hell and what society thinks will cause you !"#$%%&&&'()*++,-./01'2-%+1%3.44+35.1*% to be condemned to Hell. What I like about this art piece is that it a very *3)4#6)-+*%786+*,!+44! abstract interpretation of Hell. !

Gates of Hell, Auguste Rodin, 1880-1917! ! Auguste Rodin created a monumental sculpture titled the Gates of Hell. It portrays scenes from “The Inferno,” the first section of Dante Alghiri’s Divine Comedy. Rodin worked on it until his death in 1917. The 15th century doors were created out of inspiration of the Old Testament. The sculpture is very vivid in person, as I have visited the Rodin Garden numerous time at the Stanford University campus. The feelings that are evoked from a viewer can be described as haunting and a little disturbing. The This influenced my work piece truly gives viewers an interpretation because ! of Hell. When developing my piece, I decided that I wanted a more abstract piece to stimulate feelings within. !

When in Auckland in October 2014, I saw “Light Show” at the Auckland Art Gallery. The piece that struck me the most was one by Olafur Eliasson. Unfortunately, I forgot to put down its title. ! ! I actually also saw a very similar piece at the Swedish Museum of Modern Art in Stockholm about a year later in November 2015. He had an entire exhibit dedicated to him. His work is mainly focused on the manipulation of light in optical illusions. It involved moving water and a strobe light. There was water moving and the strobe light catch the water so quickly the water looked that it was still in that flash of light. !

This influenced my work because!

I visited the Saatchi Gallery in January 2016, as saw some works by Richard Wilson and Aidan that I thought were rather interesting and inspired me to begin thinking three-dimensionally. ! ! 20:50, Richard Wilson, 1987, site specific oil installation – used sump oil and steel, dimension variable! ! I! ! ! ! Stability, Aidan ! ! !"#$%%&&&'()*++,-./01'2-%+1%3.44+35.1*% This influenced my work This influenced my work *3)4#6)-+*%786+*,!+44! because! because! ! Love, Aidan, ! !

907:9817:;.)16801<:=>?@<:A86+-: B!.6.:CD:E1/+-*:F)1+:9+-7: !"#$%%.482)-+408**.1'1+6%8-3!0G+%+H!0C05.1%IJK?>=LM@% .482)-,+408**.1,G+-N407!+6*(8*N01+-O*40/+*!.&!


Skills, Techniques and Process Process! Brainstorming, analyzing and designing! I developed various sketches and layouts for possibilities of this installation. I used a two-mirror to be the basis of this installation and analyzed what I wanted the visitors to see when they looked through it. I wanted the display to have a sleek and simplistic feel and an experience that made them think their journey was heading downward. !

Compiling the Installation! Painting the Canvas!

I eyeballed the design of the spiral with a pencil, and then painted the entire canvas the red color. ! !

I compiled the installation at the final art exhibition for all of my works. ! ! I draped the fabric over the top, but I ran into the issue of re-enforcement. And I had to make a correction on the stop with the black at the front of the installation. ! ! I underestimated how ‘creepy’ the installation would look. ! !

Planning the installation! I had to think about the 3D aspect of the installation, which was a new skill. ! ! I had an experimentation on a paper in which I drew the spiral. It was a ‘mini installation’ in a way. ! ! Then, I thought about how I could cover the fact that it was a canvas and a mirror, trying to make it look more finished. ! ! That is when I decided that a large cloth to cover it! ng! ng This technique and process is how I will interpret how the installation interacts with space surrounding the exhibit or space within the exhibit. I have to map out how all the pieces interact and integrate seamlessly into the display. ! Planning the installation installation! I knew I wanted to use a 2-way mirror and wanted to have a specific feeling and experience. I found a mini strobe light that would create a perfect effect. I chose to use an metaphorical depiction of Hell and fears. Visitors could use their imaginations for different interpretations of the display. !

Creating the canvas! canvas I love math and the concept of infinite intrigued me. I wanted to talk about oblivion and wanted to create a re-enactment of oblivion and infinite. This concept has an association of a downward spiral and the journey down it. It’s a hole that keeps on going and you are never sure where it stops. I chose acrylic paint because it dries quickly and has an opaque finish. I also chose paint over other media’s because it would reflect nicely off a direct light. !

!

To create the structure and support of the mirror, I placed two pieces of duct tape on the sides of the mirror and taped it to the back of the canvas. ! !


COMPARATIVE STUDY

WRITTEN COMMENTARY

Artworks

A Comparison By Cameron Shetler The overarching theme or lens that is being looked through for these three of these pieces, is feminism. Elements of feminist ideas have either been ini5ated from the early planning stages, or later tagged on due to the cultural recep5on of the work. Nevertheless, these pieces will be analyzed holis5cally and separately, before the feminist connec5ons are drawn together in a comparison.

Two Calla Lilies on Pink, 1928 Georgia Oâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;KeeďŹ&#x20AC;e Oil pain5ng 101.6 x 76.2 cm

Loaded, 2012 Julie Rrap Photo media of performance art

Scary Beau:ful, 2012 Leanie van der Vyver Documented form of leather shoe (video 1:19 minutes long, digital photographs) clxxii


%&'$()**)$+,*,-#$'.$/,.01$2'34)*$ 56)*,7-#$

c-C,64$ =,*$8),.:L$)#$)$4-C,64$,#$^;,!;*D$B-I,N*-aL$-I8*),.-C$ND$Y6#).$g'.-#$,.$^/),.7.!$,.$=,*$,.$:;-$+'&$('6.:3,-#$).C$ W:#$Y83-)C$:'$Y'6:;-3.$V63'8-<a$^Y,.A-$,:$,#$#*'&$C3D,.!L$,:$A).$N-$A)3-"6**D$N*-.C-C$:'$4)0-$#'XL$#-)4*-##$ #;)C'&#$-##-.7)*$"'3$:;-$#6!!-#7'.$'"$:;3--fC,4-.#,'.)*$"'34L$)#$&-**$)#$&'30-C$&;,*-$#7**$&-:<a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fA):A;,.!>$.):63-$'"$:;-$8,-A-L$).C$:;-$9,-&-3>#$)&)3-.-##$'"$C-:),*<$ #D4N'*,A$"'3$"-4)*-$!-.,:)*,)<$%;-$"'A)*$8',.:$'"$:;-$8),.7.!$,#$:;-$ 3-83'C6A79-$'3!).$'"$:;-$B'&-3<$%;-$Y8)C,IL$&;,A;$,#$A'.:),.#$N':;$:;-$ 4)*-$).C$"-4)*-$3-83'C6A7'.$'3!).#L$A):A;-#$:;-$9,-&-3>#$-D-$&,:;$,:>#$ ('48'#,7'.$ 2*'&-3#$)3-$#4)**$3-*)79-$:'$;64).#<$=>?--@-$:;-3-"'3-$#;'A0#$:;-$9,-&-3$ D-**'&$A'*'3L$).C$,:$,#$:;-$'.*D$D-**'&$'NZ-A:$,.$:;-$8),.7.!<$%;,#$ ,.:-383-:)7'.>#$A6*:63)*$#,!.,EA).A-$).C$"6.A7'.$).C$8638'#-$&,**$N-$ &,:;$B'&-3$;-)C#$:;):$;)3C*D$E:$,.$)$"3)4-$'"$'9-3$)$4-:-3$:)**<$%;-$',*$ 8),.7.!$4-)#63-#$FGF<H$I$JH<K$A4<$%;3'6!;$,.A3-)#,.!$:;-$#A)*-$'"$:;-$ -9)*6):-C$,.$:;-,3$3-#8-A79-$#-A7'.#<$$ $$ B'&-3L$#;-$,.A3-)#-#$:;-$M#;'A0$9)*6->$'"$:;-$B'&-3#1$!3)NN,.!$:;-$ S3:$Y:D*-$ 9,-&-3>#$)O-.7'.$).C$,.A3-)#,.!$:;-,3$)O-.7'.$:'$C-:),*#$&;,*-$*''0,.!$):$ !"#$%&''&$()')*+$#,$-),.$,#$'.-$'"$:;-$3-.'&.-C$8,-A-#$'"$4'C-3.,#:$)3:L$ :;-$B'&-3<$%;-$*)3!-3$A).9)#$#,P-$!,9-#$=>?--@-$#8)A-$:'$A)8:63-$#4)**-3$ &;,A;$N'3C-3#$)N#:3)A:$)3:$).C$3-)*,#7A$)3:<$SN#:3)A:$)3:L$)AA'3C,.!$:'$:;).C$,.:3,A):-$C-:),*#$,.$:;-$B'&-3L$&;,A;$6#6)**D$!'$6..'7A-C<$Q'&-9-3L$ :;,#$M#;'A0$9)*6->$,#$.':$8'&-3"6*$-.'6!;$:'$A3-):-$)$#6N*,4-$-@-A:$'"$:;-$ %):->#$&-N#,:-L$,#$^)88*,-C$:'$)3:$:;):$,#$N)#-C$_#,A`$).$'NZ-A:L$E!63-$'3$ *).C#A)8-L$&;-3-$"'34#$;)9-$N--.$#,48*,E-C$'3$#A;-4)7#-C$:'$A3-):-$). 46.C).-$A'48'#,7'.<$%;-$#8)A-$)&)3-.-##$,.$:;,#$8),.7.!$,#$6.,R6-$C6-$ :'$:;-$'"$:;-$*)A0$'"$.-!)79-$#8)A-<$%;-$A3'8$8-3#8-A79-$3-8*,A):-#$)$ )N#:3)A:-C$9-3#,'.$'"$,:<a$b;,*-$3-)*,#7A$)3:$,#L$C-E.-C$ND$c)3Z'3,-$ 4)A3'$8;':'!3)8;L$P''4,.!$,.$:'$)$8)37A6*)3$8'37'.$'"$:;-$B'&-3$).C$ c6.#:-3N-3!L$,#$&;-.$^:;-$&'30$'"$)3:$#'$C,3-A:*D$3-83-#-.:#$:;-$#6NZ-A:$ :;):$:;-D$#--4$:'$N-$:;-$#)4-$:;,.!<a$c'C-3.$)3:L$'3$4'C-3.$)3:$ *-)9,.!$#'4-$'6:$'"$,:<$%;-$B'&-3>#$"'34#$)3-$'9-3*)88,.!$'.-$).':;-3L$ &;,A;$)CC#$:;-$:;-$C-8:;$).C$3-)*,#4$'"$:;,#$8,-A-<$S*:;'6!;L$:;-3-$,#$.':$ 4'9-4-.:$,#$C-#A3,N-C$)#$^S$3-Z-A7'.$'"$;,#:'3D$).C$A'.#-39)79-$9)*6-# d#6A;$)#$3-)*,#7A$C-8,A7'.$'"$#6NZ-A:#e[$,..'9)7'.$).C$-I8-3,4-.:)7'.$ 46A;$TU$#;)C,.!$A'.A-3.,.!$:;-$N)A0!3'6.CL$:;-3-"'3-$:;-$9,-&-3$C'-#$ &,:;$"'34$d:;-$#;)8-#L$A'*'63#$).C$*,.-#$:;):$4)0-$68$:;-$&'30e$&,:;$)$ .':$;)9-$0.'&$'.$;'&$A*'#-$'3$")3$)&)D$:;-$8,.0$N)A0!3'6.C$,#<$ $ :-.C-.AD$:'$)N#:3)A7'.[$).C$).$-48;)#,#$'.$4):-3,)*#L$:-A;.,R6-#$).C$ 83'A-##-#<a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h-&$i'30$c)!)P,.-$A*),4#$,.$).$)37A*-$)N'6:$\-'3!,)$=>?--@-$:;):$^Q-3$,C-)#$ :;-$B'&-3<$%;-$ -48;)#,#$'.$:;,#$8)3:$'"$:;-$A'48'#,7'.<$Y'$")3$:'$#)D$:;):$,:$,#$:;-$"'A)*$ )N'6:$#63")A-L$#A)*-L$).C$A'*'3$)3-$.':$'.*D$C)3,.![$:;-D$83-#)!-C$:;-$&'30$'"$ Y8)C,IL$&;,A;$,#$ 8',.:$'"$:;-$8,-A-<$Y6A;$-48;)#,#$,#$:;-$3-)#'.L$'3$'.-$'"$:;-$;D8':;-#,P-C$ )37#:#$)#$9)3,-C$)#$j)3.-O$h-&4).L$c,*:'.$S9-3DL$c)30$k':;0'L$c'33,#$+'6,#L$ A'.:),.#$N':;$:;-$ 3-)#'.#L$:;):$:;-3-$;)#$N--.$#'$46A;$M4,#6.C-3#:).C,.!>$N-:&--.$:;-$ ).C$c)3D$Q-,*4)..L$)#$&-**$)#$('*'3$2,-*C$8),.7.!L$+D3,A)*$SN#:3)A7'.$).C$ 4)*-$).C$"-4)*-$ 9,-&-3#$).C$:;-$)37#:<$ A'.:-48'3)3D$8'#:4'C-3.$)N#:3)A7'.<$S:$;-3$N-#:L$#;-$,#$)$"'34)**D$,.9-.79-$ 3-83'C6A7'.$'3!) $$ 8'-7A$8'&-3;'6#-$&;'$4)0-$:;-$.'.'NZ-A79-$"--*$4D#7A)*L$")4,*,)3L$'NZ-A79-L$ A):A;-#$:;-$9,-&%;-$#'X$8)#:-*$A'*'3#$-.;).A-$)$C3-)4*,0-$):4'#8;-3-<$%;-$A)**)$*,*D$8-:)*#$ ).C$#6NZ-A79-$)**$):$'.A-<a$Q'&-9-3L$W$C'$.':$#;)3-$:;-$M4D#7A)*>$"--*,.!$ /;':'!3)8;$'"$)$()**)$+,*D$ -D-$&,:;$,:>#$D-**'& )88-)3$:'$;)9-$)$#4'':;$).C$C-*,A):-$:-I:63-L$;'&-9-3L$,:$4)D$;)9-$N--.$ -I83-##-C$ND$:;,#$)37A*-<$W.$)**$;'.-#:DL$W$)883-A,):-$:;-$A'.:'63L$:'.-L$).C$#,P-$'"$ A'*'3L$).C$,:$,#$:;#,48*,E-C$"'3$:;-$#)0-$'"$0--8,.!$,:$4'3-$)N#:3)A:$).C$*-##$3-)*,#7A<$ :;-$8,-A-$N6:$W$C'.>:$E.C$:;-$*)3!-f#A)*-C$46.C).-$,.:-3-#7.![$3):;-3L$W$A'.7.6-$ '.*D$D-**'&$'NZ-A: S*:;'6!;L$W$C'$.':$:;,.0$:;,#$,#$:;-$A)#-$N-A)6#-$:;-$B'&-3$,:#-*"$,#$9-3D$ :'$E.C$,:$M83-OD>$N6:$*)A0$).$-4'7'.)*$3-#8'.#-$:;):$&'6*C$4)0-$4-$#:'8$,.$4D$ :;-$8),.7.!<$$ C-*,A):-$).C$8-:)*#$)3-$9-3D$#4'':;<$$ :3)A0#<$%;-$'.*D$"'34)*$R6)*,:D$:;):$&'6*C$;)9-$4)C-$4-$#:'8$&)#$:;-$#,P-$'"$:;-$

!"#$


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l$H:''$6&),D$"C&D$H$+**$l$"C&D$DC*$ O#"*5$)+$D#$=*$?1D$H:''$6&),D$)D$?)8$&,4$DC*>$ ")''$?*$+1565)+*4$),D#$D&.),8$3=*$D#$'##.$&D$)D$ l$H$")''$=&.*$*A*,$?1+>$R*"$S#5.*5+$D&.*$3=*$ D#$+**$"C&D$H$+**$#B$O#"*5+EM$W$7*#58)&$ 9:;**<*$),$I&@#5)*$-E$Z&'8*W%5#Q)*5G$JU3''$()B*$ i*4*\,*4GM$7*#58)&$9:;**<*/!C*$-#*D5>$#B$ !C),8+E$$ $ 7*#58)&$9:;**<*$5*'*&+*4$&$2#==*,D&5>$#,$ DC*$6156#+*$&,4$),D*,3#,$#B$C*5$"#5.G$&`*5$ 4*2&4*+$#B$25)32+$&,4$&14)*,2*+$C&4$ [=)+1,4*5+D##4:$C*5$=*&,),8E$H,$efdhG$+C*$ "&+$Y1#D*4$+&>),8/$JX*''$l$H$=&4*$>#1$D&.*$ 3=*$D#$'##.$&D$"C&D$H$+&"$&,4$"C*,$>#1$D##.$ 3=*$D#$5*&''>$,#32*$=>$O#"*5+$>#1$C1,8$&''$ >#15$#",$&++#2)&3#,+$")DC$O#"*5+$#,$=>$ O#"*5$&,4$>#1$"5)D*$&?#1D$=>$O#"*5$&+$)B$H$ DC),.$&,4$+**$"C&D$>#1$DC),.$&,4$+**$#B$DC*$ O#"*5$l$&,4$H$4#,:DEM$bH,$j5,*+D$XE$X&D+#,G$ J7*#58)&$9:;**<*GM$^=*5)2&,$^53+D$Km1,*$ efdhL/enEk$!C5#18C$&''$#B$DC*$+*F1&'$ 2#==*,D&5>G$"C)2C$4)4$=&.*$C*5$&5D$=#5*$ 6#61'&5G$7*#58)&$9:;**<*:+$),D*,3#,+$"&+$ 21'D15&''>$=)+1,4*5+D##4E$$

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`*,$25*&D*4$&$+*5)*+$#B$B#15G$\A*$#5$+)F$2&,A&+*+$ 6&),D*4$#,$&$+),8'*$DC*=*$&,4$*F6'&),*4G$[H$"#5.$")DC$&,$)4*&$B#5$ &$'#,8$3=*E$HD:+$').*$8*a,8$&2Y1&),D*4$")DC$&$6*5+#,G$&,4$H$4#,:D$ 8*D$&2Y1&),D*4$*&+)'>TU#=*3=*+$H$+D&5D$),$&$A*5>$5*&')+32$B&+C)#,G$ &,4$&+$H$8#$#,$B5#=$#,*$6&),3,8$D#$&,#DC*5$#B$DC*$+&=*$DC),8G$)D$ ?*2#=*+$+)=6')\*4$3''$)D$2&,$?*$,#DC),8$?1D$&?+D5&2D:$b%&'A),$ !#=6.),+G$R#D*+$B5#=$H,D*5A)*"$")DC$7*#58)&$9:;**<*G$ U*6D*=?*5$cdG$efghG$B#5$C)+$R*"$S#5.*5$65#\'*G$J!C*$i#+*$),$DC*$ j>*$(##.*4$-5*N>$0),*GM$I&52C$dG$efghkEM$!#$5*6C5&+*G$DC*$ 6156#+*$#B$9:;**<*$1+),8$DC*$+&=*$+1?@*2D$5*6*33A*'>G$),$DC)+$ 2&+*$DC*$%&''&$()'>G$)+$+#$DC&D$+C*$2&,$+**$DC*$O#"*5$),$&$,*"$')8CDG$ &,4$?*2#=*$25*&3A*$")DC$C*5$6*5+6*23A*$#,D#$DC*$+1?@*2DE$$ $ J9:;**<*$+)=)'&5'>$2#=6*'+$C*5$A)*"*5$D#$2#,+)4*5$&$ 5*65*+*,D&3#,&'$#?@*2D$,#D$B#5$)D+$B1,23#,$?1D$5&DC*5$615*'>$B#5$ )D+$B#5=&'$Y1&')3*+$l$)D+$4)+3,23A*$2#'#5G$'),*$&,4$+C&6*$l$DC&D$ =)8CD$#DC*5")+*$?*$#A*5'##.*4$),$*A*5>4&>$')B*EM$+D&D*+$DC*$ 2&D&'#81*$,#D*$4)+21++),8$9:;**<*:+$"#5.$#,$+#DC*?>+E2#=E$ i*'&3,8$DC)+$D#$DC*$65*A)#1+$Y1#D*G$9:;**<*$"&+$B#21+),8$'*++$#,$ DC*$2#,,#D&3#,+$#B$C*5$"#5.$&,4$5&DC*5$DC*$B#5=$#B$C*5$+1?@*2DE$ !C*$!)D'*$#B$DC*$6)*2*$&'+#$)+$*A)4*,2*$D#$DC)+$+D&D*=*,D/$!"#$%&''&$ ()')*+$#,$-),.E$i&DC*5$DC&,$&$2#,2*6D1&''>$'#&4*4$3D'*G$9:;**<*$ B#21+*+$#,$DC*$')D*5&'$&+6*2D+$#B$C*5$6)*2*E$!C)+$)+$&,#DC*5$ +188*+3#,$DC&D$+C*$4)4$,#D$),D*,4$B#5$DC*$+*F1&'$=*D&6C#5+$DC&D$ &5*$3*4$D#$&''$#B$C*5$O#"*5$6)*2*+E$$


20#(B'99'(4&9&"-(#/(Q&/.\(B<98<$'9( R&%/&]>'/>"( M$?-8\(!"#$%&'()*+"","(

23"$"(0'-('(L'T#$('<>?#/('/5(3"$(=&">"-(0"$"(>#/?/<#<-96(@"&/%('<>?#/"5( 7#$(L&99&#/-(#7(5#99'$-I(M-(-8'8"5(&/(83"(V</>?#/-('/5(Q<$=#-"-(#7(83&-(=&">";( 'U"$(83"(/<5"(=3#8#%$'=3-(#7()*+"","(0"$"($"9"'-"5;(3"$('$8(0'-(>#/?/<#<-96( 9##."5('8(83$#<%3(83"(9"/-(0&83(-"Y<'9(>#//#8'?#/-I(23&-(0'-(#/96(7<$83"$"5(@6( 83"(-<@T">8(#7(83"(J#0"$(@"&/%(83"([$"=$#5<>?C"(#$%'/*(#7(83"(=9'/8I((

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`-( M<5&"/>"\(23"/('/5(/#0( Z"$(b/J<"/>"-\( b/('(C&5"#(>$"'8"5(@6(G'8"(R<99&C'/;(3"(>9'&L-(83'8( Z<-@'/5;(=3#8#%$'=3"$('/5( 83"(83"L"-(#7(L#5"$/&-L(0"$"(&L@"55"5(&/(83"( 23"(7"L&/&-8(L#C"L"/8(>#/-&5"$"5()*+"","('( %'99"$&-8;(M97$"5(R?"%9&8K( =#=<9'$(><98<$"(#7(83"(DEF`-I(Z"(-8'8"-(83'8('$?-8-( 7#$"$<//"$(&/(83"&$(L#C"L"/8(5<"(8#(3"$(-<>>"--('-( (Q3#8#%$'=3"$(Q'<9(R8$'/5( '/5(0$&8"$-(0"$"(1=<-3&/%(83"("/C"9#=";:( '(7"L'9"('$?-8('/5(83"(=$"C&#<-96(L'5"(V$"<5&'/( Q3#8#%$'=3"$(bL#%"/( 1"Y="$&L"/?/%(0&83(/"0(-869"-('/5(/"0(83"L"-I:( &/8"$=$"8'?#/-I(^'-&/%(83"&$(#=&/&#/(#/(83"(-"Y<'9( B<//&/%3'L(( '/5(18"-?/%(83"(-8'8<-(c<#I:(Z"('9-#(-'6-(83'8( &/8"$=$"8'?#/-(#7()*+"","*-(J#0"$-;(( -"Y<'9&86;('9#/%(0&83(8">3/#9#%6('/5(-#>&'9( ( ( =$#%$"--(0"$"(*=$#L&/"/8*(&/(83"('$8('/5(><98<$"(#7( ( R&/>"(/<5"(=3#8#%$'=3-(0"$"($"9"'-"5(@6(3"$( 83"(5">'5"I(Z"(7<$83"$("Y=9'&/-(83"(-&%/&]>'/>"(#7( 3<-@'/5;(M97$"5(R?"%9&8K;(03#(&-('9-#('/('$?-8;(>$&?>-( 23"(B'99'(4&96(@">'L"(&/8$#5<>"5(8#(=#=( 83"(M$8(d">#(L#C"L"/8;(8#<>3"5(#/($"'9&-?>( 3'C"(-""/(!"#$%&'()*+"","*-(J#0"$-('-('/( ><98<$"(&/(83"( ='&/8"$-(-<>3('-(!"#$%"(4<.-;('/5(L"/?#/"5( "Y=$"--&#/(#7(3"$(-"Y<'9&86I(R?"%9&8K(7<$83"$"5(83"( DEF`-I(b8(&-('(( [&//#C'?C"(L#5"$/&-8('$8*('/5(<-"-(!"#$%&'( -"Y<'9(&/8"$=$"8'?#/-(8#(=#=<9'$&K"(3"$(0#$.;( R#<83"$/(( )*+"","('-('/("Y'L=9"(#7('(-&%/&]>'/8('$?-8-(#7( 3#0"C"$(83&-(L'5"()*+"","(</>#L7#$8'@9"I(( M7$&>'/( 83&-("$'I(Z"(>#/?/<"-(8#("Y='/5(#/(83"(Z'$9"L(( ( #$&%&/'8"5(( e"/'&--'/>";(03&>3(0'-('/(1'$?-?>('/5( V9#0"$-('9-#(3'C"('(3&-8#$6(#7(-"Y<'9(#$(V$"<5&'/( J#0"$;( &/8"99">8<'9(L#C"L"/8(f03&>3g("Y=$"--"5(83"( >#//#8'?#/-(5<"(8#(83"(J#0"$(><98<$"(&/(83"(DE83( 03&>3(( </&c<"/"--(#7(M7$&>'/_ML"$&>'/(><98<$"I:(( >"/8<$6I(23"(><98<$"(#7(83&-(=#-8_0'$("'$96(F`83( -6L@#9&K"-( ( >"/8<$6(="$&#5(0'-(-?99(&/J<"/>"5(@6(83"(C&"0-(#7( '/5(&-('--#>&'8"5(0&83\(3#9&/"--;(7'&83;(=<$&86;( M8(83&-(=#&/8(&/(?L";(83"(-8#>.(L'$."8(0'-( 83"(a&>8#$&'/("$'I(V9#0"$-('$"(-""/('-('(7"L&/&/"( 6#<83;('/5($"@&$83I(23"(/'L"(&-(5"$&C"5(7$#L( @##L&/%;('/5(83"$"(0'-('/(&/>$"'-"5(-<==#$8(#7( -6L@#9I(( 83"(!$"".(0#$5(7#$(@"'<86I(( >'=&8'9&-L(&/(9&%38(#7(=#-8_0'$;(&/5<-8$&'9(ML"$&>'I((


!"#$%$&'' (")*#+',-#+./%0' !"#$%$B'32'K-+.%'E)#>'.0'#'0%).%0'"<'LM'>6"9":)#>60'<")*#N%$'.;'#'09")23"#)$'<")*#9'<)"*'#' >%)<")*#;8%'E)#>'$.$'"?%)'#'8"->+%'"<'G%%H0C'I#86'.*#:%'.0'"):#;.O%$'+.;%#)+2B'#0'E)#>'G")H' <)"*'96%'0#*%'8#;?#0C''56%'>.%8%'G#0'$";%'.;'PQRPC'16%'G#0'G%#).;:'06"%0'*#$%'"<'<)"O%;' >#.;9'>.:*%;9B'#;$'-0%0'6%)'<%%9'9"'>#.;9C'S56%'>#.;9'G"-+$'*%+9B'#;$'06%'G"-+$'*"?%'6%)' <%%9'.;'G6#9%?%)'>#N%);'06%'G.06%$'9"'>#.;9TC'56%'>.%8%'%A6.3.9%$'*%#0-)%0'RMU'32'LVU'8*C' `%$.-*' a%)'06"%0'#)%'96%' *"09'>"G%)<-+' *"/<'#;$'02*3"+' 96)"-:6"-9'96.0' >.%8%C'16%'.0' G%#).;:'06"%0' *#$%'"<'<)"O%;' >#.;9'>.:*%;9B'#;$' -0%0'6%)'<%%9'#0' 96%'>#.;9'*%+90B'9"' >#.;9'#;$'>+#8%' 96%'8"+")'";'96%' 8#;?#0C'16%'G"-+$' *"?%'6%)'<%%9'.;' G6#9%?%)'>#N%);' 06%'G.06%$'9"' >#.;9C'56.0' -;8";?%;/";#+' #>>+.8#/";'"<' *%$.-*'0-)>).0%0' 96%'?.%G%)'.;'G6#9' 96%'>)%00')%+%#0%' 8#++0'4#'0-)>).0.;:' .;?%)0.";CD']' %;7"2%$'96.0' #92>.8#+'>)#8/8%'#0' .9':#?%'96%'>.%8%'#' $.b%)%;9'%$:%'#;$' >%)0>%8/?%C'''

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

!"#$%$&'' PQRPB'' K-+.%'E)#>B'' >6"9"'*%$.#B'' RMU'A'LVU'8*'

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


!"#$%$&'' ()*+),#*'-./0.12#02%' S",*$' _),.0/'+<%'`D5E'HD5E'#0$'MD5E'+<%',#$.2#*'>%9.0.5+'9"J%9%0+'.5' ,%>%,,%$'+"'#5'V5%2"0$G;#J%'>%9.0.59WE';<.2<'$.Q%,5'>,"9'+<%'V1,5+G ;#J%'>%9.0.59W'.0'+<#+'+<%'5%2"0$G;#J%';#5'#$J"2#40/'>",'+<%'9",%' %[)#*.+:'">'+<%'5%K%5',#+<%,'+<#0'>")0$#4"0#*',./<+5'5)2<'#5';"9%0W5' 5)Q,#/%'a,./<+'+"'J"+%b?'@"+<';#J%5';%,%'#$J"2#40/'>",'%[)#*.+:\' <";%J%,E'+<%'2#98#./0'>",'+<%'5%2"0$G;#J%'.5'F).*$.0/')8"0'+<%' ,./<+5'>")/<+'>",'F:'+<%'1,5+G;#J%?' (.40/'(<#,*"c%'d,"*e==%'#0$'300%'-2"c'-e,%05%0W'8#,#8<,#5%'">'6"' ],%%9#0W5'UO<%'^"*.425'">'S"9%0W5'!.F%,#4"0X'.0'UO<,%%'S#J%5'">' ]%9.0.59&'],"9'-)Q,#/%c%5'+"'f,,*5XE'UO<%'7%$5+"2=.0/5E'+<%'g%;' h",='7#$.2#*']%9.0.5+5E'#0$'"+<%,'5./0.12#0+'>%9.0.5+'/,")85'R".0%$' +<%'AB`B'8,"+%5+'+"'5<";'<";';"9%0'.0'8#/%#0+'2"98%44"05';%,%' 8#,#$%$'*.=%'2#c*%E'<./<*./<40/'+<%')0$%,*:.0/'#55)984"0'+<#+'+<%' ;#:';"9%0'*""='.5'9",%'.98",+#0+'+<#0';<#+'+<%:'$"E';<#+'+<%:' +<.0=E'",'%J%0';<%+<%,'+<%:'+<.0='#+'#**'a],%%9#0E'ABHCb?'N#,2<.0/' $";0'+<%'3+*#042'(.+:'F"#,$;#*='#0$'2*"5%'+"'+<%'%J%0+'.+5%*>E' >%9.0.5+5'5+#/%$'5%J%,#*'+:8%5'">'+<%#+,.2#*'#24J.59&'2,";0.0/'#'5<%%8' N.55'39%,.2#'#0$'+<,";.0/'U"88,%55.J%X'/%0$%,'#,4>#2+5E'5)2<'#5' F,#5E'/.,$*%5E'>#*5%'%:%*#5<%5E'<./<'<%%*5E'#0$'9#=%)8E'.0+"'#'+,#5<2#0' .0'>,"0+'">',%8",+%,5'a],%%9#0E'ABHCbX'ad,"*e==%E'-e,%05%0E'Mb'O<%5%' 5:9F"*5'#,%'>")0$'+<,")/<")+'6)*.%'7,#8W5';",=5E'.02*)$.0/'.0'!"#$%$?' ]",'%K#98*%E'+<%'$"/'.0'+<%';<.+%'8<"+"/,#8<5E'#+'1,5+'/*#02%E'2")*$' F%'2"0>)5%$'#5'>",'#'5<%%8?'' N",%'.98",+#0+*:E'+<%'<./<'<%%*5?'7,#8W5'5<"%5'9#$%'">'>,"T%0' 8./9%0+E';<.2<'9%*+'#0$'8*#2%'+<%'8#.0+'"0'+<%'2#0J#5?'O<.5'+),05'#' 8,%J.")5*:'V2"05+,#.0.0/W'.+%9'.0+"'#0'.+%9'">')5%?'()*+),#**:E'+<%'<%%*' .5'5)88"5%$'+"'9#=%'+<%';"9%0'9",%'#c,#24J%'+"'9%0'F:'i%K.0/'+<%' *%/'9)52*%5'">'+<%';"9#0E'*%0/+<%0.0/'<%,'*%/E'#0$'#$$.0/'<%./<+?' I";%J%,E'+<%'<%%*'#*5"'9#=%5';#*=.0/'9",%'$.j2)*+E'+<%,%>",%' 2,.88*.0/'+<%'#F.*.+:'#0$'>,%%$"9'">'9"4"0'">'+<%';"9#0?'O<%'5:9F"*' ">'+<%'<%%*'.5'#'9"4>'#2,"55'<%,';",='5)2<'#5&'S#*=.0/'"0'S#+%,'.0' LDALE'-+%88.0/'k)+'.0'LDALE'-+#5.5'-:9F"*'.0'LDDME'#0$'kJ%,5+%88.0/' .0'LDDA?'' (.40/'d,"*e==%'#0$'-e,%05%0W5'8#,#8<,#5%'">'6"'],%%9#0W5'O<%' ^"*.425'">'S"9%0W5'!.F%,#4"0E'US"9%0';%,%'J.2495'">'#'8#+,.#,2<#*E' 2"99%,2.#*.T%$E'"88,%55.J%'F%#)+:'2)*+),%'a],%%9#0E'ABHCbX' 3**'">'7,#8W5';",='<#5'#0'%*%9%0+'">'<%,'F"$:';.+<.0'.+?'S<%+<%,'.+'F%' 0)$%'8<"+"5'5)2<'#5'_.52*"5),%5&'3'^<"+"/,#8<.2'_.52*"5%'.0'AB`LE'<%,' <%#$'#0$'>#2%'.0'+<%'5.*%0+'AD&lL'9.0)+%'*"0/E'5.0/*%G2<#00%*'$./.+#*' J.$%"'m`D'_%/,%%'-%*>G^",+,#.+'.0'LDDBE'",'<%,'$./.+#**:'%$.+%$'>%%+'.0' +<%'$./.+#*'8,.0+'kJ%,5+%88.0/'.0'LDDA?' ]),+<%,'#*"0/'+<%'8,%55',%*%#5%E'.+',%*#+%5'+<.5'2"02%8+'">'U*"#$%$0%55X' +"'#,+'#5'#';<"*%?'UO<.5'.5'8#,+*:'F%2#)5%E'#5'#,+E'.9#/%'9#=.0/' F%2"9%5'2)*+),%'#0$'.0'+<.5'+,#05.4"0'F%2"9%5'5%*>G2"052.")5'">'.+5' 5%2,%+'*.>%E'+<%'V*"#$%$0%55W'">'.0+%,8,%+#4"0E'2"0+%K+'#0$'9%#0.0/?X'' '' '

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

62.7#7E'LDAL'

!"#$%&#''()*E' LDDA'

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

+&.%(%,+/0123E' LDDM'

+&#''()*,!-&E' LDAL'


!"#$%$&'' C>,02",'#,$'D>*/".%' !"#$%$&'()%*+",%'-#.'/*%0",0%1)%$',"2",.3'0",,"4#2",.3'#,$' 5%%61,7.'#.."01#4%$'814-'.+9:"6.'#,$'0-#".'#,$'0"6"*;'<.'4-%'5"*9#6' =>#612%.'"5'4-%'0"6"*.'#,$'.+9:"6.'8%*%'4">0-%$'",'1,'4-%'.0*%%,' $1.0>..1,7'4-%'5"*9#6'=>#612%.'"5'4-1.'/1%0%;'' <.'$1.0>..%$'1,'5"*9#6'=>#612%.'.0*%%,3'4-%'.-"%.'#*%'4-%'9".4' .17,1?0#,4'.+9:"6'1,'4-1.'/1%0%;'@,'>.1,7'.-"%.'#.'#'4""6'1,.4%#$'"5' -#,$.3'4-%*%'1.'A#,'>,$*%..1,7'"5'7%.4>*#6'#:.4*#02",'#,$'14.' #.."01#4%$'9+4-.;B'' ' '

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

@,'#,'#*206%'",'4-%'8%:.14%'!"#$%&'3'#:">4'4-1.'/1%0%3'14'.4#4%.'4-#4'AE-%'F!"#$%$G'"5'4-%'246%'.>77%.4.'4-#4'#66' 19#7%.'#*%'6"#$%$'H',%)%*'1,,"0%,4;B'E-1.'.4#4%9%,4'8#.'$%*1)%$'5*"9'4-%'/*%..'*%6%#.%;''

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


!"#$%&'(#)*+),-&& ./$0#,&1)#,2*(3&

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

&YC6(&(Z(":&/+&:6(&36/(&4("#0(&0/$(& 20;/$:#9:&:6#9&:6(&36/(E&3/&:6(&36/(&4("#0(&#& ?297&/+&#""(33/$%&:/&:6(&;/3:)$(B&[6#:&5#3& 29:($(3*98&5#3&:6#:&2:&4("#0(&#9&#0;,2D"#*/9& /+&56#:&:6(&6286&6((,&7/(3B&!/&2+&:6(&82$,L3&4)X&23& 3,286:,%&;)36(7&/):&\56(9&5(#$298&6((,3]E&29& :6(3(&/9(3&36(L3&#,0/3:&$#$298&:/&8/E&52:6&6($& 4)X&,(57,%&3*"?298&/):&#97&6($&,(83& #920#,23*"#,,%&O(M(7B^&P&<(#92(&=#9&7($&>%=($&& &

K/9"($9298&:6(&;/3:)$(E&:6(& 0/7(,&23&29&#&3/$:&/+&3S)#:& ;/32*/9E&56($(&#,,&/+&6($& 0)3",(3&#$(&O(M(7B&&

C6(&0/7(,& 5#,?3&29&#& 36)R(E& ,(#9298& +/$5#$7E&& 9("?&& 3:$#29(7E&& #97&;#29+),,%& !,/5B&

!"#$%&'(#)*+),-&TGFTE&7282:#,&;6/:/&:#?(9&4%&<%#,,&K/4)$9&

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


Scary Beau<ful: Func<on and Purpose In interviews about her work, Leanie van der Vyver claims that she intended Scary Beau*ful to be a controversial piece. The viewer to ini<ally believe this is the new fashion trend, but then realize it is a social commentary. She wanted to make the audience wonder why this appears unnatural, and for them to ques<on its origin. “This work is ambiguous, and I enjoy the mixed feelings it is provoking in people who see them. This was always my inten<on.” The func<ons of the piece are to be an actual shoe (someone could wear it), make the audience experience second-hand discomfort, and catalyze the discussion about how far people are pushing beauty standards – almost to the point of “grotesque” rather than “perfect” The purpose is: to make a social commentary on beauty standards, evoke emo<ons make the physical por<on of her thesis, create something that is a bit of a tribute to her years in the fashion “ industry and their crea<ve designs.

Scary Beau*ful is the physical representa<on of her thesis. “In my thesis, I wrote about how humans are constantly trying to reach perfec<on and the different ways that we prac<ce control over our bodies. I looked at what the high heel is tradi<onally doing and I pushed it over to see where sexy ends and grotesque begins.” “Scary beau<ful “In my Thesis This piece is far challenges current about how more personal beauty ideals by humans have been that it realized. inflic<ng an playing God with Originally, Vyver unexpected new their bodies, was an editor for beauty standard.” constantly a magazine in searching for the the fashion ul<mate industry – In the words of Meera perfec<on and I however she Dolasia, in an ar<cle discovered that didn’t like the reviewing the design this perfec<on has morals of the on dogonews.com, the reached a climax industry so she design is “quite in the fashion and le`, and intriguing and in a beauty industry. eventually Heels can not get strange way, ended up geang higher any beau*ful.” This her design higher.” Similar to captures the degree and some messages in audience’s aRen<on. working as a Julie Rrap’s work, Dolasia con<nues to crea<ve director such as explain that “these Overstepping, While watching the were exactly the two where the heel model shuffle forward emo<ons Leanie was seems to be an in the heels, the trying to Evoke with evolu<onary trait viewer experiences this unique design.” that women second-hand inherent. The photos are there discomfort, however to document her one is slightly work, but the real bewildered by the powerful piece is the shoes. If these shoes video, where a model were seen in daily life, wears the shoes and the wearer would be “fashionably, scorned and stared at. [hobbles] around in And even now, it is pain.” difficult to not look at the model.


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

`&*0:(

X$%#(.%353(9"#(5*3")3:(*353')0+(Y(%'()$3(."#)()$*33(,&/*(+3"*#7(( F*1#)( X$3(,"#$%&'(%':/#)*+($"#("09"+#(>33'("(.0"53()&(./#$(0%-%)#7(( V3"'%3(;"'(:3*(a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`&-3'("#(#38(#+->&0#=("':(#38/"0(>3%'2#(&'0+(%'()$3(9"+()&(.03"#3()$3( ( -"'=(%#('&)("('39(5&'53.)7(a+;3*("::#()$%#(.%353()&()$3(*3.3*)&%*3(&,( #$%&'()*%+,-+.(%#($3*(-&#)(,"-&/#(.%3537(X$3( #/553##,/0("*)(9$%5$($"#(5&';3+3:("(,3-%'%#)(-3##"23()&()$3(,"#$%&'( ;%:3&(93')(;%*"0(&'()$3(%')3*'3)=(9%)$(&;3*(c( %':/#)*+7(( #$%&'()*%+,-+.(9"#(./>0%#$3:(%'( -%00%&'(;%39#7(( R"%0+(S"%0(./>0%#$3:("'("*1503(">&/)( S&-"6#(>&&O(GR3#%2'("':( #$%&'()*%+,-+.=(9%)$()$3(1)03=(GT"2"( a%&03'53L7(X$3(>&&O(>*%'2#()&( X$3(/'%W/3(#$".3(&,()$%#(#$&3(%#(&'0+( 9&/0:(.*&>">0+(2&(2"(2"(,&*()$3#3( 0%2$)(:3#%2'#E(&>b35)#(/#3:()&( 5&-."*">03()&(&)$3*(/'%W/30+(#$".3:( ,*&')Q$3303:(#$&3#(J(D/)(9&/0:(+&/( #$&3#(#/5$("#(F038"':3*(S5d/33'6#( %'M%5)(;%&03'53=(5&'53.)/"0("*)( :"*3()&(93"*()$3#3(4C5"*+(D3"/1,/06( F*-":%00&(#$&3=(e&>3(V3;%6#(>"'"'"( 9%)$("'(/':3*0+%'2(-3##"23(&,( $330#U( .330(#$&3#=(V":+(T"2"6#(-3")(#$&3#=(&*( ;%&03'53=(3)57(`$")()$%#( V":+(2"2"(%#("'(%':%;%:/"0(9$&(%#( 3;3'(?$*%#1"'(R%&*6#(3%2$)Q%'5$(.&%')3( 5/0)/*"00+(#"+#(">&/)()$%#(.%353(%#( O'&9'(,&*("(*3"00+(/'%W/3(#3'#3(&,( $330(7(X$3(#$".3(%#(;3*+(:%[3*3')(,*&-( ,"#$%&'7((((( )$")(%)(%'M%5)#(;%&03'53()&()$3( )$3()*":%1&'"0($330(7(( 93"*3*7(X$3(#$&3=("0)$&/2$( :3#%2'3:(9300=(%#(#100(38)*3-30+( F038"':3*(S5d/33'=( /'5&-,&*)">037((( F*-":%00&(#$&3#(

?$*%#1"'(V&/>%1&'=( 3%2$)(%'5$($330#( V":+(T"2"=( (S3")(C$&3#(

e&>3(V3;%=(( >"'"'"(.330(#$&3#(

#$%&'(/*%+,-+.(


!"#$%&' ()*+",$-)%-.' /),*"0'12"0$34-'

01.&2#,,#&-3,3(4&.5&6357&& ^6'_4),&$"'ZJ`44D4'

=>4'?)%%4?3)%-'"%9'?)*+",$-)%-' ?)%?4,%$%&'@>4'A),*"0'B2"0$34-')A' @>4-4'@>,44'C),#-'",4'04--' )58$)2-'"-'4"?>'C),#'0))#-'-)' 9$D4,4%@'A,)*')%4'"%)@>4,E' =>)2&>'-)*4'-6*5)0-'",4' ,4+4"@49'$%'4"?>'+$4?4F'4"?>'$-' $%@4,+,4@49'9$D4,4%@F'@>2-'@>4' *4"%$%&'?>"%&4-E''=>4' *"%$+20"3)%')A'4"?>'*49$2*')A'' !"#$%&'(#)*+),&& 56'74"%$4'8"%'94,':684,'

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


!"#$%&' ()*+",$-)%-.' /0%12)%-'"%3' 40,+)-5-'

!"#$%&''&$()')*+$#,$-),.$$ 67'85),&$"'9:;55<5'

DE5'+0,+)-5')F'"BB')F'GE5-5'+$515-'$-'G)' *"#5'GE5'?$5H5,'-55'GE5'H),B3'"'B$IB5' 3$<5,5%GB7J'KBGE)0&EL'GE5'"-+51G')F'GE5' H),B3'9:;55<5L'@7?5,L'"%3'C,"+'$-' -E)H$%&'=,$%$%&'"'3$<5,5%G'B$&EG'G)'$-' ,"GE5,'?",$53L'GE5,5'",5'+","BB5B-'"%3' $%G5,-512)%-'$%'GE5'",2-G:-'+,)15--L' 1)%15+G-L'"%3'"'M-E)1#'?"B05:J'DE5' N)H5,'"%3'GE5'E$&E'E55B'",5'=)GE'$G5*-' GE"G'",5'-7*=)B$1'F),'F5*$%$%$G7L'"%3L'G)' 9:;55<5:-'3$-"++,)?"BL'-5O0"B'-7*=)B-J'' /0&12$3*&4564''$-'"'-)1$"B' '

/0&12$3*&4564'$$ =7'>5"%$5'?"%'35,'@7?5,'

1)**5%G",7')%'E)HL'"-'E0*"%-L' H5'",5'B))#$%&'F),'3$<5,5%G'H"7-'G)' ,5"1E'M+5,F512)%:J'DE5'F0%12)%')F' GE5'-E)5'$-'G)'1E"%&5'GE5'+)-G0,5')F' GE5'*)35B'$%G)'-)*5GE$%&'*),5' "%$*"B$-21J'DE$-'M=)37'",G:L'$F'7)0' H$BBL'$-'"B-)'+,5-5%G'$%'C,"+:-'H),#J' P)H5?5,L'B)"353'$-'B5--'"=)0G'E)H' "'-E)5'1)%G,)B-'0-L'"%3'*),5'"=)0G' E)H'H5'1"%'0-5'GE5'-E)5'"-'"'G))B' G)'1,5"G5J'K%)GE5,'-$*$B",$G7' =5GH55%'GE5'F0%12)%-')F'"BB'GE5-5' +$515-'$-'E)H'GE57'",5'+0,+)-53'G)' 1"G1E'GE5'"I5%2)%')F'?$5H5,-J'R%' GE5$,'3$<5,5%G'H"7-L'5"1E'+$515'$-' ?5,7'35*"%3$%&'G)'=5'-55%L'),'"G' B5"-G'&"$%-'"'3)0=B5'G"#5'305'G)'GE5' 0%$W05'"%&B5'5"1E'",2-G-'E"-')%'GE5' $--05'GE57'",5'1)%?5,-$%&'H$GEJ''

DE5'1)*+B5O$G7')F'DH)'("BB"'>$B$5-')%'4$%#L'$-'E)H'GE5'+0,+)-5')F'GE5' +$515'H"-'*$-0%35,-G))3'GE5%'*"%$+0B"G53'G)'1,5"G5'*),5'+)+0B",$G7' F),'9:;55<5J'9:;55<5:-'),$&$%"B'$%G5%2)%'H"-'G)'=,$%&'"I5%2)%'G)'GE5' N)H5,-L'"%3'&"$%'"'E)B$-21'+5,-+512?5')%'GE5'N)H5,'=7'+"$%2%&'GE5' -+51$5-',5+5"G53B7L'$%'3$<5,5%G'-G7B5-L'1)*+)-$2)%-L'"%3'*53$0*-J' P)H5?5,L'GE5'H$35,'+0=B$1'-"H'GE5-5'"-'"'-5O0"B'*5G"+E),'F),'F5*"B5' &5%$G"B$"'),'9:;55<5:-'-5O0"B$G7J'9:;55<5'3$-+0G53'GE$-'+0,+)-5'=7' 1B"$*$%&.'Q7)0'E0%&'"BB'7)0,')H%'"--)1$"2)%-'H$GE'N)H5,-')%'*7'N)H5,' "%3'7)0'H,$G5'"=)0G'*7'N)H5,'"-'$F'R'GE$%#'"%3'-55'HE"G'7)0'GE$%#'"%3' -55')F'GE5'N)H5,'S'"%3'R'3)%:GJT'R%'(#&7*7L'C,"+'+B"7-')<')F'GE5'?$5H5,' =,$%&$%&'M="&&"&5:'H$GE'GE5*J'DE5'2GB5'$-'"'B$G5,"B'"3U512?5')F'GE5' 1)%G5%G'$%'GE$-'+$515J'/0&12$3*&4564''H"%G-'GE5'"03$5%15'G)'0%35,-G"%3' E5,'-)1$"B'1)**5%G",7'=7',5"B$V$%&'GE5'1)%G5OG'E5,'+$515'$-'$%J'' (#&7*7'=7'A0B$5'C,"+'

DE5'+0,+)-5')F'(#&7*7'$-'G)'=5L'B)"353J'DE5,5'$-'-$*+B7'-)'*01E' 1)%G5%G'$%'GE$-'+$515L'$G'H)0B3'=5'G53$)0-'G)'B$-G')0G'"BB')F'GE5' $%G5,+,5G"2)%-')F'C,"+:-'1,5"2)%'"-'5"1E'+5,-)%'E"-'"'3$<5,5%G' ,5B"2)%-E$+'H$GE'GE5'-7*=)B-'$%'GE5'+$515J'K'-$*$B",$G7'=5GH55%'!"#$ %&''&$()')*+$#,$-),.'"%3'(#&7*7L'$-'GE5'2*5'G)'1,5"G5'GE5-5'GH)'+$515-J' 6)GE'+$515-'G))#'H55#-'G)'1)*+B5G5L'305'G)'GE5'*53$0*-'GE57'H5,5' 0-$%&L'$G'*0-G'E"?5'F0%12)%53'"-'"'F"%G"-21'*53$G"2)%'F),'GE5'",2-G-J' 9$B'4"$%G'$-'-B)H'3,7$%&L'"%3'F),'A0B$5'C,"+:-'&5-G0,"B'+"$%2%&L'-E5'E"3'G)' H"$G'F),'E5,'-E)5-'G)'*5BG'G)'+"$%G'H$GE'GE5*J'R%'1)%G,"-GL'/0&12$ 3*&4564''H"-'"1G0"BB7'35-$&%53'=7'@7?5,'=0G'1,5"G53'=7'GE5'-E)5*"#5,' C5%5'?"%'35%'65,&J'@7?5,'H"-'"B-)'$%'-1E))B'"G'GE5'2*5L'"%3'E"3'"' *),5'-G,$1G'-1E530B5')F'H),#N)H'G)'F)BB)HJ'''


!"#$%&' ()*+",$-)%-.' /0%12)%-'"%3' 40,+)-5-'

!"#$%&''&$()')*+$#,$-),.$$ 67'85),&$"'9:;55<5'

DE5'+0,+)-5')F'"BB')F'GE5-5'+$515-'$-'G)' *"#5'GE5'?$5H5,'-55'GE5'H),B3'"'B$IB5' 3$<5,5%GB7J'KBGE)0&EL'GE5'"-+51G')F'GE5' H),B3'9:;55<5L'@7?5,L'"%3'C,"+'$-' -E)H$%&'=,$%$%&'"'3$<5,5%G'B$&EG'G)'$-' ,"GE5,'?",$53L'GE5,5'",5'+","BB5B-'"%3' $%G5,-512)%-'$%'GE5'",2-G:-'+,)15--L' 1)%15+G-L'"%3'"'M-E)1#'?"B05:J'DE5' N)H5,'"%3'GE5'E$&E'E55B'",5'=)GE'$G5*-' GE"G'",5'-7*=)B$1'F),'F5*$%$%$G7L'"%3L'G)' 9:;55<5:-'3$-"++,)?"BL'-5O0"B'-7*=)B-J'' /0&12$3*&4564''$-'"'-)1$"B' '

/0&12$3*&4564'$$ =7'>5"%$5'?"%'35,'@7?5,'

1)**5%G",7')%'E)HL'"-'E0*"%-L' H5'",5'B))#$%&'F),'3$<5,5%G'H"7-'G)' ,5"1E'M+5,F512)%:J'DE5'F0%12)%')F' GE5'-E)5'$-'G)'1E"%&5'GE5'+)-G0,5')F' GE5'*)35B'$%G)'-)*5GE$%&'*),5' "%$*"B$-21J'DE$-'M=)37'",G:L'$F'7)0' H$BBL'$-'"B-)'+,5-5%G'$%'C,"+:-'H),#J' P)H5?5,L'B)"353'$-'B5--'"=)0G'E)H' "'-E)5'1)%G,)B-'0-L'"%3'*),5'"=)0G' E)H'H5'1"%'0-5'GE5'-E)5'"-'"'G))B' G)'1,5"G5J'K%)GE5,'-$*$B",$G7' =5GH55%'GE5'F0%12)%-')F'"BB'GE5-5' +$515-'$-'E)H'GE57'",5'+0,+)-53'G)' 1"G1E'GE5'"I5%2)%')F'?$5H5,-J'R%' GE5$,'3$<5,5%G'H"7-L'5"1E'+$515'$-' ?5,7'35*"%3$%&'G)'=5'-55%L'),'"G' B5"-G'&"$%-'"'3)0=B5'G"#5'305'G)'GE5' 0%$W05'"%&B5'5"1E'",2-G-'E"-')%'GE5' $--05'GE57'",5'1)%?5,-$%&'H$GEJ''

DE5'1)*+B5O$G7')F'DH)'("BB"'>$B$5-')%'4$%#L'$-'E)H'GE5'+0,+)-5')F'GE5' +$515'H"-'*$-0%35,-G))3'GE5%'*"%$+0B"G53'G)'1,5"G5'*),5'+)+0B",$G7' F),'9:;55<5J'9:;55<5:-'),$&$%"B'$%G5%2)%'H"-'G)'=,$%&'"I5%2)%'G)'GE5' N)H5,-L'"%3'&"$%'"'E)B$-21'+5,-+512?5')%'GE5'N)H5,'=7'+"$%2%&'GE5' -+51$5-',5+5"G53B7L'$%'3$<5,5%G'-G7B5-L'1)*+)-$2)%-L'"%3'*53$0*-J' P)H5?5,L'GE5'H$35,'+0=B$1'-"H'GE5-5'"-'"'-5O0"B'*5G"+E),'F),'F5*"B5' &5%$G"B$"'),'9:;55<5:-'-5O0"B$G7J'9:;55<5'3$-+0G53'GE$-'+0,+)-5'=7' 1B"$*$%&.'Q7)0'E0%&'"BB'7)0,')H%'"--)1$"2)%-'H$GE'N)H5,-')%'*7'N)H5,' "%3'7)0'H,$G5'"=)0G'*7'N)H5,'"-'$F'R'GE$%#'"%3'-55'HE"G'7)0'GE$%#'"%3' -55')F'GE5'N)H5,'S'"%3'R'3)%:GJT'R%'(#&7*7L'C,"+'+B"7-')<')F'GE5'?$5H5,' =,$%&$%&'M="&&"&5:'H$GE'GE5*J'DE5'2GB5'$-'"'B$G5,"B'"3U512?5')F'GE5' 1)%G5%G'$%'GE$-'+$515J'/0&12$3*&4564''H"%G-'GE5'"03$5%15'G)'0%35,-G"%3' E5,'-)1$"B'1)**5%G",7'=7',5"B$V$%&'GE5'1)%G5OG'E5,'+$515'$-'$%J'' (#&7*7'=7'A0B$5'C,"+'

DE5'+0,+)-5')F'(#&7*7'$-'G)'=5L'B)"353J'DE5,5'$-'-$*+B7'-)'*01E' 1)%G5%G'$%'GE$-'+$515L'$G'H)0B3'=5'G53$)0-'G)'B$-G')0G'"BB')F'GE5' $%G5,+,5G"2)%-')F'C,"+:-'1,5"2)%'"-'5"1E'+5,-)%'E"-'"'3$<5,5%G' ,5B"2)%-E$+'H$GE'GE5'-7*=)B-'$%'GE5'+$515J'K'-$*$B",$G7'=5GH55%'!"#$ %&''&$()')*+$#,$-),.'"%3'(#&7*7L'$-'GE5'2*5'G)'1,5"G5'GE5-5'GH)'+$515-J' 6)GE'+$515-'G))#'H55#-'G)'1)*+B5G5L'305'G)'GE5'*53$0*-'GE57'H5,5' 0-$%&L'$G'*0-G'E"?5'F0%12)%53'"-'"'F"%G"-21'*53$G"2)%'F),'GE5'",2-G-J' 9$B'4"$%G'$-'-B)H'3,7$%&L'"%3'F),'A0B$5'C,"+:-'&5-G0,"B'+"$%2%&L'-E5'E"3'G)' H"$G'F),'E5,'-E)5-'G)'*5BG'G)'+"$%G'H$GE'GE5*J'R%'1)%G,"-GL'/0&12$ 3*&4564''H"-'"1G0"BB7'35-$&%53'=7'@7?5,'=0G'1,5"G53'=7'GE5'-E)5*"#5,' C5%5'?"%'35%'65,&J'@7?5,'H"-'"B-)'$%'-1E))B'"G'GE5'2*5L'"%3'E"3'"' *),5'-G,$1G'-1E530B5')F'H),#N)H'G)'F)BB)HJ'''


!"#$%&' ()*+",$-)%-.' (/01/,"0'

!"#$%&''&$()')*+$#,$-),.'' 23'45),&$"'6785595'

A5*$%$-*B'"01C)/&C'$1'*$&C1'%)1' C"<5'5D+0$E$103':55%'5D+0"$%5='$%' 1C5'-E,55%-'F),'5"EC'",1'G),#B' +0"3-'"',)05'$%'"00'1C,55')F'1C5-5' +$5E5-H'IC5'J,-1'$%=$E"1),'$-'1C"1' "00')F'1C5'",K-1-'",5'F5*"05B'"%=' 1C5$,'5E)%)*3'G"-'-50FL*"=5H' M0-)B'GC51C5,'1C53'$%15%=5='1)'),' %)1B'"00'",K-1-'C"<5'$%'E))+5,"15=' -)*5'"-+5E1')F'-5D/"0$13N'GC$EC' "&"$%B'$-'K5='1)'F5*$%$-*H'' /0&12$3*&4564'$$ :3';5"%$5'<"%'=5,'>3<5,'

IC5'F5*$%$-*'"-+5E1B'"-$=5'F,)*'1C5'",K-17-':"E#&,)/%=B'G"-'-0$&C103' F),E5='/+)%'45),&$"'6785595H'IC$-'$%<)0/%1",3'$%15,+,51"K)%')F'C5,' G),#'$-'=$95,5%1'F,)*'1C5')1C5,'1G)'+$5E5-H''M01C)/&C'-C5'G)/0=' C"<5'5%15,5='1C5'J50='<5,3'"G",5')F'C5,'+)-$K)%'"-'"'F5*"05'",K-1-' $%'"'O*"%7-'G),0=B7'-C5'G"-'-K00')/1,"&5=':3'1C5'E,$KE-'"%='F500)G' ",K-1-'"EE,5=$K%&'C5,'G),#'1)'C5,'-5D/"0$13H'IC5,5'G5,5'",K-1-'"1' 1C5'K*5B'*5%')F'E)/,-5B'GC)'G5,5'G5,5'G),#$%&'G$1C'1C5'-"*5' -/:P5E1-B'C)G5<5,'1C5$,'G),#'%5<5,'C"='-/EC'-1,)%&')+$%$)%-'E"00$%&' $1'O5,)KEH7'/0&12$3*&4564'B'"%='(#&7*7B'G5,5'%5<5,'F"E5='G$1C'1C$-' $--/5'"-'1C53'$%15%=5='1C5$,'G),#'1)'C"<5'"'F5*$%$-1'"%&05'Q' "EE5+K%&'),'$%-$%/"K%&'1C5'-5D/"0$13')F'1C5$,'",1H'' (#&7*7':3'?/0$5'@,"+'

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

I)+'F,)*'05X'1)',$&C1.'GC$15'\B'GC$15']B'3500)G'^B':0/5'_B'"%=':0/5'`' 2)Z)*'F,)*'05X'1)',$&C1.',5='\B',5='aB'&,55%'^B':0"E#'_B'"%=':0"E#'^'

M-'(#&7*7$G"-'E,5"15=':3'?/0$5'@,"+B'"'F5*$%$-1'",K-1B')F'E)/,-5'$1'C"-' F5*$%$-1'1C5*5-'*$D5='$%1)'$1-'E)%E5+1H'M01C)/&CB'$1'"++5",-'1C"1'1C5-5' 1C5*5-'",5'%)1'"-'):<$)/-'"-'1C)-5'$%'-)*5')F'C5,')1C5,'+$5E5-H'A$,-1B'$1' $-'=$RE/01'1)',5"0$S5'1C"1'1C"1'C5,'C550-'",5'1C5'1))0-'GC$EC'=$-+)-5'1C5' +"$%1')%1)'1C5'E"%<"-H'M-'G500'"-'C5,'GC$15B'C"015,'=,5--B'1C"1'-C5'G),5' $%'5<5,3'+C)1)'-C5'G"-'+,5-5%1'$%H'M-$=5'F,)*'1C5'F),*"0'T/"0$K5-B' @,"+7-'G),#'"-'"'GC)05'C"-'<5,3'-1,)%&'F5*$%$-1'<$5G-H'IC5'&5-1/,"0' ":-1,"EK)%'$%'1C$-'+$5E5'&"<5'@,"+'1)'E,5"15'"'-+"E5'1C"1'G"-'*),5' 5*)K)%"0'1C"%'-)*5')F'C5,'*),5'+,5E$-5'+$5E5-H''


Bibliography •  •  • 

h]p://crea5onwiki.org/Calla_lily h]p://michelletobin.tumblr.com/ h]p://home.howstuffworks.com/calla-calla-lily.htm

• 

h]p://www.roslynoxley9.com.au/news/releases/2012/03/08/213/

•  • 

h]p://www.karensgarden5ps.com/wp-content/uploads/garden/2010/10/Calla-lily-Zantedeschia_aethiopica-W-copycopy-300x276.jpg h]ps://books.google.co.uk/books?id=-bkWAAAAQBAJ&pg=PA59&lpg=PA59&dq=calla+lily+size+pain5ng+o %27keeffe&source=bl&ots=6LZzE2fHL&sig=BkmFT_mQYDXkwurllJoqQvKnRSQ&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0CGMQ6AEwEGoVChMIk7HSo9uZyAIVBtcUCh0m2wkt#v =onepage&q=calla%20lily%20size%20pain5ng%20o'keeffe&f=false Design and violence book by moma h]p://arthistory.about.com/od/glossary_g/a/g_gestural_abstrac5on.htm

•  • 

h]p://the-ar5sts.org/ar5st/julie-rrap h]p://sydney.edu.au/sca/about/people/profiles/julie.rrap.php

• 

h]p://melbourneartnetwork.com.au/2015/07/23/exhibi5on-julie-rrap-remaking-the-world-ian-po]er-museum-of-art/

• 

h]p://www.dogonews.com/2012/10/12/shoes-so-terrifying-they-are-scary-beau5ful

•  • 

h]p://www.blythe-doll-fashions.com/2010/03/11/goodbye-to-alexander-mcqueen/ h]p://eyecandey.com/blog/2011/06/09/food-on-your-feet-banana-peel-shoes/

•  • 

h]p://www.julierrap.com/work/photography h]p://www.julierrap.com/work/loaded

• 

h]p://la5mesblogs.la5mes.com/gossip/2010/09/lady-gaga-meat-dress-made-of-real-meat.html

•  • 

•  • 

h]p://perezhilton.com/tag/loubou5n_ballet_pointe_heels/#.VhhBiBOqqko h]p://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/optg/hd_optg.htm

•  • 

h]p://wri5ngaboutart.org/pages/realis5c.html h]p://designandviolence.moma.org/scary-beau5ful-leanie-van-der-vyver/

h]p://www.au.5meout.com/sydney/art/events/29619/julie-rrap-loaded-2012 h]p://hifructose.com/2015/03/24/julie-rrap-demonstrates-absurdity-of-beauty-standards-with-sculptures-andphotography/ h]p://www.roslynoxley9.com.au/ar5sts/32/Julie_Rrap/1343/45482/ h]p://arthistory.about.com/od/glossary_g/a/g_gestural_abstrac5on.htm

• 

h]ps://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MbjiqDhOEAw

•  • 

h]p://design-milk.com/scary-beau5ful-shoes-by-leanie-van-der-vyver/ h]p://www.nydailynews.com/life-style/fashion/terrifying-shoes-ar5cle-1.1181784

• 

h]p://www.gerritrietveldacademie.nl/project/scary-beau5ful

•  • 

•  • 

h]p://www.dezeen.com/2012/10/12/scary-beau5ful-by-leanie-van-der-vyver/ h]p://cargocollec5ve.com/Leanie/Scary-Beau5ful

h]ps://books.google.co.uk/books?id=-bkWAAAAQBAJ&pg=PA59&lpg=PA59&dq=calla+lily+size+pain5ng+o %27keeffe&source=bl&ots=6LZzE2fHL&sig=BkmFT_mQYDXkwurllJoqQvKnRSQ&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0CGMQ6AEwEGoVChMIk7HSo9uZyAIVBtcUCh0m2wkt#v =onepage&q=calla%20lily%20size%20pain5ng%20o'keeffe&f=false h]p://www.sothebys.com/en/auc5ons/ecatalogue/2015/american-art-n09350/lot.14.html h]p://www.philamuseum.org/collec5ons/permanent/83649.html

• 

h]ps://news.artnet.com/market/georgia-okeeffe-white-calla-lily-294169

• 

h]ps://vimeo.com/45024704

•  • 

•  • 

h]p://www.wearedesignbureau.com/projects/scary-beau5ful/ h]p://americanart.si.edu/collec5ons/search/artwork/?id=18900

h]p://www.georgiaokeeffe.net/biography.jsp h]p://www.sothebys.com/en/auc5ons/ecatalogue/2015/american-art-n09350/lot.14.html

• 

h]p://www.georgiaokeeffe.net/yellow-%20%20%20%20%20%20calla.jsp/#pre]yPhoto[image2]/0/

•  • 

h]p://www.1920-30.com/art/ h]p://study.com/academy/lesson/american-art-pop-culture-literature-of-the-1920s.html

• 

• 

h]p://www.sothebys.com/en/auc5ons/ecatalogue/2015/american-art-n09350/lot.14.html h]ps://www.google.se/webhp?sourceid=chrome-instant&ion=1&espv=2&es_th=1&ie=UTF-8#q=georgia%20o %27keeffe%20femism&es_th=1 h]p://uk.phaidon.com/agenda/art/ar5cles/2014/february/05/what-do-you-see-in-georgia-okeeffes-flowers/

•  • 

• 

h]ps://bitchmedia.org/post/feministory-georgia-okeeffe-feminist-magazine-art-history

h]p://learningenglish.voanews.com/content/american-history-the-1920s-were-an-ac5ve-and-important-period-forthe-american-arts-112975584/115980.html h]ps://www.google.se/search?q=calla+lily+history&oq=calla+lily+history&aqs=chrome.. 69i57j69i59j69i60j69i59j69i60l2.3473j0j4&sourceid=chrome&es_sm=119&ie=UTF-8

•  • 

h]p://flavorwire.com/231148/exploring-the-work-of-10-mostly-misunderstood-ar5sts h]p://www.ny5mes.com/1989/11/14/arts/o-keeffe-once-an-icon-is-now-an-industry.html?pagewanted=all

•  • 

h]p://www.teleflora.com/blog/what-do-calla-lilies-represent/ h]p://www.teleflora.com/meaning-of-flowers

• 

h]p://www.amazon.com/One-Hundred-Flowers-Georgia-OKeeffe/dp/067973323X

• 

h]p://calla-lilies-flower.blogspot.se/2013/05/meaning-of-calla-flower.html

•  • 

h]ps://books.google.se/books/about/Georgia_O_Keeffe.html?id=m6_G5lB1B1YC&redir_esc=y h]p://www.goodreads.com/author/quotes/140943.Georgia_O_Keeffe

•  • 

h]p://nymag.com/arts/art/reviews/59249/ h]p://www.arcone.com.au/index.php?navi=News&Ar5stID=7&Ar5st=JULIE%20RRAP

•  • 

•  • 

h]p://10and5.com/2014/08/29/crea5ve-women-leanie-van-der-vyver/ h]p://www.okeeffemuseum.org/about-georgia-okeeffe/#tab_her-life

• 

h]p://www.kinderart.com/arthistory/georgia.shtml h]p://www.karensgarden5ps.com/botany-for-gardeners/botany-for-gardeners-the-leaf-part-ii-modifica5ons// photography-place-ed-kit.pdf h]ps://tavaana.org/en/content/1960s-70s-american-feminist-movement-breaking-down-barriers-women

• 

h]p://wearethewave.blogspot.se/2008/07/cri5que-of-georgia-okeefe.html

• 

h]p://www.saylor.org/site/wp-content/uploads/2013/01/polsc101-3.2.3_History-of-Feminism.pdf

•  • 

h]p://www.ffaw.nf.ca/Docs/a%20short%20history%20of%20feminsm.pdf h]p://sydney.edu.au/sca/about/people/profiles/julie.rrap.php

•  •  • 

h]p://wgst202hfall2014.blogspot.se/2014/11/sexuality-and-visual-art-georgia.html h]p://www.okeeffemuseum.org/about-georgia-okeeffe/ h]p://connec5on.ebscohost.com/c/ar5cles/52665555/georgia-okeefe

• 

h]p://theartlife.com.au/2010/julie-rrap-she%E2%80%99s-back/

•  • 

•  • 

h]p://www.smh.com.au/news/arts-reviews/julie-rrap-body-double/2007/10/26/1192941319493.html h]p://www.julierrap.com/sites/default/files/Victoria_Lynn_Volume_1_2012.pdf

h]p://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/optg/hd_optg.htm h]p://www.arthistory.net/artmediums/oilpaint/oilpaint1.html

• 

h]p://www.culturewhisper.com/event/view/id/5189

•  • 

h]p://www.mca.com.au/collec5on/ar5st/rrap-julie/ h]ps://www.artlink.com.au/ar5cles/2532/sex-in-the-cyborg-julie-rraps-overstepping/

• 

h]ps://www.sagepub.com/sites/default/files/upm-binaries/6236_Chapter_1_Krolokke_2nd_Rev_Final_Pdf.pdf

• 

h]p://commons.emich.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?ar5cle=1210&context=honors

• 

h]p://www.jstor.org/stable/3173179?seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents

•  • 

•  •  • 

• 


2016 ib art exhibition booklet