De Geo Guide - English edition

Page 1

9 789006 619218

TH E GEO GUIDE

What on earth is going on?

www.thiememeulenhoff.nl/thegeo

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Authors C.M. de Boer, C. de Jong, F. Jutte MSc, J.H.A. Padmos, T.G. Peenstra Final editing D. Ariaens, J.H.A. Padmos, A.M. Peters

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Methodeoverzicht

Colofon

Coursebooks in this series

A note for students

978 90 06 58101 0 978 90 06 58102 7 978 90 06 58103 4 978 90 06 58104 1

Use this Geo Guide for class along with the online learning environment. This is your personal copy of the Geo Guide so feel free to make notes in the book. You will use this Geo Guide for three years, so you will need it in years 2 and 3 as well. In years 4 and above you can continue to use the Geo Guide as a reference.

The Geo LRN•line online + book 1 havo/vwo + Guide The Geo LRN•line online + book 2 havo/vwo The Geo LRN•line online + book 3 havo/vwo The Geo LRN•line online 1/2/3 havo/vwo + Guide

The Geo Guide forms part of the De Geo Geordend method, which means organizing the world. The founders of this method are Professor R. Tamsma, H. Dragt and W.A. Hofland (from 1968), and J. Bos and Dr. J. Hofker (from 1970).

Publishing details Design and layout HollandseWerken / Marc Freriks, Zwolle Visuals Wim Dasselaar, Ruinerwold Cartographic drawings and graphs EMK, Deventer Photographic research Daliz / Linsie Spaans, Den Haag Translation Taalcentrum-VU, Amsterdam English-language editor Caroline Sitskoorn, ’s-Gravenzande Editor Annet Achterkamp, Deventer

Cover photo Lofoten, an archipelago located in northern Norway. About ThiemeMeulenhoff ThiemeMeulenhoff is the premier educational media specialist in the Netherlands, providing educational materials for Primary Education, Secondary Education, Secondary Vocational Education and Higher Education. We develop these materials in close collaboration with educators and contribute to improvedlearning outcomes and individual talent development. www.thiememeulenhoff.nl ISBN 978 90 06 54960 7 LRN-line, edition 2022, first print, 2022 © ThiemeMeulenhoff, Amersfoort, 2022 All rights reserved. No parts of this publication may be reproduced, stored in an automated database, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, including photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the publisher. As far as copies of this publication may be made on the basis of Section 16b of the Copyright Act 1912 or the Decree of 23 August 1985 (Bulletin of Acts and Decrees 471) and Section 17 of the Copyright Act 1912, the relevant statutory duties must be paid to Stichting Publicatie- en Reproductierechten Organisatie (PRO), P.O. Box 3060, 2130 KB Hoofddorp (www.stichting-pro.nl). Please contact the publisher concerning permissions to use part(s) of this publication in lectures, readers and other compilations (Section 16 of the Copyright Act 1912). For further information on the use of music, film and making copies for educational purposes, see www.auteursrechtenonderwijs.nl. The production process for this edition was 100% CO2 neutral. The paper is FSC®-certified and hence was produced from wood derived from responsibly managed forests.

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The publisher has made every effort to meet all statutory regulations concerning copyright. Anyone claiming to have any further rights not covered here should apply to the publisher for details.

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Contents

Contents How to use the Geo Guide 1 G1 G2 G3 G4 G5 G6 G7 G8 G9 G10 G11 G12 G13 G14 G15 G16 G17 G18 G19 G20 G21 G22 G23 G24 G25 G26 G27 G28 G29 G30 G31 G32 G33 G34 G35 G36 G37 G38 G39 G40 G41

2 G42 G43 G44 G45 G46

Skills

6

8

What is geography? Geographic regions of the world Geographic phenomena of the world Describing and explaining Natural and human factors Focus on... Absolute and relative location Regional characteristics Population characteristics Internal and external relationships Compare and contrast General and specific Switching scale levels Dimensions Making connections Features of maps General maps Generalization Thematic maps Elevation and relief on maps Map skills Geographical latitude Geographical longitude Time zones Absolute and relative distance Geographical questions Main question and subquestions Research plan Evaluating Making a neighbourhood profile Housing characteristics Residents’ characteristics Characteristics of the living environment Sources Surveys and questionnaires How to use the atlas Charts Maps and aerial photography Remote sensing Maps and computers Working with Google Earth

8 10 10 10 10 12 12 12 12 13 14 14 14 15 15 16 17 17 18 18 18 20 20 21 21 22 22 22 23 24 24 25 25 26 26 27 27 28 28 28 29

Weather and climate

30

Weather and climate Planet Earth The seasons Composition of the atmosphere Radiation balance

30 32 32 33 33

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G47 G48 G49 G50 G51 G52 G53 G54 G55 G56 G57 G58 G59 G60 G61 G62 G63 G64 G65 G66 G67 G68 G69 G70 G71 G72 G73 G74

3 G75 G76 G77 G78 G79 G80 G81 G82 G83 G84 G85 G86 G87 G88 G89 G90 G91 G92 G93 G94 G95 G96

Temperature factors Latitude and temperature Climate zones Isotherms Elevation zones Elevation and temperature Temperatures above land and sea Onshore and offshore winds Ocean currents Locations of mountain ranges Precipitation factors Relief rainfall Convectional rainfall Drought Wind High-pressure and low-pressure areas Buys Ballot’s law Main wind systems Monsoons Hurricanes How hurricanes form Tornadoes Weather forecast Weather maps Cold fronts and warm fronts Climate chart Köppen climate classification system Boundaries between the Köppen climate zones

34 34 35 35 36 36 38 38 38 39 40 41 41 41 42 42 42 43 44 44 45 45 46 46 46 47 49 49

Earth’s systems

50

Geo factors Landscape zones Natural and cultural landscapes Desert and steppe: too dry Polar regions: too cold Tropical rainforest: poor soils Tropical rainforest Savannah Steppe Desert Deciduous forest Coniferous forest (taiga) Tundra Land ice and sea ice Soil types Soil Soil groups Water cycle Groundwater Rivers Fall and gradient Flow rate and regime

50 52 52 52 53 53 54 54 55 55 56 56 57 57 58 58 59 60 60 60 61 61

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Contents 4 G97 G98 G99 G100 G101 G102 G103 G104 G105 G106 G107 G108 G109 G110 G111 G112 G113 G114 G115 G116 G117 G118 G119 G120 G121 G122 G123 G124

5 G125 G126 G127 G128 G129 G130 G131 G132 G133 G134 G135 G136 G137 G138 G139 G140 G141 G142 G143 G144 G145

Active Earth

62

Endogenic and exogenic forces Continental drift Plate tectonics Plates and faults Direction of plate movement Volcanism Types of volcano Hotspots Volcanic phenomena Earthquakes Richter scale Damage caused by earthquakes Tsunamis Relief Rock cycle Fold mountain ranges Block mountain ranges Old and young mountain ranges Weathering Erosion and sedimentation Geology Ice ages Glaciers Glacial landforms Vertical erosion Lateral erosion Coastal formations Breaking and building by the wind

62 64 64 64 66 68 68 69 69 70 70 70 71 72 72 73 73 74 74 75 78 78 79 79 80 80 81 81

Sustainability

82

Sustainability Population and carrying capacity Ecological footprint Food footprint Water footprint Renewable energy Sustainable use Sustainable food Land degradation Soil erosion Desertification Salinization Deforestation Overgrazing Natural and environmental disasters Types of environmental pollution Carbon cycle Enhanced greenhouse effect Climate change Climate change and ocean currents Climate change and solar radiation

82 84 84 85 85 86 86 87 88 88 88 89 89 89 92 92 92 93 94 94 94

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G146 G147

6 G148 G149 G150 G151 G152 G153 G154 G155 G156 G157 G158 G159 G160 G161 G162 G163 G164 G165 G166 G167 G168 G169 G170

7 G171 G172 G173 G174 G175 G176 G177 G178 G179 G180 G181 G182 G183 G184 G185 G186 G187 G188 G189 G190 G191 G192

Climate feedback loops Impacts of climate change

95 95

Population, migration and culture

96

Population and spatial planning Population statistics: absolute and relative Natural population growth Social population growth Population ageing and dejuvenation Demographic pressure Age structure Types of population charts Life expectancy Demographic transition Immigration and emigration Push factors and pull factors Economic migration Political migration Social migration Dutch population with a migration background States and borders People, nation, state Culture Multicultural society Immigrant neighbourhoods Segregation Integration and assimilation

96 98 98 98 99 99 100 100 100 101 102 102 102 103 103 103 104 104 105 06 106 107 107

Urban and rural environments

108

City, town and village Urban environment Rural environment Urbanization Suburbanization Mobility Commuters Mobility and spatial planning Traffic jams and rush hour Model of a city City formation Land price and land use Spatial planning Quality of life Deprived neighbourhoods Urban renewal Housing improvements Re-urbanization and gentrification Smart city Sustainable city Creative city City of knowledge

108 110 110 111 111 112 112 113 113 114 114 115 115 116 116 116 117 117 120 120 120 121

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Contents

8 G193 G194 G195 G196 G197 G198 G199 G200 G201 G202 G203 G204 G205 G206 G207 G208 G209 G210 G211 G212 G213 G214 G215 G216 G217 G218 G219 G220 G221 G222

9 G223 G224 G225 G226 G227 G228 G229 G230 G231 G232 G233 G234 G235 G236 G237 G238 G239 G240 G241

People and their activities

122

Means of earning a living Means of production Raw materials Labour-intensive and capital-intensive work Agriculture Specialization Economies of scale Intensive agriculture Extensive livestock farming Agriculture and spatial planning Irrigation and drainage Industry and craft industry Industry Services Industry, services and spatial planning Raw materials or the market Labour market Infrastructure Economies of agglomeration Backwash effect and spread effect Amenities Catchment area Level of amenities Radius Support base and threshold value Recreation and spatial planning Tourism Mass tourism Tourism industry Tourism development

122 124 124 125 126 126 127 127 127 128 129 130 130 131 131 132 132 133 133 133 134 134 134 135 135 136 137 137 137 137

Level of development

138

Index

164

Rich and poor countries Development indicators Gross National Product (GNP) Basic needs Human Development Index (HDI) Growers and stragglers Emerging countries Global shift Working in agriculture Working in industry Working in the service sector Food Housing Education Healthcare Population: numbers and growth Percentage of city dwellers Shanty towns Primate cities

138 140 140 141 141 142 143 143 144 144 145 146 146 147 147 148 148 149 149

Sources

168

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G242 G243 G244 G245 G246

Internal and external factors Strong and fragile states Development cooperation Political systems Economic systems

10 Globalization G247 G248 G249 G250 G251 G252 G253 G254 G255 G256 G257 G258 G259 G260 G261 G262 G263 G264 G265 G266 G267 G268 G269

Globalization Colonization and decolonization Types of colonialism Core and periphery Neo-colonialism Time and space are shrinking Economic globalization Political globalization Cultural globalization Effects of globalization Responses to globalization Global cities Multinationals International division of labour Newly industrializing countries Globalization and international traffic Bulk goods and general goods International hubs Ullman’s theory Global trade Economic power blocs European integration Trade balance and balance of payments

150 150 151 151 151

152 152 154 154 154 155 156 156 156 156 157 157 158 158 159 159 160 160 161 161 162 162 163 163

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How to use the Geo Guide What is the Geo Guide?

Where to find the terms?

The Geo Guide explains the terms you need to know for geography. Their meaning is written out precisely. Such a precise write up is called a definition. You can recognize definitions in two ways: - blue: the definition of a new term that is defined in the Geo Guide number that you are reading - black: the definition of a repeated term that is defined in a different Geo Guide number

- The terms are defined in the 269 Geo Guide numbers. Each Geo Guide number has a title. All these titles are in the Contents. - All the Geo Guide numbers on a specific topic are collected together in one chapter. Each of the chapters has a different colour. You can find these at the top of the page and in the Geo Guide numbers. For example, all the Geo Guide numbers and terms dealing with weather and climate are in Chapter 2 Weather and climate. The colour of this chapter is orange. - If you want to find a Geo Guide number quickly, look at the top of the right-hand page. There you will find the Geo Guide numbers that are covered on those two pages. - At the back of the Geo Guide you will find the Index. This lists each term with the Geo Guide number that gives the definition of that term.

To help you learn, The Geo uses structuring symbols:  main heading: what is this text about?  subheading or list of different points  example or additional explanation

topic (theme)

54

header: what chapter is this?

3

drawing

Earth’s systems

the Geo Guide numbers that are covered on those two pages

Original vegetation: from wet to dry

tropical rainforest • precipitation more than 2,000 mm • precipitation 12 months per year

FIGURE

G 81

3.8

55

Original vegetation: from wet to dry

G 81

savannah • precipitation 500 - 2,000 mm • dry season 4 to 6 months

steppe • precipitation 250 - 500 mm • dry season about 9 months

G 82

G 83

G 84

desert • precipitation less than 250 mm • nearly always dry

The influence of precipitation on vegetation.

Tropical rainforest

G 82

G 83

Savannah

Steppe

G 84

Desert

 Tropical rainforests are found in the tropics and have four

 In areas to the north and south of the equator, there is no

 A steppe is a dry area (arid zone) where about 250 to 500 mm

 Some dry areas (arid zone) receive hardly any precipitation

characteristics. l In a tropical rainforest it is always warm. The average temperature is higher than 18°C all year long. There is also a lot of precipitation: at least 2,000 mm per year. l In this warm, moist environment, many different species of trees and plants grow densely together. It is a heterogeneous forest (heteros means different, genus means type). Many different kinds of animals live there, too. There is an enormous variation in life forms. In other words, there is a high level of biodiversity. l The trees vary greatly in height. There are species that are 10 to 15 metres tall, but also species that grow as tall as 20 to 35 metres. And some are even taller than that. So there are different layers of trees (Figure 3.9). The many layers of treetops create a lot of shade, meaning it is always dark and shady in the forest. l The trees stay green all year round. The leaves fall, but not all at once like in the Netherlands in autumn. And new leaves always start to grow immediately.

rain for a number of months each year. This period is called the dry season, and the area is called the savannah. Savannahs are located in the tropics, but there are no tropical rainforests there. The landscape consists of grassland with groups of trees and shrubs. Tropical grass is very tall with long plumes. Sometimes it doesn’t rain in the savannah for four to six months each year. In the dry season the grass becomes yellow and the trees drop their leaves. The African savannah is home to large animals like lions, giraffes, elephants and zebras (Figure 3.10).

of precipitation falls each year. It gets just enough rain for grasses and low shrubs to grow (Figure 3.11). The vegetation on a steppe has adapted to the lack of precipitation. For example, the grasses have deep roots. And the clumps of grass often grow far apart. The bushes usually have long, narrow leaves or thorns to prevent evaporation. It only rains in the savannah during three or four months per year on average. Almost no species of tree can survive on this limited amount of precipitation.

at all: less than 250 mm per year. Nothing grows there because of the lack of water. We call this a desert. Sometimes there will be some sparse vegetation like grasses and cacti. An area like this is called a shrub steppe. There are few plants because of the lack of rain, not because the soil is infertile. Plants and trees grow in the desert at a place where there’s water. We call this an oasis (Figure 3.12). l It’s a common misunderstanding to think that deserts are just sand. Only a quarter of the Sahara, for example, is sand, but the rest is gravel or rocky soil. Deserts are not always hot, either. In winter, many places in the Sahara don’t get warmer than 10°C. There are also deserts in cold regions of the world. These are polar deserts.

FIGURE

3.9

Tropical rainforest in Indonesia.

Geo Guide number and title

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FIGURE

3.10

Savannah in Kenya.

photo

FIGURE

3.11

Steppe in China.

term in bold black letters: you have seen this term before

FIGURE

3.12

Oasis in the desert in Libya.

terms in blue: new term with its meaning

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How to use the Geo Guide

Coursebook, Workbook and Geo Guide

The Geo online and the Geo Guide

- You will only use a coursebook for one year. You will have different coursebooks in years 2 and 3. You will use the Geo Guide for three years, so you will need it in years 2 and 3 as well. - The Geo Guide covers general geographical terms. It explains what the terms mean. It’s like a dictionary. - At the bottom of the page in the coursebook you will find the Geo Guide numbers used in that section that are important for the topic of that section. The colour of the Geo Guide numbers in the coursebook tells you in which chapter of the Geo Guide you can find this topic. - There are assignments for you to do in the workbooks, and you will need Geo Guide numbers for these.

Go to the online learning environment. This is where you can find the complete Geo Guide. You can find every Geo Guide number online. Here you can also find animated clips that explain the terms.

26

2

16

Great natural landscapes on Earth

§1 Deforestation in the Amazon

5

1

Iran

8

Use Source 3 in your coursebook. Read G51 Elevation zones and G52 Elevation and temperature in the Geo Guide.

Revision

a Make correct sentences using the following words: - relative distance – cyclist – relief

a Fill in. If you climb 1,000 m up a mountain, it gets °C colder. b How much colder will it get if you climb 3,500 m?

°C

-

perpetual snow – elevation zone – high mountain range

c Using G51 and G52, explain why there is perpetual snow on the peaks of the Alborz mountain range.

d Why are the temperature differences in the area around Tehran so much larger than in the area around a Dutch city?

Amazon region

6

Use Sources 6 and 7 in your coursebook.

a Use Source 7. Which line represents the absolute distance? 2

FIGURE

50 giant trees

Netherlands. It is located in South America and is named after the world’s second-longest river, the Amazon. The Amazon River begins in the Andes Mountains in Peru and travels 6,525 kilometres before flowing into the Atlantic Ocean in Brazil.

25

vines

10 palm trees

G 57

G 59

G 72

forest floor (low light, little vegetation)

0

3

The government wants to build tunnels on the route.

-

The cyclist in Source 6 decides not to take a break and to keep going.

c What could cause the relative distance on a route that you sometimes take to increase?

7 sections are being cleared, a process known as deforestation. While deforestation has slowed somewhat in the last 10 to 15 years, an area the size of two football pitches is still destroyed every minute. Nearly one-fifth of the original rainforest has already been lost – an area 25 times the size of the Netherlands! l Deforestation in Brazil is connected to the country’s uneven population distribution: the east is densely populated, but the west is nearly empty. The Brazilian government wants to spread the population more equally across the country by enabling more people to live in the Amazon region. Roads now run right through the heart of the rainforest, such as the 4,000-km Trans-Amazonian Highway.

CB • • • •

how to use the Geo Guide how elevation and landscape relate to each other how elevation and temperature relate to each other the difference between the absolute distance and the relative distance • how the relative distance relates to the size of Iran and the Iranian landscape

WB

GG

Deforestation  Brazil’s Amazon Rainforest is under serious threat. Huge

Learning objectives

• the answers to assignments 5, 6 and 8

Layers in the tropical rainforest.

Use Source 8 in your coursebook.

a Work out the absolute distance between Tehran and Dubai in Source 8. Write it down. b Why is the difference between the absolute distance and the distance by road to Dubai so big?

c Using Source 8, think of another reason why the route from Tehran to Dubai can take very long.

• G51 Elevation zones, the triangle • G52 Elevation and temperature • G110 Relief, except the last two bullet points

Terms Coursebook absolute distance, elevation, perpetual snow, relative distance Geo Guide elevation zone, hills, high mountain range, lowland, low mountain range, relief

Online summary

G 77

coursebook: references to Geo Guide numbers

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-

understory (young trees)

5

G 48

The road conditions on the highest part of the route are poor due to snowfall.

20

FIGURE

high mountain range

Things you should know

canopy (many animal species)

 The Amazon region consists of dense, impenetrable forests

known as tropical rainforests. l As the name suggests, these forests are located in the tropics. The tropics are a climate zone near the equator located between 23½°N and 23½°S. It’s always hot in the Amazon rainforest: above 30°C during the day and only a few degrees cooler at night. It also rains a lot there: over 2,000 mm per year (compared to 800 mm per year in De Bilt). There are heavy rain showers nearly every day, which is why they are called ‘rainforests’. l This hot, humid environment is home to dense, fast-growing vegetation. Many different types of plants and trees can be found there, as well as a large number of animal species. There is a rich variety of plant and animal life. Another way of saying this is: rainforests have high biodiversity (bio means life and diversity means different). n Some rainforest trees grow to between 10 and 15 metres, while others grow to 20 or 35 metres. A few truly gigantic species can grow even taller than that! Rainforests can be divided into layers based on tree heights (Figure 3). The dense treetops block a lot of sunlight, so it is always dark on the forest floor.

‘air plants’ growing on trees

30

15

Tropical rainforests

4

Example

emergent layer

35

 The Amazon region is about 170 times bigger than the

G

b Indicate for each of the following whether the relative distance increases or decreases: - Road 59 is always busy at the start of the holiday period.

40

The Amazon region

2

Elevation in m

lowland 200 - 500

height in m

45

G

W16 Types of relief.

Type of relief

Traditional houses along the Amazon River.

Where are tropical rainforests found on earth, and why? You’ll find out by looking at the Amazon region.

SKILLS

b Complete W16 using G110 Relief and the Midden-Oosten en Zuidoost-Azië (Midden-Oosten - Overzicht) map in the atlas. Enter the correct name in the third column. Kies uit: Zagros Mountains – Ahvaz – Zabol – Yazd.

workbook: references to Geo Guide numbers

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G

1

1

Skills

What is geography?

 You live on a unique planet, Earth, together with nearly eight billion other people. There is great natural variety on our Earth: mountains, deserts, forests, rivers, oceans and much more. There are also many differences in human culture – such as dozens of religions and hundreds of languages.  You can see examples of the Earth’s differences in the images. Figure 1.1 shows an arid desert in Namibia. You can see tourists climbing high sand dunes. There is almost no vegetation, just a few tufts of grass growing here and there. A humid rainforest in Thailand looks very different (Figure 1.2). The tourists are gliding through green dense forests with tall trees.  In geography you study places like Namibia and Thailand. You will compare and contrast them: what are the differences and how can we explain them? For example: Why is Namibia dry and Thailand wet? When studying different regions, we also look at how the people who live there have developed the area, and not just nature on its own. The photos in Figures 1.1 and 1.2 mostly show you nature with little human organization. Only the zipline through the forest was set up by people.  Geography is the study of places and the relationships between people and their surroundings. It comes from the Greek words geo (meaning earth) and graphía (meaning to describe).

FIGURE

1.2

Ziplining through the jungle in Thailand.

FIGURE

1.1

Arid desert in Namibia.

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9 G

1

1.

Skills

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1

Skills

Describing and explaining G

2

Geographic regions of the world

 Geography is about specific areas. An area or region is a part of the Earth’s surface. An area can be really big, like the Antarctic, a continent that is bigger than Europe. But an area can also be really small, like your own neighbourhood.  When you stand in an area and look around, you see the landscape: the visible part of the Earth’s surface.  A natural landscape is one where nothing or nearly nothing has been changed by humans. Everything you see is natural: mountains, rivers, swamps, and so on. Physical geography studies how natural landscapes have been formed by nature.  Cultural landscapes are landscapes that have been changed by human activity. People have built roads or houses there, or laid out fields for farming. Social geography looks at how people have changed the landscape and how they live their lives.

G

3 Geographic phenomena of the world

 In G2 you learned that geography deals with areas, but there is more to it. In geography we also study geographic phenomena. These are incidents and events that happen on the Earth’s surface. They can be depicted on maps.  Earthquakes and volcanoes are examples of geographic phenomena. These two examples often happen in some areas and not at all in others. They are both natural phenomena. In geography, we also study human phenomena. Cities and migration are examples. We could give many more examples of such phenomena. Have a look at the Contents of this Geo Guide. It is actually one long list of geographical phenomena.  Some phenomena are very visible in a landscape, such as volcanoes and cities. For other phenomena, you need measurement data or measuring instruments, such as population statistics that show human migration from one country to another, or a seismograph, which measures the force of an earthquake.

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G

4

Describing and explaining

 In geography you will have to describe and explain things.  When describing, you answer questions that start with the words what? or where? Figure 1.3, for example, shows a river in a forest. Figure 1.4 shows the same river, but many years later. There is also a city with houses, businesses and roads. You could ask the question here: Where is this city?  When explaining you say how something came to be. You make connections between different places or different phenomena. Explanatory questions often start with the word why? For example: Why was that city built there? They built the city because of the river. People had to cross by boat or build a bridge to get to the other side. They also used the river to trade with people in other areas. That made this a logical place to live. With the money they made, the people built houses, places of worship and other buildings. That is how the city was built. Explaining makes use of both natural and human factors. A factor is something that influences something else.

G

5

Natural and human factors

 When you explain something you use factors (G4). These factors are divided into two groups: natural factors and human factors. Sometimes you only need natural factors when explaining, and sometimes only human factors, and at other times both.  If you want to explain why there are many earthquakes in Japan, you have to look to nature for an explanation. Japan sits on top of two plates of the Earth’s crust that slide past each other. Sometimes they shift suddenly, which causes an earthquake. You can explain the earthquakes in Japan using only natural factors.  If you want to explain why refugees and migrants use flimsy boats to cross the Mediterranean Sea instead of taking a plane, you have to look for human factors. One reason they use boats is because airlines will not take them. Without proper documents, migrants and refugees can’t stay in Europe and the airline would have to take them back. The airlines don’t want to take that risk. Migrants and refugees therefore choose to risk a dangerous boat journey when escaping war and poverty. You could explain the reason they go by boat using only human factors.

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Describing and explaining

G

FIGURE

1.3

2

G

3

G

4

G

5

A natural landscape.

Why is there a motorway?

Is this a natural lake?

How do people use the land?

Why is the city here?

Why is the factory on the river?

Is the river water clean?

FIGURE

1.4

A cultural landscape.

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1

Skills

Focus on... G

6

Focus on...

 When you describe an area, look for four kinds of characteristics: geographical location (G7), regional characteristics (G8), population characteristics (G9) and internal and external relationships (G10). This will give you a geographical picture of an area (Figure 1.5). LOCATION -

absolute location: latitude and longitude relative location: the location of a city, river or country in relation to another place

REGIONAL CHARACTERISTICS natural environment - climate - original vegetation - elevation and relief - presence of raw materials and/or minerals cultural landscape - land use - buildings - infrastructure - population size, population density and population distribution POPULATION CHARACTERISTICS demographic indicators - composition of the population: age, education, background, households - changes to the population: births, deaths, migration economic indicators - resources - work and income - development indicators: prosperity - sustainability socio-cultural indicators - social life: manners, solidarity - language - art - religion political indicators - division of power: government, citizens, businesses - governance: form of government, membership of international organizations - laws and regulations RELATIONSHIPS -

internal relationships external relationships

FIGURE

1.5

Focus on...

549607_BOEK BNWRK.indb 12

G

7

Absolute and relative location

 In geography, we always look at the geographical location of a place or area. There are two types of location: absolute location and relative location.  Absolute location indicates exactly where an area is located on the Earth’s surface. In maths you use a coordinate system. In geography you do the same thing. The x-axis is the equator and the y-axis is the prime meridian at Greenwich in the UK. The location in relation to the equator is called the latitude (G22). The location in relation to the prime meridian is called the longitude (G23).  Relative location is the position of a certain place in relation to another place. For relative location we use the wind directions north, south, east and west, plus the distance in kilometres, time or cost (G25).

G

8

Regional characteristics

 Regional characteristics are divided into two groups.  The natural landscape (physical environment), with characteristics such as climate, relief, soil types and vegetation.  The cultural landscape, with human characteristics such as the built environment, land use, infrastructure and population distribution.

G

9

Population characteristics

 The population has a big influence on how an area is organized (Figure 1.6). Population characteristics are divided into four groups.  Demographic indicators deal with people, specifically population growth and decline: births, deaths and people’s background (immigration and emigration).  Economic indicators deal with people’s livelihoods. Work and money play a big role here. An important example is the prosperity of a country, and how wealth is distributed. You can also look at the number of people who work in agriculture, industry and the service sector (G193). Sometimes it is difficult to express economic indicators in terms of money, for example the cost of a clean environment or sustainable use of raw materials.  Social indicators deal with how people care for each other, as family, neighbours, fellow citizens or friends. Every society has rules dealing with birth, marriage, aging and death. Often these rules are codified in beliefs or religion. But the way people communicate with each other in language or art are also social indicators. That is why we often speak of socio-cultural indicators. Culture is a word that describes the beliefs and customs that we learn when we are growing up.

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Focus on...

G

demography lots of houses because many people live in a city

culture the minaret of a mosque; Islam also has a place in the European city

economics office buildings in the city

economy and culture hotel for tourists who have come to enjoy the city’s culture

6

G

7

G

8

G

9

G 10

demography many small households; homes for singles in the converted church

culture religion losing its importance; church converted into apartments

economics shops in the city

culture an outdoor café where people can relax in their spare time

politics people decide on spatial planning in the town hall

demographics and politics space for young people

politics space for public transport

politics no cars on the square

FIGURE

1.6

Different population characteristics.

 Wealth does not automatically make people happy. The degree that someone feels healthy, safe, happy and connected with other people is called well-being. Thus, someone’s wellbeing involves both economic indicators and social indicators.  Political indicators are when we look at how a country is governed. Who has power and who does not have power? What kind of rules and laws are there? In a democracy, citizens choose a government to make decisions for them. The owners of big companies also have a lot of influence on the government. Specific interest groups try to influence the government, too. Environmental organization Greenpeace is an example of an interest group, but so is the local group campaigning to set up an animal shelter.

549607_BOEK BNWRK.indb 13

G 10

Internal and external relationships

 People, businesses and institutions are involved together in lots of things. In geography we look at the relationships – the connections – between people within an area and between different areas.  Internal relationships deal with contacts within a specific area. For example, a dairy that supplies big supermarkets like Albert Heijn or Jumbo. Or commuters who travel back and forth every day to their workplace. Or tourists who go on holiday in their own country.  We call connections with other areas external relationships. Examples of these are companies who export their products to other countries all over the world through the port of Rotterdam. Or think about a tourist who goes on holiday in a foreign country.

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Geographical methods

500 m 500 m

shopping street

FIGURE 1.7A Specific: Kadjebi is an example of a village in Ghana.

FIGURE

G 11

G 13

Compare and contrast

 In geography you will compare the geographical phenomena

in one area or between different areas. You will look for the similarities and differences, for example between a city and a village.  A city and a village are both human settlements. That is a similarity. But there are also many differences. Many more people live in a city than in a village, and the buildings are closer together. People from villages come to the city to make use of the amenities.  You could also compare a city in a rich country with a city in a poor country. You would look at the differences in how people live. The fast-growing cities in poorer countries often have extended shanty towns. But there are also similarities. Just like in rich countries, people from the surrounding villages come to the city to go to a market, hospital or school.

G 12

1.7B

houses

road

businesses

General: model of a village.

Switching scale levels

 In geography we look at things using difference scale levels. If you are studying something globally you will be working at a different scale level than if studying your own neighbourhood. If you look at Figure 1.8, you can see that there are five scale levels: - local scale: a city, town or village - regional scale: a province, region or part of a country - national scale: one country - continental scale: a whole continent, many countries - global scale: the whole world We also have the fluvial scale: the catchment area of a river. Rivers do not respect national boundaries.  By zooming in or zooming out, you change the scale level. When you zoom in, you look at an area close up. When you zoom out, you look at a much larger area..

General and specific

global

 In geography you will use many concepts and examples. Every concept or term has its own definition. The definition of a village is a place with few inhabitants where the housing density is low. There are no tall buildings and few amenities like shops. This definition describes the characteristics of a village. Such a general description must apply to all villages (Figure 1.7B).  But villages in rich and poor countries look very different (Figures 1.7A and 1.7C). By comparing new examples of villages to the definition, you will learn to understand the concept better and use it more accurately.

national

zooming in

zooming out

continental

regional

local

FIGURE

549607_BOEK BNWRK.indb 14

1.8

By zooming in and zooming out you change the scale level.

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Geographical methods

G 11

G 12

G 13

G 14

G 15

 The economic dimension deals with the interests of those who own raw materials, those who work and those with wealth.  The socio-cultural dimension looks at how different groups of people in society interact, how they treat each other and how they care for each other.  The political dimension deals with the division of power. What is the role of government, big companies and interest groups when decisions are made?  The physical dimension looks at a subject from the interests of nature. The effects on nature often have an impact on human lives. Two examples are scarcity of raw materials and climate change. 500 m

FIGURE 1.7C Specific: Scherpenzeel is an example of a village in the Netherlands.

G 15

Making connections

 In geography you try to make connections between

 When you study recreation, you use the local scale to study an afternoon swimming in the lake. This doesn’t cost much money and sometimes it is free. When people go away for a week or weekend, they usually stay in their own country, at a campground near the sea, for example (regional or national scale). But for longer holidays, people fly to southern Europe. At the continental scale, a study of tourism deals with longer trips involving overnight stays in hotels and large tourist areas, such as the Alps or the Mediterranean region.

G 14

Dimensions

phenomena and find relationships between areas. You explain how they relate to each other.  You can look for connections between phenomena. Just look for the impact this phenomenon has on something else.  For example, tourists go to Spain for the weather and beautiful landscape. Mass tourism gives lots of people in Spain employment, but also causes pollution and water shortages.  You can look for connections between different areas.  Fewer tourists go to Turkey now than they did several years ago because of the political unrest and terrorist attacks. Because Europeans like sun holidays, many now go to Spain, meaning that tourism there is growing.

 When you study an area you discover that people have different interests. They look at an area or event from different perspectives or dimensions (Figure 1.9). The four dimensions are more or less the same as the four population characteristics (G9). FIGURE

1.9

Different dimensions of the Wadden region.

economics holiday accommodations, restaurants, renting surfboards

socio-cultural negative effects of mass tourism: loss of local traditions

549607_BOEK BNWRK.indb 15

nature safe place for seals and birds

politics military training area

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Map types: general maps Prague CZECH REPUBLIC

Vienna

FRANCE

ROMANIA

CROATIA

BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA

Rome

Odessa

Zagreb

SLOVENIA

ITALY

MOLDOVA

Chisinau

HUNGARY

Ljubljana

Milan

Bratislava Budapest

AUSTRIA

SWITZERLAND

UKRAINE

SLOVAK REPUBLIC

Sarajevo Podgorica MONTENEGRO

Tirana

Bucharest

Belgrade SERBIA KOSOVO

BULGARIA

Sofia Pristina Skopje

ALBANIA

Istanbul

MACEDONIA

Bursa TURKEY

GREECE

Izmir

Dieren meadows with drainage ditches woods water fields

Het Kanaal

FIGURE

1.10

main road local road

church with steeple, mosque with minaret

street/other road

TUNISIA

city with a population of more than 1 million

Local-scale or regional-scale map.

Bern

capital

FIGURE ine

Da

500 km

1.12

railway line

national border

road

Political map.

C

be

ian th ns pa tai ar un o M

Rh

nu

Bern Alps Rhône

nean Sea

South-eastern Europe: political map

1 : 300,000

railway

Parijs

Medi te r r a

500 m

elevation in metres

8.1

block of houses

Athens

Tunis

houses church, mosque

S ea

Munich

POLAND

ck

GERMANY

Bla

Paris

G 16

Features of maps

Da nu b e Al ps

Istanbul

ck

i enn Ap

ne

s

Istanbul Istanbul A H ign atolian h la n ds

Rome

Rome

ar ic

Bla

D

in

S ea

Po

Athene Tunis Au M o ur ènst ains

Medi te r r a

nean Sea

500 km

South-eastern Europe: relief map elevation in metres lower than 100

200 - 500

1,000 - 3,000

100 - 200

500 - 1,000

higher than 3,000

FIGURE

1.11

Physical map.

549607_BOEK BNWRK.indb 16

 A map is a drawing of a part of the Earth’s surface. There are two major kinds of maps: general maps and thematic maps. A good map has a title, legend and scale. Maps are usually drawn with north at the top. If this is not the case, there will also be a north arrow or a compass rose on the map.  The map’s title tells you what area is shown on the map. A general map only gives the name of the area in the title, but a thematic map also has a subject.  Colours, shading and signs make a map easier to read. We call the signs map symbols. The legend tells you the meaning of the colours and symbols on a map.  A map is a representation of a real area on a smaller scale. This scale is different from map to map. Scale is the relationship between the distances on the map and those in real life.  One way to indicate scale is by using a ratio, for example 1 : 200,000. This means that 1 centimetre on the map is 200,000 centimetres in real terms. That is 2 kilometres. Helpful hint: Subtract five zeroes from the scale number and you get the number of kilometres.  Another way to indicate scale is by using a scale bar. When you see a map on a computer screen, the scale is always given with a scale bar.

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Map types: general maps

G 16

G 17

G 18

ea ar ap ut m t-o he cu n t o

dunes

lighthouse

woods

signpost

grassland

cycle track

buildings

paved road

250 m

FIGURE

G 17

1.13

In map generalization, we leave some things out and enlarge others. Here you see a photo of Hollum on the island of Ameland. To the right in the photo is a map. The map represents the area that is marked out in the photo with a dotted line.

General maps

 A general map has information about where cities, bodies of

water, mountains, roads and railway lines are located, and about land use. These maps are used to get a first impression of an area, which we call orientation: an overview of what is where in the area. There are different types of general maps.  Local-scale or regional-scale maps (Figure 1.10) are general maps that represent a small area of the Earth’s surface. They have a scale of 1 : 100,000. You use these detailed maps if you are working at the local or regional scale level. These maps show very precisely what the landscape looks like.  Physical maps (Figure 1.11) show natural characteristics of an area, such as elevation, natural vegetation, rivers and mountains. They usually also show national borders and a few cities to give you a better orientation.  Political maps (Figure 1.12) show borders and capital cities. The different countries or provinces are given a different colour. Sometimes they also have important rivers, roads and railway lines.

549607_BOEK BNWRK.indb 17

 Navigation maps are used to show or find a route. They are less precise than local-scale or regional-scale maps, but they give more place names. Examples of navigation maps are road maps, maps of cities and towns and nautical charts.

G 18

Generalization

 You can never show everything on a map. Therefore, you

have to decide what to leave out and what to leave in and stand out when drawing a map. Your choice will depend on the purpose of the map and its scale.  Leaving out some things while highlighting or enlarging others on a map is called generalization. For example, you decide to draw a single block of houses instead of each one separately. Or you make some things bigger, such as a lighthouse, so that when the map is made smaller they will still be noticeable (Figure 1.13).  There are large-scale maps and small-scale maps. A smallscale map greatly reduces the actual situation. That is why you have to generalize more on small-scale maps.

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Map types: thematic maps G 19

Thematic maps

 Thematic maps always represent a specific topic or theme. There are different types of thematic maps.  Dot maps use dots to show the distribution of a phenomenon. Each dot symbol stands for a certain value. For example, one dot equals 1,000 inhabitants (Figure 1.14).  Choropleth maps show variations in measurements for cities, provinces or countries. The darker the colour, the higher the quantity measured (Figure 1.15).  Mosaic maps make use of many different contrasting colours. The lines separating the colours on these maps represent differences in such things as climate, vegetation or religion (Figure 1.16).  Isoline maps show lines that join up areas with equal values (isolines). The resulting areas are coloured in, with darker colours representing higher values. An example is Figure 2.17 (precipitation). Another example is Figure 1.17 showing elevation (contour lines), maps with isotherms (temperature, Figure 2.9) and maps with isobars (air pressure, Figure 2.34).  On anamorphic maps the areas look distorted or misshaped compared to the real world. The size of the area is determined here by the value that area represents for a specific characteristic, such as the size of the population. The bigger the population of an area, the bigger that area on the map (Figure 1.18). Anamorphic maps are good for showing population characteristics.  Chart maps contain different pie charts, bar charts, block charts and flow charts. You can use a flow chart to show relationships, for example traffic flows between different continents (Figure 1.35).

549607_BOEK BNWRK.indb 18

G 20

Elevation and relief on maps

 There are different ways of showing the height of something on a map.  The easiest way to show the elevation or altitude is with a number: the height in metres (in relation to sea level). For example, Mount Everest is 8,848 metres high.  Topographic maps use contour lines as well as numbers to show elevation. A contour line is a line that is drawn by connecting points at the same elevation.  If you go cycling or walking in an area with hills or mountains, it’s a good idea to check the contour lines on a map before you go. The closer together the contour lines, the steeper the slope. If there is more space between the contour lines, the slope will be gentler (Figure 1.17).  Physical maps often use shading to show that there are differences in height (relief).

G 21

Map skills

 You need map-reading skills to use maps properly.  In map reading, you look at the map’s title, the scale and the legend. In map reading, you state where places are located and where phenomena occur. Ottawa, the capital of Canada, is located in the south of the country (Figure 1.15).  In map analysis you collect, sort and organize information on a map. You can do this in two steps.  Learn to recognize patterns: divide the whole area into two or more smaller areas (subareas). Look for patterns of how things are distributed between the subareas. For example: the southern part of Canada is densely populated, while the northern part is thinly populated.  Try to make connections: compare the population distribution in Canada (Figure 1.14) with something else, such as climate (Figure 1.16). Then you see that fewer people live in the cold northern parts of Canada. Most people live in the warmer southern parts of the country. In Canada, there is a relationship between climate and population distribution.  In map interpretation you look for an explanation for the connections and relationships you found: is it a chance connection or is there more to it? You have to think logically to do this, and often use information that is not given on the map. In the example of Canada, it is not just a chance connection: the north of the country is too cold for most people.

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Map types: thematic maps

G 19

1,000 km

G 20

G 21

Canada: population distribution, 2016 1,000 inhabitants

Arcti cO ce an

Baffi nB ay

Alaska (US)

400

Hud son Ba y

Ocean Pacific

Vancouver

300

tic Ocean Atlan

CANADA

Greenland (DEN.)

200

100

100 2 00

Ontario Ottawa

300 400

Montreal

UNITED STATES

FIGURE

1.14

FIGURE

Dot map.

1,000 km

Baffi Bay n

Arct

less than 1 1-5

Alaska (US)

Vancouver Ottawa

UNITED STATES

FIGURE

1.15

32 more than 90

Montreal Ottawa

Montreal

UNITED STATES

Greenland (DEN.)

1.18

Anamorphic map.

Canada: climate polar climate mountain climate

Baffi Bay n

Alaska (US)

3-5

Vancouver

FIGURE Arcti cO ce an

less than 3

CANADA

Choropleth map.

1,000 km

Canada: French speakers per province in %

ntic Ocean Atla

Ocean Pacific

tic Ocean Atlan

Hud son Ba y

Pacific Oc ean

CANADA

Greenland (DEN.) Ba ffi

Hud son Ba y

10 - 15 more than 15

c

y Ba

5 - 10

ic O

n ea

n

Alaska (US)

The closer together the contour lines, the steeper the slope.

Canada: population density, 2016 number of people per km²

Greenland (DEN.)

Arcti cO ce an

1.17

continental climate oceanic climate steppe climate

CANADA

Ocean Pacific

tic Ocean Atlan

Hud son Ba y

Vancouver Ottawa

Montreal

UNITED STATES

FIGURE

1.16

Mosaic map.

549607_BOEK BNWRK.indb 19

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Location on Earth Geographical latitude

90°

60°

30°

30°

60°

90° 120° 150° 180°

8,000 km

60°

Amsterdam

52°N 34°N Los Angeles

30°

30°

equator

Sydney

30°

W 180° 150° 120°

FIGURE

1.19

90°

60°

30°

5°E

60°

prime meridian

34°S

11

 If you want to know exactly where a place is located on the Earth’s surface, you have to know its absolute location. In order to find this, we use two axes, the x-axis and the y-axis, just like in maths. These are the equator and the prime meridian (Figure 1.19) if you want to find a location on Earth.  The equator is an imaginary line that splits the Earth into two halves: the northern hemisphere and the southern hemisphere. The two hemispheres are further divided into latitudes. The latitude of the equator is 0 degrees and the latitude of the two poles 90. For every degree between 0 and 90 we draw a circle of latitude or parallel around the Earth (Figure 1.20). All of these circles run parallel to the equator.  The circles of latitude tell you how far a place is from the equator. We call this the latitude of that place. Latitude in the northern hemisphere is called northern latitude (N). Latitude in the southern hemisphere is called southern latitude (S). Amsterdam, for example, is located at 52°N (we say: 52 degrees north), and the North Pole is located at 90°N.  If a place is near the equator, it has a low latitude. Places located far from the equator are at high latitudes.

150° 120° 60°

15 30°

60°

90°

E 1°

30°

60°

120° 150° 180°

Positions of Amsterdam, Sydney and Los Angeles.

North Pole 90°N 60°N

norther n he mis ph ere

G 22

30°N NORTHERN LATITUDE

SOUTHERN LATITUDE

30°S

60°S 90°S South Pole

FIGURE

1.20

Geographical latitude. North Pole

Greenwich

30°E LONG ITUDE

EA

ITUDE ERN LONG WEST

RN

6 0° W

eastern hemisphere

S TE

western hemisphere

9 0° W

 Latitude tells you on which east-west circle of latitude a place is located, but not exactly where on that circle of latitude. That is why we need a second axis in addition to the equator.  This north-south axis is called the prime meridian. It is a line from the North Pole to the South Pole running through Greenwich near London. A meridian is an imaginary half circle (Figure 1.21). To the east of the prime meridian is the eastern hemisphere and to the west the western hemisphere.  The meridians meet at the poles. The geographical longitude is the distance of a location from the prime meridian. This is measured by counting the distance in degrees. From the prime meridian, there are 180 degrees to the east and 180 degrees to the west. That is why we talk about eastern longitude (E) and western longitude (W). Amsterdam, for example, is located at a longitude of 5°E (we say: 5 degrees east). Longitude tells you on which meridian a place is located.

prim e meridia n 0°

Geographical longitude

30°W

G 23

e ispher hem n r he ut so

0° equator

South Pole

FIGURE

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1.21

Geographical longitude.

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21

Location on Earth

G 22

4

5

New York

3

2

1 24

nigh

t

Tokyo

22

7 8

20

Greenwich 19 18

10

U

17

11

N

S

day

12

R

FIGURE

1.22

9:00 p.m.

21

9

S

13

A

14

Y

15

16

S

Time differences on Earth: the meridians define the time zones.

1500 - 1850 sailing ships, horse and wagon, 15 km/h

1950 propeller planes, 600 km/h

1970 jet planes, 1,000 km/h today internet, information within seconds

1.23

Changes in relative distance over the years.

549607_BOEK BNWRK.indb 21

G 25

Time zones

 The meridians are also used to define time zones. You can see this in Figure 1.22, where you see the Earth from a point diagonally above the North Pole. The sun only shines on one half of the Earth; that is why it is only day on that half of the Earth. Because the Earth turns on its axis every 24 hours, there is daylight on almost every place on Earth for a certain part of the day (daytime), and it is also dark for a certain part of the day (night-time). Because the Earth turns, day does not begin at the same time everywhere. When a new day begins in Europe, it is still the middle of the night in the Americas. That creates a time difference between Europe and the American hemisphere.  The time in any specific location is calculated using the position of the Sun. When the Sun is at its highest point in the sky, it is noon or 12 o’clock in the afternoon. In Figure 1.22 it is 12 o’clock on the prime meridian. This means that to the west of this point it is earlier and to the east later. In fact, a.m. means ante meridiem (before midday) and p.m. means post meridiem (after midday). Actually, the exact time is different at each meridian, but that would be very difficult to calculate and use. This is why the Earth is divided into 24 time zones, and each time zone is 15 degrees of longitude wide (360 degrees divided by 24 hours).

G 25 1850 - 1930 steam trains, 100 km/h steam ships, 20 km/h

FIGURE

G 24

23

6

7:00 a.m.

G 24

G 23

Absolute and relative distance

 There are two ways of talking about distance.  Absolute distance is the distance in kilometres as the crow flies. That means that the distance is measured in a straight line. One characteristic of absolute distance is that it is the same for everyone and never changes.  Relative distance is the distance expressed in terms of (travel) time, money or effort. Relative means the relationship or connection between one thing and another. For example, the relative distance is different depending on how you travel: are you going by bike or by car? Relative distance is different for everyone. Some people don’t have a driving licence or money to buy an airline ticket. And you often need a visa to travel, for example from African countries to European countries. Relative distance has also changed historically over time (Figure 1.23). It has gotten faster to move people, goods and information. In the past, a trip to Australia took a couple of months. Now you can fly there in 24 hours.

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Geographical research G 26

Geographical questions

 In geography we ask geographical questions. Those are

questions about a place or area. There are five types of question.  descriptive questions: these questions begin with words like what, where and how. For example: Where are deserts located? What does a desert in Africa look like?  explanatory questions: these questions begin with words like why, what was the cause or how did it happen. These questions are looking for reasons and causes. For example: Why are many deserts located near certain latitudes?  predictive questions: predictive questions ask you to make a prediction about an unknown situation. For example: Will the deserts in Africa expand over the next 50 years?  evaluative questions: if you evaluate something, you look at whether it is good or bad, and say who it would be good or bad for. For example: Is it good or bad if the deserts expand?  problem-solving questions: when there are problems, people like to solve them. Because you don’t know yet whether a solution will work, the answer to a problem-solving question is often a suggestion, opinion or plan. For example: What solutions are there to stop desertification in Africa?

MAIN QUESTION Is the rise in the number of tourists that come to Amsterdam over the last ten years a good thing or a bad thing? SUBQUESTION 1 What are the benefits of many tourists in Amsterdam? SUBQUESTION 2 What are the disadvantages of many tourists in Amsterdam? SUBQUESTION 3 Who would gain from many tourists in Amsterdam? SUBQUESTION 4 Who would experience problems from many tourists in Amsterdam? FIGURE

G 28

Main question and subquestions

 When you study a subject, place or area, try to come up with one main question that you can subdivide into a few subquestions (Figure 1.24).  In geography we always have a subject (what) and a place or area (where). Try to include both the what and the where in your main question. Sometimes you also have to say which period you are studying.  Good subquestions meet the following requirements.  Each of the subquestions helps you find an answer to the main question. Be careful that your subquestions focus on the same subject, place or area as the main question.  Think up no more than four subquestions.  Put the subquestions in a logical order. For example, you have to answer the first subquestion before you can answer the second subquestion. Or you ask a descriptive subquestion first and then an explanatory subquestion.

Example of a main question with subquestions.

Research plan

 When you do geographical research, follow the Step-by-step plan for geographical research (Figure 1.25). STEP 1

G 27

1.24

What are you going to do? – Ask questions

What area will you be researching? What is the subject of the research? What do you already know about the area and the subject you want to research? What is your main question? What are the subquestions? What sources will you need? Will you read, watch videos or go out yourself to make observations or interview people? STEP 2

How will you do it? — Create a plan

How much time will you need? Who will you work with? How will you divide the work? STEP3

Do it! – Gather and process information

Collect sources of information, read them, think it through. Answer the subquestions. Answer the main question. STEP 4

Show what you found – Present ideas

Create a presentation, such as a project, PowerPoint presentation, video or exhibit. STEP 5

Review

What did you learn? What went well? What would you do differently next time? How was the teamwork? FIGURE

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1.25

Step-by-step plan for geographical research.

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23

Geographical research

G 26

FIGURE

G 29

1.26

G 27

G 28

G 29

Are new tourist shops allowed in Amsterdam?

Evaluating

 First you describe something, then you explain it and finally

you evaluate it. When you evaluate a geographical problem, you give your opinion about it (Figure 1.26). You can tackle such a problem using the Step-by-step plan on how to form an opinion (Figure 1.27).

STEP 1

What is the problem?

More and more shops for tourists are opening up in Amsterdam city centre. The city council wants to stop anymore tourist shops from opening. STEP 2

Who is involved?

Shopkeepers, residents of Amsterdam, tourists and the city council STEP 3

What are their opinions of the problem?

Shopkeepers There are lots and lots of tourists in Amsterdam. They all want to buy souvenirs. Tourist shops make a big profit. Residents of Amsterdam The shops for tourists only sell fast food, ice cream and cheese for inflated prices. If you live in the city centre, there is hardly anywhere left where you can buy your daily groceries. Tourists The shops with ice cream and cheese are fun. But they are also really expensive. And actually, I don’t think this is real Dutch culture. City council Amsterdam is becoming boring with these fast food chains and cheese stores. We want to see shops for ordinary residents of Amsterdam, too. That’s why no new tourist shops will be allowed to open. STEP 4

What is your opinion?

L ike a judge, you have to listen carefully to what each of the different groups wants and why they want it. Then give your own opinion. FIGURE

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1.27

Step-by-step plan on how to form an opinion.

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24

1

Skills

Neighbourhood profile

park low-rise flats

renovated housing

mosque

terraced houses

apartment complex

solar panels on existing private homes

private homes new playground

community school (also library, crèche, language lessons)

FIGURE

G 30

1.28

Different characteristics of housing, residents and the neighbourhood.

Making a neighbourhood profile

G 31

Housing characteristics

 Cities are divided into residential areas and neighbourhoods.

 You can sort the houses in a neighbourhood into different

Every neighbourhood has its own characteristics when you look at the housing, residents and living environment (Figure 1.28).  Use these characteristics to make a neighbourhood profile (Figure 1.29). A neighbourhood profile shows the present condition of a neighbourhood or district of a city. A good neighbourhood has well-kept homes, healthy residents, green space and a stable population. People know their neighbours and feel safe on the streets. Taken together, these characteristics determine whether residents feel happy or unhappy in their neighbourhood. They tell us about the quality of life in a neighbourhood.

categories.  The easiest way to do this is by the type of housing.  Single-family homes are either detached houses, semidetached houses or terraced houses. These are examples of low-rise buildings: they have one, two or three floors.  Multi-family housing are larger buildings: complexes with apartments or flats, including apartments above shops. We call buildings with more than four floors high-rise buildings.

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25

Neighbourhood profile

G 30

G 32

semi-detached houses

sports facilities

Housing characteristics -

type of housing age of housing sale or rent house prices: maintenance, size

G 31

G 32

G 33

Residents characteristics

 There are also differences between the residents of a neighbourhood. A neighbourhood has different types of households. A household is one or more people who all live together.  You can look at the size of a household. That is the number of people who live together in one dwelling (house or apartment). The size of the household in the Netherlands usually varies between one and five people.  When looking at the composition of households, you also need to look at the family stage. There are three different types of households: families with children, couples without children and single-person households.  The age structure also tells you a lot about a neighbourhood: are there many children (aged 0-15) or maybe many seniors (over 65s)?  You can also look at the incomes of the residents of a neighbourhood. In wealthy neighbourhoods, residents are more likely to have a university education, a good job and a higher income. In less wealthy neighbourhoods more residents tend not to be university educated, will have a lower income and may be out of work more often.  Another characteristic to look for is the ethnicity of the residents. Some neighbourhoods have many people who migrated to the Netherlands from other countries.

Residents characteristics -

size of households family stage age structure income ethnicity

Living environment supermarket

-

relative location facilities and amenities public space social safety improvements

FIGURE

1.29

Neighbourhood profile.

 You can also look at the period a building was built in: was the housing built before 1900, between 1900 and 1940 or afterwards? Districts that were built less than 30 years ago are called new neighbourhoods.  When residents own their own home, it is called a private home. People who live in a rented home rent their house from the owner. The owner is often a housing corporation that builds homes to rent them out. You can often recognize rented homes because they are all painted the same colour.  You can also look at how well the houses are kept or maintained. Look at the quality of the paint work and the condition of the kitchen or bathroom. You cannot see everything from the outside. The condition of the house, along with its size, determines the price of house to a large degree.

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G 33

Characteristics of the living environment

 In addition to the housing and the people, you can look at the physical characteristics of the neighbourhood as a whole. You can start with things like the location of the neighbourhood in relation to other neighbourhoods, or to the city centre or to major motorways. Also look for specific details and features of the neighbourhood.  The amenities in a neighbourhood can often tell us a lot about the residents. The type of shops, the presence of a church, mosque or community centre can often tell you something about the income or ethnicity or local residents. A playground or football field often tells you a lot about the family stage of the residents.  When looking at public space, such as streets and greenspace, note how much space there is to park cars or for children to play and whether this is well taken care of.  The social safety is something that can be assumed based on things like the number of traffic accidents or break-ins per year. Social safety is how safe local residents feel at home and on the streets of their neighbourhoods. These are often influenced by traffic noise, teenagers hanging around or litter on the street.  Finally, also look for improvements to the neighbourhood. Are there new playgrounds or has the housing been renovated? Often cities, housing associations and residents work together on renewal.

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Gather and process information G 34

Sources

 You will not find ready-made answers to your research questions in a book. You have to find the answers yourself. A source is a place that can give you ideas for answers.  The best source for your research is the real world. You can study and measure the landscape. Or you can ask local residents or passers-by about the area (survey, interview). When you gather information outside of books or school, you are doing fieldwork. There are two types of fieldwork.  Fieldwork in physical geography is research into nature and the landscape, for example taking samples of the ground to find out what kind of soil it is (Figure 1.30).  Fieldwork in social geography is research into living, working, traffic, recreation or amenities, for example by gathering traffic data or conducting a survey or questionnaire (Figure 1.31).  Doing research in the real world takes a lot of time. That is why it is often better to use the information that you can find in books, newspapers, journals, maps or on the internet. For geography, you have the coursebook, the workbook, the Geo Guide and the atlas.  When you use sources always pay attention to who created the information and what their purpose was. For example, if you are looking for information about wild animals in the Netherlands, it makes a difference whether you read a text written by a hunters association or a nature organization.

G 35

FIGURE

1.30

Soil sampling is an example of fieldwork in physical geography.

FIGURE

1.31

A survey is an example of fieldwork in social geography.

Surveys and questionnaires

 If you want to find out what people do or how they think about something, you can use a questionnaire or survey (Figure 1.31). You can ask about facts or opinions (judgments). In a survey, you can ask different types of questions.  If you use a survey with closed questions, you can ask lots of people in a short amount of time. Closed questions are questions that only give people a limited number of answers. You can then count and process the answers to these questions, and show the results in a chart (G37). If you use open questions you let people think up their own answers.  When we do a survey of a really big group of people, it is called quantitative research. Usually we use closed questions so that it is easier to analyse the large amount of data collected. The downside of this type of survey is that there are no follow-up questions if you want to know more. It is called qualitative research when you use open questions. Open questions let you ask follow-up questions. This is usually only possible when you survey a small group of people, because it takes a lot of time.

14,000

energy production x 1 million tonnes

12,000 10,000 8,000 6,000 4,000 2,000 0 1971 1975

1980

1985

1990

1995

2000

2005

World energy production

2010 2015 year

coal

hydropower

oil

biofuels and waste

natural gas

other

nuclear energy

FIGURE

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1.32

Line chart.

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27

Gather and process information

G 34

3,000

G 36

energy consumption x 1 million tonnes The five countries with the biggest energy consumption, 2015

2,500

coal

2,000

oil natural gas

1,500

renewables other

1,000 500 0 China

1.33

FIGURE

US

India

Russia

Japan

Bar chart.

0.8%

Global oil consumption, 2015 road transport

5.5% 5.9%

crude oil as raw material

6.7%

industry aviation

7.5%

49.7%

shipping industry households (heating)

8.0%

G 36

G 37

How to use the atlas

 You need an atlas when studying geography. There are different ways of looking things up in an atlas.  At the front of the atlas you will find a Table of Contents. It shows you the number and title of all the maps in the atlas in the order they have been arranged in – from close up to far away.  If you want a fast way of finding a place or area and you already have an idea where it is located, the page finder is useful. A page finder is a map that gives an overview of all the maps in the atlas and their numbers. You can find it on the inside cover of your atlas.  If you do not know where a place is located, use the index in the atlas. The index is an alphabetical list of all the places, rivers and mountains in the atlas. Next to each name you will see the page number of the map and the map section. For example: Calgary 200-201 I4. This means that you can find Calgary on map 200-201 in map section I4.  If you are looking for information about a topic, use the index of geographical terms at the back of the atlas. This is a list of topics. For each topic you will see a list of maps in the atlas that deal with that topic.  All the maps in the atlas have a legend. You can often find this right next to the map, but for some general maps there is a general legend at the front of the atlas.

railways other

15.9%

FIGURE

G 35

1.34

G 37

Pie chart.

North America 26.7

1.6

Asia/ Oceania 15.1

4.5

2.

5

1.5

2.7

4.7

0.3

0.02

Latin America/ Caribbean 3.3

0.1

0.1

0.7

Europe 35.2

Charts

 In geography we use a lot of charts and diagrams. A chart or diagram is a better way to get a quick and easy overview of something than a text or a table with numbers. There are different types of charts.  A line chart generally shows how something develops over time (Figure 1.32). The time is given on the x-axis. The y-axis is then used for units of measure.  In a bar chart the length of the bar shows a measurement of something, either in absolute numbers or percentages (Figure 1.33). The bars can be used to show different periods of time, or different areas or groups of people.  A pie chart shows you how a single phenomenon is divided up (Figure 1.34). The total always adds up to 100%. Sometimes the size of the circle symbolizes a specific amount.  In a flow chart the thickness of the line shows the amount of something (Figure 1.35).

1.0 International traffic flows as % of the total 1.6

between continents

0.5

within continents

FIGURE

1.35

direction of traffic flows

Flow chart.

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Photos and satellite images G 38

Maps and aerial photography

 In geography, we often use aerial photography and maps. They are very useful for describing and explaining the characteristics of an area. Local-scale or regional-scale maps are made using aerial photos taken directly over an area. An aerial photograph shows you everything there is to see in a landscape. All the elements – houses, roads, trees, and so on – are in the right proportions. Figure 1.13 shows you what an aerial photo taken from directly overhead (vertically) looks like (Figure 1.13). A cartographer then makes a map using the aerial photo. On the map you can see how cartographers have to generalize: much of what you see in the aerial photo has been left out of the map, such as little ditches, paths and individual trees. By leaving little details out, and by the use of colours, symbols and text, the map is easier to read than the aerial photo.

G 39

Remote sensing

 Remote sensing means observing from a distance. It is a collective term for various techniques for observing the Earth from a distance, such as from a plane or satellite.  Ordinary cameras use visible light. The advantage here is that the images are easy to recognize because the camera sees the same thing that the human eye sees. But using these you can only make satellite pictures in the daytime. And clouds often block a clear view of the Earth’s surface.

FIGURE

1.36

 But there is light that you cannot see with your own eyes. This includes wavelengths that are invisible, like infrared (heat radiation), ultraviolet light and radiowaves. Special cameras are capable of recording these wavelengths and turning them into readable images with colours or grey tones. With infrared imaging, for example, you can see which parts of the city give off a lot of heat at night (Figure 1.36). This helps us decide which neighbourhoods have houses that need to be better insulated to save energy. The invisible light makes it possible to see through cloud cover.

G 40

Maps and computers

 If a map is printed on paper, you have to go by what the cartographer thought was important to include. Because so much information about locations is now available online, you can make your own map on a computer and decide what to put on it. There are a number of applications you can use.  With GIS (Geographic Information System), you can look at maps by turning on or off different map layers. It is often possible to calculate new data (Figure 1.37).  GPS (Global Positioning System) is used on a lot of mobile devices. It matches your location with information about the area. One example is the route planning tool on your telephone or in the car. But there are also sports apps that use GPS that link the heartbeat and speed of the runners or cyclists to their location.  A web atlas and a virtual globe are similar to a printed atlas and ordinary globe. But they contain much more information. You can even add information to the map yourself on your computer.

Heat absorption in Bruges using remote sensing.

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Photos and satellite images

G 38

G 39

G 40

G 41

100 m

Working with Google Earth

or bu rg

w

al

Vo

Da m

ra

k

Ni eu we zij d

s

Sin

He

ge

l

ren

gra ch

t

G 41

 One well-known virtual globe is Google Earth (Figure 1.38). You can use it to travel all over the world. You can see satellite images of the whole world on your computer screen, but you can also zoom in and look at photos.

Dam

retail

traffic

hotels/restaurants/cafés

offices

entertainment/tourism/meeting place

other businesses

healthcare/education/religion

other

FIGURE

1.37

A land use map of Amsterdam: a street map showing part of Amsterdam with several different map layers added.

Use this to measure surfaces and distances. Use this to video your own navigation of the map. Use this to add points, lines and areas to the map.

Use this to save your own additions to the map.

Use this to rotate the map. In the standard setting, north is up. Use this to change the angle of view. The standard setting is a straight line/perpendicular.

Use this to move the map.

By dragging the figure you go to the Earth’s surface. This will show you panoramic photos of that place.

Use this for zooming in and zooming out. Use this to turn map layers on and off. Click on the plus signs to see more possibilities.

Use this to read the longitude, latitude and elevation of the location where your cursor is on the map.

FIGURE

1.38

The possibilities offered by Google Earth.

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9 789006 619218

TH E GEO GUIDE

What on earth is going on?

www.thiememeulenhoff.nl/thegeo

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