Gain perspective. Get inspired. Make history.
MAGAZINE JANUARY-MAY 2022
DO OBJECTS ANCHOR US TO A PLACE AND TIME? PAGE 18
THE POSSIBLE WORLDS ISSUE
RETHINKING WHAT WE EAT AUTONOMOUS VEHICLES DEMYSTIFIED
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THE POSSIBLE WORLDS ISSUE
DIGITAL EDITION This issue of The Henry Ford Magazine is being distributed as a digital publication; print copies are not available. The digital publishing platform ISSUU expands our distribution globally and provides readers with the ability to easily share content they love through social media and email.
DEPARTMENTS FEATURES Our Mission 4 Behind the Scenes 5 Letter from the President 6 Off the Shelf 8 Ask + Answer 10 Screen Time 11 A Look Back 84
MODEL MAKER Photographer Dan Winters shares insights into how he builds, creates and wills things into being
INNOVATION 30 DRIVING GENERATION 13 DRIVERLESS DECONSTRUCTED INSIDE THE HENRY FORD
Henry Ford Museum of American Innovation Greenfield Village Ford Rouge Factory Tour Acquisitions + Collections Membership Spotlight 2022 Events
62 64 66 68 70 72
PLAN YOUR VISIT 75
Our priority is the health and well-being of our staff, students and visitors while continuing to be a place that activates a can-do spirit in all of us. Please visit thf.org, subscribe to our eNews or follow us on social media for the most up-to-date information on venues, upcoming exhibits, events, programming and pricing. STAY CONNECTED
The Henry Ford and a set of experts take a deep dive into some of the most common truths and fallacies about autonomous vehicle technology
THE FOOD CONNECTION Stories from within the Latino community demonstrate what’s possible when we rethink the hows and whys of what we eat
ON THE COVER Celebrated photographer and filmmaker Dan Winters gives us a window into his world, sharing early childhood memories and his lifelong passion for accumulating things from pieces of Apollo spacecraft to Mexican beverage bottles — a collection telling of his creativity and eccentricity. See story on Page 18.
Who We Are and What We Do
Gain perspective. Get inspired. Make history. THE HENRY FORD: A NATIONAL TREASURE AND CULTURAL RESOURCE The Henry Ford in Dearborn, Michigan, is an internationally recognized cultural destination that brings the past forward by immersing visitors in the stories of ingenuity, resourcefulness and innovation that helped shape America.
A force for sparking curiosity and inspiring tomorrow’s innovators, inventors and entrepreneurs, The Henry Ford fosters learning from encounters with authentic artifacts. Through its 26 million artifacts, unique venues and resources — Henry Ford Museum of American Innovation®, Greenfield Village®, Ford Rouge Factory Tour, Benson Ford Research Center® and Henry Ford Academy®, as well as online at thf.org, thf.org/inhub and through The Henry Ford’s Innovation Nation — The Henry Ford helps all individuals to unlock their potential and help shape a better future. The Henry Ford leads the Invention Convention Worldwide community and works to make STEM + Invention + Entrepreneurship (STEMIE) learning accessible to educators and students worldwide. As part of our leadership in invention education, The Henry Ford powers events like Invention Convention U.S. Nationals and curriculum and professional development. For more information, visit thf.org.
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Notable Colleagues and Correspondents
BEHIND THE SCENES
WOULD YOU TRAVEL TO OUTER SPACE? Our contributors share with us.
SERENA MARIA DANIELS
As far back as I can remember, I have always been fascinated with learning about the mysteries of the world. The top two subjects that interested me as a child were dinosaurs (because what little kid doesn’t love dinosaurs?) and space. I remember going on a field trip to visit the Oregon Museum of Science and Industry and just being in awe of the vast wonder that space exploration promises. As an adult, I’d have to say that, while I’m still amazed about the potential of space travel, I think as a society we must do the work to protect our own planet before venturing off into the depths of the universe. Serena Maria Daniels is an award-winning Chicana journalist based in Detroit and founder-editor of Tostada Magazine, whose mission it is to preserve culture and uplift communities of color through food and culture journalism. Serena is also the inaugural president of the newly formed International Taco Council.
Despite my reverence for the space program and those who document space travel, I’m remaining earthbound. The closest I’ll get to outer space is an IMAX screen.
Though I would leap at the chance to go to space, it would feel irresponsible at a time when such an experience is only available to the wealthiest in society. Cultivating a fascination with the mysteries of the universe is a universal human preoccupation. Until we’re able to address the inequities that plague our home planet, space travel will continue to be playtime for the elite.
James Hughes is a writer and editor based in Chicago. He’s also a frequent collaborator with his feature subject, Dan Winters, having edited Winters’ 2014 book Road to Seeing and served as an executive producer on Winters’ 2021 film Tone. His writing can be found at jameshughesprojects .com. Model Maker, Page 18
Anuj Shrestha is a cartoonist and illustrator who resides in Philadelphia. His comics have been listed in several editions of The Best American Comics anthology. His illustration work has appeared in The New York Times, The New Yorker, The Washington Post, McSweeney’s, Wired and Playboy, among others. He is fond of Italian horror cinema and Chihuahuas. Driverless Driving Deconstructed, Page 30
The Food Connection, Page 46 SERENA MARIA DANIELS PHOTO BY SARA BAUST; JAMES HUGHES PHOTO BY DAN WINTERS
LETTER FROM THE PRESIDENT
The Henry Ford was founded to be a place that documented the genius of ordinary people by collecting and preserving the objects they imagined, invented and used in the course of their everyday lives. It was a launching pad of unbridled innovation and ingenuity that attracted people from around the globe to demonstrate and discuss ideas and innovations — infinite possibilities of what the future could and should be. Today, our unparalleled collection is actively inspiring the next generation of thinkers, dreamers and doers. It is the foundation of our curriculum and critical to equipping learners of all ages with the tools they need to unlock their potential and imagine a better world. In this issue of The Henry Ford Magazine, we examine ideas around the theme “Possible
Worlds.” Through the lens of a famous photographer documenting life’s moments, a taco truck owner leveraging their menu to create community and raise health awareness, and a group of experts giving vision to what’s next in personal transportation, we explore what’s possible when we use creativity, passion, curiosity and knowledge to influence the world around us. Thank you for what you make possible at The Henry Ford. Your continued support and belief in our mission means so much.
PATRICIA E. MOORADIAN, PRESIDENT AND CEO
PHOTO BY ROY RITCHIE
Today’s the day to start writing the next chapter.
The next generation of doctors, inventors, creators and achievers starts today. Here’s to making the most of it.
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OFF THE SHELF
Recommended Films, Fine Reads and Dot-coms
WHAT ARE WE READING + WATCHING?
The Power of Style: How Fashion and Beauty Are Being Used to Reclaim Cultures Kristen Gallerneaux, The Henry Ford’s curator of communications and information technology (and chief content curator for this magazine), appreciates the journeys of self-expression found in Christian Allaire’s new book on reclaiming and honoring culture through fashion.
“THE PEOPLE YOU WILL MEET IN THIS BOOK ARE USING FASHION AND BEAUTY TO PROMOTE CULTURAL ACTIVISM, EMPOWERMENT, DIVERSITY, AND INCLUSIVITY. THEY ARE ESSENTIALLY USING GARMENTS, ACCESSORIES, OR VARIOUS BEAUTY TECHNIQUES TO RECLAIM THEIR IDENTITIES AND CELEBRATE WHO THEY ARE.” — CHRISTIAN ALLAIRE, AUTHOR OF THE POWER OF STYLE PHOTO BY CAMERON LINTON/COURTESY OF JAMIE OKUMA
As an Indigenous teen growing up in rural Canada, my fashion choices didn’t always align with local style. Perhaps this is why I felt instant kinship with The Power of Style author Christian Allaire’s experience as a “fashion-obsessed Ojibwe teen” who grew up on Nipissing First Nation reserve. This book was inspired by a “lack” — specifically, Allaire’s frustration with the absence of Indigenous representation in fashion and media. But what began as a project focusing on contemporary Indigenous style soon expanded to include natural hairstyles in the Black community, the political-spiritual weight of long hair among Native American peoples and the use of glamorous wigs by drag performers to manifest personae. Other chapters highlight plus-size cosplayers who emphasize body-positivity, hijabs and modesty sportswear among Muslim people, and the history of high heels in men’s and nonbinary fashion. Here, and as a writer at Vogue magazine, Allaire centers diversity, amplifying a broad spectrum of emerging voices within the cultural fashion arena. Chapters demonstrate (to use designer Bethany Yellowtail’s description) “bridges of understanding” between traditional and contemporary clothing — from couture to ceremonial regalia, costumes and streetwear. Throughout The Power of Style, Allaire reminds us that “fashion holds more power than you think,” and this book provides a compassionate roadmap for self-identity and gender expression through style — all with young adult readers in mind.
LOTS OF POSSIBILITIES
Executive Sous Chef, The Henry Ford The Fable of the Hot Dog Vendor by Dino and Giovanna Cortopassi
Business Intelligence Head of Analytics, The Henry Ford Where the Sidewalk Ends by Shel Silverstein My family and I have read Where the Sidewalk Ends together since my daughter was born just over eight years ago — just as the book was read to us when we were kids a lot of years ago. When my daughter was 1, she would giggle at the rhyming and the different voices my wife and I would use. And when she was 4 and my son 2, they would crack up in barrels of laughter. My daughter has now begun to ask questions about the images and word meanings. Everything is different in the poems, and Where the Sidewalk Ends touches a variety of themes about being an individual, about dreaming and about using your imagination EVERYWHERE! The most important part about this book: the conversations we have as a family as we grow and continue to read together.
PHOTO COURTESY OF PBS
Senior Manager, Museum and Exhibits Xavier Riddle and the Secret Museum, PBS Kids In this PBS Kids television series, the main characters — Xavier, his sister Yadina and their friend Brad — meet historical figures as children with the help of a timetravel machine. Inspired by his Black history unit in kindergarten, my son wanted to watch something about the Underground Railroad. So we tuned in to the episode I Am Harriet Tubman, where a young Harriet meets Xavier and his friends while she sneaks away to see her family. Later, they join up with the abolitionist as an adult on an Underground Railroad rescue and learn that courage is bravely moving forward even when you’re scared.
DID YOU KNOW? /
The PBS Kids television series Xavier Riddle and the Secret Museum is based on the children’s book series Ordinary People Change the World, written by Brad Meltzer and illustrated by Christopher Eliopoulos.
Recently, I received The Fable of the Hot Dog Vendor as a gift. At the time, I was reading at night to my two boys as often as I could. I began reading them this story, which is about someone that appreciates good food and knows the importance of “the very best,” no matter what it is. As time goes on in the story, things change, but the main character always appreciates good food and knows its importance. As I read this to my boys, they understood that “the very best” is always important, even in a hot dog. My wife and I have always told our children to do their best in everything they do, not to worry about being better than others, but to be the best version of themselves. As a chef, I have always lived by this and based my career on always serving the best. Understanding that food in our culture is important, defining us in so many ways.
The Benson Ford Research Center can help you discover the power of dreaming big and embracing what’s possible on topics discussed in this issue, from space travel and road travel to greening initiatives and alternative foodways. For access, write to research.center@ thehenryford.org. BOOKS No One at the Wheel: Driverless Cars and the Road of the Future by Samuel Schwartz with Karen Kelly Driverless: Intelligent Cars and the Road Ahead by Hod Lipson and Melba Kurman Digital Apollo: Human and Machine in Spaceflight by David A. Mindell Powering the Dream: The History and Promise of Green Technology by Alexis Madrigal The Emergent Agriculture: Farming Sustainability and the Return of the Local Economy by Gary Kleppel Cultivating Food Justice: Race, Class, and Sustainability by Alison Hope Alkon and Julian Agyeman The Way We Eat Now: How the Food Revolution Has Transformed Our Lives, Our Bodies, and Our World by Bee Wilson ARCHIVAL COLLECTIONS Accession 1788 Sundberg-Ferar Transportation Design Records Industrial design firm Sundberg-Ferar worked with NASA and Lockheed Corp. in the 1980s on design concepts for a proposed Earth-orbiting space station.* Accession 2013.16.4 DARPA Urban Challenge Collection Materials relate to the 2007 DARPA Urban Challenge, part of a series of competitions promoting the development of autonomous vehicles. *Space station and some other drawings are digitized and can be viewed in The Henry Ford’s Digital Collections.
ASK + ANSWER
Questions and Replies about Today’s Trends, Talk
How is The Henry Ford making its collections relevant — and accessible — to educators and students everywhere?
ANSWER: For a decade, The Henry Ford has partnered with educators to pilot classroom resources and experiences centered around the concept of innovation. Through these collaborations with expert practitioners and students, we’ve observed a universal ability to innovate — but we’ve also observed some challenges. Research conducted by Harvard’s nonprofit Opportunity Insights, which uses data to analyze upward mobility in America, highlights these challenges and found that “there are great differences in innovation rates based on income, race and gender.” So how can The Henry Ford, an institution that houses 300 years of American innovation, use this knowledge and work to reduce this opportunity gap? One way is to expose students to stories of innovators, inventors and entrepreneurs. Our 26 million artifacts demonstrate that innovation exists in all subject areas, so to help educators make these interdisciplinary connections, we’ve developed the Model i framework. Its two frames, the Habits of an Innovator and Actions of Innovation, can be used to show the innovation journeys of figures like Rosa Parks and the Wright brothers. Students can also use the language to map their own innovation journeys. Educators can now easily access Model i — as well as articles, videos, lessons and workshops inspired by The Henry Ford’s stories of innovation — through inHub, an online platform and community. These resources, many of them free, are infinitely adaptable and help educators use the power of the past to instill innovative mindsets in their students. — PHIL GRUMM, SENIOR MANAGER, LEARNING SERVICES AND ON-SITE PROGRAMS
ONLINE Listen to the Digital Backpack podcast from Michigan Virtual called “Learning Like an Innovator with The Henry Ford” to learn more about Model i and inHub with Lucie Howell and Phil Grumm from The Henry Ford’s learning and engagement team at michiganvirtual.orgc
ILLUSTRATION BY JULIE FRIEDMAN/PHOTOS COURTESY OF GETTY IMAGES, THE HENRY FORD, EE BERGER AND NICK HAGEN
See Page 16 for more information on how to access The Henry Ford’s inHub community.
Interact with The Henry Ford’s Expanding Digital World
SEARCH, WATCH, DOWNLOAD THE a
Humanity has always been fascinated by space and has continually sought out new ways to understand and explore the universe beyond Earth. Dig into the stories of a few visionary figures who have sparked our imaginations and advanced our knowledge about the cosmos. EXTRATERRESTRIALS ON THE RADIO Inventor Charles Francis Jenkins was commissioned by the military to conduct a study to listen to Mars. He created a “radio photo message continuous transmission machine” capable of creating visual records of radio phenomena to try to detect alien radio waves. Discover his story on our blog.
In 1961, President John F. Kennedy stepped up
the American space program, which would land a man on the moon before the end of the decade. Though this was a Cold War strategy, it was cheered by the American public. Our expert set contains artifacts related to the space program under JFK.
ASTRONAUTS AND INCLUSIVITY
Women and minorities were not included in the NASA astronaut pool until 1978. The first American woman (Sally Ride) and African American man (Guion S. “Guy” Bluford Jr.) went to space in 1983, and the first African American woman (Mae Jemison) went to space in 1992. It took until 1995 for a white woman (Eileen M. Collins) to pilot an American space mission, and Sian Proctor just became the first African American woman to do so in September 2021. The television show Star Trek: Voyager, which ran from 1995 through 2001, featured accomplished female astronauts, albeit fictional ones, in leadership positions, including chief engineer and captain. See this artifact in our Digital Collections.
WATCH Videos of Charles Elachi, who worked for the Jet Propulsion Laboratory for decades designing interplanetary missions for NASA, answering questions from The Henry Ford c
PHOTOS FROM THE HENRY FORD ARCHIVE OF AMERICAN INNOVATION
The future is wide open Today’s students will drive tomorrow’s workforce, enrich our communities and build a better future. We support The Henry Ford Museum's programs like Invention Convention Worldwide for fueling their success. RTX.com
COLLINS AEROSPACE | PRATT & WHITNEY | RAYTHEON INTELLIGENCE & SPACE | RAYTHEON MISSILES & DEFENSE © 2021 Raytheon Technologies Corporation. All rights reserved.
Profiles of people curious enough to challenge the rules and risk the failures
INNOVATION GENERATION The Henry Ford is committed to ALL audiences and to inspiring the next generation of inventors, entrepreneurs and innovators, regardless of backgrounds or barriers. Our Archive of American Innovation serves as the cornerstone for all of our innovation learning experiences, programs and curricula, which are designed to accelerate the innovative mindsets of all learners from across the globe.
THF Connect Mobile App 14 Programming, Resources + Events 16
ON THE DOWNLOAD The Henry Ford’s mobile app continues to grow, add more content In 2019, The Henry Ford launched THF Connect, its first-ever mobile app. With it, the museum visitor experience took a giant technological leap forward. Smartphones started doubling as personal tour guides, giving individuals who downloaded the free app increased access to artifacts and stories of innovation. THF Connect supplies users access not only to a map of the museum with turn-by-turn directions but to exclusive content related to featured artifacts, interactive audio tours and, for members, a handy digital membership card. Plus, there’s a mashup tool that allows you to take museum objects, mash them together in cool, creative ways and create your own “invention” that you can inspect in augmented reality and “place” on the museum floor. At launch time, the app offered four audio tours, showcasing some 50 artifacts. Today that number has grown to six tours with an additional 17 artifacts and more stories of innovation brought to the table. Content and functionality on the app will continue to expand and evolve for visitors in the near future.
IN 2021, THE HENRY FORD launched a “Stories of Black Empowerment” audio tour on its mobile app, THF Connect. It was the first new audio tour to be added to the app since it became available for download in 2019. A sweeping overview of some of the artifacts and stories of Black empowerment found within the collections of The Henry Ford, the 25-minute audio tour has eight designated stops that showcase key artifacts found throughout the museum, from within the With Liberty and Justice for All exhibition to Made in America, Driven to Win: Racing in America and Agriculture and the Environment. They include the Rosa Parks Bus, a 1974 Warrior concept car and a 1882 steam engine lubricator, among others. “The artifacts on this tour highlight stories of Black empowerment found within our collections and feature individuals who not only changed their own lives but also the world around them,” said Matt Elliott, head of creative and digital experience at The Henry Ford.
To learn more about THF Connect and how to download the app, visit thf.org/connectapp. 14
In the fall of last year, The Henry Ford added yet another audio tour to the app, “Hidden Stories of Manufacturing.” With nine tour stops, this new mobile app option shares the ways in which manufacturing innovations have changed our lifestyles and features some of the lesser-known — or perhaps less often thought about — stories of manufacturing. Those stories and artifacts include a 1943 Willys-Overland Jeep Runabout, a 1881 Singer sewing machine and a cotton gin model from the 1830s. According to Elliott, THF Connect has more than 20,000 downloads since it launched in 2019. And he teases that much more is to come for The Henry Ford’s mobile app, alluding to how he, his team and The Henry Ford’s staff and partners have been hard at work incorporating Greenfield Village into THF Connect. Tentative launch for the increased functionality is spring/summer 2022. “Stay tuned as exciting new features are coming soon to our mobile app, including some cool things we aren’t even allowed to talk about yet,” said Elliott.
ROSA PARKS BUS PHOTO BY EE BERGER; ALL OTHERS FROM THE HENRY FORD ARCHIVE OF AMERICAN INNOVATION
THF Connect’s newest audio tours, “Stories b
of Black Empowerment” and “Hidden Stories of Manufacturing” feature a diverse set of artifacts, including (clockwise from below) an 1830s cotton gin model, a 1943 WillysOverland Jeep Runabout, the Rosa Parks Bus and an 1882 steam engine lubricator.
GET UP TO DATE ON THE APP
The number of Bluetooth beacons throughout Henry Ford Museum of American Innovation that help power THF Connect
The number of countries represented by users of THF Connect
Infinite learning opportunities since THF Connect can remember what you see during your visit so you can learn more later
100+/6/10 THF Connect features more than 100 artifacts, 6 interactive tours and 10 augmented reality experiences
PROGRAMMING, RESOURCES + EVENTS What to watch, read, do to inspire big thinking
THE HENRY FORD’S INNOVATION NATION Get a taste for space on our Emmy Award-winning television show Since the Apollo: When We Went to the Moon exhibition will be taking up space in Henry Ford Museum of American Innovation this winter and spring (see Page 72), The Henry Ford Magazine team decided to do a quick perusal for space-related segments from the seven complete seasons of The Henry Ford’s Innovation Nation. We found a bunch. Like season three’s episode all about NASA’s Jet Propulsion Lab inventions and season five’s story on the Mars Desert Research Station in Utah (below). In the latest season, there’s a segment on the Event Horizon telescope, which took the first-ever photos of a black hole millions of light years away. Search out these space-themed segments and a whole host of other inventive, inspiring stories by accessing The Henry Ford’s Innovation Nation episode guide on thf.org/innovationnation. You can watch the TV show’s current season on Saturday mornings during CBS’s block of educational programming called CBS Dream Team — It’s Epic. Check your local listings.
PHOTO BY EE BERGER
INHUB LAUNCHED, GROWS More than 1,500 educators are discovering The Henry Ford’s new learning platform In June 2021, The Henry Ford launched inHub, a new online innovation learning platform and community — built by educators, for educators. With its unparalleled collection of 26 million artifacts from 300 years of American history, The Henry Ford is America’s primary resource for innovation-, invention- and entrepreneurship-related objects, documents and stories. inHub now applies these iconic stories to create and deliver the tools, lessons and insights that educators need to help learners develop the skills required to compete in a global economy. A free inHub basic membership provides educators with hundreds of classroom-ready digital assets and curriculum resources. Educators can upgrade to a paid premium membership to access instructor-led professional development courses, workshops and virtual field trips. To date, more than 1,500 educators have joined inHub and discovered the power of innovation learning. — MATTHEW MAJESKI, MANAGING DIRECTOR, CHIEF MARKETING/ DIGITAL OFFICER
If you’re an educator, we encourage you to become a member of our growing inHub community at inhub.thehenryford.org.
PHOTO COURTESY OF LITTON ENTERTAINMENT
CELEBRATING STUDENT INVENTORS
INVENTORS HAVE AN IMPACT
Invention Convention Michigan 2022 Awards Ceremony presented by Delta Dental April 30 Henry Ford Museum of American Innovation
Raytheon Technologies Invention Convention U.S. Nationals 2022 Awards Ceremony June 3 Henry Ford Museum of American Innovation
The state winners are announced, and all participating Michigan inventors are celebrated.
The nation’s best young inventors and innovators are honored, chosen from Invention Convention competitions held across the nation.
Ceremonies are not open to the public.
Persevering during a pandemic In 2021, 440 students from 16 states competed in the Raytheon Technologies Invention Convention U.S. Nationals. The winners were announced in a virtual awards ceremony on June 24 that opened with “Live from the Yellow Carpet” and featured our young inventors, affiliates, sponsors, celebrities and STEM stars followed by a Zoom dance party. The invention journey continued in July, when selected finalists from the United States, Mexico, Singapore and China advanced to the inaugural Globals competition. On Aug. 13, finalists created an avatar and joined the celebration at GlobalsX, an exclusive virtual event that transported them to The Henry Ford, where they took a virtual field trip, tested their knowledge in our Innovation Challenge, listened to inspired talks from international speakers and met fellow finalists from around the world. The 2021 competition season culminated Aug. 20 with the Globals awards ceremony, where 16 winners were announced. Gray Bright from Hasbro Games served as host, and there was an inspiring keynote from William Kamkwamba, author of The Boy Who Harnessed the Wind. Undoubtedly, 2021 was a year that continued to challenge the world, and our Invention Convention Worldwide community rose to the challenge. ONLINE See a full list of the 2021 winners and watch the awards ceremonies at inventionconvention.orgc
First-grader Yan Ziling from China was awarded first place in the kindergartend
grade 2 category at the 2021 Globals. With his winning invention, children in trouble can stomp their feet, which triggers a motion sensor alarm in their shoes that can gain attention and help from others nearby. Said Yan of his creation: “My Children SOS Shoes are cheap, easy to carry, hidden and can immediately send out a rescue signal so my shoes can save children in danger in time.”
PHOTO COURTESY OF YAN ZILING
MOD MAK Photographer Dan Winters shares insights into how he builds, creates and wills things into being By James Hughes • Photos by Dan Winters
DEL KER thf.org
Understanding the power that resides in working, playing, making with our hands
Dan Winters’ first serious profession was that of a motion picture d special effects model builder. He still builds miniatures today, finding the act of creating for the sake of creating rewarding.
D Dan Winters surveys a shifting landscape — his own backyard. On a mid-August morning, the 59-year-old photographer, author and filmmaker is in the kitchen of his Austin, Texas, home, detailing the impending relocation of his studio and workshop (headquartered in a converted post office, general store and Texaco station 25 miles south in unincorporated Driftwood) to just steps from his front porch. Anyone who has worked with Winters — presidents, astronauts, publishers of the country’s most influential publications — could grasp the challenge, given Winters’ lifelong accumulation of equipment, archives and personal collections, which range from apiaries to pieces of Apollo spacecraft (see sidebar on Page 29). The shuffling of workspaces feels natural, almost expected, given the rotational history of his surroundings. Winters’ home, which he and his wife, Kathryn, and son, Dylan, moved to from Los Angeles in 2000, was built in downtown Austin in 1938 and later transported to this quiet enclave on the north side of town circa 1975. Their detached garage will soon supplant the Driftwood studio. It was originally Winters’ model-building workshop, but that migrated a decade ago to a pitched-roof room on the second floor. The model shop is a place of refuge cocooned in paint sets, kit parts and books on the artistry of 2001: A Space Odyssey. Winters vividly recalls the first model he ever built, a British SE5a biplane, around age 6, with his father, Larry Winters, a welder from Ohio who moved the family to Ventura, California, in 1959. “I would ask him to draw me something, an airplane or a rocket, and it would be on the breakfast table when I’d get up in the morning for school,” Winters said from his own breakfast table. “He would also make little spaceships out of wine corks and put screws in them or paper clips for skids. He’d leave them as little surprises.” thf.org
SEEING POSSIBILITY Model-building has been a constant in Winters’ life. “When you start a model,” he explained, “the only thing that exists is your intent and whatever tools and materials you need. You work through the thing, create it and then it exists. You will it into being. There’s an unbelievable satisfaction in that. In the ability to see what the model is going to be before it gets to a point of unification.” Growing up, Winters remembers the yard on the working farm where he was raised as always strewn with spare parts, and he was often tasked with repurposing them. “The engine in our Volkswagen threw a rod, and we had to rebuild the whole thing,” he recalled. He assisted his father on nights and weekends, staving off resentment for missing idle time with his friends. “I remember the weekend we put the motor back in. We had it on a jack, and my dad slid it in, and I had to balance it until it speared the spline of the transaxle. He got in and pushed the clutch and it started up — I mean, right up. We took it for a drive, even though the bumper and deck lid were off. I remember driving down the street and reflecting on what it took to do that. As a kid, it was way out of my wheelhouse. But seeing that it was possible to do that was massive.” In 1978, Winters’ father drove his 16-year-old son 50 miles to Van Nuys to visit Apogee, a special-effects company operated by John Dykstra, the Oscar-winning effects supervisor on Star Wars. Winters had cold-called Steve Sperling, who ran the office, and sent several photographs of his model spaceships by mail. A tour with Grant McCune, chief model maker on Star Wars and Battlestar Galactica, was arranged. As Winters wrote in his 2014 book, Road to Seeing: Once inside, it was surreal to see the same model shop firsthand that I’d studied in dozens of photographs published in movie magazines. I was captivated by the artistry I witnessed at every turn. … I cannot describe the profound inspiration and affirmation this visit gave me. In the months that followed, Winters’ mailbox remained packed with special-order plastics, and his fleet of scratch-built spaceships grew. The photos of his progress eventually led two Apogee veterans to recommend him for employment at Design Setters, an effects house in Burbank. Through a work-experience program his senior year, Winters attended two classes in the morning, then drove to the San Fernando Valley to build models, including one for the Neil Young film Human Highway. It was a creative utopia disguised as a pass/fail. After attending college at Moorpark, studying abroad in Munich and assisting for photographer Chris Callis in New York City, Winters began incorporating his skills as a model builder and production designer into his portraiture, creating fictitious worlds unique to each image. An assignment to photograph Denzel Washington for The New York Times Magazine in 1992 was instrumental. Winters stayed up through the night and singlehandedly built a forced-perspective set that evoked the rural outposts documented by photographer Walker Evans during the Depression. The set also emphasized the body position of a seated Washington, whose hands were resting against his dark suit, causing his fingertips to pop. The secret, in a sense, was the human touch.
WATCH This 1980s visual effects demo reel from Apogee, the specialeffects company that Dan Winters toured as a teenager, providing much inspiration early in his careerc ONLINE Visit YouTube and type in Dan Winters to watch interviews with the photographer hosted by the likes of American Photographic Artists and presentations he has made at past WIRED by Design eventsc
PHOTO SHOOTS CELEBRATED This portrait of actor Denzel Washington, seated in a set singlehandedly constructed by Dan Winters and published in The New York Times Magazine in 1992, was an inflection point in Winters’ career, opening the door to decades of world-class editorial and portrait work. His subjects have included Ryan Gosling (below), the Dalai Lama, Tupac Shakur, Helen Mirren and Fred Rogers, who, according to Winters, “treated the photo shoot sacredly.”
DID YOU KNOW? / Dan Winters has photographed two presidents, George W. Bush and Barack Obama; his portrait of Obama for New York Magazine is featured prominently as the back jacket of the 44th president’s memoir, A Promised Land.
“We took it [our Volkswagen] for a drive, even though the bumper and deck lid were off. I remember driving down the street and reflecting on what it took to do that. As a kid, it was way out of my wheelhouse. But seeing that it was possible to do that was massive.” — DAN WINTERS
ANOTHER WORLD This approach carries through Winters’ latest and most immersive project, the film Tone, which he wrote, directed and photographed. It’s a love story set in a dystopian future where a laborer — the eponymous Tone, whose vocal cords have been stripped by a surveillance state — returns to Earth from Mars and helps heal another broken soul. At nearly 40 minutes, the project far exceeds the scope of Winters’ previous short-subject documentaries and music videos, and visualizing both the earthbound and cosmic elements of the story demanded Dan Winters considers his c extensive model and miniature work. desk, an old drafting table, The majority of those Mars miniatures, both piecemeal and whole, still the anchor of his studio. reside in Winters’ Driftwood studio. (Before driving from his home for a Littered with objects collected over time, he studio tour, he cautioned not to crush a box of spare plastics on the car said of this space, “Sitting seat, which a hobby shop owner had recently reserved for him. It was at the desk provides a an F/A-18C Hornet kit affixed with a handwritten Post-it note that read: connection to my history.” WINTERS DAN PARTS GIFT.) Built in 1903 as a post office and general store, the sandstone building in Driftwood expanded in 1942 to accommodate a feed store. A subsequent owner extended that addition, turning a water cistern out back into an interior structure, surrounded by closets, one of which Winters converted to a darkroom. The facade is adorned with a defunct fire-engine-red Texaco gravity pump, occasionally confusing gas-strapped passersby on the highway. Inside, Winters stands beside a bay of humming computer monitors with a Topo Chico. The cold bottle of sparkling water is perfect for slaking thirst and, as tradition holds, providing the next building block in a backyard pile of empties he’s dubbed Mount Topo. Through hundreds of annual deposits, the glass mountain now hosts a rotating colony of pill bugs, snakes, silverfish and eleodes. It’s another world within worlds on the studio grounds, where nature and Winters’ collection of artifacts from nearly two centuries of photographic history meet the realities of an increasingly digitized future. The encroachment of the elements proved calamitous in 2020, when DID YOU KNOW? / winds clocking 75 mph tore at the metal roof and rainfall destroyed It is common for special thousands of negatives in storage lockers below. While taking solace effects miniature model that well over a million negatives were safe, including those amassed builders to use donor from anonymous collections he’d found at junk stores and paper-goods plastic parts from a variety of sources to shows, the incident nonetheless prompted the decampment for his Austin create their intricate backyard, where proximity alleviates the increasing sense of vulnerability. small-scale illusions. With another Topo tossed to the beetles out back, Winters begins Popular must-haves detailing the international origins of the books on the shelves lining the among these artists: Hasegawa Anzio Annie original exterior wall of the post office. It called to mind the 1931 essay and Mörser Karl model “Unpacking My Library,” in which German theorist Walter Benjamin wrote, building kits that can “I have made my most memorable purchases on trips, as a transient. … be bought at any toy How many cities have revealed themselves to me in the marches I or hobby shop. undertook in the pursuit of books!” Winters settles on Photography Album 1, edited by Pierre de Fenoyl, DID YOU KNOW? / purchased at 23 while biking across Australia. “There’s amazing work in When asked by Wired magazine if he would it, work that made me feel like photography was boundless,” Winters said. go on a space mission, “I was riding from Sydney to Adelaide, and I had two panniers on my bike for Winters answered, storage. I rode that book for 1,300 miles, in a brown paper bag. I still have the Dan “I don’t really have any bike; it’s at the house.” A casual flip through the book revealed a preserved interest in traveling into leaf tucked inside. “We want to have a memory,” Winters added. “Certain space. As a younger man I would have jumped at objects will anchor us to a place and time.” the chance. I see my role The undisputed anchor of the studio is Winters’ work desk, an old drafting in manned spaceflight table festooned with his full range of interests. “Sitting at the desk provides as chronicler. My a connection to my history,” he said. “I’m inspired by the intrinsic value of contribution to this grand cause are my these objects. Some have historical significance, certainly, and some are images. I hope they significant to me and my own path in life. Oftentimes they’re just beautiful serve to inspire those objects I like to contemplate. One of the drawbacks of the collection is I feel who may make the trip it would be pretty quickly marginalized by whoever was settling my estate. in the future.” At first glance, it probably looks like junk.”
SPACE SUBJECTS SHOT BY DAN WINTERS Neil Armstrong’s A7-L spacesuit worn on the surface of the moon • SpaceX’s Dragon crew capsule interior • Astronaut Peggy Whitson • Film director George Lucas • Strelka, the Soviet space dog • Apollo Mission Control Center at Johnson Space Center • Apollo 11 command module capsule • The final launches of Discovery, Atlantis and Endeavour
According to theorist Benjamin, “the most distinguished trait of a collection will always be its transmissibility.” Winters senses the necessity of cataloging these objects in the moment and imparting their meaning. There’s the National Supply badge that belonged to his grandfather, whose company made transmissions for Sherman tanks. Or a rivet from the Golden Gate Bridge, flecks of International Orange paint still visible. (Ironworkers presented the rivet ceremoniously to Winters after a photo shoot.) There’s also a swab attached to a wine cork, which is in fact a vital tool, one that facilitated a series of portraits for National Geographic that quickly became among Winters’ most widely seen images. Published in May 2021 and intended to draw attention to World Bee Day, the subject was actress Angelina Jolie covered in bees. Before the shoot, Winters and friend Konrad Bouffard contacted Ronald Fischer, an entomologist now in his 90s, who was “bearded” in bees for an iconic Richard Avedon portrait in Davis, California, in 1981. They also reached Avedon’s on-set beekeeper, who still had the cork swab he’d used to dot Fischer’s skin with queen-bee pheromone, thus attracting a swarm. As a lifelong beekeeper, Winters was honored to use the very swab for his shoot and to be told he could keep the cork among his treasures. It was hard not to draw a line to the cork-and-paper-clip spaceships Winters’ father left for him in the mornings, the ones that inspired him both to build and to collect. Asked if a cork ship was docked on his desk, Winter was convinced, though he couldn’t pinpoint one. “I know I have one in these boxes,” he said, sifting through cardboard stacks. He reminded himself to check later. For now, the day was still young, and the sun was out. In the shadow of Mount Topo, this message in a bottle would remain open, awaiting its cork. l
A Photographer’s Thoughts on a Photograph As a practitioner of the craft of photography, I frequently employ the use of artificial light when making my photographs, the distinction being that the light emanates from a manmade source and not from the sun. One artifact among The Henry Ford’s vast holdings that I feel a kinship to is an otherworldly black-and-white portrait of Thomas Edison’s longtime collaborator Charles Batchelor. The text on the border of the photograph informs us that it is the first-ever photograph taken using an incandescent bulb. Though it is widely thought that the incandescent bulb was Edison’s invention, his work stood firmly on the shoulders of over 20 inventors who had success in the development of the light bulb before him; however, none to the degree Edison achieved. The use of incandescent light in photography would eventually prove to be almost as significant a tool as film and camera. As the technology evolved and higher-output lighting was developed, filmmakers and photographers alike would discover the benefits of their ability to control not only where they could make images but also when. — DAN WINTERS
WATCH Actress Angelina Jolie as she's covered in bees during her shoot with Dan Winters for National Geographicc
Road to Seeing by Dan Winters to learn more about his journey to becoming a photographer and what he considers the significant moments in his career that informed decisions he made and the path he followedc
THE HENRY FORD ARCHIVE OF AMERICAN INNOVATION
DID YOU KNOW? / Henry Ford’s interest in collecting objects — he liked to call them “relics” — began in 1914 as he searched for McGuffey Readers so he could verify a long-remembered verse from school recitations. By the late 1920s, he had become the primary collector of Americana in the world.
LOST IN SPACE Dan Winters’ fascination with spaceflight transcends Among Dan Winters’ desktop mementos are two pieces of equipment from the Apollo program: a pressure transducer (at right) and an RCS check valve assembly, still bagged (below). Both were procured from a Los Angeles scrap dealer who capitalized on the closure of a Van Nuys plant operated by Rocketdyne, manufacturer of the Saturn V engines. The keepsakes have remained within reach ever since. Winters’ childhood love of the space program carried over into his career as a photographer, beginning with a portrait in the late 1990s of Harrison Schmitt, the first geologist on the moon. Other subjects include Roald Sagdeev, former director of the Soviet Space Research Institute; American astronauts Buzz Aldrin and Pete Conrad; Neil Armstrong’s spacesuit for Smithsonian Magazine; and a package of images for National Geographic’s 50th anniversary celebration of the Apollo program, which included a trip to Kazakhstan in 2019 to photograph a Soyuz spaceflight to the International Space Station. Winters was granted close-range access by NASA to document the final launches of Discovery, Atlantis and Endeavour, all captured in his 2012 book Last Launch. His contributions to the literature and historical record of space exploration began humbly, with a childhood fixation on Ham, the first chimpanzee in space, which he spotted on the cover of a back issue of Life published the year before his birth. See Page 72 of this magazine for information on the exhibit Apollo: When We Went to the Moon, visiting Henry Ford Museum of American Innovation in 2022.
ONLINE Visit Dan Winters’ website to see a portfolio of his work — from photographs and other works on paper to an inventory of his books and videos at danwintersphoto.comc
DRIVERLESS DRIVIN DECONSTRUCT
The Henry Ford and dive into some of th fallacies about auto
Contributors: Matt Anderson & Jenn Illustrations by Anuj Shrestha
d a set of experts take a deep he most common truths and onomous vehicle technology
NG TED thf.org
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Henry Ford touted, and downright promised, that his horseless carriage — aka the Ford Model T — would be available to the great multitude and that reliable personal transportation should be affordable and accessible to all. His vision became a reality when he introduced his “everyman’s car” on Oct. 1, 1908. By 1927, when Ford Motor Company ceased production of the Model T, more than 15 million had been produced, transforming not only the automotive industry but society as a whole. Today, the automotive industry and tech pioneers are touting the near-term reality of another transformative automotive milestone: the day the driverless car takes over roadways across the globe. How close are we to autonomous vehicles actually owning the roads? We asked Matt Anderson, The Henry Ford’s curator of transportation, to take a look at some of the most common myths, truths and misconceptions about autonomous vehicle technology. He was happy to deconstruct a few statements on our list, and then we reached out to some colleagues and other experts with the right chops to take on a couple of others.
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HERE’S OUR MYTH, TRUTH, MISCONCEPTION:
The self-driving vehicle is a fairly new concept. LET’S SHARE THEIR INSIGHT:
WHO’S OUR EXPERT: MATT ANDERSON Matt is curator of transportation at The Henry Ford. He’s responsible for the museum’s automotive, aviation and railroad collections. Matt has already acquired a couple of autonomous vehicles for the museum’s holdings. We asked him to address the common misconception that self-driving cars are a new idea — or at least new beyond the realm of science fiction. thf.org
How long have engineers and automakers been experimenting with autonomous vehicles? Experiments with radio-controlled cars date to the 1920s, but the most tantalizing vision of an autonomous automobile future came at the 1939 New York World’s Fair. General Motors’ Futurama exhibit, designed by Norman Bel Geddes, featured a scale model of an American city circa 1960. Electric cars, propelled by electromagnetic circuits buried in the road, zipped along an automated highway and needed minimal input from their passengers. GM imagined a similar guidewire technology for its 1956 Firebird II concept car. RCA went even further, conducting experiments with functional full-size cars guided by wires on a test track near Princeton, New Jersey, in the late 1950s. The dream moved closer to reality in the early 21st century. In March 2004, the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) offered a prize of $1 million to the first team to create a self-driving vehicle that could finish a 142-mile course through
the Mojave Desert. None of the 15 competitors completed that first Grand Challenge. Results were more encouraging at the second Grand Challenge in October 2005, where five of the 23 teams managed to complete the full course. DARPA’s third Grand Challenge, held in November 2007, upped the stakes considerably. Rather than the previous challenges’ rural desert courses, the third challenge featured an “urban” course complete with traffic signs, fourway stops and other (nonautonomous) vehicles. Eleven teams qualified for the urban challenge, and six managed to complete it. The winning entry, a modified Chevrolet Tahoe fielded by Carnegie Mellon University, finished the 55-mile course in 4 hours, 10 minutes. Autonomous vehicle experiments went mainstream in the 2010s. Google began work on a self-driving car in 2009. Within four years, nearly every major automaker — from GM, Ford and Toyota to Volkswagen, BMW and Volvo — had a serious selfdriving development program underway.
2 HERE’S OUR MYTH, TRUTH, MISCONCEPTION:
AV means a car that can drive anywhere completely by itself. LET’S SHARE THEIR INSIGHT:
WHO’S OUR EXPERT: MATT ANDERSON We asked Matt to address the common misconception that all self-driving cars are completely autonomous.
What does it mean for a car to be autonomous or selfdriving? Are there standard definitions for those terms? The Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) defines five different levels of automation in motor vehicles. In addition to those is what we might call our baseline at Level 0, with no autonomy whatsoever and the driver performing all tasks. Levels 1 and 2 are considered driver support situations. Level 1 incorporates the most basic forms of driver assistance. Adaptive cruise control, in which the car senses traffic ahead and adjusts its speed accordingly, is the prime example of a Level 1 feature. Level 2 is considered partial automation. The vehicle has combined automated functions, but the driver must remain fully aware and engaged with the vehicle’s operation. Adaptive cruise control paired with automated lane keeping is an example of Level 2 automation.
Levels 3 through 5 incorporate true automated driving features. Level 3 is referred to as conditional automation. Under certain circumstances, the vehicle can drive itself. However, it is still expected that the driver will be able to intervene at any time. Level 4 is high automation. Again, the car is able to drive itself under certain conditions, but the driver is assumed to be present and able to take over if needed. Under a Level 4 scenario, if the driver does not step in and take over, the car can pull itself over to the side of the road and come to a stop without human intervention. Under SAE’s definition, Level 5 is considered full autonomous driving. This is the dream — wherein the car is able to drive itself in all circumstances and conditions without any input from a human driver. In a Level 5 scenario, it isn’t even necessary for the vehicle to have traditional controls — steering wheel, foot pedals, etc.
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3 WHO’S OUR EXPERT: BRIAN JENCEK Brian’s the global director of planning at HOK, a global design, architecture, engineering and planning firm. He’s the leading man directing more than 100 city planners, urban designers, landscape architects and environmental scientists across 14 studios around the world. His list of accomplishments and projects includes the 2012 London Olympics and Stanford University’s School of Medicine campus. He’s also the person behind the planning of new ecological cities in Panama, Brazil, China and India. We asked Brian to deconstruct this common misconstruction about AVs and our cityscapes because he’s HOK’s resident expert on autonomous vehicles and speaks often about their potential impact on future city planning and design. hok.com
Our roadways and cities won’t change much if autonomous vehicles go mainstream. LET’S SHARE THEIR INSIGHT: If an alien species looked at us from afar, who would they think is in charge? Us or the cars we drive? Today, an enormous amount of our cities is devoted to parking and for places to keep our cars safe — something that, for an average of 22 hours of every day, sits and is not in use. I think those aliens would think the cars are in charge and the humans work for them. About 40% of our cities today are made up of roads and surface or street parking. But what if autonomous mobility allowed us to think differently about how things move in our cities? If we could recoup some of that 40%, could we gain more streetscape? Have cities that are safer, more social? That are more incentivized for walking? Are those recouped lands the bikeways, the bus routes, the more expedient public transit options that are more equitable? That could help our cities function better for everyone? What could we be doing differently if we could recapture parts of our cities lost to asphalt? Working with clients, we hear a lot of ideation around our streets and how we could reuse them if autonomous mobility allowed us to reclaim them. Some say they would use their streets as more of a linear park, bringing green space back to the concrete jungle. Other cities with a younger demographic want more safe space for their kids, while some want the streets to become their retail
marketplace or havens for wellness and fitness. The second part of this design equation: What do autonomous vehicles need to navigate safely? They see the world differently than we do. They can talk to each other and will be able to work together to protect one another. They can react in a split second, constantly sensing their environment. And good ole surface parking — well, AVs can park much more efficiently than we can. They are smaller. They can turn at much tighter radiuses. We could gain a ton of surface area back because of that as well. Maybe we convert those areas into office, residential or social spaces. Maybe we do hydroponic growing in old parking structures. Undoubtedly, efficiencies will skyrocket as we move from some of us owning autonomous vehicles to all of us owning them to not needing to own a vehicle at all. It’ll start with places like airports, universities and shopping malls where users come at set times and then go away. By the 2030s is when I imagine we will see a higher level of automation. That’s when the technology gets really good, but more importantly, it’s when the humans get more comfortable with the idea that it’s safer to let the machine take over in certain instances. What’s fascinating is how many answers and possibilities there are. It says to me that this is a new frontier that’s just waiting to be discovered.
“If you could suddenly free up even 10% of a city’s footprint, I can guarantee there would be an outpouring of ideas of what to do with it, and the answer would seldom be, ‘Let’s pave it with asphalt.’” — BRIAN JENCEK
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4 WHO’S OUR EXPERT: GREG MCGUIRE Greg is the associate director of Mcity, a public-private mobility research partnership led by the University of Michigan, and he’s a part of the Mcity Driverless Shuttle research project team. He’s the person responsible for the safe and smooth operation of the Mcity Test Facility, the university’s purposebuilt proving ground for testing connected and automated vehicles and technologies. We asked Greg to give some thought to how ready we all are to give the reins over to AV technologies on our roadways since he’s spent a couple of decades or more looking at mobility services and their intersection with our internet-enabled society. mcity.umich.edu
Consumers are eager to see autonomous vehicles take over our roadways and city streets. LET’S SHARE THEIR INSIGHT: Does your vehicle park itself? Does it warn you if you drift out of your lane or if another vehicle is in your blind spot? Maybe your vehicle alerts you when something — another vehicle, a child, a bicyclist — is about to cross your path, then stops automatically to avoid a crash? Each of these automated driving technologies, also known as advanced driving assistance systems, are available today on an ever-growing number of vehicles. Automated driving, however, is not the same as autonomous driving. An autonomous vehicle, or AV, is truly driverless; it can go anywhere, anytime, without human intervention. Are consumers ready to share the road with vast numbers of vehicles that don’t have a human behind the wheel? Not yet. In February 2021, AAA’s annual automated vehicle survey found that only 14% of drivers would trust riding in a self-driving vehicle, similar to 2020 results. However, 86% said they would be afraid to ride in a self-driving vehicle or are unsure about it. Only 22% of people thought manufacturers should focus on developing self-driving vehicles. AAA’s survey followed the release In October 2020 of the J.D. Power 2020 Q3 Mobility Confidence Index Study, which found “an absence of substantive
Our blog post for more insights from Mcity’s Greg McGuire on autonomous vehicle technologyc
consumer interest” in autonomous vehicles. Nearly 9,000 consumers and industry experts responded to the survey, conducted in September 2020. J.D. Power, a global market research firm, found younger Americans have the most positive views of selfdriving technologies. Many factors affect consumer confidence in new technologies. A spate of crashes and fatalities involving automated vehicles in recent years raised safety questions and likely contributed to dampening enthusiasm. Ultimately, excitement about autonomous transportation may depend most on whether consumers have a chance to experience a self-driving vehicle or at least to observe one in their daily life. Consider Mcity’s experience. In June 2018, Mcity, a public-private mobility research partnership led by the University of Michigan, launched the Mcity Driverless Shuttle as a research project with a primary focus on consumer acceptance and data collection. As part of the project, J.D. Power surveyed shuttle riders and nonriders. Results showed high levels of trust and satisfaction among both groups — 86% of riders and 66% of nonriders. Autonomous vehicle experts are often asked, “When? When will we all have an autonomous vehicle in our garage?” That scenario is a long way off and
14% of drivers would trust riding in a selfdriving vehicle
may never come to pass. Still, there is a tremendous opportunity now to improve the quality of life for millions of people through self-driving technologies. Consumer trust is the wild card. Nearly a third of industry experts say gaining consumer trust and acceptance is the most significant barrier to widespread use of autonomous vehicles, according to J.D. Power’s Mobility Confidence Index. At the same time, AAA’s survey findings suggest personal experience with driverless technologies could make the difference in acceptance, echoing the results of J.D. Power’s research for Mcity. Most drivers — 80% — would like existing advanced driving assistance systems to work better, and 58% want them in their next vehicle, according to AAA. The findings signal that consumers are open to more sophisticated vehicle technology, AAA said, and a positive experience for drivers could open the road to acceptance of self-driving vehicles. Without consumer buy-in, the promise of autonomous vehicles may never be fully realized: transportation that’s safer, cleaner, more efficient and more accessible to more people.
22% of people thought manufacturers should focus on developing self-driving vehicles
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5 WHO’S OUR EXPERT: JOHN DAVIS John is the director of autonomous vehicle and future technology at Ford Motor Company. With that hefty title comes responsibility for leading Ford’s commercial autonomous vehicle development as well as the development of future technologies. Since John has spent years as a chief program engineer and has overseen product development for Ford’s autonomous vehicle business, we asked him to help us take a closer look at what these driverless cars might look like in the future. corporate.ford.com/ operations/autonomous -vehicles.html
Autonomous vehicles of the future will look very similar to the vehicles we drive today. LET’S SHARE THEIR INSIGHT: How are we going to deliver a different customer experience than the driven vehicle? From a technology perspective, the interaction and touchpoints in the autonomous vehicle — since there is no human intervention of a driver in what we call “the moving people space” — require the vehicle to be more intuitive. We are looking at ways for people to get in and out of the vehicle more seamlessly. During the ride itself, how do we alert and inform the customer about what is going on in the environment? Events happen, right? Anything from weather changes and traffic congestion to issues with the roadway or vehicle itself. How does the vehicle communicate that back to the customer? How do we keep them comfortable and safe? Considering just these factors can drive differences in terms of the product and the vehicle’s form. Then there is the technical challenge of “driving” the vehicle. As many people have seen in the
developmental autonomous vehicles that are out on the road today, they have some very unique objects on them as part of the sensing and detection systems. Over time, we would all expect that those sensing systems will get more efficient. They will become smaller in scale, and they’ll be better at fusing together the sensing images that come from them in terms of what we need in order to “drive” the car, further influencing the design and shape of the vehicle. Next consideration is a blend between the customer experience and business efficiency. We need to deliver something that is reliable, durable, and even just thinking about the efficiency in getting a vehicle into service and getting the customer in and out of that vehicle quickly and safely — all drive us down a different design path than a conventional vehicle. Simple side of that: Many vehicles today have hinged doors, which is great for operator control or
a customer-controlled execution but is not as efficient from a standpoint of the ability to get in and out of the car. Different closure systems and detection systems addressing customers potentially approaching and wanting to exit: We will see solutions that will minimize the amount of time and effort to get people and goods on- and off-board. And as we consider higher levels of autonomy and true autonomous driving, there will be no steering wheels required, no pedals required. Frankly, all of the control systems that are normally required as part of the regulatory environment for vehicles can be very different. It’s an exciting place to be in terms of changing the way we think about mobility beyond the traditional
driven space and how that affords us the flexibility to incorporate different experiences into the customer’s ride and events of the day. Through vehicle autonomy, we can talk about the ability to give time back to our customers by taking away the driving task so they can focus on whatever they want to — maybe it’s extending their business day while they are on the move — i.e., the idea of an office on wheels — or providing them more time to relax and disconnect without the mental challenge of managing the drive. At the end of the day, what we want to do is optimize the experience for the customer and build their trust in us that we can provide safe, efficient autonomous transportation and mobility.
DID YOU KNOW? / Ford Motor Company, in collaboration with partner Argo AI, has been testing self-driving vehicle fleets in cities such as Pittsburgh, Palo Alto, Miami, Austin, Washington, D.C., and Detroit, and late last year started initial deployments with Lyft and Walmart. WATCH One of Ford’s autonomous vehicle test fleets in actionc
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HERE’S OUR MYTH, TRUTH, MISCONCEPTION:
6 WHO’S OUR EXPERT: JESSICA ROBINSON Jessica is co-founder of Detroit Mobility Lab, Michigan Mobility Institute and Assembly Ventures. She was also the spring 2020 Entrepreneur-inResidence at The Henry Ford, a part of the William Davidson Foundation Initiative for Entrepreneurship. We asked Jessica to circle back with The Henry Ford and share her thoughts on the potential freedoms new transportation technologies can offer up regardless of someone’s economic or socioeconomic background. detroitmobilitylab.com
Autonomous vehicles will only benefit certain class or socioeconomic sectors. LET’S SHARE THEIR INSIGHT: With a price of $70,000 to $150,000 for the technology package alone, it’s no surprise people wonder whether autonomous vehicles might not benefit everyone. While it is true that their mass adoption will not impact everyone at the same time, the beneficial reach of autonomous vehicles extends far beyond a select few. One of the key potential benefits of autonomous vehicles is a reduction in crashes caused by drivers. It’s a sad fact that more than 38,000 people are killed in crashes in the United States each year. (Another 4.4 million are severely injured.) Distracted driving, speeding and drunk driving are the three top causes of those crashes. All can be eliminated with autonomous vehicles. This isn’t the only safety benefit of autonomous vehicles either. The same enabling technologies are already in many of the vehicles we own and ride in, and they’re making trips safer today.
WATCH A video clip of Jessica Robinson talking about the safety, efficiencies and freedoms that could be afforded by the acceptance and application of autonomous vehicle technologyc
Because of their cost, most autonomous vehicles will be used in ride hailing or package delivery services, but that doesn’t mean they are only available to the wealthy. When Grand Rapids, Michigan, launched its Autonomous Vehicle Initiative, shuttles were added as part of the city’s public transit system to provide free trips for riders. And in Miami-Dade County, Florida, operators there dropped off groceries and school supplies for a local nonprofit. Advanced forms of transportation are usually expensive at first, and some do stay that way. Very few today own private airplanes, for example, but we collectively benefit from the freedom of commercial flight. The same holds true for the future of autonomous vehicles. The technology is transforming driving and advancing change in unexpected but positive ways.
Consider that, even in the year 2022, you can still travel by horseback, stagecoach, canal boat, steam locomotive and highwheel bicycle.
HERE’S OUR MYTH, TRUTH, MISCONCEPTION:
AV tech will bring an end to recreational driving. LET’S SHARE THEIR INSIGHT:
WHO’S OUR EXPERT: MATT ANDERSON We asked Matt to address the common misconception that selfdriving cars will bring an end to the joy of driving.
If we have fully autonomous vehicles, will there still be interest in driving older, non-AV cars? Will the gearhead go extinct? While we don’t know just when, it seems likely that fully functional autonomous vehicles will take over our daily transportation. There are definite advantages — safer streets, increased mobility, better traffic management — but for those of us with the proverbial gasoline in our veins, we worry that newfangled autonomous cars will end the old-school fun of driving. Fear not. Manually driven cars will always be around in some form. Consider that, even in the year 2022, you can still travel by horseback, stagecoach, canal boat, steam locomotive and high-wheel bicycle. Hobbyists and heritage organizations keep these transportation modes alive so that today’s audiences can experience mobility as our ancestors knew it. If driving becomes an
exclusively recreational activity, then we will see the driving experience preserved in the same way. Retired General Motors Vice Chairman Bob Lutz, who knows the automotive industry better than anyone, sees the non-AV car going the way of the horse. We’ll keep our vintage autos garaged at some kind of recreational driving center. We’ll spend our evenings and weekends driving our vintage autos — with our own hands and feet — on limited-access roads filled with like-minded enthusiasts — and where we can’t mix with AVs. Will it be expensive? Maybe. Some of today’s equestrian centers have an exclusive-expensive feel to them. But then, it takes a lot of money to feed and stable a horse. Cars don’t need costly constant care, so membership at a recreational driving center might be a bargain by comparison. Cars are cheaper than horses. That argument has a familiar ring to it …
The long history of autonomous vehicles — both imagined and real — is well represented in The Henry Ford’s collections.
1 SOUVENIR BROCHURE FROM GENERAL MOTORS’ FUTURAMA, 1940 General Motors’ Futurama exhibit was the hit of the 1939-40 New York World’s Fair. It imagined a network of automated highways partially guiding cars by radio control. 2 THE STORY OF FIREBIRD II “THREEZERO-FOUR,” THE GAS TURBINE FAMILY CAR, 1957 General Motors designers and engineers imagined the company’s 1956 Firebird II concept car driving itself by following a guidewire buried in the highway — though they admitted that the necessary technology lay in the “far, far future.” 3 DARPA URBAN CHALLENGE MEDIA BADGE, 2007 The 2007 Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) Urban Challenge was the third in a series of government-sponsored contests that promoted the development of autonomous vehicles. Competitors had to maneuver through a simulated city environment without human intervention.
4 GENERAL MOTORS’ FIRST-GENERATION SELF-DRIVING TEST VEHICLE, 2016 GM tested a series of autonomous vehicles in California and Arizona in 2016. The cars used a combination of cameras, radar and lidar sensors, cellular and GPS antennas, and powerful computers to drive themselves on public streets. 5 “ATTENTION DRIVERLESS VEHICLE ROUTE” SIGN, 2018 An autonomous shuttle from Mcity, a public-private mobility research partnership led by the University of Michigan, traveled over two-way streets mixed with conventional traffic. Signs like this alerted other street users to the shuttle’s presence. (See sidebar on Page 45 for more on the Mcity shuttle.)
Sharing a Shuttle
COURTESY OF UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN
The Henry Ford acquires autonomous vehicle used in first U.S. driverless shuttle project gauging user acceptance The Henry Ford recently added a Navya Autonom® Shuttle to its collections. Donated by Mcity, a publicprivate connected and automated vehicle research partnership led by the University of Michigan, the vehicle was used as part of the first driverless shuttle project in the United States focused on user behavior. With the shuttle, The Henry Ford also received extensive data processed by market research firm J.D. Power regarding rider interaction, providing a window into the reactions, concerns and doubts from some of the very first passengers to experience this technology in a routine setting. “It’s imperative that we continue to thoughtfully document the growth and acceptance of autonomous vehicle transportation,” said Patricia Mooradian, president and CEO, The Henry Ford. “The Navya Autonom® Shuttle used by Mcity, and the research processed by J.D. Power, is a very important part of helping us continue to grow our automotive collection and tell the future story of mobility.” The Mcity shuttle now in the hands of The Henry Ford operated from June 4, 2018-Dec. 13, 2019. It is one of two fully automated, all-electric 11-seat shuttles
manufactured by French firm Navya used for the research project. The shuttles carried riders along a fixed route on the University of Michigan’s North Campus in Ann Arbor, Michigan. In addition to lidar, which uses invisible laser beams to build a view of the surrounding environment, and GPS for localization, the two shuttles were equipped with onboard cameras and Wi-Fi communications to capture data generated during operation. A human conductor was aboard at all times to take over if something went wrong. The Mcity driverless shuttle launched as consumer trust in automated vehicles was declining in the wake of two fatal crashes in early 2018 involving partially automated vehicles in Arizona and California. “What makes this shuttle so significant is that it’s a story less about technology and more about psychology,” said Matt Anderson, curator of transportation, The Henry Ford. “Building a working autonomous vehicle is one thing, but getting people to accept it is something else. Mcity is a leader in studying this important side of the self-driving equation.”
An Mcity driverless d
shuttle (above) is now part of The Henry Ford’s collections. Used during a recent research project at the University of Michigan, the shuttle service helped gather data about consumer usage, reactions and acceptance of autonomous travel.
DID YOU KNOW? / In October 2021, May Mobility, a University of Michigan spinoff company, launched A2GO, an on-demand autonomous shuttle service in the city of Ann Arbor, Michigan.
WATCH A video of the Mcity driverless shuttle making its way around campus at the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor, Michiganc thf.org
PHOTO BY LEILA ASHTARI
The Food Connection
Stories from within the Latino community demonstrate what’s possible when we rethink the hows and whys of what we eat By Serena Maria Daniels Early on in the pandemic, as supermarket shelves grew barren as we collectively became frenzied by the thought of having to stay home 24/7, we saw how our foodways were beginning to shift. We became inundated with sourdough bread recipes, cooking videos on TikTok and neighbors planting kitchen gardens to ease fears about food insecurity. This moment certainly exploded the many shortcomings our foodways carry, whether it be the supply chain, gaps in the safety net or our reliance on a healthy economy to support healthy lifestyles. In the Latino community, we saw all of this as well, but for every sourdough influencer, there were Latinos learning the pre-Hispanic traditions of nixtamalization. For every TikTok influencer who went viral for eating vegan, we saw folks doing the work in vulnerable communities to change the very health outcomes that make people of color more susceptible to chronic illness and complications from COVID-19. For every backyard garden, we witnessed a growing number of projects that connected Indigenous farmworkers with the Latino diaspora to create a more equitable foodway and a means of combating cultural erasure.
THE FOOD CONNECTION
Rocky’s Road Brew Still very much a working-person’s kind of food town, Detroit remains famous for its Coney dogs (which are slathered in meat chili), greasy sliders and deep-dish square pizza. But that doesn’t mean that plant-based cuisine isn’t rising in popularity. PETA named the Motor City as one of the top vegan-friendly cities in the country in recent years. Restaurants like Detroit Vegan Soul and bakeries like Good Cakes and Bakes have made national headlines for their creative takes on plant-based foods and pastries and for introducing a plant-based — but no less delicious — menu in the African American community. But in the city’s predominantly Latino neighborhood of southwest Detroit, meat still reigns supreme. Taco trucks slinging the best in tacos al pastor, carnitas, carne asada and birria dot many of the area’s street corners. That, too, is starting to change as local businesses, many of them owned by millennial-age Latinos, are exploring ways to incorporate plant-based ingredients with their favorite traditional recipes. Rocky Coronado, owner of Rocky’s Road Brew, is one such entrepreneur looking to make a dent in this area. For them, it’s not just about creativity in the kitchen, it’s a means of combating many of the health care disparities that are so prevalent in Black and brown communities. Coronado’s desire to step into this area of expertise follows a yearslong battle with substance abuse. As they realized the need to change their relationship with drinking, nutrition also came to the forefront.
When the pandemic ravaged BIPOC (Black, Indigenous, People of Color) communities across the country, Coronado’s resolve to continue this work was only reinforced. “As COVID hit, I had more families come together to eat at the truck because they decided to go vegan,” said Coronado. Originally from Texas, Coronado moved to Detroit in 2017, bringing with them their Rocky’s Road Brew truck, which, when they were living in Austin, was used to sell coffee, cold brew, lattes and other coffee drinks. With the truck’s Detroit-born transformation to tacos, Coronado now uses jackfruit to make shredded “chicken” and marinates it in pineapple juice to replicate the tangy flavor sensation for tacos al pastor. The Baja-style “fish” tacos are made with battered and fried banana blossoms. Coronado punctuates their dishes with garlic, chipotle and pico de gallo salsa. They still specialize in coffee drinks, too, with their version of iced Vietnamese coffee, as well as booze-free mocktails like their cucumber mule (made with Seedlip nonalcoholic spirit) or their sangre de copil (with nonalcoholic tequila). During the slower winter months, they were able to use blue corn to hand-make tortillas and non-GMO masa for tamales (a popular item for Coronado during the holiday season). The many Mexican supermarkets in the neighborhood have plenty of nopales, chayote, Mexican squash and other Mexican vegetables. Eventually, Coronado would like to connect with wild rice growers to start using it more often for their menu.
DID YOU KNOW? / The idea of ethnobotany, the study of a region’s plants and their practical uses through the traditional knowledge of local culture and people, was first proposed by the early 20th-century botanist John William Harshberger. 48
You might catch Coronado popping up at the local vegan soft serve stand for Taco Tuesdays; posted on Saturdays near Eastern Market, Detroit’s historic outdoor farmers market; or working on renovating their building: a former bar that they’re planning to transform into a cafe, community gathering place and sober space (which, when it’s complete, will be arguably the first intentional sober space in the city). Coronado shops locally for ingredients, stays connected with urban farmers, reads about Indigenous traditions, draws from their own Mexican/Tejanx heritage and turns to the wisdom of elders for guidance. One mentor, Sara Murray, is an ethnobotanist who introduced them to local plants, foraging and making medicines, hydrosols and nonalcoholic spirits from foraged plants that can be found on her land three hours
away. When their brick-and-mortar space opens, Coronado hopes that Murray’s mentorship will play an even bigger role in their menu design. “She knows every plant from Chiapas to Walpole Island (a First Nation reserve in Ontario, Canada) to Alaska,” said Coronado. “It’s been amazing, and I can’t wait to learn directly or at least meet her elders in Alaska.” Coronado wants to do more to incorporate Indigenous ingredients into their menu, but during the pandemic, it’s been a hard challenge to meet. For now, “I think I do a good job of watching my food waste, praying with gratitude to ancestors and Creator, and connecting with local farmers as well as elders. Most of my buddies are elders. I listen a lot to them. I’d really like to incorporate what I learn from them more, but it’s been a hustle on the truck this past year,” said Coronado.
ONLINE Find out where Rocky’s Road Brew taco truck will pop up next in Detroit on Instagramc
WE GATHER TOGETHER
A NEW RELATIONSHIP Taco truck owner Rocky Coronado (left) is using a passion for food to address health disparities in their community, offering tasty vegan options — like a fried avocado taco with hot chili garlic sauce (above) — in place of typically meat-centric dishes. TOP PHOTO COURTESY OF ROCKY’S ROAD BREW; BOTTOM PHOTO BY DANIEL BUDZINSKI
Taco truck owner Rocky Coronado’s respect and growing relationship with ethnobotanist Sara Murray is indicative of a larger, blossoming societal fascination with the longpracticed art of gathering food via foraging. Look online and you’ll find a burgeoning ecosystem of individuals who are proactively connecting themselves more intimately to what’s out there in terms of their health, wellness, planet and people through foraging — the act of wandering about the land around you in search of wild food resources.
DR. FUSHCIA HOOVER Hoover teaches at the University of North Carolina-Charlotte in the Department of Geography and Earth Sciences. She wrote a Black girl’s guide to foraging, which was published in Atmos, a biannual magazine that addresses issues related to climate and culture. Read it here: atmos.earth/black -girls-foraging-guide
MARY BULFIN Bulfin is a professional forager who hosts a variety of foraging skillbuilding events from her home in Ireland at the foot of the Slieve Bloom mountains. She organizes activities such as foraged lunches and workshops where you can learn how to identify edible plants and prepare them. wildfoodmary.com/ about
ALEXIS NIKOLE NELSON Nelson is an American forager and wildly popular social media personality known for her videos based on her experiences and advice given on foraging. Find her on Instagram and TikTok.
THE FOOD CONNECTION
Neighborhood Molino While at the University of Texas at Austin, anthropology major Andrés Garza worked in restaurant kitchens and did a study abroad program in Guatemala, where they first started to become really aware of the history of corn in the Americas. “Little did I know the rabbit hole it was going to take me on,” said Garza. “It was really impactful just because it was the first time that I felt that there was this long history that I was really not aware of and that was never taught to me. I was in the birthplace of where maize was domesticated.” When stay-home orders spread across the country in 2020, Garza was out of work, unable to collect unemployment and suddenly found themselves with a lot of time on their hands. The perfect time to dive deep into cooking. But instead of poring over the finer details of perfecting their mother dough for breadmaking, as many other Americans were doing, Garza turned to their experience in Guatemala to educate themselves about a precolonized tradition — nixtamalization — to learn how to make the perfect tortilla (see sidebar on Page 53). Mexico is the birthplace of corn, or maize, and nixtamal is the millenias-old process discovered when pre-Hispanic populations began grinding maize to make the masa (dough) needed for tortillas. The corn must be soaked with cal (calcium hydroxide, or pickling lime), an alkalizing process that has been found to release more nutrients. The process, though, is laborintensive and began to fall out of favor with the introduction of industrialized corn flour (and the rise of corn being imported from the
United States to Mexico), resulting in the erosion of the heirloom varieties of maize. Fundamentally, this globalized market change transformed the tortilla from a flavorful, earthy, nutrient-rich staple to a nearflavorless homogenized disc. In recent years, there’s been a surge of interest in reviving nixtamalization, especially among Mexican American chefs looking for ways to not only connect with their heritage but to support the Indigenous communities in Mexico that continue to grow heirloom varieties of corn. Garza, who was born in northern Mexico and grew up in a singlemother household in the border region of the Rio Grande Valley, says they, too, had become enamored with this idea. The problem, as they saw it, was that this practice was becoming popular at high-end restaurants. How could they introduce this legacy to folks who grew up like them, with not necessarily a lot of money in a region that straddles two cultures and, like them, might not have felt connected to their Indigenous histories? Garza started by spending months doing research, lots of reading, reaching out to others who had learned the process and lots of trial and error. Once they got the formula correct, they started making masa and tortillas out of their partner’s family’s bakery in McAllen, Texas, and selling at prices affordable to people in the community under the name Neighborhood Molino. Soon, their work began to capture attention, and soon, they began creating a brunch series at the bakery.
ONLINE Learn about Neighborhood Molino, Andrés Garza and their passion for providing culturally appropriate, nutritious foods and making them more accessible at neighborhoodmolino.comc 50
MOMENTS WITH MAIZE Andrés Garza (top) uses a molino, or small stone mill, to grind maize and make masa needed to create dishes such as tetelas de rajas y queso, an Indigenous equivalent to a quesadilla filled with poblanos and cheese (above). TOP AND RIGHT PHOTOS BY CHARLIE VELA; ABOVE PHOTO COURTESY OF NEIGHBORHOOD MOLINO
HEIRLOOM CORN VARIETIES There are lots of options. A few of the more popular: HOPI BLUE This flint corn makes antioxidant-rich cornmeal when dried and ground BLOODY BUTCHER A dent corn developed commercially in Virginia around 1845 STOWELL’S EVERGREEN A white sweet corn developed by Nathaniel Stowell and released in about 1848 GOLDEN BANTAM A traditional old sweet corn
THE FOOD CONNECTION
Neighborhood Molino tortillas are made from maize that is directly d
traceable to the farmer, and the backstories of each heirloom variety harvested are often shared with the customers consuming them.
PHOTO BY CHARLIE VELA
PHOTO BY LEILA ASHTARI
Nixtamalized Corn As a general rule in practice, here’s how to nixtamalize corn:
MOLINO STONES Lava-stone blades of a molino, or mill, grind nixtamalized corn into masa for making tortillas or tamales. PHOTO BY NOAH FORBES, COURTESY OF MASIENDA
Nixtamalization is an age-old practice, one Indigenous people shared with early settlers. They would take heirloom corn, soak it in wood ash water (today we use pickling lime), rinse it, then possibly grind it into a mash before turning it into a dough. All that hard work isn’t only about the taste the process produces. Nixtamalization actually improves the nutritional profile of the grain, making niacin available, improving protein content, increasing its digestibility and reducing mycotoxins. This historic method — with rather loose instruction — is gaining a new awareness for how it can improve the quality of a raw ingredient along with unlocking nutrients for better health.
2 pounds clean, dried heirloom corn kernels (about 1 quart) 1/4 cup pickling lime (food-grade calcium hydroxide) 3 quarts water Dissolve the lime in water in a large pot, add corn and bring to a boil. Simmer about 15-30 minutes uncovered. When corn is done (skins will easily slip away from the rest of the kernel), turn off burner, cover pot and allow to soak for 8-24 hours. Pour corn through a colander and rinse with cold water 3-5 times or until water runs clear. When rinsing, rub kernels together with hands to remove hulls. Use the whole, moist kernels in soups or stews. Grind them to make masa, which you can use to make tamales or tortillas.
WATCH The short documentary Neighborhood Molino and see Andrés Garza grind maize in their molino, a small stone mill that uses volcanic stones to grind whole grains into masac
THE FOOD CONNECTION
Tamoa For heirloom corn, Neighborhood Molino’s Andrés Garza has turned to Francisco Musi and Sofia Casarin of Mexico City, who have also embarked on their own culinary journey by launching Tamoa. Tamoa works directly with families and communities that practice mutual care — meaning those who steward their unique seeds through changing times and climates and in turn are cared for by their crops. “Tamoa was not the plan. There was no plan. Only the impulse of curiosity. We were living in Mexico City, we cared about food, but we realized how disconnected we were from the rural ways and the culinary traditions of the pueblos,” shared Musi. “We began taking road trips all across the country, knocking on doors, asking farmers what they were growing, where their seeds came from, how long had they cared for them. We went to festivals de maiz, met activists and academics, studied anthropology; we built up a language and a map. All this simply to know, to feed our minds and stomachs. And then chance happened, that moment when curiosity meets circumstance.” Out of their travels, Tamoa became the expression of the duo’s inquiry.
Tamoa currently sources crops from seven states in Mexico. To connect with these rural communities, the pair works with academics, NGOs, activists, cooperatives and other organizers. There is no formula; each relationship is unique. The farmers already grow the crops for their own family purposes. Whatever they have in surplus, Tamoa buys for a price that actually helps to support their households. The couple use their expertise to then distribute these provisions from the pueblos to buyers across the globe. “Too often farmers are paid so little that there is no financial incentive for them to continue to farm,” said Musi. “So they migrate to cities or take other jobs, abandoning their agricultural lands and traditions. So a fair price is fundamental, one that allows communities to support themselves and continue.” In the current system, farmers are seen only as the anonymous producers of a commodity, but with this growing movement, they can be agents of change given the outlet, said Musi. “Family by family, town by town, we are co-building a new food system that respects the well-being of each element and celebrates the traditions and rituals of these powerful preservationists,” said Musi.
STEWARDS OF THE GRAIN Sofia Casarin and Francisco Musi (top) went on a journey of discovery, looking to reconnect to the culinary traditions of the pueblos. That vision quest culminated in Tamoa, which sources crops from local producers in Mexico, such as heirloom corn farmer Juan (right), and distributes their goods across the globe. PHOTOS BY LEILA ASHTARI
ONLINE Tamoa offers a video library and bilingual posts on Facebook, sharing snippets about its work connecting native corn farmers from Mexico with restaurants there and abroadc
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APOLLO WHEN WE WENT TO THE MOON
HENRY FORD MUSEUM OF AMERICAN INNOVATION®
FEBRUARY 19-MAY 8, 2022 FREE FOR MEMBERS OR WITH MUSEUM ADMISSION THF.ORG/APOLLO SUPPORTED BY
A touring exhibition co-produced by U.S. Space & Rocket Center and Flying Fish
Prepare to be astounded by our attractions and resources
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INSIDE THE HENRY FORD Flip through the following pages to find out what’s happening inside this mind-blowing cultural institution and how to make the most of your annual membership.
Henry Ford Museum of American Innovation Greenfield Village Ford Rouge Factory Tour Acquisitions + Collections Membership Spotlight 2022 Events
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INSIDE THE HENRY FORD
HENRY FORD MUSEUM OF AMERICAN INNOVATION
TAKE A DIGITAL DIVE
Intersection of Innovation is an experience that uses multimedia and AI elements to unlock the secrets, stories and similarities of artifacts, innovators and more WHILE THE SILVER-AND-BLUE 1939 Douglas DC-3 is a focal point of the Henry Ford Museum of American Innovation experience, it’s what’s going on underneath this airplane suspended above the museum floor that deserves visitors’ equal attention. That’s where you’ll find the Intersection of Innovation, a multimedia space that allows you to explore the connections among the past, present and future. Approach the DC-3 and look to your left or right, and you can’t miss the Intersection of Innovation’s large-format projection digital connection walls, which immerse you in the story of what The Henry Ford collects and why. “These walls help guests understand our collections on a macro level, giving them the general big ideas around how things are connected and what they can see in the museum,” said Matt Elliott, head of creative and digital experience at The Henry Ford. “Through these walls, you learn why you see Lamy’s Diner, an exploded Model T and a DC-3 airplane in the same space.” Next up are the larger-than-life habits and actions walls, which share the stories of several iconic innovators, from Rosa Parks to Frederick Douglass, among others. Then you can move along to the past forward wall at the rear, which lets you
ONLINE For more information, hours and pricing for Henry Ford Museum of American Innovation, visit thf.org/museumc
explore how items from previous decades and centuries connect to the present. Anchoring everything together is the 12-foot-long artificial intelligence-enhanced touchscreen connections table at the back of the space, which welcomes you and up to nine other guests to simultaneously explore infinite connections between artifacts in The Henry Ford Archive of American Innovation (see sidebar at right). “The table looks at the connectedness of our collections and what goes on in a curator’s brain as they collect,” said Elliott. “You can see things through the lens of a curator at a more micro level with a fun element of AI.” Elliott adds that the table’s software has the ability to make its own connections between objects in The Henry Ford Archive of American Innovation, building a whole new digital world of similarities between the thousands of artifacts stored and those being added. “Everything in the Intersection of Innovation is CMS-driven and can be refreshed quickly,” said Elliott, referring to content management system software. “It’s a living, breathing digital ecosystem that is constantly growing, changing and telling new stories.” — JENNIFER LAFORCE
DID YOU KNOW? / The Intersection of Innovation marks the first public use of The Henry Ford’s unique Model i learning framework on the museum floor. Learn more about Model i and other learning resources from The Henry Ford at thf.org/education.
COLLECTIONS CONNECTIONS Intersection of Innovation’s connections table reveals links between nearly 32,000 (and growing) digitized artifacts from our collections. If you’ve ever wondered why the same museum that displays the Quadricycle also contains the Rosa Parks Bus, an Eames lounge chair and a packet of Kool-Aid, this table is for you. The table reveals connections in two ways. First, artificial intelligence (AI) analyzes artifact images and creates threads between them according to their color and shape — no human intervention required. The advantage of AI is that computers can process information more quickly than any human brain. Second, you’ll find unexpected connections between artifacts created by our curators. For example, we use the concept of weaving to connect an oriole’s nest, a machine used to strand transatlantic cable and a childhood artwork by Edsel Ford in which he wove a bear out of brown yarn. These more subtle and subjective connections could only be created by human brains. In the end, both humans and computers bring something to this table (literally). AI can help our visitors and staff see our collections in new ways — but humans also provide a unique sensibility that computers cannot, at least not today. — ELLICE ENGDAHL, MANAGER, DIGITAL COLLECTIONS AND CONTENT
c The Intersection of Innovation’s
habits wall allows guests to explore elements of The Henry Ford’s Model i learning framework, which documents the habits and actions of iconic innovators from Rosa Parks and George Washington Carver to Alice Paul and Frederick Douglass, among others.
PHOTOS BY MARVIN SHAOUNI
INSIDE THE HENRY FORD
When doing what’s possible becomes urgently meaningful YOU COULD SAY The Henry Ford has been a green institution from the start. Industrialist Henry Ford minimized waste to maximize profit, and he applied the same principle to the work undertaken at the Edison Institute, now The Henry Ford. The magnitude of Ford’s preservation effort ensured the survival of objects and stories that inspire us to shape a better future for our planet as well as ourselves. You could also say Ford himself contributed more than most industrialists to the Anthropocene. The automotive industry has added to atmospheric instability and global warming. At the same time, agricultural practices have become increasingly dependent on fossil fuels and synthetic chemicals, threatening the sustainability of our food supply. Combine these with extractive industries removing iron and other organic as well as inorganic materials from the earth for use in manufacturing, and The Henry Ford’s collections offer unparalleled opportunities to discuss the history of changing environments and human choices at the heart of those changes. In May 2021, The Henry Ford President and CEO Patricia Mooradian chartered a Green Team to embrace transformative change centered on green museum practices and to position The Henry Ford as a leader in this movement (see sidebar at right).
ONLINE For more information, hours and pricing for Greenfield Village, visit thf.org/villagec
Initially, the team leaped forward with three interrelated tasks: benchmarking, recycling and composting. A benchmarking subcommittee gathered data on institutional energy use, water management and waste streams to set measurable goals for the campus. Another subcommittee implemented composting on a programmatic level at Firestone Farm in Greenfield Village, with future planning for possible on-site composting for manure and commercial composting of other organic and compostable materials. For visitors, however, one of the most visible and compelling examples of green practices on campus is the reconstruction of the vegetable building from the Detroit Central Market in Greenfield Village. This structure exists because it was reused for various purposes by the City of Detroit between 1861 and 2003. And The Henry Ford will reuse it when it opens this year as the hub of its Edible Education initiative, which will stress lessons in regenerative agriculture. The Detroit Central Market building symbolizes the Green Team’s effort to tie best practices within The Henry Ford to larger stories about the complexity of environmental responsibility and our shared journey toward a greener future. — DEBRA A. REID, CURATOR OF AGRICULTURE AND THE ENVIRONMENT
Interpreting the Environment at Museums and Historic Sites, co-authored by The Henry Ford’s Debra A. Reid, curator of agriculture and the environment, and David D. Vailc
GREEN MUSEUM MOVEMENT The concept of “green museums” coalesced during the early 2000s as museum professionals began pursuing environmental sustainability. This involved, specifically, reducing energy consumption and waste, managing water resources, reusing materials, and recycling paper, plastics, metals and glass to stop environmental degradation. The green museum movement also calls for moving beyond these essential activities to additional proactive measures that regenerate the environment. Museums are encouraged to take these messages beyond the walls of the institution through community engagement and regional, national and international partnerships in an effort to establish new standards and implement new practices. To learn more about the green museum movement, read The Green Museum: A Primer on Environmental Practice by Sarah S. Brophy and Elizabeth Wylie.
DID YOU KNOW? / The Henry Ford Green Team is working on Ki Futures, a pilot project of the global organization Ki Culture that will help establish sustainable models for use by cultural institutions across the globe. kiculture.org
d Expert traditional timber framers
Rudy Christian (right) and Laura Saeger of Christian & Son are ensuring the reuse of 50% of the original cast-iron columns and 75%-80% of the original timberframe roofing of the Detroit Central Market vegetable building. Their innovative framing system will help guarantee the structure serves in perpetuity.
PHOTO BY DEBRA A. REID thf.org
INSIDE THE HENRY FORD
FORD ROUGE FACTORY TOUR
SPARKING NEW EXPERIENCES Progress in Ford’s electrification plans spills over to factory tour LAST SPRING, FORD MOTOR COMPANY unveiled the Ford F-150 Lightning, its first-ever all-electric, battery-powered light-duty truck. That vehicle is scheduled to start production soon — in spring 2022 — at the all-new Rouge Electric Vehicle Center on the Ford Rouge Complex — in easy view, in fact, of the Dearborn Truck Plant, the manufacturing base of the gas-powered and hybrid F-150 models and the home of The Henry Ford’s Ford Rouge Factory Tour experience. With the new electric vehicle center built and the Lightning set to debut, the tour is also on track to receive a few related updates that are sure to excite visitors, shared Cynthia Jones, The Henry Ford’s director of museum experiences and engagement. In the works: the addition of a “sled,” or rolling chassis (the chassis of a vehicle assembled together with the engine and drivetrain but without bodywork), of the Lightning to the tour experience. “We want our guests to be able to see the battery technology close up, with no barriers, so we can teach them about this new innovation,” said Jones.
ONLINE For the most up-to-date information, hours and pricing for the Ford Rouge Factory Tour, visit thf.org/rougec
Another future item: The installation of a mock home living room that is completely powered by a battery-electric F-150. “We want to demonstrate the ‘what’s possible’ when a storm hits and how your truck could actually help you power your home,” explained Jones. “It really takes us beyond vehicles just for mobility. I love this latest thinking on the battery-electric vehicle as a power plant that can help you in an emergency, on a job site or when doing things like camping.” The Ford Rouge Factory Tour crew is always excited to share the ever-evolving narrative of the F-150 with guests, reminding everyone that much of the soon-to-debut Lightning’s functionality is also possible with the 2021 F-150 PowerBoost Hybrid that is now being built at the tour’s home base, the Dearborn Truck Plant. “Ford continually looks at how customers use their trucks for work and play,” said Jones. “While the hybrid might not offer 3-10 days of power for your house, it’s a workhorse powering tools right from the back bed — and it gives you up to a 700-mile range per fill-up. I’d love to road-trip in one of these.”
FORD E-NEWS The coming-soon Ford F-150 Lightning being built on the Ford Rouge Complex is just one of Ford Motor Company’s iconic products being electrified. The Ford Mustang and Transit are also on the electrification list, with others to come from the automaker in the near future. The all-electric Mustang Mach-E has already been on the road for some time. It won the 2021 North American SUV of the Year Award, plus Car and Driver’s first Electric Vehicle of the Year Award, among others. Meanwhile, the E-Transit — an all-electric version of America’s best-selling van — just hit the streets in late 2021. Ford is investing $22 billion in electrification through 2025, delivering more of what customers love about electric vehicles: performance, capability and productivity.
— JENNIFER LAFORCE
DID YOU KNOW? / When the all-electric Ford F-150 Lightning was unveiled on May 19, 2021, it received 20,000 reservations within the first 12 hours. By early November 2021, preorders topped 160,000.
b The Ford Rouge Factory Tour
continues to expand its storytelling around the Ford F-150, including the innovative battery technology (bottom) and power plant capabilities of the soon-to-debut allelectric Lightning model.
PHOTOS COURTESY OF
FORD MOTOR COMPANY
INSIDE THE HENRY FORD
ACQUISITIONS + COLLECTIONS
ART IS ESSENTIAL
The Henry Ford adds works of groundbreaking multimedia artist Lillian Schwartz to its collections CALIFORNIA IN THE LATE 1960S was a heady place in computing history. Massively influential technologies that are now part of our everyday lives were being invented or improved upon: home computers, the graphical user interface, the computer mouse and Arpanet. Meanwhile, on the opposite side of the country, in New Jersey, artist Lillian Schwartz was about to walk through the doors of the revered technology incubator Bell Telephone Laboratories. Schwartz had recently met Bell Labs perceptual researcher Leon Harmon at the opening for the Museum of Modern Art’s group exhibition The Machine at the End of the Mechanical Age. Harmon and Schwartz each had works in the exhibit, and the pair struck up a conversation that led to an invitation for her to visit the labs. This meeting led to Schwartz’s decadeslong tenure as a “resident visitor” at Bell Labs, where she was exposed to powerful equipment like the IBM 7090 mainframe computer and Stromberg Carlson SC-4020 microfilm plotter. Allowing artists access to this research and development facility upended conventions, creating an environment that was fruitful for cross-disciplinary collaboration among the sciences, humanities and arts. From 1968 until the early 2000s, Schwartz paid regular visits to the labs, where she developed groundbreaking computer films and videos and an impressive array of multimedia artworks.
Schwartz’s early films are frenetic and colorful abstractions that make visual reference to data saturation in the Information Age. They toy with perception, collapsing the walls between screen and viewer, data and aesthetics. The stroboscopic effects of her film UFOs, for example, cause optical illusions and afterimages that aren’t present on the physical film reels. Watching these films, it can feel a little like stumbling upon some hidden Rosetta Stone to the Digital Age — as if one is glimpsing predictors of the future, produced in a time before they should logically exist. Schwartz was undeniably at the forefront, present at the birth of digital art. Today, art and media historians celebrate her as a pioneer who found innovative use for new digital tools, producing revolutionary and genre-defying works of art. In early 2021, The Henry Ford secured a very exciting donation: the Lillian F. Schwartz Collection. This material — which came to us through the generosity of the Schwartz family — spans from early childhood to late career and includes thousands of objects: films and videos, 2D artwork and sculptures, personal papers, computer hardware and film editing equipment. We are thrilled to give Lillian’s collection a permanent home and act as stewards of her legacy.
WHAT IS DIGITAL ART? In the late 1960s and 1970s, artists who previously focused on traditional studio media such as painting or sculpture began to dabble in born-digital art. The platforms used by artists have evolved over time, responding to the rule-based paradigms of new technologies: codebased work, computer films, animation and music, generative and algorithmic art, expressive software, immersive installations, internet art, virtual and augmented reality, the creative use of artificial intelligence and more.
— KRISTEN GALLERNEAUX, CURATOR OF COMMUNICATIONS AND INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY
ONLINE Learn more about Lillian Schwartz, view her works and watch related videos in our Digital Collectionsc
DODO.LOST.ALICE BY LILLIAN F. SCHWARTZ, 1984. FROM THE HENRY FORD ARCHIVE OF AMERICAN INNOVATION
b Lillian Schwartz (shown here circa
1975 at Bell Telephone Laboratories) is a pioneer of computer-generated art. As an early adopter, she created experimental works such as films Mutations (below right) and Enigma 5 (below bottom) as well as etched graphic Homage to Duchamp at a time when artists had to defend such art as a viable medium.
PHOTOS FROM THE HENRY FORD ARCHIVE OF AMERICAN INNOVATION; MUTATIONS PHOTO COURTESY OF LILLIAN SCHWARTZ
INSIDE THE HENRY FORD
NAMES: Kristine & David Turnwald + Katie & Josh Jensen
NUMBER OF YEARS AS MEMBERS:
Anything happening in Greenfield Village, from train rides, the carousel and custard to Holiday Nights, Historic Base Ball and Hallowe’en.
FAVORITE MEMBER PERK:
The Turnwalds and daughter Katie love the flexibilty of their Family Flex membership, which allows them to mix and match entry into The Henry Ford. Kristine and David can take their five grandchildren, or Katie and her husband, Josh Jensen, can bring the kids using the same card. “We like to take advantage of the extras,” said Kristine, who was a huge fan of last year’s members-only days and Twilight Bike Ride in Greenfield Village.
WHAT’S YOUR SPARK?
Members Kristine and David Turnwald feel fortunate to have The Henry Ford in their backyard
IT’S NOT UNUSUAL FOR Kristine to find herself in Greenfield Village three or four times a week, whether its with her husband, her daughter or some combination of her five grandchildren. Lovers of Firestone Farm, Kristine and family have seen a calf being born and baby sheep just days old. They know all the horses’ names, have taken a spin on most of the animals on the carousel and have listened with care to every story told by the narrators on the Weiser Railroad steam locomotives. “We learn something new on the train every single time,” she said. An educator herself, Kristine understands the value of having a learn-by-doing destination such as The Henry Ford in such close proximity and eagerly shares it with others at every opportunity. “Whenever we have guests or family in town, we go to The Henry Ford. We feel so fortunate.”
WHAT’S YOUR SPARK? Let us know what inspires you on your next visit and what takes you forward from your membership. Email us at email@example.com. 70
FROM LEFT: DAVID TURNWALD, AVA AND NOLA JENSEN, KRISTINE TURNWALD. PHOTO COURTESY OF KRISTINE TURNWALD
Take It Forward as a Member Enjoy benefits like free admission and parking, discounts on events and tours, exclusive member previews and more. ONLINE thf.org/ membershipc
EXPLORE MORE WITH OUR FREE APP Download THF Connect to transform your visit to Henry Ford Museum of American Innovation with curator-led audio tours, augmented reality experiences, an interactive map and more. Unlock stories that cross exhibits. Find your way to your favorite objects. Explore our collections and even create your own virtual innovation. thf.org/ConnectApp
ESPECIALLY FOR MEMBERS: Download the app to access your digital membership card — the best way to activate your membership benefits from any place at any time.
INSIDE THE HENRY FORD
Other Premier Exhibitions + Events HENRY FORD MUSEUM OF AMERICAN INNOVATION
Heroes and Villians: The Art of the Disney Costume Member Preview: June 24 Open: June 25-Jan. 1
FREE FOR MEMBERS
HENRY FORD MUSEUM OF AMERICAN INNOVATION
Apollo: When We Went to the Moon Member Preview: Feb. 18 Open: Feb. 19-May 8 For more than 50 years, the Apollo 11 spaceflight has been a symbol of our desire to do something no one has ever done before. Make your way to Henry Ford Museum of American Innovation this winter and spring for Apollo: When We Went to the Moon, and get a stellar behind-the-scenes look at humanity’s first steps on the moon and the nation’s realization of a “dream big” moment. From astronomical engineering advancements to the hottest moments of the Cold War, over 100 objects and artifacts from the U.S. Space & Rocket Center give visitors an insider’s view of the cultural, technological and political context of the historic moon landing. See detailed scale models of the lunar rover and Sputnik, plus authentic space suits, including the iconic Apollo bubble helmet. Take small steps on the moon’s surface, and do the countdown at the command module. And experience a Soviet training simulator that blasts you into the center of space exploration.
Using more than 70 original pieces, including sorcerers’ capes, military uniforms, tiaras and glass slippers, this exhibition explores the vision, process and craft used to create the costumes of some of Disney’s favorite heroes and love-to-hate villians. A captivating look at how iconic Disney characters are shaped through the artistry of what they wear.
THF Conversations Featuring leaders in their fields and curators in their element, these virtual sessions via Zoom discuss topics and challenges facing us today as well as artifacts and collections with relevance past, present and future. Watch previous THF Conversations at thf.org/thf-conversations-archive. ONLINE For more information on upcoming THF Conversations and how to register to attend, visit thf.org/thf-conversationsc
ONLINE To learn more, visit thf.org/current-eventsc
Space suits (left) and intricate spacecraft scale models (above) are part of the a
artifact collection that makes the Apollo: When We Went to the Moon exhibition.
POLLO: WHEN WE WENT TO THE MOON IS A TOURING EXHIBITION A CO-PRODUCED BY U.S. SPACE & ROCKET CENTER AND FLYING FISH.
All programs and dates are subject to change. For the latest updates and more information on special events and programs, call 313.982.6001 or visit thf.org. thf.org
FORD MOTOR COMPANY FUND
Driving a Brighter Future As the philanthropic arm of Ford Motor Company, Ford Fund's mission is to strengthen communities and help make people's lives better. Working with dealers and nonprofit partners in more than 60 countries, Ford Fund provides access to opportunities and resources that help people reach their full potential. Since 1949, Ford Fund has invested more than $2 billion in programs that support education, promote safe driving, enrich community life and encourage employee volunteering.
Ford Motor Company Fund is proud to partner with the Henry Ford Museum of American Innovation to bring learning and inspiration to life.
www.FordFund.org #fordgivesback @fordfund_
How to make your travel plans to The Henry Ford quick and easy
PLAN YOUR VISIT At The Henry Ford, you’ll discover America — its culture, inventions, people and can-do spirit — and hundreds of ways to explore it, enjoy it and be inspired by it. Maximize your visit — whether it’s for three hours, three days or a full year — and see for yourself why The New York Times called The Henry Ford one of the world’s coolest museums.
PLAN YOUR VISIT Hotel Partners
OVERNIGHT VACATION PACKAGES The Henry Ford offers overnight packages through several lodging partners that meet a variety of needs, including full service, limited service and campground. When you book with one of The Henry Ford’s official lodging partners, be sure to ask about available double and family vacation packages, which include attraction tickets and overnight accommodations. Don’t wait; book your date at America’s Greatest History Destination today at thf.org/vacations. Double Package
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THE DEARBORN INN, A MARRIOTT HOTEL 20301 Oakwood Boulevard Dearborn, MI 48124 877.757.7103 dearborninnmarriott.com Location: Dearborn Drive time*: 3 Sleeping rooms: 229 Pool: Outdoor Pets: No Meeting rooms: 17 Meeting space (sq. ft): 17,000
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Photo by Stackwood Studios
What if your next big event could inspire the next big idea? Imagine an event that could truly change people’s perspectives. One that could open minds and widen eyes as guests stand in awe of the power of unlimited inspiration. Make your event stand out in a place awards galas to product launches, we’ll make sure your vision is fully realized and your event is completely inspired. Book your next big event at: • • • •
Henry Ford Museum of American Innovation® Greenfield Village® Lovett Hall Ford Rouge Factory Tour
Take it forward.®
where innovation sets the stage for unforgettable experiences. From
See why The Henry Ford is the most awarded venue in Michigan. thf.org/privateevents
R E V I V E TH E PLE A SU R E O F TR AV EL .
The Dearborn Inn puts you at a distinct advantage of being just three blocks from The Henry Ford. Built in 1931, this 23-acre colonial retreat offers a setting reminiscent of a classic American inn, with a AAA four-diamond rating and the level of service and amenities you expect from Marriott. For reservations and group bookings, call 313-271-2700 or visit DearbornInnMarriott.com THE DEARBORN INN, A MARRIOTT HOTEL 20301 OAKWOOD BOULEVARD DEARBORN, MICHIGAN 48124
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A LOOK BACK HABITABILITY STUDY: EARTH ORBITAL SPACE STATION REPORTS In 1967, late in his storied career, industrial designer Raymond Loewy and a small team were contracted as NASA “space habitability” experts, producing a series of reports that focused on long-duration missions and the problem of how to exist as a “whole human” in outer space. These reports acknowledged the restrictive parameters of spacecraft interiors yet stressed the ability for human-centered design to boost crew morale. They considered sleeping arrangements, modular storage, communal dining, mental decompression spaces and entertainment in zero gravity — including a “one man theatre” helmet and a weighted “space dart” game. Loewy’s plans underscored the most “human” of all space travel design problems: the intake of food and disposal of body waste. The images at right may look quaint to us now, but it is important to note that at the time that Loewy was considering how an astronaut might eat tomato soup in space, plastic squeeze-tube packaging was still considered experimental. As for the inevitable issue of waste collection, Loewy provided several ergonomic space toilet designs, underlining bathroom privacy for crew members. While not all of Loewy’s ideas were adopted, several suggestions were implemented in the Skylab space station, including the biggest astronaut perk of all — a window to gaze at the stars while floating in space. —K RISTEN GALLERNEAUX, CURATOR OF COMMUNICATIONS AND INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY
d In the late ’60s, NASA asked designer Raymond
Loewy to ponder spacecraft interiors and how humans could live in outer space. Innovative ideas for items such as space toilets (top) and food packaging were outlined in his habitability study.
THE HENRY FORD ARCHIVE OF AMERICAN INNOVATION
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