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Vindicator Cleveland State University’s Arts and Culture Magazine

Complimentary SPRING 2018

Oh! What a Time to Teach REFLECTIONS OF CLIMATE IN THE CLASSROOM


SPR 2 Want More? 3 Staff 5 Letter from the Editor 6 Calendar ARTS 7 Filmmaking for Free 9 Mental Health in Teen Novels 11 Photo Series After Hours CULTURE 15 D  iagnosing the Epidemic in American Schools 17 A Movie and a Movement: Black Panther FEATURE 19 Earth Day: Saving Our Planet 21 Restoring a Piece of Cleveland 25 What a Time to Teach BEAUTY + WELLNESS 33 Stress Less with Yoga 35 Slow Fashion, Fast Change 37 Self Care in Men SOCIAL 39 Our Plastic World 41 Beyond the Filter 43 Download & De–stress POETRY 45 In the Morning 46 Resident

29 Getting to Know the professors of Cleveland State


WANT TO SEE MORE? #VindiAsks What is your favorite thing to do during the summer?

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Thank you to our Multimedia Manager, Evan, for a great 4 years! “I’m so thankful for the opportunities I’ve had over the past 4 years at the Vindicator. I am most thankful for all the amazing people I’ve gotten to meet and photograph. It’s been really important for me to get to know people who come from different life experiences than my own. I hope to continue my to highlight social justice issues with my photography for the rest of my life and I have the Vindicator to thank for that.” SPRING 2018 | VINDICATOR 2


Faculty Advisor Julie Burrell

T

e heTam Web Specialist Daniel Lenhart

STAFF HEADS

Arbela Capas

Holly Bland

Andriana Akrap

Loren Shumaker

Michella Dilworth

Editor-in-Chief

Managing Editor

Art Director

Asst. Art Director

Online Content Editor

Evan Prunty

Alexis Rosen

Multimedia Manager

Features Editor

Brenda Castañeda Yupanqui Culture Editor

Alana Whelan

Imani Stephens

Arts Editor

Beauty Editor

Dorothy Zhao Junior Editor

CONTRIBUTING WRITERS

JUNIOR DESIGNERS

Greg Elek

Brenda Castañeda Yupanqui

Nahomy Garcia–Ortiz

Arbela Capas

Michella Dilworth Alexia Carcelli

Holly Bland

Chau Tang

CONTRIBUTING ARTISTS

Renee Betterson

Imani Stephens

Elizabeth Elliott

Dorothy Zhao

Alana Whelan

Taylor Hannah

Grace Roberson

Austin DiLorenzo Anna Oprisch

Austin Cupach

CONTRIBUTING POETS Joy Yayoi McKinney

Alexis Rosen

Jacob Irey

Disclaimer The content of the Vindicator does not necessarily represent the opinions of Cleveland State University, its students, faculty, or staff: nor does it represent the members of the Vindicator staff or our advisors unless otherwise stated. The editor reserves the right to comment on any issue that affects the student body in general as well as the multicultural community at large. Letters to the editors and other submissions are accepted, however they must have the authors name, address, major if applicable, and telephone number. All submissions become property of the Vindicator and the Vindicator reserves the right to edit submissions as deemed necessary. 2121 Euclid Ave, MC 471, Cleveland, OH 44115 216 687 2118 3 VINDICATOR | SPRING 2018


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EDITOR’S LETTER

EVERYTHING IS FINE

T

he experience of working at the

improve with each issue is rewarding and

Vindicator has been much more

something we may not have experienced

than just an extracurricular or

otherwise.

something to add to a resume or

This isn’t only the last issue for

cover letter. The ability to work with such

us, either. The Vindicator is also saying

amazing people, such talented writers,

goodbye to our wonderful and talented

designers, artists and editors, has really

Multimedia Manager, Evan Prunty,

opened our eyes to the type of people

who has worked tirelessly for 4 years

we want to surround ourselves in the

to produce amazing images and video

years to come after we leave Cleveland

content that brought our publication

State. The Vindicator taught us strength

to the next level. We’d also like to say

and patience, flexibility and creativity.

a special goodbye to Alexis Rosen, who

It has also taught us the value of being

earnestly took the job as Features Editor

vulnerable, critical and personal with our

two semesters ago and has helped with

work — and that sometimes pushing the

contributing meaningful stories and

envelope is warranted.

helping make our little magazine more of

Being a part of this magazine has created a support system we never

a community. Through the late night deadlines

dreamed of having. Not only have we

and the hours of editing, we’ve learned

had the ability to experience storytelling

so much through working on a magazine

on behalf of other people but digging

as special as this one. We will hold this

deeper and challenging ourselves to find

experience close to us as we enter the next

our own voice and place with writing.

stage in our lives. Everything is fine.

ARBELA CAPAS & HOLLY BLAND 5 VINDICATOR | SPRING 2018

PHOTO CREDIT: EVAN PRUNTY

Seeing ourselves and others evolve and


w h a t’s h a p p e n i n g i n

S P R I N G 4.14 Workshop

RBR Monthly Compost Workshop At this monthly event, you will learn all about what it takes to start composting. This particular event will be focused on creating awareness about food waste and how to easily compost at home. $10 @ 1PM, 5401 HAMILTON AVE

4.24

4.20

Third Friday

Third Friday at 78th Street Studios Get in touch with your inner artist by attending this art gallery opening that happens on the third Friday of each month. Enjoy great food service, live music and dozens of art gallery and studio openings.

4.27

Forum

FREE @ 5PM, 1305 W 80TH ST

Jeff Rosenstock w/ Martha & Badmoves Finding a Path to Equity: Media’s Role in Advocating for Youth Join the City Club of Cleveland to engage in a conversation about children living in poverty throughout the city. Learn about the role media plays in helping the public understand how stable environments can be created for children in Cleveland. FREE @ 12PM, 11038 BELLFLOWER RD

5.5

Snag a ticket to this night of punk and alternative rock before it sells out. You won’t want to miss these quirky bands when they come to Mahall’s on the last Tuesday of the month. $15 @ 8PM, 13200 MADISON AVE

VegFest

Experience dozens of diverse food vendors, demonstrations, talks and live music at the 7th annual Cleveland VegFest. Learn about all the benefits of a plantbased lifestyle and come away feeling full of knowledge and delicious food. FREE @ 11AM, 300 LAKESIDE AVE SPRING 2018 | VINDICATOR 6


FILMMAKING FOR FREE Why you don’t need money to make your next movie. // Gregory Elek

L

ike everyone else I didn’t see “A

Wrinkle in Time” (2018). Can you

million on a $2 million budget, and everyone

blame me (and the rest of the

liked it; if you didn’t you’re a bad person. “A

“It Comes at Night” (2017) made $19.3 million

world)? If the movie is as bad as

Ghost Story” (2017) made $1.9 million on a

on a $2.4 million budget, and critics liked it,

the trailer I’d rather rip off my

$100,000 budget, and everyone liked it with

and they’re always right. “Moonlight” (2016)

fingernails one by one than watch it. The

the exception of the guy who stormed out

made $65 million on a budget between $1.5-4

only remotely appealing thing about the

of the theater halfway through because the

million, and it won best picture at the oscars

film is the thought of getting to watch $100

movie was “gay and boring.” “Call Me by Your

meaning it’s objectively a good movie. The idea

“The Florida Project” (2017) made $7.7

million on a $4 million budget, and everyone liked it unless you’re a frat boy or a soccer mom.

million burn for 109 minutes. It makes you

Name” made $34.6 million on a $3.5 million

that you need a big budget (or even a budget

question why a film would even need that

dollar budget, and it was gay, but it definitely

at all) to make a successful film in this day and

much money in the first place.

wasn’t boring. “The Witch” (2016) made $40.4

age is ludicrous.

Antonio Campos is a very well respected

wasn’t very concerned with the low quality,

filmmaker in the independent scene in

he first got to film school was to raise funds

because not only did they accept the film into

America. He’s directed “Afterschool” (2008),

for a very ambitious feature film. The film

their festival, but it also won awards there,

never got completed due to budgetary issues,

and it was competing against films that had

ANTONIO CAMPOS

“Simon Killer” (2013), and “Christine” (2016).

What Campos tried to do initially when

Along with his friends from film school, Josh

but this is a common issue with those who

actual budgets. The lesson to be learned from

Mond and Sean Durkin he’s also produced

try to get into filmmaking. They tend to let

Antonio Campos’ story is that if you have

“Martha Marcy May Marlene” (2011) and

their big ideas get the best of them when they

talent as a filmmaker to use the resources

“James White” (2015). Even if these are films

have little to no resources. What Campos

that you have available to you, and people

you’re unfamiliar with, you’ve undoubtedly

did after this was find a couple people that

will take note of what you’re doing. In the day

heard some of the talent involved with them

he knew would be comfortable in front of a

and age of the internet where we can easily

such as Ezra Miller, Rebecca Hall, Elizabeth

camera, got a compelling story, and filmed

try to crowdfund, and always upgrade our

Olsen, Sarah Paulson, and Michael C. Hall.

in locations that he knew he had available to

equipment it can get easy to suck yourself

What’s important about Antonio Campos

him, with a camera that he already owned.

into the idea that budget and equipment is

when looking at low budget filmmakers

the most important thing to a filmmaker,

is that he originally tried to start the way

(2005). You can tell how cheap it was, but

a lot of filmmakers try to get a start, and

that doesn’t take away from the two most

This resulted in his film, “Buy it Now”

this method more often than not sets the

important aspects of filmmaking, the story

filmmaker up for failure.

and the acting. Cannes film festival also

7 VINDICATOR | SPRING 2018

when that couldn’t be any less true


SHANE CARRUTH Another well respected American indie

him. His film “A Topiary” getting scrapped

darling that you have to mention when

all together and never getting released due

discussing low budget independent film-

to ironically enough budgetary issues, even

makers is Shane Carruth. Carruth is known

though the likes of Steven Soderbergh and

for “Primer” (2004) and Upstream Color

David Fincher were ready and willing to jump

(2013). When I say Carruth is known for these

on the project as executive producers.

films what I mean is he wrote, directed

produced, was director of photography,

out Shane Carruth has still made to great

Even though “A Topiary” didn’t work

edited, acted, and even composed the music

sci-fi epics without ever having a budget

for both films. Carruth having his finger-

even close to $100,000. “Primer” cost $7,000

prints all over these films is kind of what

to make and made just under half a million

makes him so special. No one is making

dollars at the box office, and “Upstream

movies like him, they’re completely his own

Color” cost $50,000 to make and made

thing. If you put on “Primer” or “Upstream

nearly $600,000 at the box office. Carruth’s

Color” you’re going to get a cinematic

wholly unique vision has gotten a lot of eyes

experience that you’ve never had before, and

on him in the film industry, so much so that

it’s not never been done before in the sense of

his next project, “The Modern Ocean”, is set

the stories have a unique twist, or the shots

to star Anne Hathaway, Keanu Reeves, Daniel

are composed uniquely, but that every aspect

Radcliffe, Chloe Grace Moretz, Tom Holland,

of the film is completely unique to Carruth.

Asa Butterfield, Jeff Goldblum, Abraham

Attah and of course, Carruth himself. Just

Unfortunately, this has worked against

Carruth in a sense of his films aren’t very

pray to the movie gods that this film doesn’t

accessible. They’re nearly impossible to

end up the same way “A Topiary” did. What

grasp after one viewing, and even if you have

we can learn from Carruth is that if you have

a general idea of what’s going on, you won’t

a vision for how filmmaking should be that’s

get everything until several viewings — un-

completely unique you should stop wasting

less you’re a godless swine that googles the

your time and make your movie right now

meaning behind movies. Carruth’s films be-

regardless of what you have available to you.

ing so niche so unfortunately worked against

MATTHEW JOHNSON The last filmmaker that we can learn from,

Band The Show”. The reason Johnson is so

and perhaps the most important one when

important when it comes to this topic is be-

know everything he’s doing is completely

talking about micro budget filmmaking is

cause he simply cut out many of the difficult

legal (please educate yourself on fair use

Canadian filmmaker Matthew Johnson.

parts of filmmaking, and was able to do so

laws if you want to try to recreate what

Johnson is known for writing, directing, and

because of his low budgets. All of Johnson’s

Johnson does). The hidden cameras nev-

starring in “The Dirties” (2013), “Opera-

films are mockumentaries, but they don’t

er take away from the quality of the films

tion Avalanche” (2016), and his web series

play like your average documentary you’d

because the main characters are always

turned Viceland show, “Nirvanna The

find on Netflix, it’s almost like the behind

characters making documentaries. What

the scenes of a documentary (I would just

we can learn from Johnson is that having

call it found footage, but there’s a very neg-

no budgets doesn’t have to be a crutch. It

ative connotation around that phrase, even

can be a way to make your films different.

though that’s kind of what it is).

One of the hardest things to do when

writing your script is writing dialogue, and if

PHOTOS BY GOOGLE IMAGES

go from an article to a small book, but just

Studios can’t do what Johnson is doing. In “Operation Avalanche” there’s a car chase that feels incredibly real, because it was. Due

you don’t have access to top level talent, it’s

to not having money to work with the actors

incredibly hard to get actors to say that dia-

got into their cars, and actually had a chase

logue convincingly. So they not only don’t

on a country road. I’m not saying that you

write dialogue for any of their projects, but

should do something like this, and if you

they also interact with real people using

do be careful, but what I am saying is find

hidden cameras. They’ll also go onto loca-

the things that you aren’t good at, or things

tions they don’t have permission to film on,

that you can’t due because of money, and

and just shoot everything as fast as they can.

turn those disadvantages into ways that can

make your film unique.

If we were to talk about the legal side

to all of what Johnson is doing this would SPRING 2018 | VINDICATOR 8


MENTAL HEALTH IN TEEN NOVELS The importance of having accurate and diverse stories about mental illnesses for young adults // Nahomy Ortiz-Garcia

N

etflix original series “13 Reasons Why,” released in March 2017, is based on the young adult novel by the same name, and it centers around

a young woman who takes her own life and leaves behind a box of tapes describing all of the events that lead up to her suicide. This made me begin to think about how important mental health representation is in both TV and literature. The representation on these media platforms help to spark conversations about heavy topics that are rarely included in common conversation, but should be. I soon came to realize that “Thirteen Reasons Why” was the first book that dealt with mental health I had ever read. Further, I have found that the amount


of books dealing with mental health/illness

in different districts, “A lot of authors see

has to solve throughout the entirety of most

seem very limited.

their book being banned or challenged as

of the novel, but as a climatic event (or

a badge of honor. But for me, it’s nothing

plot twist) the main character recalls that

representation, other tropes such as

but frustrating and upsetting. I hear from

she was sexually harassed. The paranor-

‘personified illness’ and ‘romanticization

readers, and now viewers of the Netflix

mal fantasy novel has a lot of mystery and

of mental illness’ also exist. Personified

show, that my work encouraged them to

adventure themes, but it isn’t a novel that

illness happens when the author portrays

ask for help or reach out to someone about

is willing to talk about sexual harassment

the character as just the mental illness

the situation they’re in. When you hear

in a serious tone. The event is definitely

and nothing more. A book that does this is

stories like that on a daily basis and then

used as plot twist, but is never really spoken

“All the Bright Places” by Jennifer Niven.

hear adults call for your work to be banned,

about again. The author had no intention in

The book’s characters are very hard to talk

it’s proof of why the stigma around these

having the traumatic experience become a

about or even describe because they were

issues is so dangerous.” According to the

big part of the story, therefore it should’ve

nothing more than illnesses. While depres-

American Library Association, “Thirteen

been erased completely.

sion can be an all-consuming illness, books

Reasons Why” continues to be one the most

relating to this topic should show that there

frequently banned Young Adult books.

is more to people than their illnesses. Books with personified illnesses don’t do a good job of portraying mental illness. Books like these give no hope and leave readers with a false image of a depressed person being nothing more than their depression. Romanticization of mental illness is when the author interchanges pain and beautiful as synonyms. This can occur when novels include a relationship and have a love interest ‘save’ the character from the mental illness or when the author writes in perks for having a mental illness. For example, in the novel “Thirteen Reasons Why,” throughout the novel the main character, Clay Jensen, blames himself for thinking that if he had told Hannah Baker that he loved her that maybe then she wouldn’t have committed suicide.

Banned Books Many school districts ban books with heavy

PHOTO BY LINDSAY ANNE

topics like mental illness. Some authorita-

A novel that does a good job with including trigger warnings is “Speak” by Laurie Halse Anderson. The book deals with the main character’s trauma and her healing process. The novel does not hide what her

Young Adult mental health fiction tend to focus on a small section of illnesses...

In addition to lack of mental health

Trigger Warnings

traumatic experience was, and in fact they disclose this information on the synopsis that can be found in the back of the book or as the description if you search it online.

Own Voices Novels An OWN voices novel refers to an author of a marginalized population that writes about a topic or a character with the same marginalization (authors of color writing about characters of color, LGBTQ+ authors writing about LGBTQ+ characters, disabled authors writing about disabled characters, etc). OWN voices novels written about mental health always tend to be a more accurate representation of the struggles of mental health because the author has had experience going through a similar struggle. Authors do extensive amounts of research, but those who write stories about things

tive figures are intimidated by answering

In the book community, trigger warnings

they have experienced are usually more

questions about sensitive issues, so they

have been discussed for a very long time.

authentic and sympathetic towards readers

remove the source entirely, and what that

Topics like sexual abuse, physical abuse,

who have had similar experiences.

does is shield children and teens from

neglect, self-harm, suicide and more have

learning about these topics and having a

the potential to further harm a reader.

titled “History is All You Left Me” featur-

source to relate to. Books like “The Perks of

These topics should not be used as plot

ing a gay main character who suffers from

Being a Wallflower” by Stephen Chbosky,

twists by authors. Authors should continue

Obsessive Compulsive Disorder, the repre-

“Looking for Alaska” by John Green and

to write these stories, but not blindside the

sentation has been called one of the most

“Thirteen Reasons Why” by Jay Asher have

reader. If a book will contain rape, physical

authentic in Young Adult literature and it’s

all been banned in at least one district. In

abuse, self-harm, or anything relating to

mostly because Adam Silvera is a gay male

Mesa County Valley School district in Col-

these, it should be disclosed on the summa-

author who suffers from OCD.

orado an official ordered librarians to take

ry and not used as a plot twist by an author.

the book “Thirteen Reasons Why” off of

People in their everyday life (such as read-

to focus on a small section of illnesses such

the shelves due to a recent students death

ers) do not experience these negative parts

as depression, anxiety, eating disorders,

by suicide. Many librarians didn’t sit well

of life to forward a story. Readers should

and more — which is great representation,

with this decision and protested by calling

be allowed to be prepared for a heavy topic.

but there are many types of mental dis-

the order ‘censorship’ and the decision was

A book that utilized trauma as a plot twist

orders that barely get any representation,

reversed.

was the paranormal novel “The Unbecom-

such as personality disorders and schizo-

ing of Mara Dyer” by Michelle Hodkin. The

phrenia. There are many more stories to

novel focuses on a mystery that Mara Dyer

tell.

In an interview with PBS Newshour, Jay Asher, spoke about his book being banned

Author Adam Silvera wrote a novel

Young Adult mental health fiction tend


AFTER HOURS INSTAGRAM – @austin_cupach

These photographs are exposures at night, in and around the suburbs of Cleveland, Ohio. The lighting creates an uneasy feeling of isolation. This view of suburbia, void of human presence, allows the viewer to imagine their own narrative. // Austin Cupach


I

am a contemporary landscape pho-

my photographs. As an artist, I have always

fluenced by photographers such as Walker

tographer whose artistic output has

felt that the important role of my work is

Evans, Robert Adams, Henri Cartier-Bres-

often focused on the dark underside of

not to create meaning but to be rich with

son, Peter Brown, Bill Brandt, Robert Frank

suburbia that is hidden from us in plain

ambiguity. Sometimes, when you isolate

and many more. Through my influences

sight. I find myself drawn to places that

things down and don’t have people in the

in photography, I continue to shape and

photograph, it’s more evocative, and the

am interested in — where life presents its

viewer has to come to their own con-

more unraveled self. My photographs are

clusions. My photographs are often time

primarily centered around relationships

stamped or untitled, as titles would limit

and the psychologies of life at night.

their meaning. I also like that, without a

The suburban exteriors are of homes,

title, it’s impossible to even nail down the

apartments and businesses. The land-

place I photographed. Ultimately, in my

scapes are either shot at night, or at dawn

work, the meaning is often disclosed —

or dusk. These shooting times often create

less about the concept and more about the

an ominous glow, and the photographs at

photographs ability to be open to interpre-

times include fog or haze. These photo-

tation.

graphs show us that suburbia can be eerie

I like the idea of suggesting, but not

or cold rather than the bright and inviting

telling. I just put things out in the world

place it appears to be in the daytime. While

and let people interpret them as they wish.

showing a different side of suburbia, the

My interest in photography as an

photographs still suggest themes of family

artform developed back in 2010, when I

and memory. While familiar scenes are

discovered the work of newly found 20th

obscured by the darkness of night, one’s

century photographer Vivian Maier. I re-

perceptions are changed. The lighting

member her work striking me as so much

creates an uneasy feeling of isolation. This

more than just someone taking a photo-

view of suburbia, void of human presence,

graph. She had a genuine eye, and this was

allows the viewer to imagine their own

the first time I really delved into a photog-

narrative.

raphers work. Since then, I have exten-

I’m not married to reality. I do not feel I have to faithfully describe a place with

sively familiarized myself with pioneers of landscape photography. I am heavily in-

further my work as an artist.

I’m not married to reality. I do not feel I have to faithfully describe a place with my photographs.

reveal more of a story. It’s the backstory I

SPRING 2018 | VINDICATOR 12


13 VINDICATOR | SPRING 2018


SPRING 2018 | VINDICATOR 14


D I A G N O S I N G

T H E

EPIDEMIC IN AMERICAN SCHOOLS Thoughts and prayers may not be the antidote, but if you must, pray for white men. // Holly Bland

I

remember the way I clung to my chair

many other people of color who fall victim

regarding gun violence in schools is vital

junior year of high school when TJ Lane

to gun violence either by police or at the

when attempting to comprehend it. As

had opened fire in Chardon High School,

hands of fellow civilians, they are villain-

previously mentioned, 18 school shootings

injuring multiple students, three of which

ized. When white men open fire injuring

have been reported when the most recent

were fatal. Chardon isn’t far from where

and killing multiple to dozens of people,

Parkland tragedy occurred. Two were sui-

I was in Ashtabula. But the fear that took

America excuses their behavior, ignoring

cides, three were accidental shootings, and

over the room, you would think shots were

the happy finger on the trigger and shifting

nine of them had no fatalities or injuries.

blame onto anything else imaginable.

Not to make this excusable in the slightest,

the highway. Just months later over two dozen people were shot at Sandy Hook Elementary in Connecticut — 20 of which were children under eight years old. The same fear filled the same students — and the same conversations ensued — mimicking what our parents had told us caused the shootings at Columbine in 1999. No real solutions or common ground seem to be reached when violence carried out by guns in American schools occurs. This year, it has been reported across media that over 18 school shootings have taken place — though this is clearly not a 2018-specific issue. But when Tamir Rice was shot outside his home here in Cleveland for playing with a toy gun, the conversation was focused on how a Black 12-year-old shouldn’t have appeared to be “violent.” America excused officers who are supposed to be high-

The common symptom of mass gun

but when critically evaluating something, recognizing context is important. According to Chris Nichols in an article

The link of toxic masculinity and white supremacy is a vehicle of this violence.

fired down the hall, instead of exits down

for Politifact titled “How are school shootings defined,” only “three involved the sort of mass school shooting now defined by Parkland, Sandy Hook, Columbine and others.” Further, they discovered there’s no legal definition or consensus for how best to define a school shooting. They concluded that what constitutes a school shooting is still up in the air, and is fairly broad — including a firearm being discharged on school grounds unintentionally or a student being shot in an attempted robbery after school hours in a parking lot. In data collected by Statista, 56 out of 97 mass shootings in between 1982 and February of 2018 have been carried out by white people. This statistic isn’t focused explicitly on school shootings, but it illustrates the pattern on a broader spectrum.

ly-trained when confronting high pressure

violence in schools is often overlooked, and

In another data collection by Statista in

situations — like eyeing down the barrel

it’s the link between toxic masculinity and

the same time frame, two mass shootings

of a gun — when they shot an innocent

white supremacy as vehicles of this violence

were carried out by women and 94 by men.

child.

being carried out by guns. Of course, there

The links of toxic masculinity and white

are many data sets exploring gun violence

supremacy with gun violence have caused

the victim of this violence was doing and

in any community. Focusing on the charac-

immense havoc in American schools, and

what he did to be shot. A Black child merely

teristics and behaviors of the perpetrators

continue to do so throughout time.

possessing a toy gun illustrated more hos-

of this violence in schools could give a clue

tility and violence than anyone that could

to the contributions of what some officials

obtain and shoot a real gun can do. The

consider a uniquely American epidemic.

The conversation was focused on what

same way America excuses perpetrators of gun violence in schools. In the instance of Tamir Rice and so 15 VINDICATOR | SPRING 2018

Toxic Masculinity A factor overwhelmingly consistent in mass school shootings — where students are

Instances Of Gun Violence How we define, interpret and collect data

severely injured or killed inside school facilities and during school hours — are boys


that have been carrying out this violence.

and in these instances; violence. The need

A black shooter is not a disturbed child;

That is not to say girls are incapable of

or longing to achieve societal constructs of

they are a savage thug radicalized in a cul-

becoming violent, but it is peculiar that in

masculinity becomes toxic.

ture that glorifies violence. A Latinx shooter

every instant of a school shooting fatal or

is not an enigma; after all, we have been

injurious to more than two people at a time by guns, a boy has pulled the trigger. “America’s boys are broken. And it’s

White Supremacy Men are inherently privileged in America. Since the beginning of American history,

taught to fear such dangerous immigrants. This is what we are told.” Further, Shaun King wrote for The

killing us,” said Michael Ian Black in a New

being a man equated to power. If not finan-

Intercept, “An apparent white supremacist

York Times article titled “The Boys Are Not

cially, power over women, children, and

can go through life making threats, talking

All Right.” Black evaluates how America has

so on. But there has always been immense

about weapons, harassing people, warning

centered the focus on liberating

power for white men. Which leads to the

that he would be a school shooter, have

girls out of gendered ste-

American structures of white privilege, and

people call the FBI on him and yet never get

reotypes and expectations,

in turn, white supremacy.

while rightfully so, but

Gun violence isn’t

have left boys behind.

unique to school

“No commensurate

shootings.

serious scrutiny from just about anyone. There were just no consequences.” With movements like #BlackLivesMatter to end violence against Black people, an

movement has emerged

influx of white people have become vocal

to help them navigate

and feel threatened that their identities

toward a full expression of

will be set aside or are at stake, rather

their gender. It’s no longer enough

than equally centered. Not

to ‘be a man” — we no longer even know

only does the narrative

what that means,” said Black.

from white Americans

Black continued to analyze the way

succumb to villainiz-

boys are still trapped in an archaic model

ing other races at the

of masculinity with no light at the end of

face of violence, but in

the tunnel. “They are trapped, and they

liberation, and really just

don’t even have the language to talk about

existing. These skewed

how they feel about being trapped, because

Though, gun

the language that exists to discuss the full

violence in schools

range of human emotion is still viewed as

is almost explicitly

imagery of what it means to be

sensitive and feminine.”

tied to being white,

American, or that power and success

and that is when we

need to maintain in reach of white

lost in ways to express their masculinity,

decide to further

people as a priority.

feelings, or emotions, Black states that they

turn our cheeks.

As a result of boys feeling questionably

views of white Americans’ ideas on other people create false

have two choices; withdraw or rage. And the

School shoot-

outcome this can have — seemingly leading

ings have occurred

to school shootings in some instances.

in primarily white

been conflated with patriotism

towns, such as the

and what it means to be American.

Black’s analysis doesn’t inherently dis-

How They Tie Together Whiteness and masculinity have

miss or discount movements of liberation,

recent shooting in

such as feminism, but addresses the gap of

Parkland, FL, and in what

focus on men. Moving forward and busting

many like to consider “good”

through traditional societal expectations

neighborhoods. Many discount race and so-

norm for so long, as culture shifts, white

and embracing new ideas on one’s identity,

cioeconomic status as factors because that

males can be left feeling displaced or oth-

particularly based on sexuality, gender and

“has nothing to do with a shooters intent.”

ered — similarly to what folks with other

expression, has not had the same effect on

But when any instance of violence either

identities have endured for centuries here.

men and masculinity. Men and boys still

at the hands of or is victim to say, a Black

But the outcome has become violent.

face levels of pressure surrounding their

man, these factors shape the narrative for

identities, particularly masculinity, and how

the reason one perceivably became violent.

to uphold, achieve, or express masculine or “manly” ideals.

In an op-ed by Brendan Murtha for the

Privilege in white men has left a long-lasting impression and perception of this, and because it has been the

It seems that gun violence in schools is peaking at the same time men and boys’ self-entitlement is plummeting. Those

Bowdoin Orient titled “White supremacy

with the highest sense of entitlement in

fuels American gun violence,” “In a country

America appear to be white men. Solving

their inability to achieve or maintain these

where non-white culture is scrutinized and

this uniquely American epidemic will show

ideals, it couples with entitlement carried

demonized, any violence that emerges from

higher rates of success once we focus more

through patriarchy and its structures deeply

such culture is immediately turned around

on treating the parasite as opposed to the

embedded into our culture. This can cause

to justify pre-existing bigotry. A Muslim

countless hosts affected by it.

isolation (which is where people poke men-

shooter is not mentally ill; they are a ter-

tal illness), and further retaliation, rage,

rorist operating under the banner of Islam.

When a man or boy feels threatened by

And damn, is America infested.

SPRING 2018 | VINDICATOR 16


A MOVIE AND A MOVEMENT

BLACK PANTHER How Black Panther showcases agency, empowerment and excellence. // Renee Betterson

W

hat did she say? “You

seconds of awkward silence I walked away,

it’s an us versus them mindset that all

know, ever since I got

still struggling to reconcile this fantastical

of us fall prey to at times. A mindset that

back from that mis-

encounter with reality.

sion’s trip to Hai-

It wasn’t until later that I realized

ti, whenever I see a

Marvel’s “Black Panther” shatters. “Black Panther” is all about giving a voice to “the

what Mrs. Johnson had really done. She had

other,” by celebrating the importance of

colored person I want to speak Creole to

mistaken me for someone else-or rather

individuality and the power of unity.

them.” What did she just say? As I tried to

for everyone else. When she looked at me,

formulate an appropriate reply, the look on

she didn’t see me. What she saw was a poor,

anticipated films of the year, and when it

my face must’ve betrayed my displeasure.

underprivileged girl from Haiti; a colored

finally hit the big screen it did not disap-

Colored person? I thought. What is this, the

person who needed her help. Mrs. Johnson

point. The movie has surpassed estimated

1950s?

lumped all black people together into one

sales and dominated box offices worldwide.

homogeneous group of “the other,” where

It has continued to clench it’s spot as the

I was completely taken aback, dumb-

“Black Panther” was one of the most

founded. I couldn’t think of anything to

no one inside had individuality, or any real

number one movie in the world several

say, so I said nothing. After a few brief

value. It’s not exclusive to Mrs. Johnson,

weeks after it’s release. With all of the buzz

18 VINDICATOR | MARCH 2017


about the film, we need to take a moment to explore what makes “Black Panther “so great. “Black Panther” was an incredible movie in every way, but its most important accomplishment was giving a voice to people who have been largely marginalized and ignored; especially women and people of color.

The Women of Wakanda In our world, today, finding accurate representation—especially in film—of women reaching their full potential is rare. Gorgeous women are around every corner, but portrayals of strong, confident women are few and far between. Enter Wakanda to the rescue again. The women of Wakanda were not side chicks, waiting to be saved or swept off their feet. They were leaders, warriors, and innovators. And what is truly the film were central to the story. They had a purpose and drive that actually contributed to the plot. So rather than accessories, they were key players in the execution of the story. According to the director, Ryan Coogler, the film was very deliberate in its portrayal of women as strong, graceful and intelligent. In the movie, the head of technology and research is Shuri, a fiery 16-year-old girl. She’s a young, brilliant, incredible black woman; and she’s a role model for young girls everywhere. Letitia Wright who plays Shuri in the movie, said she hopes that her character can be a source of, “Positivity and light,” and encourage girls to, “Use their mind as a weapon.” Finding positive representations of black women… Is virtually impossible. Lupita Nyong’o plays Nakia, T’Challa’s love interest in the movie. To see a brilliant, passionate, beautiful dark-skinned woman portrayed in this way meant the world for women of color everywhere. Nakia allowed all of us to see a different kind of beauty.

Vikings Forever PHOTO CREDITS: Marvel Studios Film Stills

On opening night, Cleveland State’s Black Student Union brought a huge crowd of students to Tower City to see the movie with discounted admission. I had the pleasure of sitting down to talk with BSU’s Vice President, Bennidita Smith about the group’s involvement in making tickets available to students. Bennidita explained that she and President Julian Wilson along with the other members of the executive

board, saw the movie as an important

chord. She said that T’Challa’s sister, Shuri,

opportunity for unifying the Cleveland State

was a source of encouragement and hope.

community.

“Shuri is like this young, beautiful,

Benedita said, “This movie is important for everyone to watch. I think the timeliness of it’s release is really key to

it’s significance. Right now, with all of the

black girl and who is developing the world’s most advanced technology. I’m going into STEM myself, so seeing Shuri meant everything to me.”

craziness going on in the news it’s really

#WhatBlackPantherMeansToMe “Black Panther” is more than just another

Nakia allowed all of us to see a different kind of beauty.

remarkable is this: the women characters in

nice to have a movie like this that brings

superhero movie. It is a movement that resonates deeply with people everywhere. And people are sharing their opinions about the movie online with the hashtag #WhatBlackPantherMeansToMe One Twitter user used this hashtag saying, “For the the first time in my life, I will get tvo see minorities, people who look like me, portrayed as “strong and intelligent.” For Bennidita, it means representation of her dreams. “Black Panther” is a more than just a superhero movie. It’s a movement, an iconic symbol of empowerment for millions of people for so many reasons. It masterfully celebrates individuality and serves as a vivid reminder of the importance of

everyone together. It celebrates individu-

unity for everyone. I began this article with

ality and reminds us of the importance of

my story. For me, “Black Panther” means

working together to solve our problems.She

agency: the ability to choose who I am and

also stressed the special meaning it has for

continously strive for excellence without

the black community at large, saying that it,

limits. I think Lupita Nyong’o summed

“allows us to see ourselves as superheroes,

up the feeling perfectly when she said , “I

Kings and Queens. That’s not something

know this industry wasn’t made for me, but

we get to see very often.” But for Benedita,

I’m not going to apologize for being here.”

one character struck an even more personal SPRING 2018 | VINDICATOR 18


EARTH DAY SAVING OUR PLANET Humanity must take both large and small steps to help heal the environment for future generations. // Dorothy Zhao

E

Earth Day — the largest secular

With landfills overflowing and emit-

must create and satisfy to better shape the

holiday in the world, observed

ting gases like methane and carbon dioxide

in 192 countries and celebrated

to trap heat in the atmosphere, corporate

future of our environment.

every year on April 22 by over a

greed resulting in overproduction of multi-

Water Act to the Endangered Species Act,

billion people. The first Earth Day

tudinous materials, and ignorance coming

the environmental laws of the United States

From the Clean Air Act to the Clean

took place in 1970 after an oil well blew out

and implementation of the U.S. Environ-

in Santa Barbara, California the year before.

mental Protection Agency were all measures

Activists and Americans were prompted to

that America, the leading country of the

make a change for the better, espe-

time in 1970, took to prevent harm-

cially during the turbulent decade

ful environmental accidents and

of the seventies. In honor of

pollution by various com-

such a noble holiday, what

panies. Throughout the

are we doing over forty

decade of the seventies,

years later to save the

an insecticide called

planet? Some argue

DDT was banned due

not enough, while

to environmental

others believe

problems, pes-

— or, at least,

ticides became

claim — that

regulated, ma-

climate change

rine sanctuaries

does not exist.

were created

In our

to protect

homes, at our

biological

workplaces

and historical

and schools,

treasures, and

and in our

environmental

mindsets,

activism arose

we must take

from toxic waste

small steps

in the Love Canal

and adjust-

community of

ments to our daily

Niagara Falls, New

lives to minimize

York.

the negative im-

Continuing for

pact we have on the

the next few decades,

environments around us.

sewage and medical waste

Looking towards the large

were tracked and cleaned, the

corporations, companies, and

Clean Air Act was updated and

governments, change must occur

passed to target acid rain and ozone

in order to fulfill the big steps that will

depletion, and a climate agreement was

significantly change practices for a health-

reached recently. In current day legislature

ier, more sustainable world. What countries

around the globe, governments are encour-

around the world have planned and agreed

from wasteful individuals, the situation

aging their countries and companies to go

to, such as banning plastic bags or utilizing

certainly appears dire. However, as opti-

green, become aware of the environment,

more renewable resources, is promising but

mism pervades and prevails, there are still

and give note to climate change. A well-

debatably not enough.

ambitious goals we as a human population

known example of such action is the Paris

19 VINDICATOR | SPRING 2018


Agreement, the world’s first comprehensive climate agreement.

It is worth thinking about just where our trash and dirty water end up — toxic

and action to save our planet — even if it

dump sites or treatment sites that require

seems like it’s beyond saving now — to

work Convention on Climate Change, the

more energy, water, and time in filtering

prompt and maintain a significantly less

Paris Agreement “entered into force on

and distilling. The fact that it is “out of

wasteful existence as a whole, the future

the fourth of November 2016” with 174

sight, out of mind,” is no longer an accept-

will no longer seem futile. Eradicating the

parties ratifying the plan out of 197 parties

able excuse. Perhaps the zero waste philos-

apathetic, ignorant, and wasteful mind-

to the Convention. The countries that have

ophy that takes reduce, reuse, recycle ideas

set of each person, at least in first world

agreed to this plan will start mitigating

to another level is truly a goal that everyone

countries, is one aspect of a solution to save

global warming in 2020, with the listed

should consider — as difficult as it seems.

Earth.

Under the United Nations Frame-

and nationally determined contributions

In addition to baby steps listed above,

(NDCs). As noted on the Paris Agreement

sign up for the world’s largest environmen-

website, its aim is to “strengthen the global

tal movement at earthday.org and by orga-

by keeping a global temperature rise this century well below two degrees Celsius... [and] to strengthen the ability of countries to deal with the impacts of climate change.” Although the United States has pulled out of this deal, it does not necessarily mean we as American citizens should simply give up on conserving our valuable resources and protecting our fragile environment. The ways the average person can celebrate Earth Day and subsequently help the environment are practically endless — it’s all in the details. Changing one’s daily habits, no matter how small, will result in a greater positive impact. Obviously, being a locavore (a term for individuals who eat from only locally grown or produced food, despite the subjective descriptor of “local”) or similar suggestions are not always easy or possible to do. Adopting the zero waste

nizing for Earth Day in one’s community, organization, or workplace. The Earth Day

Changing one’s daily habits, no matter how small, will result in a greater positive impact.

response to the threat of climate change

Network, the organization that leads Earth Day, has planned a goal of ending plastic pollution consisting of four components: leading a grassroots movement to gain the support for a global framework of regu-

ILLUSTRATION CREDIT: Loren Shumaker

However, once we call for collective change

lifestyle or becoming vegan are possibly

lating plastic pollution, inspiring citizens

extremes, but easier steps include simply

worldwide to raise their voices for govern-

carpooling, taking shorter showers, com-

ments and corporations to change their act

posting, going to farmers markets, growing

to controlling plastic pollution, educating

your own garden, not using disposable

people to “take personal responsibility...

items, being a mindful consumer by buying

by choosing to reject, reduce, reuse, and

from eco-friendly companies and boycot-

recycle plastics,” and promoting specifical-

ting those who don’t, turning down the

ly local government efforts to end plastic

heat, using air conditioning less often, and

pollution.

turning off the lights when no one is in the room.

One environmentally conscientious person is not enough to make a difference.

REDUCING YOUR IMPACT BY CHANGING YOUR DIET Some food groups have far higher greenhouse gas emissions. Reducing or eliminating the groups at the top is one way to reduce your impact. Here are some common food groups ranked from highest to lowest impact. 1. Lamb (nearly 1.5x beef emissions) 2. Beef (2x the emissions of cheese) 3. Cheese 4. Pork 5. Farmed Salmon 6. Turkey 7. Chicken 8. Canned Tuna 9. Eggs 10. Potatoes 11. Rice 12. Peanut Butter 13. Nuts 14. Yogurt 15. Broccoli 16. Tofu 17. Beans 18. 2% Milk 19. Tomatoes 20. Lentils Source: Environmental Working Group SPRING 2018 | VINDICATOR 20


RESTORING A PIECE OF CLEVELAND

A Cleveland development project promotes healthy, sustainable, and vibrant communities. // Taylor Hannah photos by alexis rosen

O

n Washington Avenue, just

from the surrounding community. Lakev-

off of Detroit Road, sits

iew, as its name suggests, rests near the

Lakeview Terrace — the

lake, but it cannot be easily accessed by

first public housing complex

residents any longer. Soon after Lakeview

built in America. The set of

Terrace was built, a highway was construct-

53 buildings was built in 1937 as a $3.8 mil-

ed along Lake Erie that segregated Lakeview

lion Public Works Administration project.

Terrace from the surrounding neighbor-

At the time of its construction, affordable

hood. A highway wall literally divides it

and quality housing was difficult to find be-

form what’s on the other side, and devel-

cause of the rising population in cities such

opments in the area have not always been

as Cleveland. Lakeview Terrace was built

intentional about leveraging the needs of

with the intention of creating a green space

Lakeview Terrace residents — an essential

within a dense and industrial urban area. It

aspect of inclusive development — which

included a community center, playground,

has left the area socially vulnerable.

and murals for people to enjoy — the first housing complex of its kind. It was cele-

Trust for Public Land is developing a project

brated as a step towards making Cleveland

to enhance Lakeview Terrace’s original

a healthy and lively community, and set a

vision and connect it back to the area. The

precedent for other cities to build housing

project’s main focus is to restore a vacant

complexes that did the same.

utility building into a community park. TPL

Cities are always developing and

21 VINDICATOR | SPRING 2018

Thankfully, the Ohio branch of the

plans to incorporate health, sustainability,

growing, which inevitably leaves some

and art into the park, while also designing it

neighborhoods at risk of being isolated.

to intersect with the Cleveland Foundation’s

Unfortunately, over time, Lakeview Terrace

Centennial Trail. The Centennial Trail is a

has been cut off both physically and socially

restored railroad right-of-way that travels


through the Flats and other part of Cleve-

public, which is exactly what Nahu did. She

inspiration from African wax prints, which

land, so intersecting the park with it will

knew that she wanted to paint bright colors

can be seen in the intricate patterns on the

improve connectivity. TPL is intentionally

along the wall, but her decision to paint the

wall. A wall that divides now empowers. It is

working with Lakeview Terrace residents to

faces of children from the area was influ-

a beautiful representation of how public art

make sure the park supports the commu-

enced by how shocked she was by the area’s

can positively influence a community.

nity as best as it can, setting it apart from

isolation. She noted about her work, “I

give new life to the original mission of the housing complex and will hopefully be an example for other development projects to follow. Art is already an active form of resistance for the Lakeview Terrace community. The housing complex is located near a group of murals that were painted during the Cleveland Foundation’s 2016 Creative Fusion public art project. One of the murals stretches down the wall of the highway that divided Lakeview Terrace from everything on the other side. The vibrant

figured out maybe I should paint some-

The success of a project such as the Lakeview Terrace Park relies on how it engages the people living there. Public art projects like Nahu’s mural are one way

other development projects. The park will

A wall that divides now empowers.

to do so, but TPL is reaching out to the community even further by discussing the needs, concerns, and visions of local community members. Residents of Lakeview Terrace are being invited into the process so that the park meets the needs of the neighborhood, and their involvement promotes a sense of ownership. A feeling of connectedness by the community to the project makes it a more enjoyable and healthy place to live. A Harvard professor, Dr. Felton

mural, painted by Brazilian artist Anan-

thing to protect them, their innocence. Each

Earls, conducted research on this topic by

da Nahu, features faces of children who

one is precious. Each kid here is like a king

studying neighborhoods in Chicago over a

live in Lakeview Terrace and participate in

and queen.” This thought led to the mural

fifteen-year time period. When he began

Brick City, a Cleveland Public Theatre arts

being known as “The Kings and Queens of

his search for what facilitates the most

program. The best public art brings in the

Lakeview Terrace.” Her mural also draws

well-being in a place, he hypothesized that SPRING 2018 | VINDICATOR 22


Public spaces are the hearts of neighborhoods...

A TIMELINE OF PUBLIC HOUSING 1900-1920

1933

Cleveland’s population doubles from 381,768 to 796,841 people with a small amount of adequate housing available.

The New Deal set aside $150 million for public housing & the Cuyahoga Metropolitan Housing Authority formed the first housing authority in America.

23 VINDICATOR | SPRING 2018

1937

1938

Lakeview Terrace The end of WWII opens up. The led to more Housing Act of housing problems 1937 passed when returning which required veterans searching a substandard for a place to live housing unit to caused a housing be removed for shortage. every new housing unit built.

1949 Housing Act of 1949 funded urban renewal projects in American cities.


it would be something like wealth, access to

Club and LAND studio to create the trail,

healthcare, or crime rates. What he discov-

which will convert a stretch of land that

ered, though, was that the opportunity for

follows the RTA Red Line into an almost

people to work together on matters of com-

three-mile trail. It will run through Detroit

mon interest made the biggest difference

Shoreway, Ohio City, and Downtown Cleve-

in the health and well-being of a neigh-

land, while connecting Stockyards, Trem-

borhood. Community engagement, whether

ont, Duck Island, and part of the Flats along

it be through an art project like Nahu’s or

the way. These neighborhoods will become

other project like TPL’s community park,

more connected through the shared trail,

dramatically increase the welfare of an area

and will be more easily travelled between

and assure healthy development.

by bike or foot. The path will even include

Similar to the findings of Earl’s

illumination so that it is accessible and safe

research, the welfare of an area is also

at night. Riding the redline already guaran-

increased by a dedication to placemaking.

tees some of the best views of Cleveland’s

Placemaking is an approach to the planning

skyline, so the greenway will provide an

and design of public spaces that is collabo-

opportunity for people to stop and take in

rative, strengthens the connection of people

the view. Plain Dealer Art and Architecture

to places, and promotes people’s well-being

writer Steven Litt described the path as

and health. It encourages an evolution of

“Cleveland’s version of the New York High

places that pays attention to the physical

Line,” to which Leonard Stover, a Rotary

and social needs of a community, as well as

Club volunteer and investment advisor,

celebrates the community’s identity. Public

responded, “We want to beat the High Line.

spaces are the hearts of neighborhoods, and

[The Redline] is higher, its longer, it’s got

since cities have so many of them, place-

a better view and we won’t spend a billion

making makes sure they all beat in rhythm.

dollars to do it.” Cleveland residents can

Inequalities formed by poverty, segregation,

look forward to experiencing the Red Line

or other geographical problems restrict

Greenway themselves in 2020.

groups of city residents from enjoying

Cleveland, as well as other cities, can-

public spaces and experiencing the benefits

not afford to develop areas without place-

of them — like the highway by Lakeview

making and being mindful of the devel-

Terrace. Further developing an area can ei-

opment’s effects on the surrounding area.

ther reinforce inequalities or work to break

Development projects are not just a luxury,

them down. Good placemaking ensures the

but are essential to sustaining and empow-

former.

ering all communities. The Lakeview Ter-

There are a few other projects in

race Park and Red Line Greenway are just

the works in the Cleveland area that are

a few of the multiple development projects

examples of good placemaking. Similar to

taking place in Cleveland over the next few

Lakeview Terrace park, one of them high-

years. Their placemaking efforts will make

lights sustainability and connectivity — the

Cleveland a greener and more connected

Red Line Greenway. The Cleveland Rotary

city. Just as Cleveland led the way in hous-

Club proposed the idea, initially working

ing the 1900s, it continues to lead the way

with LAND Studio in 2012 to make prelimi-

for development projects today. Cheers to

nary plans. The Cleveland Metroparks, Ohio

Cleveland for engaging in placemaking that

City, Inc., Port of Cleveland, and the City of

is sustainable, connected, and inclusive.

Cleveland are partnering with the Rotary

1965

1968

1974

1992

The Department of Housing & Urban Development is established.

Cleveland, Now! Funds urban renewal & revitalization projects. The Fair Housing Act prevents racial discrimination in housing sales or rent.

Housing Act of 1974 passed, which amended the Housing Act of 1937 to allow urban homesteading & include Section 8 housing.

The National Commission on Severely Distressed Public Housing reported that 86,000 of the country’s public housing units were unfit to live in.

2020

The Redline Greenway will be completed for Cleveland’s pedestrians & bicyclists to enjoy!

SPRING 2018 | VINDICATOR 24


The

Professors of

Cleveland State


The professors of Cleveland State university talk about their experience teaching different disciplines and topics, dealing with current climates and the lessons they’ve learned themselves over the years. // Alexis Rosen, Arbela Capas, Brenda Castaneda Yupanqui & Holly Bland

P

ublic opinion is notably unstable, usually a “body temperature” at a particular moment in time. The time we are living in today could be a considered

a time for change in our political and social climates. This often translates into our every day lives and our academic lives as well. When we enter college, the world becomes a lot wider when it comes to what we learn in the classroom. We start learning the knowledge we need for our respective careers, or we start taking classes about specific issues and topics we would have never even thought about in our previous school years. For this issue, we decided to give some appreciation back to some of the professors at Cleveland State — the people who have devoted their lives to helping make sense of things to us. At Cleveland State, the professors in charge of teaching the lessons are equally as diverse as the students receiving them. Although every student has a specific major or discipline that they are pursuing, one of the most eye-opening things about studying in college is being able to explore different topics. A big task for professors teaching in the classroom, is making sure that the information in the textbooks is able to be applied and translated to the real world. Cleveland State’s professors do just that, by going beyond the classroom and teaching in a way that is not only relevant for getting a good grade, but being a proactive citizen and a lifelong learner. No matter how much time each of these professors have spent here at Cleve-

PHOTO CREDIT: ARBELA CAPAS

land State, they all have unique backgrounds and expertises that help them bring something special to each classroom. This feature is not only dedicated to the nine professors we spoke to, but also to all the professors and adjunct faculty that work so hard every day to make this university special for the students.

M EG HAN N OVISK Y DISCIPLINE Sociology–Criminology YEARS @ CSU 2 years FAVORITE CLASS TO TEACH Sociology to Corrections Along with Dr. Novisky’s framed degree from Kent State University, her office wall also has photos from various correctional facilities she has visited throughout the United States. Along with this, hangs a map with pinned locations. Currently pinned are: Pennsylvania, Georgia, New York, and others. These areas were some of the facilities Novisky visited to conduct interviews with inmates for her various research studies. “My focus of research is mainly talking about the health effects of inmates who are incarcerated.” Her most recent projects included interviewing women who have left domestic abuse relationships, as well as a series of interviews she did with aging men who are currently incarcerated. For about two years now, Dr. Novisky has

been teaching various Criminology courses at Cleveland State, including women and crime, corrections and criminological theory. Novisky believes that classes such as this that talk about the complicated, stigmatized and often forgotten issues of corrections in the United States, open up a lens for the students who will be working in various fields. “The dynamics of domestic violence also involves extreme isolation of victims by their abusers and threats not to disclose the abuse,” she said as an example. “So, without classes that address these topics, ignorance of them is reinforced.” Novisky also explained that she is particularly excited about the classes she is teaching talking about the deeper and societal issues regarding incarceration and prison in classes like prison and society – the new class that she has helped developed and that will be available next Fall. She hopes these classes will bring to light to students the unique problem of mass incarceration in the United States today. “We’ve invested SPRING 2018 | VINDICATOR 26


billions and billions of dollars with incarceration and punishment. But it’s no longer sustainable, so we need new minds, to come up with alternatives,” she said.

JAN EN E M . H O B BY DISCIPLINE Political Science YEARS @ CSU 19 years FAVORITE CLASS TO TEACH American Political Thought Dr. Jenene M. Hobby has not only taught at Cleveland State, she also has experience teaching at Case Western Reserve and Baldwin Wallace. However, she genuinely admits that the students at CSU are some of her favorite to teach. “CSU students are often juggling full-time school schedules, sometimes one or more jobs and oftentimes family responsibilities,” explained Hobby. “Given those pressures and demands and responsibilities that those students have to assume, they wind up caring a lot more, in my opinion, about their education and working harder and so I enjoy teaching them more because in my opinion they want it more.” At Cleveland State, Hobby teaches a range of different courses such as international politics, American political thought, politics for peaceful world change. She also says that no matter what major students are, she thinks these classes are very important for everyone to learn about. “They’re not only college students, but they are citizens and they have not only rights in a democratic republic, but they have responsibilities as well,” said Hobby. And we often forget that second part.” Dr. Hobby has always felt the need to tie in current events with whatever class she’s teaching, and whatever climate the country is currently experiencing, but she did notice a stronger focus from students in the last couple of years. When talking about the 2016 Election, she said, “We’ve had in the United States at least, a polarization of the two political parties so like with this last election, students were paying a bit more attention, I would say.” Along with other recent incidents such as the school shootings, Hobby said she had a chance to apply concepts such as rational thought to her class discussion in order to explain how legislators going about changing policy and the kind of pressures this can come with. 27 VINDICATOR | SPRING 2018

D R . AN U P KU MAR DISCIPLINE Journalism & Promotional Communication YEARS @ CSU 10 years FAVORITE CLASS TO TEACH Media, Law, & Ethics Dr. Kumar embraces every course as an opportunity to teach and to learn. “While I am in class and talking with students or telling them about something, I am myself learning something new,” Kumar said. “It is a continuous process of learning. You can very well assume that a class I was teaching ten years ago, I know more about today and not only know more in terms of quantity of information, but I have much

better critical insight from it because I am teaching. That insight only becomes deeper and deeper as I teach.” As a communications professor, he treats his position with intention and care since the course content is so not only valuable, but essential to all industries. “Speech is perhaps the foundation of everything. People understand both speech is right and speech is responsibility. If they understand that, that’s the basis of everything you do as an academic,” Kumar said. That is the purpose of education — to understand that process and a right and a responsibility.” Kumar is invested in not only the topics, but also the students. He is constantly learning about the current state of media and how students connect with


PHOTO CREDIT: ALEXIS ROSEN (LEFT) AND EVAN PRUNTY (RIGHT)

it. “Media is changing so fast, so that is the hardest part, how to make them engage with the material,” Kumar explained. “For that, you have to be connected and have some sense of what is happening in the youth culture. And for that, you need to talk with students, to know what they are thinking, how they look at the world, and what’s happening around them. It also tells you that you don’t realize their position unless you try to understand it from their position.” What motivates Kumar the most is the daily opportunity to provide students with a space to foster meaningful connections in knowledge and relationships. “Why do I do what I do? To let students know they have a space. They have a voice. They have been heard.”

D R . RI CHARD PERLO FF DISCIPLINE Communication YEARS @ CSU 38 years FAVORITE CLASS TO TEACH Persuasive Communication Dr. Richard Perloff, a professor at the Communications Department, teaches classes that expand beyond just the way we speak to one another in society. His background in psychology and politics has allowed him to bring certain courses to another level of understanding for the students. A lot of the classes he teaches, such as persuasive communication and social issues in the news talk about the intricate political, social and cultural issues we are experiencing today. For Perloff, it’s important to help students view the output of news through different lenses. “So you have people who are very much into their own media sphere, and the job is to try and help appreciate what that does to them, what their limits are,” said Perloff. “That is to say that, when you’re

teaching a course, you want to reach people where they are.” One thing that Dr. Perloff has taken away from teaching Cleveland State students all these years is that most students are open when talking about certain topics, and that there tolerance for different types of lifestyles and backgrounds – which often improves in-class discussion. During the 2016 presidential election, Dr. Perloff, like many professors, believed it was important to tie in what was happening in the world of politics to the classroom. “I think the challenge is to help people appreciate their attitudes and then also understand the other side,” Perloff said. Through his years of teaching, he said that he has learned humility and how appreciate where students are coming from. “I’m not the same teacher I was 20, 30 years ago,” Perloff said. “I’m much more appreciative of the fact that you can’t reach somebody unless you know who they are or what they want to do.” SPRING 2018 | VINDICATOR 28


A big task for professors teaching in the classroom, is making sure that the information in the textbooks is able to be applied and translated to the real world.

D R. ANTO N I O M ED I NA RIVERA DISCIPLINE World Languages & Linguistics YEARS @ CSU 19 years FAVORITE CLASS TO TEACH Sociolinguistics or Caribbean Culture For almost two decades, Cleveland State University has been Dr. Medina-Rivera’s home, where he has taught Spanish language, Latin American literature, and linguistics courses. A Puerto Rican native and sociolinguist, he is also the chair for the department of world languages, and feels that he has reached a happy balance between his love for teaching and his leadership capabilities. Dr. Medina-Rivera strives to ex29 VINDICATOR | SPRING 2018

pand his students’ perception of language learning into something dynamic and valuable. He emphasizes the importance of immersion and cultural acceptance. “It’s so easy to talk about multiculturalism, it’s so easy to talk about globalism, it’s so easy to talk about diversity—but if you don’t find a way to immerse yourself into the life of the other, you’re never going to understand,” he said. “But when you learn a language, when you learn about a culture, when you travel, when you’re in contact with people from that culture or country, you learn more about their issues and about the way they think about their problems.” For Medina-Rivera, language studies and linguistics are key mediums through which

students can understand tolerance and changes in society. Through his many years as a professor, he has perceived changes and differences between generations, as well as difficulties. “As a teacher you might have the temptation to do things the same way all the time” he said. Medina–Rivera also stresses the responsiveness of students and how some may even be resistant to anything but very traditional lecturing class structures. Although he has had a varied teaching career, Dr. Medina-Rivera says that his goal has always been to teach his students to think in a critical way. “My hope is that they’re getting something that will transform the way they think.”


D R . TH O MAS BYN U M

PHOTO CREDIT: EVAN PRUNTY

DISCIPLINE Black Studies YEARS @ CSU 1 year FAVORITE CLASS TO TEACH Introduction to Black Studies Dr. Bynum has earnestly taken up the position as director of Black Studies at CSU, starting in the Fall semester of 2017. Despite it being his first year in Cleveland, he has had a long and devoted career in African-American studies. He spent almost ten years at Middle Tennessee State University, where he worked as a tenured associate professor of history and as director of their Africana Studies program, which he helped transform into a major. He has since then made Cleveland his home and has many goals for the Black Studies program as its director, but still lists the introductory course as one of his favorites to teach. “I like that class because it allows me to kind of survey Black history and culture, to introduce students to aspects of Black history and culture,” he said. Because race issues and politics are as relevant today as they have been in the past, Dr. Bynum believes

Black Studies and history are increasingly important. “Black studies, like other cultural studies, add to the conversation about cultural literacy in this country,” he says. “I say that the past is always relevant, it’s always a good marker to indicate the future,” he said. In the current sociopolitical climate, Bynum recognizes the need for information in those he teaches. “I think that students are more curious about these issues because they see them unfolding on social media. So they’re looking for some kind of explanation, someone to make sense of it all.” He makes sure to make comparisons, to attempt to connect and make links to students’ own experiences and surroundings. However, he acknowledges that it can be a difficult topic for students to wrap their minds around: “We have to talk about that dark moment in our history, the ugly part of our history,” he explained. When discussing the hardest part of educating students on this topic, Bynum indicates that lack of knowledge on our nation’s history is what may hold them back. “When you begin to talk about it with students, it’s not

necessarily that students are resistant to it but it’s because they can’t even wrap their minds around some of the things that happened or fathom what happened.” The most rewarding aspect for him is the feeling that students take away something from his classes that will make them think and start conversations. While the past may seem insignificant to some, Dr. Bynum emphasizes that the events and people that comprise Black history carry weight even today. “It’s about affirming your humanity, as a person, as a human being, and that people can see that,” Bynum said. “You can see the light bulb come on, you can see their eyes widen as a result of [students] coming to this realization themselves.”

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DISCIPLINE Film & Digital Media YEARS @ CSU 2.5 years FAVORITE CLASS TO TEACH Film & Television Production 1 Professor Suglio has had a passion for films and storytelling nearly all his life, so working as a filmmaker and film educator naturally clicked. Because he understands the industry in Cleveland incredibly well, he made it his goal to instruct and equip students with the tools needed for success. He hopes to be able to one day work alongside them as peers. In addition to providing a wide range of skills, he also brings limitless encouragement and inspiration for personal growth. “You need to learn about who you are as a person to truly grow. Self-Awareness is key,” Suglio said. “You need to know what your strengths and weaknesses are and how 31 VINDICATOR | SPRING 2018

knowing this you can be successful in any field you choose.” Suglio is quick to invite students out of the classroom and into the field through volunteer opportunities at film festivals like the Ohio Independent Films Festival and his recently celebrated Short. Sweet. Film. Fest. As technology advances in tools to connect and capture, Suglio focuses his lessons on not only valuing high quality gear and creating massive amounts of content, but also emphasizes crafting stories that stand out. “I love when students have that ‘ah ha’ moment where what I have instructed, sometimes repeatedly, finally clicks and they see film making in a whole new light,” Suglio said.

When we enter college, the world becomes a lot wider when it comes to what we learn in the classroom.

M I CHAEL SUG LI O


D R . ELIZAB ETH B LY

PHOTO CREDIT: ARBELA CAPAS

DISCIPLINE Women & Gender Studies YEARS @ CSU 9 years FAVORITE CLASS TO TEACH Gender Communication Dr. Elizabeth Bly teaches women and gender studies courses and has recently taken on an expansion — gender and communication. Since her start at Cleveland State in 2009, like many professors, she’s experienced cultural shifts in the classroom, and most recently in particular with the newest change of administration. “People have a very different idea of gender studies,” Bly said. “It used to be that [students] would come into my 100 or 151 class and it would be a box they were checking off for general education requirements, and now I find they want to know the way in which gender and equality plays out.” In fact, Bly’s favorite part of teaching is engaging in discussions with students as opposed to solely relying on lecture-only structures in class. She feels that empowerment and people’s experience connecting to the material you’re learning is vital. “Everyone’s experiences are equally valid and contribute to the conversation — it’s not just about the professor as an expert,” said Bly. Her main goal is for students to utilize these learned concepts, theories and ideas and applying them in real life. “Being able to apply some of the theory we talk about and some of the open-endedness in gender is getting [students] to think about it when they’re out in the world meeting new people, and when they’re traveling the world,” Bly said. “It’s about learning and understanding, but also about action and how people respond with the knowledge that they have [learned].” Further, she also finds it important to give people tools to access information so they can remain critical of what they’re consuming and learning, especially since social media is such a pillar source of information for many young people. Being a critical thinker is necessary. “To me, the questions people raise are more important than their ability to answer questions for themselves and critically assessing them,” Bly said. “That to me is central to where we are right now, but really central to being just being an engaged citizen.”

D R. ZHAO DISCIPLINE Electrical Engineering & Computer Science YEARS @ CSU 14 years FAVORITE CLASS TO TEACH All of them! Originally from Beijing, China, Dr. Zhao began teaching at Cleveland State University after graduating with a Phd. in electrical and computer engineering from the University of California in Santa Barbara. He currently teaches a theoretical course called Secure and Dependable Computing Systems and a technical course called Mobile App Development. As a professor, Dr. Zhao has been working hard to create knowledge that advances the state of the arts and practices while educating and inspiring. In addition to teaching basic knowledge and skills, he encourages students to explore ways to use technology to address social issues. Outside of the classroom, Dr. Zhao is incredibly invested in researching technology-facilitated solutions for health-

care, particularly those related to mental health. He is currently building a system that aims to reduce lower-back injuries of nursing assistants working in nursing homes. The project was initially sponsored by the Ohio Bureau of Workers’ Compensation, and is now supported by a CSU/KSU TeCK Fund. The ultimate goal of the project is to build a commercially viable product that could save billions of dollars caused by lower-back injuries. In collaboration with two groups of colleagues at the Center of Behavioral Health Sciences, Dr. Zhao is currently working to develop two mobile apps to save lives by connecting drug treatment facilities and patients, and by monitoring the behavior of people in the process of drug recovery. Dr. Zhao’s favorite part about practicing and teaching electrical engineering and computer science is being able to inspire and guide students in hopes of making a difference in their lives.

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STRESS LESS

WITH YOGA Yoga is like a television show, it’s best to try various ones to find what works for you. // Chau Tang

Y

oga is used to calm your body. Your body moves with your breath.” At least, that is what some friends of mine would say. I was skeptical of yoga because it

seems so relaxing that you might fall asleep. I started Vinyasa yoga because the name seemed cool. I knew nothing about it at the

campus speaks about her experience with

10,000 years. Yoga was developed by the

yoga.

Indus-Sarasvati in India over 5,000 years

ago. The term yoga means “yoke,” which is

in high school. She played basketball and

interpreted as unity.

ran track and coaches wanted her team to

do yoga. She wasn’t into it at first but it took

Yoga is said to be beneficial for every-

Scafe started doing yoga when she was

one. It can help with your flexibility and

her awhile to enjoy it. She now uses it as a

since yoga has a lot to do with controlling

stress relief. “Power (yoga) is more faster

your breath, you can focus on it and try to

pace and I feel like it challenges not only my

body but my mind ‘cause I’m working a little faster. I love Vinyasa for slowing down,” she

It’s not a trend nor is it limited to one race.

I had to do because it required a lot of balance. I thought since I’ve done tap, ballet, gymnastics and karate that my balance would be fine. It turns out, I still needed practice. I wanted to do yoga to de-stress from my classes and it really did. My yoga teacher plays soothing music so it helps to focus.

clear your mind of anything you feel bur-

stress. Meditation, hiking, reading a book by

dened with. It is hard to completely clear

a fireplace or lighting candles while taking

your mind but maybe focus on something

a bath. People might be skeptical of doing

else, a positive feeling or a change in your

yoga because they wonder when they would

life.

even have the time for it. Five minutes out

of your day might not seem as much but if

are many types of yoga. For instance, there

you’re busy, it can be worth it. Ever wanted

is hot power yoga, yin yoga, hatha yoga,

to try yoga but wasn’t sure where to start?

restorative yoga, and vinyasa yoga. These

You can start now. Since, there are many

are just a few of many but these are great

types of yoga, you may not know where to

for beginners. Each type has different poses,

begin, or the true origins of yoga.

some more challenging than others.

33 VINDICATOR | SPRING 2018

Kaylee Scafe, CSU Psychology major,

other researchers may think it goes back

Granted, there were some challenging poses

There are many ways people can de-

Vinyasa Yoga and Power Yoga instructor on

time. After my first day, I was really relaxed.

According to Yogabasics.com, yoga

can be traced back over 5,000 years but

As I’ve stated in the beginning, there

states. She recommends Vinyasa yoga or a slow flow, a 45 minute class to get the basic structure for a beginner. Scafe uses Yogaglo, insight timer for meditation and calm. These are all apps you can take anywhere with you.

When people think of yoga, it’s possible

they think it’s a ‘white girl trend.’ It’s not a trend nor is it limited to one race. According to Elite Daily, Yoga: More Than A White Girl Trend written by Ally Batista, states, “Researchers have found that people had increased brain functions after taking yoga. The human brain excelled both speed-wise and accuracy-wise on brain functioning tests after just 20 minutes of Hatha yoga, compared with the benefits of aerobic exercise.” This is for anyone who wants to feel good about yourself.


Vinayasa Yoga

Restorative Yoga

Hatha Yoga

This is geared towards beginners. This type

If you’re feeling stressful for whatever the

This helps with strength training. There

focuses on the breath. Instructors will tell

reason may be, this can help with de-stress.

are more challenging standing poses. This

you when to exhale and inhale. You go with

Restorative yoga really gets you in the mood

requires balance so it may take time to get

the flow because you’re staying focused. One

of being deep in thought. Instead of being in

used to this. Burch explains, “It’s challenging

of the poses is called the Downward Dog,

your million thoughts while sorting out your

and promotes a deep sweat to help eliminate

this is a resting pose so you can stay in that

day, think about nothing but your breath.

toxins and encourage muscles and joints to

pose and take a break. This is an easy pose

This really helps you focus on your breath

stretch further and more deeply with a lower

for most, but you do this pose before you do a

and being in the moment. For me, It’s better

risk of injury.” If you want to challenge your-

challenging pose. Fear not, while this might

to meditate in silence but for others, you may

self while you sweat, this will be great.

seem it’s an easy type, you do break a sweat

want to listen to some peaceful music or look

with the flexibility and different poses. The

up soundscape sounds such as a waterfall.

poses may look easy but it requires balance.

Are you around Cleveland but aren’t sure where to go to try yoga? Here are a few you can visit!

ILLUSTRATIONS BY BETH ELLIOTT

Yin Yoga

Hot Power Yoga

If you’re looking to increase your flexibility,

It’s great for helping you lose weight. This

look no further. Sure, yoga in general is all

type of yoga can be intense because it will

about stretching your muscles but this is a

make you sweat. The flows may vary from

slower pace that includes a longer hold on

classes but the more you move, especially

your hips, pelvis and spine. You will hold

intensely, the temperature in the room

each deep stretch for three to five minutes

can increase. Linda Burch, yoga instructor

to “lengthen your beyond your muscle and

and owner of Hot Yoga Inc told Shape.com,

into your connective tissue by fascia.” as

“Power yoga is a fun, challenging, high-

stated by Shape. As I’ve read, it sounds like

energy, cardiovascular yoga class. A series

this can help any tightness in your muscles

of postures flow together to build strength,

you would like to see feel better. Don’t try to

improve balance, flexibility, stamina, and

push your body if you feel you’re doing more

concentration.” Since this heated class can

harm than good. Try to listen to your body

cause you to dehydrate, make sure you drink

to see what you are capable of. If you have a

plenty of water because the hydration level

hard time holding for five minutes then de-

can make or break your workout.

Puma Yoga 15602 Detroit Ave, Lakewood, OH 44107

Vision Yoga and Wellness 1861 W 25th St, Cleveland, OH 44113

Studio 11 in Tremont 2337 W 11th St, Cleveland, OH 44113

Inner Bliss Yoga Studio 1224 Huron Rd E, Cleveland, OH 44115

Atma Center - Yoga for EveryBody 2319 Lee Rd, Cleveland, OH 44118

crease the time limit. No matter how much you are aching, pushing yourself won’t make you feel better. SPRING 2018 | VINDICATOR 34


SLOW FASHION, FAST CHANGE Every stitch has a story. Every hem was created by a hand. How our clothing is made and why we should be more mindful consumers. // Alexis Rosen

E

verything comes at a cost. Most

pieces, usually made by smaller businesses

like. She was shocked and disgusted to

college students probably agree

and clothing designers. In opposition, fast

discover the reality was worse than she had

that sale racks of cheap clothes are

fashion is clothing that is mass produced

imagined.

the way to go. As the global world

with poor quality, often to supply the high

social media and shared information, more attention has been brought to the way products are produced — including clothing. Over the last few years, major name brands like H&M, Zara and Forever 21 have been busted for their harmful treatment of employees and the environment. Not only are their garment makers paid far below minimum or a living wage, if at all, but they are also forced to work in dangerous conditions. Countless factory fires have been caused overseas due to highly flammable dyes and textiles, leaving thousands dead and zero changes to increase safety implemented. A movement to bring awareness to

demands of a heavily materialistic society.

Thrown out clothing was piled high into mountains that children playfully climbed up. She spoke with locals about why the clothes were there like that. “In

Thrown out clothing was piled high into mountains that children playfully climbed up.

has become smaller through technology,

American fashion designer, Margaret

America, people do not have access to clean water to regularly wash their clothes,” a woman told her “that is why we must make so many clothes to send overseas.” In that moment, Burton understood exactly why the fashion industry is the second largest contributor to pollution on the planet. That wasn’t the first time Burton was left baffled by what happens behind the scenes in the fashion industry. As a summer intern in New York City, she was handed large boxes of unsold or usable clothing samples and told to go in the back and cut them up so no one could steal the designs. “As a fashion design student

these issues has recently erupted. It is

Burton, has dedicated her career to

at the time, cutting up beautiful bound

the Slow Fashion Movement. Slow and

increasing awareness of the fast fashion

seams and complicated details was painful

fast fashion refer to the way clothing

industry through education of the slow

because I knew that for whoever sewed

is produced. Focusing on quality over

fashion movement. She even traveled

the garments, it wasn’t easy. So, I began

quantity, slow fashion advocates for fairly

to India to find out for herself just what

researching how common this was, if there

made clothes and more finely produced

the conditions of clothing factories were

were alternatives, why people were doing it

35 VINDICATOR | SPRING 2018


QUALITY > QUANTITY QUALITY > QUANTITY QUALITY > QUANTITY QUALITY > QUANTITY QUALITY > QUANTITY QUALITY > QUANTITY QUALITY > QUANTITY QUALITY > QUANTITY QUALITY > QUANTITY QUALITY > QUANTITY QUALITY > QUANTITY QUALITY > QUANTITY QUALITY > QUANTITY QUALITY > QUANTITY QUALITY > QUANTITY QUALITY > QUANTITY QUALITY > QUANTITY

this way. That lead me to the overall waste

behind Aware sprouted from education.”

problem, which is because there is such a

Kayza said.

high demand on new designs every month

overnight — but, it is more important than ever that this happens for the sake of our

production, the more I wanted change.

planet and the people on it. As a society,

And the more I learned about GMOs and

we need to wake up and be aware of the

that often leads people to believe that more

unethical practices with meat production,

destructive systems currently in place to

material equals more happiness. Matt

the more I started to think about the

fuel shallow materialistic mentalities. It is

Walsh from the Huffington Post broke down

clothing and cosmetics I wear and use on

time we began wearing mindfulness instead

this trend, “That’s our entire economic

a daily basis. This opened up my mind

of cheap clothing because it may not cost a

system: buy things. Everybody buy. It

to animal by-products and slave labor in

lot for us in America, but someone is paying

doesn’t matter what you buy. Just buy. It

factories. I didn’t want to buy that crap

for it overseas.

doesn’t matter if you don’t have money.

anymore but I found a lack of accessibility

Just buy. Our entire civilization now rests on

to the products I wanted. Which meant

Burton and Aware Marketplace, check out

the assumption that, no matter what else

everyone who was interested had a lack of

the links listed below.

happens, we will all continue to buy lots

accessibility. I wanted to change that.”

www.margaret-burton.com

or so, rather than just for two seasons.”

Consumerism has created a mentality

and lots of things. Buy, buy, buy, buy, buy.

Since opening Aware, Kayza has

And then buy a little more. Don’t create, or

received immense positive feedback which

produce, or discover — just buy.”

she credits to her philosophy to be honest

So now, slow fashion advocates are

about products sold. “I believe a huge part

working to cut and restitch the fabric of

of who we are connects people in many

this fundamental belief. Today, Burton’s

different ways because we are transparent.

mission in the fashion industry is to educate

We share who our makers are and what

and bring awareness to changes that can be

they are offering to the world. We work

made to live a more conscientious lifestyle.

with small businesses all over the U.S. We

She makes one of a kind designs using high

connect our customers with the source of

quality materials so they last a long time

their goods and to us, that’s pretty cool.”

and can’t be replicated. Recently, she began

Kayza understands that fairly made

teaching high school students how to sew.

products may seem too expensive and out

One of her favorite parts of the job has been

of reach, but insists that there are many

witnessing the a-ha moment of how much

amazing and affordable makers out there,

goes into making one piece of clothing.

like The Garment Life. She also believes that

Little by little, she hopes for shoppers to

supporting slow fashion requires a mental

realize that for every stitch holding your

adjustment.

shirt sleeves, pant legs, and jacket pockets

PHOTO CREDITS: LEFT: ALEX TAN RIGHT: MARGARET BURTON

“The more I learned about food

Change takes time and doesn’t happen

“Slow Fashion is a lifestyle. You

together, there is a person responsible.

won’t walk into a store and buy 7 pieces of

Like Burton, more and more small

clothing like Forever21 or Urban Outfitters.

shops and designers are emerging, sharing

You don’t need that! You have to pay

this message. Rachel Kayza, owner of

attention to your needs,” Kayza said.

Aware Marketplace in downtown Cleveland,

Believe me, you’ll feel the reward after you

opened her storefront in November 2017

wash the piece a few times and it doesn’t

after being a lifelong dream. “The idea

need to be tossed due to the poor quality.”

Margaret Burton’s Trip to a clothing factory in India

For more information about Margaret

www.awaremarketplace.com

SLOW FASHION BRANDS + DESIGNERS Artisella in Toronto WM Goods Moorea Seal Hazel and Rose Esby Apparel Winsome Goods Jamie and the Jones Elizabeth Suzann Uniform Handmade Conrado LACUSA Mate the Label ABLE Knot Sisters Free Label Groceries Apparel Reformation Vetements

Alex Tan captures Burton at work in her studio

SPRING 2018 | VINDICATOR 36


SELF CARE IN MEN Men need to be encouraged to care for themselves as much as women, but it seems like the self-care movement is still gendered because of the way we view masculine and feminine roles. // Imani Stephens

M

en are taught to be strong,

baking, or taking a bath without people

pretty bath bomb to soak in next. Those

to be leaders, to not cry

trying to steal their entire masculinity away

things feel good and are fun to do, but they

or participate in socially

from them. Self care is doing activities that

sometimes cannot make up for the lack of

constructed “feminine”

bring you peace to help you get away from

love we must give ourselves on the inside to

activities or else they will be

the stressors in your life. Men should not

truly feel good. Men oftentimes get looked

seen as “weak.” However, men are human

have to forfeit this because the world has

at strangely when they do things such as

beings. We, as a society, can not take away

socialized us to feel like they have to be our

getting their nails manicured, because

their feelings and replace them with inhu-

saviours.

others might call them ‘gay’ for exhibit-

manity. They deserve to be able to indulge in therapeutic activities such as crying, 37 VINDICATOR | SPRING 2018

It should be noted that self-care is not just fancy face masks or choosing which

ing a traditionally-feminine interest and say things like only “females do things


like that.” For a man to be gay, he must be

well. Suppressing your emotions can lead

labels them as weak and over emotional

attracted to those of the same sex. Doing

to a downward spiral of your mental health

this is why women are more frequently

these type of activities alone does not make

and other terrible malfunctions to the body,

going to counseling than men. If men are

one gay, and the usage of that word in such

which is clearly the opposite of self care. It

given a platform or even told it is okay to

a context contributes to stigma surrounding

is important to ask men if they are okay or

talk about their feelings then they could

the gay community. Society pushes women

to encourage them to see counselors and go

possibly be happier and more self aware of

to go out and get their nails done, makes

get check ups.

their actions.

pointments, etc. The same expectations do not seem to be placed on men. Compared to the average woman, men are half as likely to go to the doctor over a 2-year period, according to 2014 survey data collected by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Physically, you do not have to be the most muscular guy in the room to be the “manliest.” What is on the inside matters the most. Actively going to your doctors appointments and having sexual health check ups, or just general health is practicing healthy self-care practices. This in turn helps yourself and helps whoever you have contact with whether it be a relationship or friendship. Society needs to switch the pressure off of men positioning them with the need to be ‘most superior’. It’s okay to fully and actively check on yourself in every form. It doesn’t make you weak, it makes you stronger. Gender roles in society are often cultural norms that might become amplified or taken out of context. Many men think that it is feminine to know how to cook and clean. Knowing how to take care of yourself or seeking the knowledge to be able to do so can contribute to your desired manlihood. You’re more independent when you know how to do things that will help with your survival. These tasks are not just for women alone they bring men joy and relief as well. Eliminating the gender norms from society could be a breathe of fresh air for many. Gender norms are social roles that are supposedly given to each sex. If society would lay up on making people feel like there are specifics things they must to be considered a man then true relaxation could occur. If the world continues to disable men from expressing their emotions or partaking in activities that are traditionally perceived

PHOTO BY EVAN PRUNTY

as less masculine, then people are going to never be comfortable with themselves. With uncomfortability of oneself come a series of other factors like depression and anxiety. Men get depressed too which it seems that society has a hard time believing. Men have the capacity and ability for deep feelings as

Counseling is a beneficial factor in

We can reflect on social media to see if

relieving stress and dealing with one’s

it is a positive or negative when it comes to

emotions. Often times people think it is

men being afraid to show their femininity.

Will Smith, the famous actor most notably remembered for his role of Will, a leading

It should be noted that self-care is not just fancy face masks or choosing which pretty bath bomb to soak in next.

sure they make all of their doctors’ ap-

taboo to attend counseling. The worst thing to do is to think that you have everything under control. Friends and family are good support systems but they might not be able to listen as effectively as a therapist can. It should be time to erase the stigma that you are “crazy” if you go to counseling. This is not true. Men and women can go to counseling just to have someone to talk to. Life gets hard and venting with a ear to listen can do wonders for many factors of

your mental health. Often times depression,

character on “Fresh Prince of Bel Air,” wore leopard print pants in the 90’s and never was scrutinized for his feminine dress appearance. Recently, Smith’s son Jaden Smith wore similar pants and the internet broke with constant blogs harassing him for his self expression through his clothing. Jaden himself even says “when I wore my leopard pants everyone laughed at me and said I was gay.” The problem is the lack of understanding when it comes to what society feels is the right way to be or dress. Self care is self expression. It does not matter if you want to dye your hair blonde or enjoy a day at the spa that is how you choose to bring joy to your life. When you love yourself and are comfortable in your skin, you spend less time downgrading others or worrying what they might say. This positive emotional health is especially vital for men. Things build up, life gets hard and it is perfectly okay to do the things that bring you joy. There seems to be this unknown rule everyone follows that they think that showing emotions are expressing themselves is not normal. It seems to be out of fear of being judged or they believe people just do not care. To keep your thoughts in or to follow a set of rules that others have made up for you is not ideal. Now, in 2018, it is best to change the idea of what people feel is normal. Men do not have to walk around saving the day all the time. They are allowed to cry and be vulnerable, because these are all human emotions.

anxiety or other personality disorders can make it hard for men especially to go to counseling. The first step to dealing with this is actually acknowledging that men too can get depressed and have a number

WAYS TO GAIN POSITIVE MENTAL HEALTH •

Meditating

inside. Men are seen to be strong therefore

Yoga

their emotions are frequently swept under

Talking to a counselor

Finding a hobby

of other problems they are facing on the

the rug and unacknowledged. As women are seen to be sensitive and delicate society

SPRING 2018 | VINDICATOR 38


OUR PLASTIC WORLD

Despite single-use plastic products making life more convenient, an increasing reliance on them in the last few decades has become a serious threat to the oceans, marine life and even human health // Alana Whelan

T

he people who discovered and invented the first plasticlike materials could not have predicted the scale at which humans use and discard plastic now, in 2018. This rapid increase in the reliance of single-use plastics has quickly become a significant problem, though many overlook that to avoid the hassle of having to think about “yet another obstacle” that doesn’t directly affect their everyday lives (currently). With the world population continuously rising, and the fast-paced lifestyles of people in developed countries, it is no surprise that the use of plastic has grown vastly since its discovery. Despite how convenient singleuse plastics can be, they are a dangerous sign for the planet.

The History of Plastic

The first plastic materials, such as Parkesine and Polystyrene, were created and discovered by scientists in the mid 1800s — a little over 150 years ago. Plastic use slowly increased after its discovery, 39 VINDICATOR | SPRING 2018

and, due mostly to its versatility, it became an important staple in a number of inventions — from toys and home appliances to clothing and technology, humans found a use for plastic in almost anything. The first man-made plastic, Parkesine, wasn’t introduced to the public until 1862. Then, in the early 1900s, cellophane came into the picture. These inventions paved the way for other inventions like Saran wrap, then Tupperware, plastic garbage bags, and the list goes on. However, much of these products were not widely used until later in the twentieth century. In fact, as recent as the 1950s, it was a spectacle to see when that one neighborhood kid got a plastic match box car (which for most kids at the time, were made out of metal). Though 1950 may seem like a long time ago, in the whole of human history, the time span from 1950 to 2018 is an extremely short amount of time. What may be even more surprising is that, according to EcoWatch — a leading environmental news site — humans have disposed of

more plastic in the last 10 years than in the entire last century.

Contaminating the Oceans

Out of all the plastic produced every year, only about 10% of the 300 million tons of it actually gets recycled. The other 90% goes into landfills, is incinerated, or gets swept into the oceans. Only 20% of that plastic waste comes from illegal dumping by boats, while the other 80% comes from litter, plastic manufacturers or sewage, and can be carried by wind or rain to the ocean. According to BBC Earth, all the plastic in the oceans combined covers about one fourth of the Earth’s surface, and scientists estimate that nearly 8.5 billion kg (equal to more than 187 billion pounds) is dumped or swept into the sea each year. Most of this plastic accumulates in the five major gyres of the ocean, which are formed from the combination of the Earth’s rotation and wind patterns, creating a system of circular ocean currents. The North Pacific Gyre is also often referred to as the Great Pacific Garbage Patch,


where there is thought to be at least three million tons of plastic collected at the center. However, not all of this plastic is visible. Plastic is not biodegradable, which means it cannot be absorbed by the natural environment around it, but it can photodegrade from being exposed to the sun — a process by which plastic breaks down into millions of tiny, toxic pieces called microplastics. These microplastics can then be easily swallowed by fish, seabirds and other marine creatures. So much plastic is going into the ocean that it is having an enormous effect on the individual lives of the animals who call the ocean their home — harming those species who are so vital to it’s biodiversity. The way marine animals are affected by plastic waste itself is extensive. According to BBC Earth, around one million seabirds, and 100,000 marine mammals die as a result of digesting, choking or being caught in plastic each year. Many swallow whole plastics, like pieces of water bottles and packaging, and it has become uncommon to find a fish or seabird who hasn’t swallowed or ingested a micro-plastic somehow. Entanglement

Humans are eating waste that they created in the first place.

in fishing equipment is yet another issue with plastics in the ocean. World Wildlife Fund estimates that almost 1,000 whales, dolphins and porpoises are killed by fishing nets and gear every day — that’s more than 300,000 each year — not even including the millions of other species who rely on the sea to live. Evidently, this increasing reliance on convenience is not so convenient to the other species humans share the Earth with — and in truth, is not so convenient for humans either.

A Threat to Our Health

Though plastic was created to make the lives of humans easier, it has actually caused a significant amount of problems when it comes to human health. Plastic production requires a variety of chemicals and oils, which release toxins into the air during and after production. Plastic also acts like a sponge for other chemicals in the ocean — toxic waste that is frequently dumped in the oceans can latch onto plastics and plastic particles, making them an even more dangerous threat to marine life and humans. The chemical that poses the most threat to humans is called bisphenol A, more commonly known as BPA, which has been used to make certain plastics since the 1960s. This chemical is used widely in the making of single-use water bottles and is found in the linings of most canned foods. According to EcoWatch, Americans throw away about 35 billion plastic water bottles every year — and a large portion of that ends up in the ocean. These plastics then photodegrade into millions of tiny beads, and inadvertently get ingested by fish, birds and other marine life. After one fish swallows the beads, they can get passed from fish to fish and eventually, can end up on the dinner plates of humans. According to BBC Earth, In Europe, the average seafood-eating person consumes up to 11,000 plastic particles every year. This is bad news for people who enjoy seafood, or even those who occasionally eat it. According to National Geographic, BPA has been found to interfere with reproductive systems, cause hormone disruption, contribute to high blood pressure and can be associated with heart disease and miscarriage. Even without eating seafood, the chemicals found in plastic still pose a substantial threat to people. The plastic linings of canned food usually contain BPA, and though people don’t eat the cans themselves, the chemicals from the linings can leach into the food. Essentially — from fish with stomachs full of plastic particles, to chemical-contaminated water — humans are eating waste that they created in the first place. Without plastic, life would not be the same as it is today. The benefits of convenience would have been sacrificed for the health of the marine creatures in the ocean, the stability of the ocean itself, and the well-being of the human race. It is undeniable that the amount of plastic discarded today is excessive and unnecessary, and it is important to remember that alternatives exist. Finding ways to reduce waste can make an extraordinary impact, even with something as simple as switching to a reusable water bottle. Being conscious of the impact humans are leaving on the Earth is a necessary first step toward a healthier, more sustainable planet.

DROWNING IN PLASTIC

Only 20% of plastic is dumped illegally

The average seafood–eating person consumes up to 11,000 plastic particles every year

BPA is a toxic plastic regularly used to line canned food

SPRING 2018 | VINDICATOR 40


D N O BEY the Is personal branding really worth risking mental health? // Grace Roberson

S

ocial media encourages, if not pressures, its users to present their lives as if they’re looking through rose-tinted glasses. Happy, bright, clean,

and colorful. While Millennials are known for their social activism, they are also known for creating the concept of personal branding. Social media has become less about self expression and more about marketing yourself. It’s no longer a matter of who you are, but what you do — what you’re wearing, what you’re eating or drinking, where you’re going to do all of the aforementioned activities, and how you choose to share it. I’ve noticed this trend over the past couple of years since I started college. My Instagram feed started to look different. Profiles and their content started to change drastically. Instead of sporadic, unedited photos, I started seeing more sharp, carefully constructed photos. Perfectionism has integrated itself into the world of sharing. Rather than having our identities be malleable, our identities have to stay consistent, with every perfect square that is uploaded the moment we click “Publish.” Components of everyday life that are considered mundane and not given much thought by other generations are crucial to Millennials and personal branding — like food, clothes, culture (what we’re reading, listening to, or watching), and physical activity. For social media purposes, all of those things are carefully decided and have to factor into our desired personal brand — specificity is key. But the most important part of personal branding is stylistic and aesthetic choices — most feeds have color schemes or their content has a certain theme. It all boils down to how we want to

41 VINDICATOR | SPRING 2018


be seen. However, there is a line to be drawn

relates to perfectionism and social media,

titled “The Future of You.” Premuzic,

results in an individual exhibiting high

a professor of business psychology at

between our ideal selves and our true

levels of self-monitoring. Perfectionistic

University College London and Columbia

selves. With the rise of personal branding,

self-presenters are able to monitor and

University, took a different approach to

there has also been a rise of stress in

manipulate themselves to the point

personal branding, comparing people to

Millennials.

of creating a more favorable image of

businesses.

“The stress of creating a consistent brand at the risk of not attracting employers can also lead to young adults

themselves or a more appealing lifestyle on social media. Instagram’s prominence has gradually

Premuzic said.

being too afraid to show any part of

risen over the past couple of years. And

their identity online,” wrote Samantha

with its growing popularity has come

activity really add up to something bigger

Fernandes of The Huffington Post Canada,

more features — including the option

or perhaps beneficial, or does it create a

who published the 2013 article “Is Personal

to switch from a personal to business

damaging, unhealthy inner narrative? Social

Branding Necessary to Millennials?”

account, Instagram stories, and more fonts

media is only as real as we believe or want

and customization options for stories.

it to be. Though it rarely mirrors reality,

By adding more features, the platform is

it still plays a large role in our culture. In

Emily Hellmann, did an extensive study on perfectionism and social media. Her research, titled Keeping Up Appearances: Perfectionism and Perfectionistic SelfPresentation on Social Media, explores the dimensions of perfectionism, the concept of self-presentation, and their correlation to social media use. Hellmann found in her research that there are two types of perfectionism: positive and negative. Other researchers have also referred to them as normal and neurotic, or adaptive and maladaptive. According to Hellmann, “the distinction between the two types of perfectionism begins with the understanding that perfectionism is not only a manner of behaving but also a manner of thinking about the behavior.” Hellmann chose to examine normal and neurotic perfectionism. With normal

self-branding includes “removing all non-

The “nonessentials,” the moments without the edits, are what make us human.

perfectionism, individuals are motivated to do their best but are not paralyzed by a fear of failure. Those driven by normal perfectionism take pleasure from the effort

pushing its users to be more creative and

they are putting into their work and “feel

take their individuality to the next level.

the need to be less precise as the situation

While this isn’t necessarily a bad thing, it

permits.”

still creates pressure. The more creative

Neurotic perfectionism, however, has

freedom these social media platforms give,

quite the opposite effect. Even the best

the more pressure there is to maintain our

efforts are not satisfactory, and this results

consistent online identities. The filters and

in attempting to achieve an impossible,

fonts make everything more personal, and

higher level of personal performance. The

the decisions that go into a brand more

consequences of this mindset are reflected

crucial.

upon the perfectionist’s mental health; they

“Welcome to a new era of work, where

are left feeling anxious, or in more extreme

your future depends on being a signal

cases, emotionally drained before starting a

in the noisy universe of human capital.

new task.

In order to achieve this, you will need

The need to maintain a consistent

But does enterprising personal

his article, Premuzic stated that strong

In 2016, Depaul University student

PHOTO CREDITS: NATHAN DUMLAO, FILTER BY ANNA OPRISCH

“We are all busy, but the only activity that really matters is enterprising activity,”

to master three things: self-branding,

online identity relates to the concept

entrepreneurship, and hyperconnectivity,”

of self-presentation, or perfectionistic

wrote Tomas Chamorro-Premuzic in a 2013

self-presentation. Self-presentation, as it

article for the Harvard Business Review,

essentials from your public reputation.” How far is one willing to go to make everything seem perfect, to the point of sacrificing sanity? We now live in a world where every moment is documented or shared to an extensive (and arguably excessive) degree. Sure, someone’s Instagram page may be aesthetically pleasing and fun to look at, but what’s more interesting is what we don’t see - the life beyond the filter and the person who leads it. The messy hair, the unmade bed with mismatched pillowcases, the empty plates, the latte with a sip already taken out of it, the smile that doesn’t have the brightness, saturation, and contrast adjusted. The “non-essentials,” the moments without the edits, are what make us human.


DO W N LOA D & DE–STRESS In honor of Stress Awareness Month, we’re encouraging you to pull out your phones and check out our favorite health and wellness apps. // Alexis Rosen


R

each for your phone. Didn’t have to reach far? Or maybe yours was already in your hand, too. There is no slowing down the growth of technology that is transforming

daily right before our eyes. Phone use has been tied to causing major stress… but what if it’s just because we aren’t using them the best way. The app store currently holds over 180 billion apps and counting — and more and more are being created for reasons outside of entertainment, productivity and perfect Instagram edits. Tools for mental and physical support now are literally in the palm of our hands. Here is a list of favorites.

also book a selected session right through the app. Mindbody is connected with all things self care, from boxing to acupuncture to facials. The workout class promotions also are a great way to meet people in the community with shared interests.

good morning text from Shine. You can also hand select more good vibes from a library of hundreds of uplifting audio messages, guided meditation, and productivity tips and support. This is seriously self care on a screen and totally life giving.

Nike+ Run Club

Happify

Stay motivated to run on the regular through this app’s motivating trophies and badges to celebrate new achievements. Nike thought of everything because this app has a built in gps to track runs, audio guided workouts and weekly and monthly global challenges to stay motivated. There are even customizable coaching plans to help track progress and reach goals.

This gaming app comes with major real life rewards. You can increase your happiness by simply playing Happify’s activities and games. Founded by two prior online game owners, this app was designed to combine the effects of mindfulness, positive psychology, and play. This app is rooted in science to develop and build emotional skills, while overcoming stress and negative thoughts. Not only are there build in on screen games, but also off screen activities that users has said made a massive difference over a short period of time.

TO REST

TO MEDITATE Headspace

Sleep Cycle Alarm Clock

Increase relaxation, decrease stress, and improve focus with Headspace’s guided meditations. This app has a variety of audio options to fit your goals, from taking a moment to unwind during the day to decompressing to fall asleep. The in-app notifications help create a motivation to check in each day and be mindful, and the app not only helps you meditate, but also teaches you through fun illustrations the many benefits of doing it. There are 10 free sessions to test it out, followed by the option to subscribe for $13 a month or $96 a year.

Say goodnight to waking up groggy because your alarm went off right in the good part of your dream. By analyzing your sleep through sounds and vibrations, this alarm clock will wake you up when you’re out of a deep dream by going off in your lightest sleep phase during a set window of time. The app can even measure your snoring now to see just how rested you are.

Aura Keep it simple while practicing self love and acceptance with Aura’s three-minute meditations. It changes every day and each one is personalized based on your interest in mindfulness, age, stress levels, and optimism levels. In addition to providing guided meditations, there’s also a gratitude prompt and Mindful Breather, a guide for synchronizing breathe to an animated circle. The coolest part about Aura is that was created specifically to reduce anxiety, depression, and stress.

Offtime Do you ever feel like you never can fully focus because of the pinging sound of your phone? Offtime is here to fix that. Designed by a team of psychologists in collaboration with the Humboldt University of Berlin, this app was created to help unplug without missing urgent messages. It acts as a personal assistant by sending built in auto responses to messages, while making a careful and quick log of what was missed while gone. It also generates insight of phone use by charting how many hours are spent using it and which apps suck up the most time. To use it, you simply select how much time you want to spend “off” and the app will block all notifications until you return.

TO EXERCISE TO INSPIRE

Mindbody This app is a win all around. By entering your zip code, it shows local fitness, wellness, and even spa sessions in your area for a bargain price. Not only does it discover deals, but can

TO NOURISH Plant Nanny Sometimes a little motivation to do the basic part of life helps — like drinking water. Plant Nanny encourages getting enough H2O with a cute growing animated plant. It’s like having a Tamagotchi pet — except instead of you taking care of it, it reminds you take care of yourself. Because a lack of water can throw off your mental and physical state, this helps keep you healthy and active on the reg. To use this app, simply enter your height, weight, and activity level, then it will tell you how much you need to drink every day. From there, pick the plant you want to grow to keep your plant and body happy and nourished by tapping a little circle for every cup you drink.

Prepear Getting regular healthy meals in can be tricky. Prepear is a total hero because it saves time and money while condensing your grocery list and weekly meal plan. It even holds a huge digital cookbook to bring inspiration for new dishes. This app is extremely helpful with organizing and increasing health by helping to shop smarter, create meal plans faster, organize your pantry, and discover delicious recipes.

Shine This is literal sunshine bottled into an app. Start everyday off on the right foot with a positive SPRING 2018 | VINDICATOR 44


Every Morning

Every morning, I feel you singing, my creators. You offer me days. I’ll sense your messages from my heart.

PHOTO CREDIT: UNSPLASH

By Joy Yayoi McKinney


Resident By Jacob Irey

Vigilant. watch them. grow, decay, decompose. f a l l from the web cushioned in an open grave

PHOTO CREDIT: GOOGLE IMAGES

I have starved so many nights, in wait seeking those I cannot see while they wrest from my grasp dancing among the winds

MARCH 2017 | VINDICATOR 19


The Vindicator - Spring 2018  
The Vindicator - Spring 2018  
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