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The Resilient Skills Borders Traditional Project

Konstantinos Dimopoulos + Ben Murphy

+ Programme and Place + Prospectus + Prototype

Edinburgh School of Architecture and Landscape Architecture M.Sc. Advanced Sustainable Design 2016

Classroom Block Cafe Block Workshop Block Storage Pond Hydo Pipeline Existing Buildings

The aim of this project is to provide a remedy to the lack of traditional skilled talent in the Scottish Borders with a training centre. As well as providing services to increase unemployment and improve the energy efficiency of the buildings in the local area. Why a training centre? • 450,000 traditionally constructed building (Historic Scotland, 2011) • 20,000 are employed in maintaining heritage buildings (Historic Scotland, 2011). • 35% of construction sector is in repair and maintenance (Historic Scotland, 2011) • Annual recruitment of 1,430 is required for the built environment (Historic Scotland, 2011) • One million deep retrofits are required a year (Green Building Council, 2015

Other Resilient Borders 2016 Projects + Textile Centre + Textile Community Centre + Mobile Kids + Borders Design Incubator + Wellbeing Centre and Market + Borders Visual Landscape Centre + Borders Water + Skills Traditional + Open Textile

Edinburgh School of Architecture and Landscape Architecture MSc Programmes in Advanced Sustainable Design

Why here? • Unemployment in is Galashiels 5.9% (Scotland’s Census, 2010). • A number of houses in Galashiels are of traditionally built and many area empty. • 10 minutes from Tweedbank Station therefore 60 minutes from Edinburgh. • Close to Boarders Campus and a direct pathway will strengthen link. • It take 2 months for a third of people to gain skilled labour (Historic Scotland, 2011) • Jean Muir student village can provide accommodation. • The Gas works site has minimal environmental value. What does it provide? • Large fully enclosed project area in the Gas Storage Tank • Workshop teaching facilities • Classrooms • Café and Food Hall • Office & Reception in old existing building • Hydro Power Plant • Sewage Heat recovery

Exhibitio

Borders College Tweedbank Station Walkway Site location

Project B

Sewage Recover

Permeab Programme Proposition Classroom Block Cafe Block

Receptio

Cafe & F

Workshop Block Storage Pond Hydo Pipeline Existing Buildings

Classroo

Stop t

The dow

council h


The Resilient Skills Borders Traditional Project

Konstantinos Dimopoulos + Ben Murphy

+ Programme and Place + Prospectus + Prototype

Stop the Flood. The downfall to being so close to the Gala water is the risk of flooding. However the last time the area flooded was in the 90’s. The local council has already put in reassures to reduce flooding in the area but the floodwall finishes short of the site. The site is however protected by the banks of the old railway, which surrounds three side of the site. However due to climate change further measure should also be put into place, a Edinburgh School of Architecture and Landscape Architecture more naturalinway than continuing this flood wall is installing MSc Programmes Advanced Sustainable Design an offline storage pond (SEPA, 2015). When floodwater rises to a certain level the will enter via a side weir to the storage pond to hold the water while the river level is raised. When waters go below the weir level then the vertical lift gate can be lifted releasing the water back into the river (JC Ack-ers, 2009).

The Resilient Borders Project Prospectus Document

Skills Traditional

Volumetric Proposition Exhibition Area

Skills Traditional

Walkway

Edinburgh School of Architecture and Landscape Architecture M.Sc. Advanced Sustainable Design 2016

Volumetric Proposition Grinder Crane Support

Volumetric Proposition

Other Resilient Borders 2016 Projects + Textile Centre + Textile Community Centre + Mobile Kids + Borders Design Incubator + Wellbeing Centre and Market + Borders Visual Landscape Centre + Borders Water + Skills Traditional + Open Textile

Roof Providing

TheSheltered Resilient Borders Project Space Prospectus Document

Edinburgh School of Architecture and Landscape Architecture Borders MSc Programmes in College Tweedbank Station Advanced Sustainable Design

Project Build Area

Delivery Access Shower/WC

Sewage Heat Recovery

Workshop

Exhibition Area

Permeable Paving

Material Storage

Reception

Borders College Tweedbank Station Walkway

Cafe & Food Hall

Roof Providing Sheltered Space

Crane Area Pathway from Borders College

Classrooms

Grinder Crane Support

Stop the Flood. Project Build Area

The downfall to being so close to the Gala

Delivery Access Shower/WC

council has already Sewage Heat put in reassures to reduce

Workshop

Recovery

short of the site. The site is however protected by the banks of the old railway which surrounds Permeable Paving three side of the site. However due to climate change further measure should also be put Reception into place, a more natural way than continuing

Cafe & Food Hall

a certain level the will enter via a side weir to the storage pond to hold the water while the river level is raised. When waters go below the weir Classrooms level then the vertical lift gate can be lifted releasing the water back into the river (J C Ackers, 2009).

Stop the Flood.

The downfall to being so close to the Gala

Material Storage Up Flow River

Side Weir

Off-line Storage Pond

Vertical Lift Gate

Outlet Pipe Down Flow river

Crane Area Pathway from Borders College

page two


The Resilient Skills Borders Traditional Project

Konstantinos Dimopoulos + Ben Murphy

+ Programme and Place + Prospectus Classroom Classroom + Prototype Block Block Classroom Classroom Block

Classroom Block Plan

Workshop Block Plan

Workshop Block IT Room

Seminar Room 1 Classroom Classroom

Seminar RoomIT2Room

WC

IT Room

Seminar Room 1 Plant Room Seminar Room 1

Seminar Room 2

WC

Seminar Room 2

WC

Plant Room Plant Room

Workshop Block Workshop Block

Large Workshop

Large Workshop Large Workshop

Cafe Block

Cafe Block CafĂŠ Block Plan Cafe Block Dinning Space

WC

WC

Dinning Space

WC

Kitchen Dinning Space

Kitchen Kitchen

Other Resilient Borders 2016 Projects + Textile Centre + Textile Community Centre + Mobile Kids + Borders Design Incubator + Wellbeing Centre and Market + Borders Visual Landscape Centre + Borders Water + Skills Traditional + Open Textile Edinburgh School of Architecture and Landscape Architecture M.Sc. Advanced Sustainable Design 2016

Large Workshop

Large Workshop

WC Large Workshop

Large Workshop

WC

Large Workshop

Large Workshop

WC


The Resilient Skills Borders Traditional Project

Konstantinos Dimopoulos + Ben Murphy

+ Programme and Place + Prospectus + Prototype

Other Resilient Borders 2016 Projects + Textile Centre + Textile Community Centre + Mobile Kids + Borders Design Incubator + Wellbeing Centre and Market + Borders Visual Landscape Centre + Borders Water + Skills Traditional + Open Textile Edinburgh School of Architecture and Landscape Architecture M.Sc. Advanced Sustainable Design 2016

Prototype Natural Module

Aims The proposal is to produce a building that will be used as an education resource to show how traditional methods for construction can be used in connection with modern methods of construction, as well as a cafĂŠ for the Skills Traditional Centre. Therefore, all elements and connections will be left visible where possible to allow for visual learning. Furthermore, many different types of material and methods will be used, again to provide a visual learning experience. As a result of traditional building material being used, the building will have a vernacular nature, this will be followed with the choice of modern materials where required. The building will be modular to allow to for easy deconstruction and reconstruction. Also the workshop area will allow for pre-construction on-site. The module for the cafĂŠ is the one I am going to focus on in particular. Prefabrication An Element or planar system is defined as linear or 2D components in the form of assemblies of structural frames and wall panels, Where a Modular system is 3D fully constructed Element normally including services where applicable. When using a planar system, it has been predicted to save between 15- 25% in investment value and 20%-30% in construction time. The prefabrication of units means that there is a possibility deconstructed and reconstructed without having to change form. This means that building element can be reused rather than being recycled. Pre-fabrication can be undertaken on-site once the building of the roofed workshop place is complete. This strategy helps to keep labour recruitment within the local area with all the benefits of prefabrication. This is especially important in Galashiels as it has unemployment levels of 5.9%, above the national average. This Module can be split down into to planar wall elements and one roof module. These elements can be repeated to create any length of building that is divisible by three.

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Detail Section Modules

1. Roof Module 2. South Wall Planar system 3. North Wall Planar system


The Resilient Skills Borders Traditional Project

Modcell Wall U-value: 1. Larch Cladding with Batters 600mm centres 2. Window/Ventilation 3. Breather board 12mm 4. Straw Bales 400mm 5. Glue-lam and I-beam Structural frame 3000 x 3200 x 400mm 6. OSB 15mm

Konstantinos Dimopoulos + Ben Murphy

+ Programme and Place + Prospectus + Prototype

Modcell: Modcell provides structural prefabricated panels that are insulated with straw bales sourced from the local area. The panel are structurally stable up to 3 stories high and don’t need a structural frame. The panels are carbon negative with each panel sequestering 1128kg of CO2 from the atmosphere and have a U value of 11W/m2K meeting both Scottish Regulation and Passivhaus standards. Straw: Straw is one of the most local materials that can be used for this site in a strong agricultural region. Modcell will source the Straw from within 30 miles. The straw is used for thermal isolation, sound insulation and moisture buffering. Larch: Like most timber in the Scotland, larch is from a well-managed forest, which is accredited by the FSC. Russwood are a company that supplies timber in Scotland and they source their Larch from within 100 miles. This keeps the timber within Scotland, reducing the energy used in transit. Due to the resin and durability of larch it doesn’t require coatings and it can last for 40 years. 1 2 3

Other Resilient Borders 2016 Projects + Textile Centre + Textile Community Centre + Mobile Kids + Borders Design Incubator + Wellbeing Centre and Market + Borders Visual Landscape Centre + Borders Water + Skills Traditional + Open Textile Edinburgh School of Architecture and Landscape Architecture M.Sc. Advanced Sustainable Design 2016

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Slates: Reclaimed slate is readily available, with a low embodied energy of 0.5 MJ/kg and a global warming potential of 1.3 kgCO2-equ/m2 50 years. Slates are easily replaced, although their durable nature spans for 100’s of years.

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Roof U-value: 0.120 W/m2K 1. Ridge Tile allows for air flow under Slates 2. Reclaimed Scottish Slate 3. Battens allowing air flow underneath 4. Felt underlay 5. 15mm OSB 6. Sheep’s Wool Insulation 300mm 7. Scott’s Pine 300mm thick 600mm centres 8. Pine Board

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Wool Insulation: It would make sense to make the most of this natural and easily available local material in insulate the roof. Wool insulation has a resistivity of 0.4 W/ mK with a global warming potential of 2.0 kgCO2-equ/ m2 50 year (Berge, 2009).

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Oak: Green Oak is Oak that hasn’t fully dried, which makes it is easier to work. The air-drying process means no energy is need to kiln dry. Furthermore, if the Oak foresting is sustainably managed then it is carbon negative. Lime: Lime is used as a substitute for cement for the foundations and screed and is widely used in traditional construction. Lime is carbon negative, it is great for using for foundations but takes up to 90 days to set.

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1. Curtain wall structure 2. Oak window frames 3. Triple glazed window 4. Moveable solar shading

1. Curtain wall structure 2. Oak window frames 3. Triple glazed window 4. Moveable solar shading

Roof U-value: 0.120 W/m2K 1. Ridge Tile allows for air flow under Slates 2. Reclaimed Scottish Slate 3. Battens allowing air flow underneath 4. Felt underlay 5. 15mm OSB 6. Sheep’s Wool Insulation 300mm 7. Scott’s Pine 300mm thick 600mm centres 8. Pine Board


The Resilient Skills Borders Traditional Project

Konstantinos Dimopoulos + Ben Murphy

+ Programme and Place + Prospectus + Prototype

Summer Day All windows are open allowing for natural ventilation to successfully cool the space. From testing a using IES the space can be cooled and CO2 removed via natural ventilation when the room occupancy is 1.5 people/m2 (seminar room) but for higher occupancy (classroom) auxiliary ventilation is need to reduce CO2 levels. Even though the high roof space helps to reduce CO2 concentration lower down. The thermal mass of the ground floor is exposed which helps cool the building. Summer Night During the night the heat stored in the Limecrete slab is released back into the room and ventilated out through the top window. The window will only open when the internal temperature is more than 24°C to help reduceheat loss.

The bottom window will stay closed for security reasons. Winter Day Due to the air tight and highly insulated nature of the building the there is a requirement to use auxiliary ventilation in the form of a fan coil system to condition the air quality, as natural ventilation results in too much heat loss. However the top window will open if internal temperatures reach 24°C. Heat is also provided through under floor heating which in the limecrete slab. Both systems are connected to a heat pump, which is connected to the sewage heat recovery system. Winter Night For the building to have maximum efficiency the air tightness of the building is very important. Being a

modular building there are less joints therefore there less of a chance for air to leak out. The building is also highly insulated to help to reduce any heat loss further. Day Lighting The curtain glazing is designed to make the most of the south facing so gain solar energy to heat the space. But solar shading is required to make sure gain is limited in the summer months. The shading is also designed to move to keep the lighting within the rooms at a constant level and to reduce the glare. The high level of the glazing helps to improve the uniformity of the light because light is reflected rather than direct. The uniformity required for the whole space is over 0.2 with 0.6 required for the areas of specific working. The day lighting required for the classroom is between 300- 500 lux. Air Tightness Air AirAir Tightness Tightness Tightness LineLine Line Line Insulation Insulation Insulation Insulation

Other Resilient Borders 2016 Projects + Textile Centre + Textile Community Centre + Mobile Kids + Borders Design Incubator + Wellbeing Centre and Market + Borders Visual Landscape Centre + Borders Water + Skills Traditional + Open Textile

Summer Day

Summer Night

Winter or external temperature is less than 15°C

Air tight line and insulation positioning

21/07 Summer Solstice 57°

21/12 Winter Solstice 11° 15˚C

Edinburgh School of Architecture and Landscape Architecture M.Sc. Advanced Sustainable Design 2016

0 Lux

Classroom Classroom - 75m2 - 75m2 Minimum= Minimum= 120 Maximum= Maximum= 1725 Average= Average= 498 Uniformity= Uniformity= 0.241 Diversity= Diversity= 0.069

Daylighting

120 Lux 1725Lux 498 Lux 0.241 0.069

Lux Lux Lux

Seminar Room - 35m2 Seminar Room - 35m2 Minimum= Maximum= Average= Uniformity= Diversity=

Minimum= 110 Maximum= 1703 Average= 450 Uniformity= 0.244 Diversity= 0.065

110 Lux 1703 Lux 450 Lux 0.244 0.065

Light Test. Lux level images taken at a working plane 0.85m on the 21/09.

Lux Lux Lux

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24˚C 25˚C

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Energy Requirement. Teaching Space Parameters Achived

1000 Lux

1200 ppm


The Resilient Skills Borders Traditional Project

Konstantinos Dimopoulos + Ben Murphy

+ Programme and Place + Prospectus + Prototype

Workshop Prototype

Foundation plan The design grid guides the foundation in order to support the columns and the rest of the structure. There are beams and columns within the grid made of reinforced concrete. The slab is also made of reinforced concrete of the same type and it is 15cm thick. The construction of the foundation plan starts 1,5 meters below ground zero, so excavation must be made first and afterwards the installation of timber shuttering. Steel Frame In terms of flexibility steel structures are the best, not only because they are easy to be installed within the construction site but also because they can be easily removed or replaced. The steel frame is mostly being designed with HEA340 and HEA300 steel types but other smaller steel types also used. In order to have a more rigid structure there are three parts of the frame horizontally. One is for the windows, other for the flexible openings for ventilation and the last one for the roof structure.

Other Resilient Borders 2016 Projects + Textile Centre + Textile Community Centre + Mobile Kids + Borders Design Incubator + Wellbeing Centre and Market + Borders Visual Landscape Centre + Borders Water + Skills Traditional + Open Textile Edinburgh School of Architecture and Landscape Architecture M.Sc. Advanced Sustainable Design 2016

Roof The aim is to create an indoor space with the optimum conditions for the students and the visitors during the workshops lectures and tutorials. Thus, the roof is being separated in three layers for optimum lighting conditions to be achieved. Those three layers are made to reflect and diffuse sunlight as best as possible and they are specifically distanced for this to be achieved. The layers are a double gazed roof glass, a polyester coated membrane that allows the sunlight to be evenly diffused to the last layer, and a perforated metal ceiling that spreads the light evenly indoors and allows better natural ventilation. Windows The building uses timber frame profiles for better insulation, less embodied energy, easy maintenance, lighter structure and more flexibility. The windows can be double or triple glazed. Fixed openings are mainly installed at the lower section of the structure whilst non-fixed at the upper. The lower space has some non-fixed windows for large openings accordingly to the buildings design and main uses. On the other hand the upper space has all the windows non-fixed in order to allow maximum natural

Foundation Plan

Steel Frame

Roof

Windows

Louvres

PV Blinds

Insulation and General


The Resilient Skills Borders Traditional Project

Konstantinos Dimopoulos + Ben Murphy

+ Programme and Place + Prospectus + Prototype

Other Resilient Borders 2016 Projects + Textile Centre + Textile Community Centre + Mobile Kids + Borders Design Incubator + Wellbeing Centre and Market + Borders Visual Landscape Centre + Borders Water + Skills Traditional + Open Textile Edinburgh School of Architecture and Landscape Architecture M.Sc. Advanced Sustainable Design 2016

ventilation and optimum indoor conditions.

Louvres Louvres will prevent overheating in workshop spaces. They are also made of timber and being installed on a timber frame. Although the density of these particular louvers cannot be determined with precision, it can be easily said that both south and north sides of the building will have horizontal louvers, whilst west and east sides will have vertical ones. This is determined by the sun path, to avoid direct sunlight into the building. PV blinds Photovoltaic blinds are used more and more in the contemporary sustainable architecture due to their increasing efficiency. Placing them in the top of the roof in a specific angle they are capable of both supplying energy to the building and protecting it from direct sunlight when the roof is translucent. Thus, they are south-facing, angled at 50ยบ and spaced every 2.30m over an area of 792m2. According to calculations, 792 m2 of PV systems area can produce an annual solar energy output of approximately 7276,5 kWh/y. This is about 20 kWh per day of energy output on average. Insulation The cavities of the steel frame are optimum for the installation of insulation materials. Polyester boards with a variety of thicknesses and U-Value are being installed in correlation with these particular cavities. After the polyester is being installed, double faced gypsum boards cover the specific area as a rendering material that protects the structure from external conditions. I In general, the whole building is designed according to the specific area conditions, by using as less as embodied energy possible to create an indoor space with optimum natural sunlight and ventilation. Having natural sunlight and ventilation are key factors to optimize the internal conditions of the space and also to save energy. In additions, the rooms-workshops inside this sheltered area can be fully protected from the external conditions and minimize their energy demands whilst having the best possible conditions for students, staff and visitors.

Above: Images of classroom Module. Below: Workshop Prototype Detail.


The Resilient Skills Borders Traditional Project

Konstantinos Dimopoulos + Ben Murphy

+ Programme and Place + Prospectus + Prototype

It is illustrated in the diagrams to the right how the building is working during the summer (21 of July, sunlight angle 57 Degrees) and winter (21 of December, sunlight angle 11 Degrees). During summer time there is both natural and auxiliary ventilation (for cooling and extracting the warm air). The space get enough indirect sunlight during the day and as soon as the air is getting warmer it raises up, and the upper windows open up to 20% to allow the warm air to exit the building area. If the temperature exceeds the comfort levels the cooling system turns on. Basically the welding/engineering area needs about 16 degrees Celsius and the rest of the rooms and workshops about 19-22ยบ. During winter, the air gets warmer as it raises, both form internal gains and other passive gains and the heating system, and afterwards it circulates within the rooms to keep the temperature levels comfort. The air is also constantly being renewed by the auxiliary systems, shown in the diagram, to manage the ACH levels of about 12 that this kind of buildings need to operate.

Other Resilient Borders 2016 Projects + Textile Centre + Textile Community Centre + Mobile Kids + Borders Design Incubator + Wellbeing Centre and Market + Borders Visual Landscape Centre + Borders Water + Skills Traditional + Open Textile Edinburgh School of Architecture and Landscape Architecture M.Sc. Advanced Sustainable Design 2016

Below, we can see the different areas of the buildings light levels (on 21 of September 12.00pm). The comfort lighting levels for welding and engineering spaces is from 700 to 1000 lux and for the workshops 300-500 lux. As we can see, the building during the day does need any artificial lighting and its also not getting overheated because of its blinds, louvers and roof systems. In particular the roof allows only the 11% of the total sunlight to get into the building, in total diffusion. Interior Light simulations

Summer Day

Winter Day

Profile for #MUI Medellín Urban Innovation

2016 h skills traditional  

2016 h skills traditional  

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